Gene Summary

Gene:HSPA8; heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 8
Aliases: LAP1, HSC54, HSC70, HSC71, HSP71, HSP73, LAP-1, NIP71, HEL-33, HSPA10, HEL-S-72p
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the heat shock protein 70 family, which contains both heat-inducible and constitutively expressed members. This protein belongs to the latter group, which are also referred to as heat-shock cognate proteins. It functions as a chaperone, and binds to nascent polypeptides to facilitate correct folding. It also functions as an ATPase in the disassembly of clathrin-coated vesicles during transport of membrane components through the cell. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (38)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase
  • Up-Regulation
  • Cancer RNA
  • Chromosome 11
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • HSC70 Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Heat-Shock Proteins
  • HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins
  • siRNA
  • Down-Regulation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Proteomics
  • RT-PCR
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • RNA Interference
  • Skin Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression
  • Apoptosis
  • Base Sequence
  • HSPA8
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Transfection
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Melanoma
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Protein Binding
  • Cell Cycle
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
  • Cell Survival
  • Mutation
  • p53 Protein
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HSPA8 (cancer-related)

Ni Y, Schmidt KR, Werner BA, et al.
Death effector domain-containing protein induces vulnerability to cell cycle inhibition in triple-negative breast cancer.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2860 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lacking targetable molecular drivers, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most clinically challenging subtype of breast cancer. In this study, we reveal that Death Effector Domain-containing DNA-binding protein (DEDD), which is overexpressed in > 60% of TNBCs, drives a mitogen-independent G1/S cell cycle transition through cytoplasm localization. The gain of cytosolic DEDD enhances cyclin D1 expression by interacting with heat shock 71 kDa protein 8 (HSC70). Concurrently, DEDD interacts with Rb family proteins and promotes their proteasome-mediated degradation. DEDD overexpression renders TNBCs vulnerable to cell cycle inhibition. Patients with TNBC have been excluded from CDK 4/6 inhibitor clinical trials due to the perceived high frequency of Rb-loss in TNBCs. Interestingly, our study demonstrated that, irrespective of Rb status, TNBCs with DEDD overexpression exhibit a DEDD-dependent vulnerability to combinatorial treatment with CDK4/6 inhibitor and EGFR inhibitor in vitro and in vivo. Thus, our study provided a rationale for the clinical application of CDK4/6 inhibitor combinatorial regimens for patients with TNBC.

Liu F, Cheng L, Xu J, et al.
miR-17-92 functions as an oncogene and modulates NF-κB signaling by targeting TRAF3 in MGC-803 human gastric cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(5):2241-2257 [PubMed] Related Publications
The miR-17-92 cluster plays either an oncogenic or anti-oncogenic role in cancer progression in diverse human cancers. However, the underlying mechanisms of the miR-17-92 cluster in gastric cancer have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, the function of the miR-17-92 cluster in diverse aspects of MGC-803 gastric cancer cells was systematically elucidated. The enforced introduction of the miR-17-92 cluster into the MGC-803 cells significantly promoted cell growth due to the increased cellular proliferation and decreased cellular apoptosis, which were detected by CCK-8, cell viability and TUNEL assays. Moreover, the results of western blot analyses revealed that the activated protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor (NF-κB) signaling pathways were activated in these processes. Moreover, the overexpression of the miR-17-92 cluster markedly enhanced the migratory and invasive abilities of the MGC-803 cells, which was associated with the occurrence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 3 (TRAF3), which negatively regulates the NF-κB signaling pathway, was identified as a direct target of miR-17-92. Furthermore, TRAF3 silencing enhanced the oncogenic functions of the miR-17-92 cluster in the MGC-803 cells, including the increased cellular proliferation, migration and invasion. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining and survival analyses of a gastric cancer tissue microarray revealed that TRAF3 functioned as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer. Taken together, the findings of this study provide new insight into the specific biological functions of the miR-17-92 cluster in gastric cancer progression by directly targeting TRAF3.

Lu CH, Yeh DW, Lai CY, et al.
USP17 mediates macrophage-promoted inflammation and stemness in lung cancer cells by regulating TRAF2/TRAF3 complex formation.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(49):6327-6340 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Macrophage accumulation and inflammation in the lung owing to stresses and diseases is a cause of lung cancer development. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between macrophages and cancer cells, which drive inflammation and stemness in cancers, are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the expression of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 17 (USP17) in lung cancers, and role of elevated USP17 in the interaction between macrophages and lung cancer cells. USP17 expression in lung cancers was associated with poor prognosis, macrophage, and inflammatory marker expressions. Macrophages promoted USP17 expression in cancer cells. TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) 2-binding and TRAF3-binding motifs were identified in USP17, through which it interacted with and disrupted the TRAF2/TRAF3 complex. This stabilized its client proteins, enhanced inflammation and stemness in cancer cells, and promoted macrophage recruitment. In different animal studies, co-injection of macrophages with cancer cells promoted USP17 expression in tumors and tumor growth. Conversely, depletion of macrophages in host animals by clodronate liposomes reduced USP17 expression and tumor growth. In addition, overexpression of USP17 in cancer cells promoted tumor growth and inflammation-associated and stemness-associated gene expressions in tumors. These results suggested that USP17 drives a positive-feedback interaction between macrophages and cancer cells to enhance inflammation and stemness in cancer cells, and promotes lung cancer growth.

Li D, Hao X, Song Y
Identification of the Key MicroRNAs and the miRNA-mRNA Regulatory Pathways in Prostate Cancer by Bioinformatics Methods.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:6204128 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective: To identify key microRNAs (miRNAs) and their regulatory networks in prostate cancer.
Methods: Four miRNA and three gene expression microarray datasets were downloaded for analysis from Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed miRNA and genes were accessed by a GEO2R. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the DAVID program. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) and miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks were constructed using the STRING and Cytoscape tool. Moreover, the results and clinical significance were validated in TCGA data.
Results: We identified 26 significant DEMs, 633 upregulated DEGs, and 261 downregulated DEGs. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that significant DEGs were related to TGF-beta signaling pathway and TNF signaling pathway in PCa. Key DEGs such as HSPA8, PPP2R1A, CTNNB1, ADCY5, ANXA1, and COL9A2 were found as hub genes in PPI networks. TCGA data supported our results and the miRNAs were correlated with clinical stages and overall survival.
Conclusions: We identified 26 miRNAs that may take part in key pathways like TGF-beta and TNF pathways in prostate cancer regulatory networks. MicroRNAs like miR-23b, miR-95, miR-143, and miR-183 can be utilized in assisting the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer as biomarkers. Further experimental studies are required to validate our results.

Li X, Zhong L, Wang Z, et al.
Phosphorylation of IRS4 by CK1γ2 promotes its degradation by CHIP through the ubiquitin/lysosome pathway.
Theranostics. 2018; 8(13):3643-3653 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
IRS4, a member of the insulin receptor substrate protein family, can induce constitutive PI3K/AKT hyperactivation and cell proliferation even in the absence of insulin or growth factors and promote tumorigenesis, but its regulation has only been explored at the transcriptional level.

Xu J, Zhou J, Dai H, et al.
CHIP functions as an oncogene by promoting colorectal cancer metastasis via activation of MAPK and AKT signaling and suppression of E-cadherin.
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):169 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a controversial role in different cancers, either as a tumor suppressor or a tumor promoter. To date, the exact function and underlying mechanism of CHIP in colorectal cancer (CRC) is not yet clear. Here we aimed to determine whether CHIP could affect the biological behaviors of CRC cells and its underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: Stably transfected CHIP overexpression and depletion DLD-1 and HT-29 cells were established using Lipofectamine 2000. Cell growth was monitored by x-Celligence system. Cell proliferation was detected using CCK-8 and Brdu proliferation assay. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry analysis. Cell migration and invasion abilities were monitored by x-Celligence system, wound healing assay and transwell assay. In vivo intraperitoneal metastasis assay was performed to investigate the influence of CHIP on the tumor metastasis of CRC cells in nude mice. The expression of ERK, AKT, NF-кB signaling subunits and EMT related proteins were detected by Western blotting. The influence and function of CHIP on the protein expression of CRC cells were also elucidated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. CRC microarray tissue was analyzed to investigate the CHIP expression and its clinical significance.
RESULTS: CHIP depletion inhibited cell growth, migration and invasion potential of CRC cells, accompanied by downregulation of MAPK and AKT signaling activities and upregulation of E-cadherin. CHIP overexpression dramatically enhanced the migration and invasion abilities, due to the upregulation of MAPK and AKT signaling and downregulation of E-cadherin. The proteomic analysis confirmed that E-cadherin was decreased in CHIP-overexpressing CRC cells. Furthermore, clinical tissue data revealed that CHIP expression was upregulated in CRC samples and was significantly correlated with poor survival of CRC patients. Mechanically, CHIP probably activated the MAPK and AKT signaling, which inactivated GSK-3β. The GSK-3β inactivation, in turn, upregulated Slug and led to E-cadherin downregulation and EMT initiation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our finding suggested that CHIP functions as an oncogene in the migration and metastasis of CRC, and is a potential unfavorable independent predictive biomarker for CRC. CHIP activates the AKT pathway to promote EMT and metastasis in CRC through the CHIP-MAPK/AKT-GSK-3β-Slug-E-cadherin pathways.

Hyeon J, Lee B, Shin SH, et al.
Targeted deep sequencing of gastric marginal zone lymphoma identified alterations of TRAF3 and TNFAIP3 that were mutually exclusive for MALT1 rearrangement.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(9):1418-1428 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue is a distinct entity in that Helicobacter pylori infection plays the most important causative role in the development of the disease. To investigate the genomic alteration in gastric marginal zone lymphoma that was resistant to the H. pylori eradication therapy, we analyzed 19 cases of the gastric marginal zone lymphoma using fluorescence in situ hybridization for MALT1, BCL10 rearrangement, and targeted sequencing using an Illumina platform. Major genetic alterations affected genes involved in nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway activation and included MALT1 rearrangement (39%), and somatic mutations of TRAF3 (21%), TNFAIP3 (16%), and NOTCH1 (16%). In the MALT1 rearrangement-negative group, disruptive somatic mutations of TRAF3 were the most common alterations (4/12, 33%), followed by somatic mutations of TNFAIP3 (3/12, 25%), and NOTCH1 (3/12, 25%). The present study confirms that genes involved in activation of NF-κB-signaling pathways are a major driver in oncogenesis of H. pylori eradication-resistant gastric marginal zone lymphoma and revealed that TRAF3 mutation is a major contributor in MALT1 rearrangement-negative gastric marginal zone lymphoma.

Matsui C, Deng L, Minami N, et al.
Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Protein Promotes the Lysosomal Degradation of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1α via Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy.
J Virol. 2018; 92(13) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is closely associated with type 2 diabetes. We reported that HCV infection induces the lysosomal degradation of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF-1α) via interaction with HCV nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) protein, thereby suppressing GLUT2 gene expression. The molecular mechanisms of selective degradation of HNF-1α caused by NS5A are largely unknown. Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a selective lysosomal degradation pathway. Here, we investigated whether CMA is involved in the selective degradation of HNF-1α in HCV-infected cells and observed that the pentapeptide spanning from amino acid (aa) 130 to aa 134 of HNF-1α matches the rule for the CMA-targeting motif, also known as KFERQ motif. A cytosolic chaperone protein, heat shock cognate protein of 70 kDa (HSC70), and a lysosomal membrane protein, lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP-2A), are key components of CMA. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that HNF-1α was coimmunoprecipitated with HSC70, whereas the Q130A mutation (mutation of Q to A at position 130) of HNF-1α disrupted the interaction with HSC70, indicating that the CMA-targeting motif of HNF-1α is important for the association with HSC70. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that increasing amounts of NS5A enhanced the association of HNF-1α with HSC70. To determine whether LAMP-2A plays a role in the degradation of HNF-1α protein, we knocked down LAMP-2A mRNA by RNA interference; this knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) recovered the level of HNF-1α protein in HCV J6/JFH1-infected cells. This result suggests that LAMP-2A is required for the degradation of HNF-1α. Immunofluorescence study revealed colocalization of NS5A and HNF-1α in the lysosome. Based on our findings, we propose that HCV NS5A interacts with HSC70 and recruits HSC70 to HNF-1α, thereby promoting the lysosomal degradation of HNF-1α via CMA.

Cai X, Yang Y, Xia W, et al.
RIP2 promotes glioma cell growth by regulating TRAF3 and activating the NF‑κB and p38 signaling pathways.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(6):2915-2923 [PubMed] Related Publications
Receptor‑interacting protein 2 (RIP2) has recently been reported to be involved in tumor infiltration and cancer metastasis. However, the function of RIP2 in human astrocytoma remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that the expressions of RIP2 and Bcl‑xL were positively correlated with the malignant grade in 28 cases of astrocytoma of various grades and 6 cases of normal human tissues. In addition, increased activity of the NF‑κB and p38 signaling pathways in astrocytoma tissue was observed. Cytological experiments indicated that RIP2 promoted human glioblastoma cell proliferation by inducing expression of Bcl‑xL, and knockdown of endogenous RIP2 promoted cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, knockdown of RIP2 suppressed downstream events including the canonical and alternative NF‑κB pathway as well as the mitogen‑activated protein kinase (p38) pathway. In addition, the present study also demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor receptor‑associated factor 3 (TRAF3), as a novel RIP2 binding partner, was downregulated in glioma tissues and functionally was a negative regulator involved in RIP2‑induced glioma cell growth. Taken together, the present study established a negative link between RIP2 and TRAF3 proteins and identifies a new pathway for regulating astrocytoma progression.

Tian Y, Xu H, Farooq AA, et al.
Maslinic acid induces autophagy by down-regulating HSPA8 in pancreatic cancer cells.
Phytother Res. 2018; 32(7):1320-1331 [PubMed] Related Publications
Maslinic acid (MA), a natural pentacyclictriterpene, displays cytotoxic activity on various types of cancer cells. However, its underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we assessed the effect of MA on autophagy of human pancreatic cancer cells, and the potential autophagic pathway was presented. MA inhibited the proliferation and induced autophagy of Panc-28 cells by altering the expressions of autophagy related proteins. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that one protein band was significantly down-regulated in cells treated with MA, and the band was identified as heat shock protein HSPA8 as analyzed using Western blot and MS, MS/MS approaches. HSPA8 knockdown could significantly inhibit cell viability and enhance the cytotoxic effects of MA, whereas HSPA8 overexpression was able to enhance cell viability, diminishing the effects of MA. Western blot analysis indicated that the effect of MA on the expression of autophagy related genes was increased significantly in cells treated with HSPA8 inhibitor VER-155008, whereas HSPA8 inducer geranylgeranylacetone antagonized the effects of MA. Our study provides evidence that MA is able to induce of autophagy via down-regulation of HSPA8 in Panc-28 cells.

Luan H, Mohapatra B, Bielecki TA, et al.
Loss of the Nuclear Pool of Ubiquitin Ligase CHIP/STUB1 in Breast Cancer Unleashes the MZF1-Cathepsin Pro-oncogenic Program.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(10):2524-2535 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CHIP/STUB1 ubiquitin ligase is a negative co-chaperone for HSP90/HSC70, and its expression is reduced or lost in several cancers, including breast cancer. Using an extensive and well-annotated breast cancer tissue collection, we identified the loss of nuclear but not cytoplasmic CHIP to predict more aggressive tumorigenesis and shorter patient survival, with loss of CHIP in two thirds of ErbB2

Maity G, Haque I, Ghosh A, et al.
The MAZ transcription factor is a downstream target of the oncoprotein Cyr61/CCN1 and promotes pancreatic cancer cell invasion via CRAF-ERK signaling.
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(12):4334-4349 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myc-associated zinc-finger protein (MAZ) is a transcription factor with dual roles in transcription initiation and termination. Deregulation of MAZ expression is associated with the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the mechanism of action of MAZ in PDAC progression is largely unknown. Here, we present evidence that MAZ mRNA expression and protein levels are increased in human PDAC cell lines, tissue samples, a subcutaneous tumor xenograft in a nude mouse model, and spontaneous cancer in the genetically engineered PDAC mouse model. We also found that MAZ is predominantly expressed in pancreatic cancer stem cells. Functional analysis indicated that MAZ depletion in PDAC cells inhibits invasive phenotypes such as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, migration, invasion, and the sphere-forming ability of PDAC cells. Mechanistically, we detected no direct effects of MAZ on the expression of K-Ras mutants, but MAZ increased the activity of CRAF-ERK signaling, a downstream signaling target of K-Ras. The MAZ-induced activation of CRAF-ERK signaling was mediated via p21-activated protein kinase (PAK) and protein kinase B (AKT/PKB) signaling cascades and promoted PDAC cell invasiveness. Moreover, we found that the matricellular oncoprotein cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (Cyr61/CCN1) regulates MAZ expression via Notch-1-sonic hedgehog signaling in PDAC cells. We propose that Cyr61/CCN1-induced expression of MAZ promotes invasive phenotypes of PDAC cells not through direct K-Ras activation but instead through the activation of CRAF-ERK signaling. Collectively, these results highlight key molecular players in PDAC invasiveness and may help inform therapeutic strategies to improve clinical management and outcomes of PDAC.

Newman AC, Kemp AJ, Drabsch Y, et al.
Autophagy acts through TRAF3 and RELB to regulate gene expression via antagonism of SMAD proteins.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8(1):1537 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Macroautophagy can regulate cell signalling and tumorigenesis via elusive molecular mechanisms. We establish a RAS mutant cancer cell model where the autophagy gene ATG5 is dispensable in A549 cells in vitro, yet promotes tumorigenesis in mice. ATG5 represses transcriptional activation by the TGFβ-SMAD gene regulatory pathway. However, autophagy does not terminate cytosolic signal transduction by TGFβ. Instead, we use proteomics to identify selective degradation of the signalling scaffold TRAF3. TRAF3 autophagy is driven by RAS and results in activation of the NF-κB family member RELB. We show that RELB represses TGFβ target promoters independently of DNA binding at NF-κB recognition sequences, instead binding with SMAD family member(s) at SMAD-response elements. Thus, autophagy antagonises TGFβ gene expression. Finally, autophagy-deficient A549 cells regain tumorigenicity upon SMAD4 knockdown. Thus, at least in this setting, a physiologic function for autophagic regulation of gene expression is tumour growth.

Paiva C, Rowland TA, Sreekantham B, et al.
SYK inhibition thwarts the BAFF - B-cell receptor crosstalk and thereby antagonizes Mcl-1 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Haematologica. 2017; 102(11):1890-1900 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although small molecule inhibitors of B-cell receptor-associated kinases have revolutionized therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), responses are incomplete. Pro-survival signaling emanating from the microenvironment may foster therapeutic resistance of the malignant B cells resident in the protective lymphoid niches. B-cell activating factor (BAFF) is critical to the survival of both healthy and neoplastic B cells. However, the pro-survival pathways triggered by BAFF have not been fully characterized. Here we show that BAFF elicited resistance to spontaneous and drug-induced apoptosis in stromal co-cultures, induced activation of both canonical and non-canonical NFκB signaling pathways, and triggered B-cell receptor signaling in CLL cells, independently of

Rengstl B, Kim S, Döring C, et al.
Small and big Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines L-428 and L-1236 lack consistent differences in gene expression profiles and are capable to reconstitute each other.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(5):e0177378 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The hallmark of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is the presence of giant, mostly multinucleated Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells. Whereas it has recently been shown that giant HRS cells evolve from small Hodgkin cells by incomplete cytokinesis and re-fusion of tethered sister cells, it remains unsolved why this phenomenon particularly takes place in this lymphoma and what the differences between these cell types of variable sizes are. The aim of the present study was to characterize microdissected small and giant HRS cells by gene expression profiling and to assess differences of clonal growth behavior as well as susceptibility toward cytotoxic intervention between these different cell types to provide more insight into their distinct cellular potential. Applying stringent filter criteria, only two differentially expressed genes between small and giant HRS cells, SHFM1 and LDHB, were identified. With looser filter criteria, 13 genes were identified to be differentially overexpressed in small compared to giant HRS cells. These were mainly related to energy metabolism and protein synthesis, further suggesting that small Hodgkin cells resemble the proliferative compartment of cHL. SHFM1, which is known to be involved in the generation of giant cells, was downregulated in giant RS cells at the RNA level. However, reduced mRNA levels of SHFM1, LDHB and HSPA8 did not translate into decreased protein levels in giant HRS cells. In cell culture experiments it was observed that the fraction of small and big HRS cells was adjusted to the basic level several days after enrichment of these populations via cell sorting, indicating that small and big HRS cells can reconstitute the full spectrum of cells usually observed in the culture. However, assessment of clonal growth of HRS cells indicated a significantly reduced potential of big HRS cells to form single cell colonies. Taken together, our findings pinpoint to strong similarities but also some differences between small and big HRS cells.

Zhang T, Wang T, Cai P
Sclareol inhibits cell proliferation and sensitizes cells to the antiproliferative effect of bortezomib via upregulating the tumor suppressor caveolin-1 in cervical cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 15(6):3566-3574 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The anticancer effect of sclareol has long been reported, however, the exact mechanisms underlying the antitumorigenic effect of sclareol in cervical carcinoma remain to be fully elucidated. The present study analyzed cell proliferation and cell apoptosis by MTT and FITC‑Annexin V assays. The protein levels of caveolin‑1 (Cav‑1) and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD)1 were determined by western blotting, and the interaction of Cav1 and HSC70 was investigated by co‑immunoprecipitation experiments. The present study found that sclareol inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Two cancer‑associated proteins, Cav1 and SOD1 were identified as potential targets of sclareol in HeLa cells. The expression of Cav1 increased when the cells were treated with sclareol, and the protein level of SOD1 was negatively correlated with Cav1. The overexpression of Cav1 enhanced the sensitivity of the HeLa cells to sclareol treatment and downregulated the protein level of SOD1, which exhibited potential associations between Cav1 and SOD1. In addition, sclareol significantly sensitized several cancer cells to the anticancer effect of bortezomib by targeting Cav1 and SOD1. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrated that sclareol inhibited tumor cell growth through the upregulation of Cav1, and provides a potential therapeutic target for human cancer.

Yurugi H, Marini F, Weber C, et al.
Targeting prohibitins with chemical ligands inhibits KRAS-mediated lung tumours.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(33):4778-4789 [PubMed] Related Publications
KRAS is one of the most frequently mutated oncogenes in human non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). RAS proteins trigger multiple effector signalling pathways including the highly conserved RAF-MAPK pathway. CRAF, a direct RAS effector protein, is required for KRAS-mediated tumourigenesis. Thus, the molecular mechanisms driving the activation of CRAF are intensively studied. Prohibitin 1 (PHB1) is an evolutionarily conserved adaptor protein and interaction of CRAF with PHB1 at the plasma membrane is essential for CRAF activation. Here, we demonstrate that PHB1 is highly expressed in NSCLC patients and correlates with poor survival. Targeting of PHB1 with two chemical ligands (rocaglamide and fluorizoline) inhibits epidermal growth factor (EGF)/RAS-induced CRAF activation. Consistently, treatment with rocaglamide inhibited proliferation, migration and anchorage-independent growth of KRAS-mutated lung carcinoma cell lines. Surprisingly, rocaglamide treatment inhibited Ras-GTP loading in KRAS-mutated cells as well as in EGF-stimulated cells. Rocaglamide treatment further prevented the oncogenic growth of KRAS-driven lung cancer allografts and xenografts in mouse models. Our results suggest rocaglamide as a RAS inhibitor and that targeting plasma membrane-associated PHB1 with chemical ligands would be a viable therapeutic strategy to combat KRAS-mediated NSCLCs.

Urbini M, Astolfi A, Pantaleo MA, et al.
HSPA8 as a novel fusion partner of NR4A3 in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(7):582-586 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a very rare sarcoma most often arising in the soft tissue. Rare EMC of the bone have been reported. EMC exhibits distinctive clinico-pathological and genetic features; however, despite the name, it lacks any feature of cartilaginous differentiation. EMC is characterized by the rearrangement of the NR4A3, which, in most cases (about 62-75%), is fused with EWSR1 and less frequently with other partners, including TAF15 (27%), TCF12 (4%), TFG, and FUS. We herein report the identification by whole-transcriptome sequencing of HSPA8 as a novel fusion partner of NR4A3 in a case of EMC. FISH analysis confirmed the presence of a genomic HSPA8-NR4A3 translocation in the vast majority of tumor cells. Our findings expand the spectrum of NR4A3 fusion partners involved in EMC pathobiology.

Hajek M, Sewell A, Kaech S, et al.
TRAF3/CYLD mutations identify a distinct subset of human papillomavirus-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer. 2017; 123(10):1778-1790 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated (HPV-positive) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) of the oropharynx has dramatically increased over the last decade and continues to rise. Newly diagnosed HPV-positive HNSCCs in the United States currently outnumber any other HPV-associated cancers, including cervical cancer. Despite introduction of the HPV vaccine, the epidemic of HPV-positive HNSCC is expected to continue for approximately 60 years. Compared with patients who have tobacco-associated HNSCC, those who have HPV-positive HNSCC have better overall survival and response to treatment. Current treatment, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy, is associated with lifelong morbidity, and there are limited treatments and no curative options for patients who develop recurrent metastatic disease. Therapeutic de-escalation (decreased radiation dose) is being tested through clinical trials; however, those studies select patients based solely on tumor and patient smoking characteristics. Mechanisms of HPV-driven carcinogenesis in HNSCC are not well understood, which limits new therapeutic strategies and hinders the appropriate selection of patients for de-escalation therapy.
METHODS: The authors analyzed HNSCC data from The Cancer Genome Atlas to identify molecular characteristics that correlate with outcomes and integration status of the HPV genome.
RESULTS: The current investigations identified a subset of HPV-positive HNSCCs with mutations in the genes TRAF3 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3) and CYLD (cylindromatosis lysine 63 deubiquitinase). Defects in TRAF3 and CYLD correlated with the activation of transcriptional factor nuclear factor κB, episomal HPV status of tumors, and improved patient survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Defects in TRAF3/CYLD were accompanied with the activation of nuclear factor κB signaling and maintenance of episomal HPV in tumors, suggesting that these mutations may support an alternative mechanism of HPV tumorigenesis in head and neck tumors. Cancer 2017;123:1778-1790. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

Biswas K, Sarkar S, Du K, et al.
The E3 Ligase CHIP Mediates p21 Degradation to Maintain Radioresistance.
Mol Cancer Res. 2017; 15(6):651-659 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer resists radiotherapy, making it one of the deadliest forms of cancer. Here, we show that human lung cancer cell lines can be rendered sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR) by RNAi knockdown of C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP/STUB1), a U-box-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets a number of stress-induced proteins. Mechanistically, ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, p21 protein, is reduced by CHIP knockdown, leading to enhanced senescence of cells in response to exposure to IR. Cellular senescence and sensitivity to IR is prevented by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of the p21 gene (

Krishnappa P, Kong HM, Mohamad IB, et al.
CD40 polymorphism in cervical carcinoma in a subset of Malaysian population.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2017; 43(5):923-928 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the allelic frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human CD40 gene in cervical cancer.
METHODS: A total of 200 cases were selected from the records of the Department of Pathology, Hospital Tuanku Jaafar, Seremban, Malaysia. The samples were collected in three separate groups: cervicitis (n = 61), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (n = 69), and cervical carcinoma (n = 70). The patients' demographic data and the respective paraffin-embedded tissue samples from Hospital Tuanku Jaafar, Seremban were obtained upon consent. The sample tissues were submitted for DNA extraction using G-spin Total DNA Extraction Kit. DNA obtained was then submitted for nested PCR before restriction enzyme digestion.
RESULTS: SNP rs1883832 showed higher prevalence of T alleles in the cervical carcinoma group compared to the control groups and in rs3765459, a higher prevalence of G alleles in the cervical carcinoma group was noted. The results of rs1800686 and rs4810485 were insignificant.
CONCLUSION: The data from our study indicates a potential association between the rs1883832 and rs3765459 CD40 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to cervical cancer.

Jacob JA, Salmani JMM, Jiang Z, et al.
Autophagy: An overview and its roles in cancer and obesity.
Clin Chim Acta. 2017; 468:85-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
Autophagy is a normal physiological process necessary for cellular homeostasis to maintain adequate levels of cellular components. It is essential to stabilize the source of energy during development and nutritional stress and plays the dual role of survival or cell killing in various diseases including cancer. The selectivity of the response to removal of selected organelles may vary according to the each type. Macroautophagy forms a double-membraned autophagosome around the organelle destined for processing. Microautophagy involves direct engulfment of the cellular components by lysosomal invagination. Chaperone mediated autophagy (CMA) is highly selective and is dependent on the chaperone hsc70 for its activity. The effects of all these types are implemented by autophagy related genes. In this review, the markers, activators, inhibitors biological effects and roles of the three classes of autophagy in cancer and obesity are discussed.

Suzuki J, Nakajima W, Suzuki H, et al.
Chaperone-mediated autophagy promotes lung cancer cell survival through selective stabilization of the pro-survival protein, MCL1.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017; 482(4):1334-1340 [PubMed] Related Publications
Autophagy is a dynamic recycling system using lysosomal proteolysis that produces new proteins and energy for cellular renovation and homeostasis. Although macroautophagy is known to serve as a survival pathway in many cancer cells, the role of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), a selective protein degradation system, in cancer is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that lysosomal proteolysis, but not macroautophagy, attenuated apoptosis induced by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, crizotinib, in the non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, EBC1. In EBC1 cells, crizotinib induced BIM-dependent apoptosis, which was enhanced by inhibition of lysosomal proteolysis. Moreover, degradation of the pro-survival protein, MCL1, by the ubiquitin-proteasome system was induced by inhibition of lysosomal proteolysis, and by inhibition of the expression of the CMA mediators, HSC70 (heat shock cognate protein 70 kDa) and LAMP2A (lysosome membrane protein type 2A), suggesting the existence of a CMA-mediated MCL1 stabilization system in cancer cells. Indeed, the same MCL1 stabilization system was also observed in several NSCLC cell lines; in these cells, their specific molecular-targeted drug or ABT-263 (Navitoclax), the specific inhibitor of BCL-2 and BCL-X

Wang J, Zhang H, Zhang X, et al.
PC-1 works in conjunction with E3 ligase CHIP to regulate androgen receptor stability and activity.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(49):81377-81388 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The androgen receptor (AR) is not only a ligand-dependent transcription factor, but also functions as a licensing factor, a component of DNA replication, which is degraded during mitosis. Furthermore, the deregulation of AR activity is involved in the initiation of prostate cancer and contributes to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). While AR degradation is known to occur primarily through a proteasome-mediated pathway, very little is known about how this process is regulated, especially in M phase. PC-1 is an androgen-responsive factor and expresses specificity in prostate cancer, with higher expression noted at G2/M. In this study, PC-1 was shown to interact with AR and E3 ligase CHIP (Carboxy-terminus of Hsc70 Interacting Protein) and to enhance AR/CHIP interactions, thereby decreasing AR stability. Moreover, PC-1 was found to act in conjunction with CHIP in the decreasing of AR via ubiquitination, with the subsequent degradation predominantly occurring during M phase. PC-1 was also found to repress AR transcriptional activity in androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells and attenuate the growth inhibition of AR. In conclusion, these findings should provide new clues regarding the modulation of AR turnover and activity via PC-1 and reveals an essential role of PC-1 in AR signaling.

Rodina A, Wang T, Yan P, et al.
The epichaperome is an integrated chaperome network that facilitates tumour survival.
Nature. 2016; 538(7625):397-401 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transient, multi-protein complexes are important facilitators of cellular functions. This includes the chaperome, an abundant protein family comprising chaperones, co-chaperones, adaptors, and folding enzymes-dynamic complexes of which regulate cellular homeostasis together with the protein degradation machinery. Numerous studies have addressed the role of chaperome members in isolation, yet little is known about their relationships regarding how they interact and function together in malignancy. As function is probably highly dependent on endogenous conditions found in native tumours, chaperomes have resisted investigation, mainly due to the limitations of methods needed to disrupt or engineer the cellular environment to facilitate analysis. Such limitations have led to a bottleneck in our understanding of chaperome-related disease biology and in the development of chaperome-targeted cancer treatment. Here we examined the chaperome complexes in a large set of tumour specimens. The methods used maintained the endogenous native state of tumours and we exploited this to investigate the molecular characteristics and composition of the chaperome in cancer, the molecular factors that drive chaperome networks to crosstalk in tumours, the distinguishing factors of the chaperome in tumours sensitive to pharmacologic inhibition, and the characteristics of tumours that may benefit from chaperome therapy. We find that under conditions of stress, such as malignant transformation fuelled by MYC, the chaperome becomes biochemically 'rewired' to form a network of stable, survival-facilitating, high-molecular-weight complexes. The chaperones heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70) are nucleating sites for these physically and functionally integrated complexes. The results indicate that these tightly integrated chaperome units, here termed the epichaperome, can function as a network to enhance cellular survival, irrespective of tissue of origin or genetic background. The epichaperome, present in over half of all cancers tested, has implications for diagnostics and also provides potential vulnerability as a target for drug intervention.

Hansberg-Pastor V, González-Arenas A, Camacho-Arroyo I
CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β negatively regulates progesterone receptor expression in human glioblastoma cells.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017; 439:317-327 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many progesterone (P4) actions are mediated by its intracellular receptor (PR), which has two isoforms (PR-A and PR-B) differentially transcribed from separate promoters of a single gene. In glioblastomas, the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors, PR-B is the predominant isoform. In an in silico analysis we showed putative CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein (C/EBP) binding sites at PR-B promoter. We evaluated the role of C/EBPβ in PR-B expression regulation in glioblastoma cell lines, which expressed different ratios of PR and C/EBPβ isoforms (LAP1, LAP2, and LIP). ChIP assays showed a significant basal binding of C/EBPβ, specific protein 1 (Sp1) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) to PR-B promoter. C/EBPβ knockdown increased PR-B expression and treatment with estradiol (E2) reduced C/EBPβ binding to the promoter and up-regulated PR-B expression. P4 induced genes were differently regulated when CEBP/β was silenced. These data show that C/EBPβ negatively regulates PR-B expression in glioblastoma cells.

Wang Y, Lam W, Chen SR, et al.
Tylophorine Analog DCB-3503 Inhibited Cyclin D1 Translation through Allosteric Regulation of Heat Shock Cognate Protein 70.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:32832 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tylophorine analog DCB-3503 is a potential anticancer and immunosuppressive agent that suppresses the translation of cellular regulatory proteins, including cyclin D1, at the elongation step. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unknown. This study demonstrates that DCB-3503 preferentially binds to heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70), which is a determinant for cyclin D1 translation by binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3' UTR) of its mRNA. DCB-3503 allosterically regulates the ATPase and chaperone activities of HSC70 by promoting ATP hydrolysis in the presence of specific RNA binding motifs (AUUUA) of cyclin D1 mRNA. The suppression of cyclin D1 translation by DCB-3503 is not solely caused by perturbation of the homeostasis of microRNAs, although the microRNA processing complex is dissociated with DCB-3503 treatment. This study highlights a novel regulatory mechanism of protein translation with AUUUA motifs in the 3' UTR of mRNA by HSC70, and its activity can be allosterically modulated by DCB-3503. DCB-3503 may be used to treat malignancies, such as hepatocellular carcinoma or breast cancer with elevated expression of cyclin D1.

Selagea L, Mishra A, Anand M, et al.
EGFR and C/EBP-β oncogenic signaling is bidirectional in human glioma and varies with the C/EBP-β isoform.
FASEB J. 2016; 30(12):4098-4108 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We investigated the intersection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)-β signaling in glioblastoma (GBM), given that both gene products strongly influence neoplastic behavior. C/EBP-β is known to drive the mesenchymal transcriptional signature in GBM, likely through strong microenvironmental influences, whereas the genetic contributions to its up-regulation in this disease are not well described. We demonstrated that stable overexpression and activation of WT EGFR (U87MG-WT) led to elevated C/EBP-β expression, as well as enhanced nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity, leading to up-regulation of C/EBP-β transcription and translation. Deeper investigation identified bidirectional regulation, with C/EBP-β also causing up-regulation of EGFR that was at least partially dependent on the STAT3. Based on ChIP-based studies, we also found that that the translational isoforms of C/EBP-β [liver-enriched transcription-activating protein (LAP)-1/2 and liver inhibitory protein (LIP)] have differential occupancy on STAT3 promoter and opposing roles in transcriptional regulation of STAT3 and EGFR. We further demonstrated that the shorter C/EBP-β isoform, LIP, promoted proliferation and migration of U87MG glioma cells, potentially via induction of cytokine IL-6. Our molecular dissection of EGFR and C/EBP-β pathway interactions uncovered a complex signaling network in which increased activity of either EGFR or C/EBP-β leads to the up-regulation of the other, enhancing oncogenic signaling. Disrupting the EGFR-C/EBP-β signaling axis could attenuate malignant behavior of glioblastoma.-Selagea, L., Mishra, A., Anand, M., Ross, J., Tucker-Burden, C., Kong, J., Brat, D. J. EGFR and C/EBP-β oncogenic signaling is bidirectional in human glioma and varies with the C/EBP-β isoform.

Hou L, Chen M, Wang M, et al.
Systematic analyses of key genes and pathways in the development of invasive breast cancer.
Gene. 2016; 593(1):1-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a common type of non-invasive breast cancer and can sometimes progress into invasive breast cancer (IBC). Identification of the critical genes and biological processes specifically and/or commonly changed in DCIS or IBC can help us understand more about breast cancer development and provide more critical targets and signal transduction pathways for the diagnosis and treatments for breast cancer patients.
AIM AND METHODS: We aimed to gain more understanding about the whole process of IBC development, especially in the early stage. Here we systematically analyzed an online breast cancer patient database to identify those significantly changed genes and biological processes in epithelium from normal stage to DCIS stage or from DCIS stage to IBC stage.
RESULTS: 344 specific genes, such as FN1, AURKA and HSPA8, were found to be significantly changed (both upregulated and downregulated) in DCIS group in comparison with normal tissue group, which represents the gene profile changes in early stage of breast cancer development. Meanwhile, 304 specific genes were significantly changed (both upregulated and downregulated) in IBC group in comparison with normal tissue group, which represents the gene profile changes in late stage of breast cancer development. Importantly, seven genes were identified to have consistent changes in both early stage and late stage, indicating they might play "driving" roles in the breast cancer development. Of these 7 genes, 5 have been shown to be involved in breast cancer progression by previous studies, which demonstrates the validity of our analyses. Notably, DNAPTP3 was identified for the first time to play an oncogenic role in breast cancer development. In the GO term analyses, cell cycle genes was found to play more important roles in the early stage while biological adhesion was indicated to be more specifically involved in late stage of breast cancer development.
SIGNIFICANCE: Our systematic analyses provide better understanding of the unique gene profiles and biological processes during the breast cancer development and identify more potentially important targets for future studies, such as DNAPTP3.

Kurozumi S, Yamaguchi Y, Hayashi S, et al.
Prognostic value of the ubiquitin ligase carboxyl terminus of the Hsc70-interacting protein in postmenopausal breast cancer.
Cancer Med. 2016; 5(8):1873-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The carboxyl terminus of the Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is considered to induce the ubiquitination and degradation of several oncogenic proteins, and play a role in the inhibition of tumor progression and invasion under experimental conditions. However, the impact of CHIP expression on the prognosis of breast cancer patients has not yet been established. In this study, using an immunohistochemical method, 272 patients with invasive breast cancer were assessed for the expression of CHIP (graded scores 0-3) and the statuses of biomarkers, such as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and HER2. The relationships between the statuses of CHIP and biomarkers as well as clinical features were also evaluated, and that between the expression of CHIP and patient prognosis was analyzed. We revealed that the strong expression of CHIP correlated with positive ER (P < 0.001), positive PgR (P < 0.001), and negative HER2 (P = 0.02). In postmenopausal patients, relapse-free survival (RFS) was significantly better in the high CHIP group than in the low CHIP group (P = 0.042). In addition, RFS and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were significantly better in patients with ER-positive/CHIP score 3 tumors than in those with ER-negative/CHIP score 0 tumors (RFS: P = 0.038, CSS: P = 0.0098). The methylation status of CHIP gene promoter did not always account for the down-regulation of its expression. In conclusion, the overexpression of CHIP is a potent prognostic factor of a good prognosis in ER-positive breast cancer patients in the postmenopausal phase.

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