Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Mutated Genes and Abnormal Protein Expression (11)

How to use this data tableClicking on the Gene or Topic will take you to a separate more detailed page. Sort this list by clicking on a column heading e.g. 'Gene' or 'Topic'.

EXT2 11p11.2 SOTV, SSMS -EXT2 mutations in Secondary Chondrosarcoma
EXT1 8q24.11 EXT, LGS, TTV, LGCR, TRPS2 Germline
-EXT1 mutations in Secondaty Chondrosarcoma
FTCDNL1 2q33.1 FONG -FONG and Chondrosarcoma
TAF15 17q12 Npl3, RBP56, TAF2N, TAFII68 Translocation
-t(9;17)(q22;q11) in Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma
-TAF15 and Chondrosarcoma
MMP1 11q22.2 CLG, CLGN Prognostic
-MMP1 and Chondrosarcoma
TFG 3q12.2 TF6, HMSNP, SPG57, TRKT3 -TFG and Chondrosarcoma
TCF12 15q21.3 HEB, CRS3, HTF4, TCF-12, bHLHb20, HsT17266 -TCF12 and Chondrosarcoma
TIMP2 17q25.3 DDC8, CSC-21K -TIMP2 Expression in Chondrosarcoma
MMP2 16q12.2 CLG4, MONA, CLG4A, MMP-2, TBE-1, MMP-II -MMP2 and Chondrosarcoma
EWSR1 22q12.2 EWS, EWS-FLI1, bK984G1.4 Translocation
-t(9;22)(q22;q12) in Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma
NR4A3 9q31.1 CHN, TEC, CSMF, NOR1, MINOR Translocation
-t(9;22)(q22;q12) in Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma
-t(9;17)(q22;q11) in Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Recurring Structural Abnormalities

Selected list of common recurrent structural abnormalities

Abnormality Type Gene(s)
t(9;22)(q22;q12) in Extraskeletal Myxoid ChondrosarcomaTranslocationEWSR1 (22q12.2)NR4A3 (9q31.1)
t(9;17)(q22;q11) in Extraskeletal Myxoid ChondrosarcomaTranslocationNR4A3 (9q31.1)TAF15 (17q12)

This is a highly selective list aiming to capture structural abnormalies which are frequesnt and/or significant in relation to diagnosis, prognosis, and/or characterising specific cancers. For a much more extensive list see the Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer.

Latest Publications

Batsis ID, Offenbacher R, Rybinski B, et al.
Systemic manifestations of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma associated with a novel t(2;22)(q34;q12) EWS translocation in a child and a review of the literature.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2018 Oct - Nov; 35(7-8):434-441 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC), a soft-tissue sarcoma with unique clinicopathologic features and characteristic chromosomal translocations, is extremely rare in the pediatric population. We, herein, present the case of a 7-year-old boy with profound microcytic hypochromic anemia, poor weight gain and a mid-thoracic paraspinal mass that was identified as EMC. Systemic manifestations of localized, nonmetastatic EMC have never been described in the pediatric population, yet our patient's anemia and poor weight gain resolved after successful surgical resection of the tumor, suggesting that localized EMC can present with systemic manifestations. The tumor also contained a novel t(2;22)(q34;q12) translocation involving the EWSR1 gene, which is consistent with additional reports suggesting that a growing list of translocations can drive formation of, and potential new management strategies for, EMC.

Oyama R, Kito F, Takahashi M, et al.
Establishment and characterization of a novel dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma cell line, NCC-dCS1-C1.
Hum Cell. 2019; 32(2):202-213 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma is an aggressive mesenchymal tumor of the bone, and novel therapies are needed to improve its clinical outcomes. Patient-derived cell lines are essential tools for elucidating disease mechanisms associated with poor prognosis and for developing therapies. However, few lines and xenografts have been previously reported in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. We established a novel patient-derived dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma cell line, NCC-dCS1-C1. Primary dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma tissues were obtained at the time of surgery and subjected to primary tissue culture. The cell line was established and authenticated by assessing DNA microsatellite short tandem repeats. The cells maintained in monolayer cultures exhibited constant growth, spheroid formation capacity, and invasion ability. When the cells were implanted into mice, they exhibited histological features similar to those of the original tumor. Genomic analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms showed aberrant genomic contents. The DNA sequencing revealed the absence of IDH1/2 mutations. The global targeted sequencing revealed that the cell line preserved homozygous deletion of CDKN2A and CREBBP. A proteomic study by mass spectrometry unveiled similar but distinct molecular backgrounds in the original tumor and the established cell line, suggesting that tumor cell functions might be altered during the establishment of the cell line. Using a screening approach, four anti-cancer drugs with anti-proliferative effects at a low concentration were identified. In conclusion, a novel dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma cell line, NCC-dCS1-C1, was successfully established from primary tumor tissues. The NCC-dCS1-C1 cell line will be a useful tool for investigations of the mechanisms underlying dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas.

Chow WA
Chondrosarcoma: biology, genetics, and epigenetics.
F1000Res. 2018; 7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chondrosarcomas constitute a heterogeneous group of primary bone cancers characterized by hyaline cartilaginous neoplastic tissue. They are the second most common primary bone malignancy. The vast majority of chondrosarcomas are conventional chondrosarcomas, and most conventional chondrosarcomas are low- to intermediate-grade tumors (grade 1 or 2) which have indolent clinical behavior and low metastatic potential. Recurrence augurs a poor prognosis, as conventional chondrosarcomas are both radiation and chemotherapy resistant. Recent discoveries in the biology, genetics, and epigenetics of conventional chondrosarcomas have significantly advanced our understanding of the pathobiology of these tumors and offer insight into potential therapeutic targets.

Cammarata-Scalisi F, Stock F, Avendaño A, et al.
[Clinical and molecular study in a family with multiple osteochondromatosis].
Acta Ortop Mex. 2018 Mar-Apr; 32(2):108-111 [PubMed] Related Publications
We present two cases of a family with the diagnosis of multiple osteochondromatosis, which was confirmed by molecular study with nonsense in heterozygosis mutation c.1219CT, (p.Gln407Stop) in the EXT1 gene. In these cases, the Madelung deformity was presented in one patient as an uncommon finding and chondrosarcoma as a feared complication in the other case, highlighting intrafamilial variation, which is why individual and interdisciplinary evaluation is recommended. In addition, before a genetic entity should provide adequate and timely family genetic counseling to all its members.

Sheng W, Zhang ZC, Shi DY, et al.
Epigenetic silencing of SFRP5 promotes the metastasis and invasion of chondrosarcoma by expression inhibition and Wnt signaling pathway activation.
Chem Biol Interact. 2018; 296:1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUD/AIMS: Abnormal activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which may be antagonized by the members of secreted frizzled-related proteins family (SFRPs), is implicated in tumor occurrence and development. However, the function of SFRP5 relating to Wnt/β-catenin pathway in chondrosarcoma is not clear yet. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential role of SFRP5 promoter methylation in chondrosarcoma metastasis and invasion through activating canonical Wnt signaling pathway.
METHODS AND RESULTS: The results demonstrated that SFRP5 promoter was hypermethylated and SFRP5 expression was significantly reduced in chondrosarcoma cell lines at the mRNA and protein levels. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling was observably activated with β-catenin stabilization by dephosphorylation and translocation into the nuclear. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC), the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, significantly inhibited the proliferation of chondrosarcoma cells by cell cycle arrest through repressing the methylation of SFRP5 and promoting its expression. Both 5-Aza-dC treatment and SFRP5 overexpression could significantly inhibited the metastasis and invasion of chondrosarcoma cells by inactivating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and promoting chondrosarcoma cells mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). 5-Aza-dC also inhibited the xenograft growth and lung metastasis of chondrosarcoma cells in vivo via suppressing SFRP5 promotor methylation, inactivating Wnt/β-catenin pathway and inducing epithelial markers expression.
CONCLUSION: All of our results revealed the epigenetic silencing of SFRP5 by promoter methylation plays pivotal roles in chondrosarcoma development and metastasis through SFRP5/Wnt/β-catenin signaling axis. Modulation of their levels may serve as potential targets and diagnostic tools for novel therapeutic strategies of chondrosarcoma.

Urbini M, Indio V, Astolfi A, et al.
Identification of an Actionable Mutation of KIT in a Case of Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is an extremely rare soft tissue sarcoma, marked by a translocation involving the

Shi H, Chen W, Dong Y, et al.
BAG3 promotes chondrosarcoma progression by upregulating the expression of β-catenin.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 17(4):5754-5763 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To investigate the roles of B‑cell lymphoma‑2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) in human chondrosarcoma and the potential mechanisms, the expression levels of BAG3 were detected in the present study, and the associations between BAG3 and clinical pathological parameters, clinical stage as well as the survival of patients were analyzed. The present study detected BAG3 mRNA and protein expression in the normal cartilage cell line HC‑a and in SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The BAG3 protein expression in 59 cases of chondrosarcoma, 30 patients with endogenous chondroma and 8 cases of normal cartilage was semi-quantitatively analyzed using the immunohistochemical method. In addition, the BAG3 protein expression level, the clinical pathological parameters, clinical stage and the survival time of patients with chondrosarcoma were analyzed. The plasmid transfection method was employed to upregulate the expression BAG3 and small RNA interference to downregulate the expression of BAG3 in SW1353 cells. The expression levels of BAG3 protein and mRNA were significantly increased in the chondrosarcoma cell line when compared with the normal cartilage cell line. The immunohistochemistry results indicated that BAG3 protein was overexpressed in the tissue of human chondrosarcoma. Statistical analysis showed that the expression level of BAG3 was significantly increased in the different Enneking staging of patients with chondrosarcoma and Tumor staging, and there were no statistical differences in age, gender, histological classification and tumor size. In the in vitro experiments, the data revealed that BAG3 significantly promoted chondrosarcoma cell proliferation, colony‑formation, migration and invasion; however, it inhibited chondrosarcoma cell apoptosis. It was observed that BAG3 upregulated β‑catenin expression at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, BAG3 induced the expression of runt‑related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) in chondrosarcoma cells by upregulating β‑catenin. These clinical analyses revealed a positive association between β‑catenin and BAG3 in chondrosarcoma tumors. BAG3 was significantly increased in chondrosarcoma cells and tissues compared with the normal cartilage cells, tissue and cartilage benign tumors. Thus, BAG3 may serve as an oncogene in the development of chondrosarcoma via the induction of RUNX2 expression. The results of the present study contribute to further research on the biological development of chondrosarcoma.

Ding R, Cai X, Xu F, et al.
p63 protects chondrosarcoma malignancies mainly by enhancing the expression of PTEN.
Pharmazie. 2017; 72(7):414-418 [PubMed] Related Publications
Abnormal expression of p63 has been well identified in multiple malignancies. However, little study has been done on the association between p63 and chondro sarcoma. In the current study, we mainly explored the expression of p63 in different grades of chondrosarcoma. Our data showed that p63 was significantly decreased in grade II and III chondrosarcoma compared with that of grade I chondrosarcoma and normal control. As the characteristic of grade II and III chondrosarcoma is metastasis, we then searched the function of p63 chondrosarcoma. In vitro study showed that overexpression of p63 significantly suppressed chondrosarcoma cell viability, migration and invasion. Meanwhile, upregualtion of p63 induced chondrosarcoma cell apoptosis. Furthermore, we showed that overexpression of p63 could significantly increase the protein expression of PTEN. In contrast, silencing of PTEN markedly reduced the protein levels of Bax, and enhanced the expression of PCNA and p27, even in cells transfected with p-p63. These data showed that p63 was a tumor suppressor mainly through regulating PTEN in chondrosarcoma cells. In summary, reduction of p63 in grade II and III chondrosarcoma enhances the malignant phenotype mainly through modulating the expression of PTEN.

Guo L, Hao R, Tian F, et al.
Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) regulates the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in human chondrocytes.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2018; 55:231-236 [PubMed] Related Publications
Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) plays a pivotal role in the destruction of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). The regulation of gene expression of MMP-3 is complicated. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is a member of the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription factors. Little information regarding the biological function of IRF5 on chondrocytes and the pathogenesis of OA has been reported. In the current study, for the first time, we report that IRF5 is expressed in human primary chondrocytes and human chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353 cells. In addition, IRF5 is upregulated in response to TNF-α treatment in a dose dependent manner. Interestingly, IRF5 is significantly higher in chondrocytes from OA patients compared to those from normal subjects. Notably, IRF5 mediates TNF-α- induced expression of MMP-3 in chondrocytes. Overexpression of IRF5 promotes the expression of MMP-3, however, knockdown of IRF5 reduces the expression of MMP-3. Mechanistically, IRF5 is able to enhance the transcription of MMP-3 by binding to its promoter. Also, we found that NF-κB was involved in the effects of IRF-5 on MMP-3 expression. These findings suggest that IRF5 might be a novel pharmacological target for the treatment of OA and RA.

Peterse EFP, van den Akker BEWM, Niessen B, et al.
NAD Synthesis Pathway Interference Is a Viable Therapeutic Strategy for Chondrosarcoma.
Mol Cancer Res. 2017; 15(12):1714-1721 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT) are rate-limiting enzymes in the NAD

Gutteridge A, Rathbone VM, Gibbons R, et al.
Digital PCR analysis of circulating tumor DNA: a biomarker for chondrosarcoma diagnosis, prognostication, and residual disease detection.
Cancer Med. 2017; 6(10):2194-2202 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Conventional chondrosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor in adults. Prognosis corresponds with tumor grade but remains variable, especially for individuals with grade (G) II disease. There are currently no biomarkers available for monitoring or prognostication of chondrosarcoma. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has recently emerged as a promising biomarker for a broad range of tumor types. To date, little has been done to study the presence of ctDNA and its potential utility in the management of sarcomas, including chondrosarcoma. In this study, we have assessed ctDNA levels in a cohort of 71 patients, 32 with sarcoma, including 29 individuals with central chondrosarcoma (CS) and 39 with locally aggressive and benign bone and soft tissue tumors, using digital PCR. In patients with CS, ctDNA was detected in pretreatment samples in 14/29 patients, which showed clear correlation with tumor grade as demonstrated by the detection of ctDNA in all patients with GIII and dedifferentiated disease (n = 6) and in 8/17 patients with GII disease, but never associated with GI CS. Notably detection of ctDNA preoperatively in GII disease was associated with a poor outcome. A total of 14 patients with CS had ctDNA levels assessed at multiple time points and in most patients there was a clear reduction following surgical removal. This research lays the foundation for larger studies to assess the utility of ctDNA for chondrosarcoma diagnosis, prognostication, early detection of residual disease and monitoring disease progression.

de Andrea CE, San-Julian M, Bovée JVMG
Integrating Morphology and Genetics in the Diagnosis of Cartilage Tumors.
Surg Pathol Clin. 2017; 10(3):537-552 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cartilage-forming tumors of bone are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different molecular mechanisms involved. Enchondromas are benign hyaline cartilage-forming tumors of medullary bone caused by mutations in IDH1 or IDH2. Osteochondromas are benign cartilage-capped bony projections at the surface of bone. IDH mutations are also found in dedifferentiated and periosteal chondrosarcoma. A recurrent HEY1-NCOA2 fusion characterizes mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. Molecular changes are increasingly used to improve diagnostic accuracy in chondrosarcomas. Detection of IDH mutations or HEY1-NCOA2 fusions has already proved their immense value, especially on small biopsy specimens or in case of unusual presentation.

Tsai CH, Yang DY, Lin CY, et al.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate suppresses chondrosarcoma metastasis by upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 through suppressing miR-101 expression.
Mol Oncol. 2017; 11(10):1380-1398 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignancy form of bone cancer, exhibiting resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy as well as developing high metastasis ability in late-stage tumors. Thus, understanding the metastatic processes of chondrosarcoma is considered a strategy for the treatment of this disease. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid, is produced intracellularly by sphingosine kinase (SphK) and is regarded as a second signaling molecule that regulates inflammation, proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. However, the effect of S1P on chondrosarcoma remains uncertain. As demonstrated by the transwell, immunoblotting, and real-time PCR analyses, we found that S1P inhibited cell migration and MMP-2 expression through the upregulation of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) expression in human chondrosarcoma cells. Additionally, we also showed that microRNA (miRNA)-101, which targets the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of TIMP-3, decreased significantly following S1P treatment. After transfection with miR-101 mimics, the S1P-regulated cell migration and TIMP-3 expression were both reversed. Furthermore, we also showed that the S1P-inhibited cell migration is mediated through the c-Src/MEK/ERK signaling axis. Meanwhile, the in vivo study indicated that overexpression of SphK1 decreases chondrosarcoma metastasis to the lungs. Our results illustrate the clinical significance between SphK1, TIMP-3, and miR-101 in human chondrosarcoma patients. Taken together, our results suggest that S1P and miR-101 may prove to be potential therapeutic targets for future chondrosarcoma treatment.

Chen S, Fritchie K, Wei S, et al.
Diagnostic utility of IDH1/2 mutations to distinguish dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma from undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of bone.
Hum Pathol. 2017; 65:239-246 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histologically, it is nearly impossible to distinguish the dedifferentiated component of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma from undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) of bone when the low-grade cartilaginous component is absent. Previous studies have revealed that isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 mutations are present in a significant number of cartilaginous tumors including most conventional chondrosarcomas and dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. These mutations have not been studied in UPSs of bone. We sought to investigate whether an IDH1 or IDH2 mutation signature could be used as a clinically diagnostic marker for the distinction of dedifferentiated component of chondrosarcoma from UPS of bone. Sixty-eight bone tumor cases, including 31 conventional chondrosarcomas, 23 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas, and 14 UPSs of bone, were collected for IDH1/2 mutation analysis either using the Qiagen IDH1/2 RGQ PCR Kit or using whole-exome sequencing. IDH1/2 mutations were detected in 87% (20/23) of dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas and 30% (6/20) of conventional chondrosarcomas. No mutations were detected in the IDH1/2 codon 132 or codon 172 among 14 UPSs of bone. Identification of IDH1 or IDH2 mutations supports the diagnosis of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma rather than UPS of bone while also providing some insight into the pathogenesis of these 2 lesions.

Liu P, Garbutt C, Hornicek FJ, et al.
Aberration of
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(6):2939-2945 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: p73 is a tumor-suppressor gene with significant homology to p53. Abnormal promoter methylation of p73 is present in different types of cancer. However, the promoter methylation status of p73 in chondrosarcoma (CS) is unknown.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: p73 promoter methylation status was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), p73 protein expression by western blot, and the relationship between p73 methylation and clinical data was analyzed.
RESULTS: In 42 tumor tissues with CS, we found that three cases (7%) maintained methylation levels between 51% and 75%, and 39 cases (93%) had levels between 76% and 100%. p73 methylation level was significantly (p<0.05) positively associated with histological grade. Loss of p73 protein expression was correlated with high methylation of the p73 promoter; p73 expression was restored after exposure to a demethylating drug.
CONCLUSION: p73 is epigenetically silenced in CS due to promoter methylation, which suggests the utility of p73 methylation as a biomarker.

Liu P, Shen JK, Hornicek FJ, et al.
Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) methylation and its association with clinical prognosis in patients with chondrosarcoma.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):1580 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chondrosarcoma (CS) is a rare cancer, but it is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor and highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter CpG island of Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) has been observed in different cancers. However, no studies have shown the relationship between WIF1 methylation and CS. In this study, we found promoter methylated WIF1 in both CS cell lines (CS-1 and SW1353) and tumor tissues. Western blot analysis confirmed loss WIF1 expression and activation of Wnt pathway proteins (Wnt5a/b, LRP6, and Dvl2). We subsequently examined the correlation between levels of WIF1 methylation and overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in CS patient samples with a follow-up spanning 234 months (mean: 57.6 months). Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank tests revealed that high levels of WIF1 methylation were associated with lower OS and PFS rates (p < 0.05). Multivariate Cox hazard analysis suggested that detection of high level methylation of WIF1 could be an independent prognostic factor in OS and PFS. In conclusion, we found that WIF1 is epigenetically silenced via promoter DNA methylation in CS and propose that WIF1 methylation may serve as a potential prognostic marker for patients with CS.

Lin CY, Tzeng HE, Li TM, et al.
WISP-3 inhibition of miR-452 promotes VEGF-A expression in chondrosarcoma cells and induces endothelial progenitor cells angiogenesis.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(24):39571-39581 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chondrosarcoma is the second most prevalent general primary tumor of bone following osteosarcoma. Chondrosarcoma development may be linked to angiogenesis, which is principally elicited by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). VEGF-A level has been recognized as a prognostic marker in angiogenesis. WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein-3 (WISP)-3/CCN6 belongs to the CCN family and is involved in regulating several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Nevertheless, the effect of WISP-3 on VEGF-A production and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma remains largely unknown. This current study shows that WISP-3 promoted VEGF-A production and induced angiogenesis of human endothelial progenitor cells. Moreover, WISP-3-enhanced VEGF-A expression and angiogenesis involved the c-Src and p38 signaling pathways, while miR-452 expression was negatively affected by WISP-3 via the c-Src and p38 pathways. Our results illustrate the clinical significance of WISP-3, VEGF-A and miR-452 in human chondrosarcoma patients. WISP-3 may illustrate a novel therapeutic target in the metastasis and angiogenesis of chondrosarcoma.

Kitamura Y, Sasaki H, Yoshida K
Genetic aberrations and molecular biology of skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma.
Brain Tumor Pathol. 2017; 34(2):78-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chordomas and chondrosarcomas are two major malignant bone neoplasms located at the skull base. These tumors are rarely metastatic, but can be locally invasive and resistant to conventional chemotherapies and radiotherapies. Accordingly, therapeutic approaches for the treatment of these tumors can be difficult. Additionally, their location at the skull base makes them problematic. Although accurate diagnosis of these tumors is important because of their distinct prognoses, distinguishing between these tumor types is difficult due to overlapping radiological and histopathological findings. However, recent accumulation of molecular and genetic studies, including extracranial location analysis, has provided us clues for accurate diagnosis. In this report, we review the genetic aberrations and molecular biology of these two tumor types. Among the abundant genetic features of these tumors, brachyury immunohistochemistry and direct sequencing of IDH1/2 are simple and useful techniques that can be used to distinguish between these tumors. Although it is still unclear why these tumors, which have such distinct genetic backgrounds, show similar histopathological findings, comparison of their genetic backgrounds could provide essential information.

Davis EJ, Wu YM, Robinson D, et al.
Next generation sequencing of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(13):21770-21777 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is an indolent translocation-associated soft tissue sarcoma with a high propensity for metastases. Using a clinical sequencing approach, we genomically profiled patients with metastatic EMC to elucidate the molecular biology and identify potentially actionable mutations. We also evaluated potential predictive factors of benefit to sunitinib, a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor with reported activity in a subset of EMC patients. Between January 31, 2012 and April 15, 2016, six patients with EMC participated in the clinical sequencing research study. High quality DNA and RNA was isolated and matched normal samples underwent comprehensive next generation sequencing (whole or OncoSeq capture exome of tumor and normal, tumor PolyA+ and capture transcriptome). The expression levels of sunitinib targeted-kinases were measured by transcriptome sequencing for KDR, PDGFRA/B, KIT, RET, FLT1, and FLT4. The previously reported EWSR1-NR4A3 translocation was identified in all patient tumors; however, other recurring genomic abnormalities were not detected. RET expression was significantly greater in patients with EMC relative to other types of sarcomas except for liposarcoma (p<0.0002). The folate receptor was overexpressed in two patients. Our study demonstrated that similar to other translocation-associated sarcomas, the mutational profile of metastatic EMC is limited beyond the pathognomonic translocation. The clinical significance of RET expression in EMC should be explored. Additional pre-clinical investigations of EMC may help elucidate molecular mechanisms contributing to EMC tumorigenesis that could be translated to the clinical setting.

Urbini M, Astolfi A, Pantaleo MA, et al.
HSPA8 as a novel fusion partner of NR4A3 in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(7):582-586 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a very rare sarcoma most often arising in the soft tissue. Rare EMC of the bone have been reported. EMC exhibits distinctive clinico-pathological and genetic features; however, despite the name, it lacks any feature of cartilaginous differentiation. EMC is characterized by the rearrangement of the NR4A3, which, in most cases (about 62-75%), is fused with EWSR1 and less frequently with other partners, including TAF15 (27%), TCF12 (4%), TFG, and FUS. We herein report the identification by whole-transcriptome sequencing of HSPA8 as a novel fusion partner of NR4A3 in a case of EMC. FISH analysis confirmed the presence of a genomic HSPA8-NR4A3 translocation in the vast majority of tumor cells. Our findings expand the spectrum of NR4A3 fusion partners involved in EMC pathobiology.

Palmini G, Marini F, Brandi ML
What Is New in the miRNA World Regarding Osteosarcoma and Chondrosarcoma?
Molecules. 2017; 22(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite the availability of multimodal and aggressive therapies, currently patients with skeletal sarcomas, including osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma, often have a poor prognosis. In recent decades, advances in sequencing technology have revealed the presence of RNAs without coding potential known as non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which provides evidence that protein-coding genes account for only a small percentage of the entire genome. This has suggested the influence of ncRNAs during development, apoptosis and cell proliferation. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) in 1993 underscored the importance of these molecules in pathological diseases such as cancer. Increasing interest in this field has allowed researchers to study the role of miRNAs in cancer progression. Regarding skeletal sarcomas, the research surrounding which miRNAs are involved in the tumourigenesis of osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma has rapidly gained traction, including the identification of which miRNAs act as tumour suppressors and which act as oncogenes. In this review, we will summarize what is new regarding the roles of miRNAs in chondrosarcoma as well as the latest discoveries of identified miRNAs in osteosarcoma.

Bao X, Ren T, Huang Y, et al.
Knockdown of long non-coding RNA HOTAIR increases miR-454-3p by targeting Stat3 and Atg12 to inhibit chondrosarcoma growth.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(2):e2605 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Current practices for the therapy of chondrosarcoma, including wide-margin surgical resection and chemotherapy, are less than satisfactory. Recently, emerging evidence has demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have an essential role in the initiation and progression of tumors. As a typical lncRNA, HOTAIR is significantly overexpressed in various tumors. However, the function and potential biological mechanisms of HOTAIR in human chondrosarcoma remain unknown. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that HOTAIR expression was upregulated in chondrosarcoma tissues and cell lines. High HOTAIR expression is correlated with tumor stage and poor prognosis. Functional experiments reveal that HOTAIR knockdown leads to growth inhibition of human chondrosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition to cycle arrest and apoptosis, knockdown of HOTAIR inhibits autophagy, which favors cell death. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that HOTAIR induced DNA methylation of miR-454-3p by recruiting EZH2 and DNMT1 to the miR-454-3p promoter regions, which markedly silences miR-454-3p expression. Further analysis revealed that STAT3 and ATG12 are targets of miR-454-3p, initiate HOTAIR deficiency-induced apoptosis and reduce autophagy. Collectively, our data reveal the roles and functional mechanisms of HOTAIR in human chondrosarcoma and suggest that HOTAIR may act as a prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for chondrosarcoma.

Huang K, Chen J, Yang MS, et al.
Inhibition of Src by microRNA-23b increases the cisplatin sensitivity of chondrosarcoma cells.
Cancer Biomark. 2017; 18(3):231-239 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilage-forming tumors from low-grade to high-grade aggressive tumors characterized by metastasis. Cisplatin is an effective DNA-damaging anti-tumor agent for the treatment against a wide variety of solid tumors. However, chondrosarcomas are notorious for their resistance to conventional chemo- and radio- therapies. In this study, we report miR-23b acts as a tumor suppressor in chondrosarcoma. The expressions of miR-23b are down-regulated in chondrosarcoma patient samples and cell lines compared with adjacent normal tissues and human primary chondrocytes. In addition, overexpression of miR-23b suppresses chondrosarcoma cell proliferation. By comparison of the cisplatin resistant chondrosarcoma cells and parental cells, we observed miR-23b was significantly down regulated in cisplatin resistant cells. Moreover, we demonstrate here Src kinase is a direct target of miR-23b in chondrosarcoma cells. Overexpression of miR-23b suppresses Src-Akt pathway, leading to the sensitization of cisplatin resistant chondrosarcoma cells to cisplatin. This chemo-sensitivity effect by the miR-23b-mediated inhibition of Src-Akt pathway is verified with the restoration of Src kinase in miR-23b-overespressing chondrosarcoma cells, resulting in the acquirement of resistance to cisplatin. In summary, our study reveals a novel role of miR-23b in cisplatin resistance in chondrosarcoma and will contribute to the development of the microRNA-targeted anti-cancer therapeutics.

Liu P, Shen JK, Xu J, et al.
Aberrant DNA methylations in chondrosarcoma.
Epigenomics. 2016; 8(11):1519-1525 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chondrosarcoma (CS) is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor. Unlike other bone tumors, CS is highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, thus resulting in poor patient outcomes. There is an urgent need to establish alternative therapies for CS. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of CS still remain elusive. Recently, DNA methylation-associated epigenetic changes have been found to play a pivotal role in the initiation and development of human cancers, including CS, by regulating target gene expression in different cellular pathways. Elucidating the mechanisms of DNA methylation alteration may provide biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis, as well as novel treatment options for CS. We have conducted a critical review to summarize the evidence regarding aberrant DNA methylation patterns as diagnostic biomarkers, predictors of progression and potential treatment strategies in CS.

Heddar A, Fermey P, Coutant S, et al.
Familial solitary chondrosarcoma resulting from germline EXT2 mutation.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(2):128-134 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germline mutations of EXT2, encoding Exostosin Glycosyltransferase 2, are associated with multiple osteochondromas (MO), an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the development of multiple peripheral cartilaginous benign tumors with a weak risk of malignant transformation. We report here a family with a remarkable clinical presentation characterized by the development of isolated chondrosarcomas, mostly located in ribs. Comparative analysis of exomes from two third-degree affected relatives led us to identify a single common disruptive variation, corresponding to a stop mutation (c.237G > A, p.Trp79*; (NM_000401.3); c.138G > A, p.Trp46*; (NM_207122.1)) within exon 2 of the EXT2 gene. Interestingly, no obvious sign of MO was detected in affected members by radiological examination. This report shows that germline mutations of EXT2 can result, not only in the development of multiple benign osteochondromas, but also in the development of isolated malignant cartilaginous tumors including central tumors, and that the presence of germline EXT2 mutation should be considered in patients suspected to have an inherited predisposition to chondrosarcoma, even in the absence of MO. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Cohen JN, Solomon DA, Horvai AE, Kakar S
Pancreatic involvement by mesenchymal chondrosarcoma harboring the HEY1-NCOA2 gene fusion.
Hum Pathol. 2016; 58:35-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (MC) is an aggressive small, round, blue cell tumor with chondrogenic differentiation that typically arises in bony sites. Approximately, a third of these tumors develop in extraskeletal sites such as the meninges, and somatic soft tissue. The MCs are well-circumscribed, lobulated masses, with focal calcification. Histologically, 2 distinct populations of neoplastic cells characterize MC: sheets of primitive small, round, blue cells surrounding islands of well-developed hyaline cartilage with mature chondrocytes in lacunae. Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas by primary or metastatic MC is a relatively rare occurrence. We identified 8 patients with MC in our departmental archives from 1990 to 2015, two of which had pancreatic involvement. The patients were young women who developed masses in the distal pancreas. Molecular testing demonstrated that both tumors harbored the recently described HEY1-NCOA2 gene fusion. These cases illustrate that pancreatic involvement can occur in MC, and the demonstration of HEY1-NCOA2 fusion can be helpful to confirm the diagnosis.

Zhang L, Yang M, Mayer T, et al.
Use of MicroRNA biomarkers to distinguish enchondroma from low-grade chondrosarcoma.
Connect Tissue Res. 2017; 58(2):155-161 [PubMed] Related Publications
Establishing a definitive diagnosis between benign enchondroma versus low-grade chondrosarcoma presents a potential challenge to both clinicians and pathologists. microRNAs (small non-coding RNAs) have proven to be effective biomarkers for the identification of tumors and tumor progression. We present analysis, both array and quantitative PCR, that shows consistently and substantially increased expression of two microRNAs, miRs-181a and -138, in low-grade chondrosarcomas compared with enchondromas. The data suggest these microRNAs would provide an analytical distinction between the chondrosarcoma and benign neoplasms that can be performed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. Together with recent publications, these data indicate that miRs-181a and -138 also play a role in tumor development and homeostasis and may provide new targets for the development of much needed therapeutic intervention.

Zarea M, Mohammadian Bajgiran A, Sedaghati F, et al.
Diagnostic investigations of DKK-1 and PDCD5 expression levels as independent prognostic markers of human chondrosarcoma.
IUBMB Life. 2016; 68(7):597-601 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we investigated the expression levels of Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) and programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) by using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in patients with chondrosarcoma. The DKK-1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in chondrosarcoma when compared with the corresponding nontumor tissues (mean ± SD: 4.23 ± 1.54; 1.54 ± 0.87; P = 0.001). PDCD5 mRNA levels were remarkably deceased in tumor tissues when compared with corresponding nontumor tissues (mean ± SD: 1.94 ± 0.73; 5.42 ± 1.73; P = 0.001). The high and moderate DKK-1 expressions were observed for 60% of chondrosarcoma samples in comparison with 27.5% of corresponding nontumor tissues (P  =  0.001). Moreover, low expression of PDCD5 was found in 67.5% of the tumor tissues when compared with the nontumor tissues (32.5%; P = 0.002). The results of this study showed that high DKK-1 expression levels were strongly related to MSTS stage (P = 0.011) and the advancement of histological grade (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the PDCD5 expression levels were correlated with histological grade (P < 0.001), MSTS stage (P = 0.016), and distant metastasis (P = 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival and log-rank survival showed that patients with high DKK-1 levels and low PDCD5 levels were correlated with shorter overall survival (log-rank test P < 0.001). PDCD5 levels, histological grade, and tumor stage were independent predictors of overall survival. In conclusion, DKK-1 and PDCD5 can be independent predictors of overall survival in patients suffering from chondrosarcoma. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(7):597-601, 2016.

Gao L, Hong X, Guo X, et al.
Targeted next-generation sequencing of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma in the skull base reveals combined TP53 and PTEN mutations with increased proliferation index, an implication for pathogenesis.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(28):43557-43569 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DDCS) is a rare disease with a dismal prognosis. DDCS consists of two morphologically distinct components: the cartilaginous and noncartilaginous components. Whether the two components originate from the same progenitor cells has been controversial. Recurrent DDCS commonly displays increased proliferation compared with the primary tumor. However, there is no conclusive explanation for this mechanism. In this paper, we present two DDCSs in the sellar region. Patient 1 exclusively exhibited a noncartilaginous component with a TP53 frameshift mutation in the pathological specimens from the first surgery. The tumor recurred after radiation therapy with an exceedingly increased proliferation index. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) revealed the presence of both a TP53 mutation and a PTEN deletion in the cartilaginous and the noncartilaginous components of the recurrent tumor. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunostaining confirmed reduced DNA copy number and protein levels of the PTEN gene as a result of the PTEN deletion. Patient 2 exhibited both cartilaginous and noncartilaginous components in the surgical specimens. Targeted NGS of cells from both components showed neither TP53 nor PTEN mutations, making Patient 2 a naïve TP53 and PTEN control for comparison. In conclusion, additional PTEN loss in the background of the TP53 mutation could be the cause of increased proliferation capacity in the recurrent tumor.

Speetjens FM, de Jong Y, Gelderblom H, Bovée JV
Molecular oncogenesis of chondrosarcoma: impact for targeted treatment.
Curr Opin Oncol. 2016; 28(4):314-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prognosis of patients with unresectable or metastatic chondrosarcoma of the bone is poor. Chondrosarcomas are in general resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This review discusses recent developments in the characterization of molecular pathways involved in the oncogenesis of chondrosarcoma that should be explored to improve prognosis of patients with advanced chondrosarcoma.
RECENT FINDINGS: The different oncogenic pathways for chondrosarcoma have become better defined. These include alterations in pathways such as isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation, hedgehog signalling, the retinoblastoma protein and p53 pathways, apoptosis and survival mechanisms, and several tyrosine kinases. These specific alterations can be employed for use in clinical interventions in advanced chondrosarcoma.
SUMMARY: As many different genetic alterations in chondrosarcoma have been identified, it is of the utmost importance to classify druggable targets that may improve the prognosis of chondrosarcoma patients. In recent years an increased number of trials evaluating targeted therapies are being conducted. As chondrosarcoma is an orphan disease consequently all studies are performed with small numbers of patients. The results of clinical studies so far have been largely disappointing. Therapeutic intervention studies of these new targets emerging from preclinical studies are of highest importance to improve prognosis of chondrosarcoma patients with advanced disease.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. Chondrosarcoma, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 29 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999