Gene Summary

Gene:TCF12; transcription factor 12
Aliases: HEB, p64, CRS3, HTF4, TCF-12, bHLHb20, HsT17266
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) E-protein family that recognizes the consensus binding site (E-box) CANNTG. This encoded protein is expressed in many tissues, among them skeletal muscle, thymus, B- and T-cells, and may participate in regulating lineage-specific gene expression through the formation of heterodimers with other bHLH E-proteins. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor 12
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (14)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Chondrosarcoma
  • Mutation
  • Response Elements
  • Transcription Factors
  • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • Chromosome 15
  • FISH
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Signal Transduction
  • Base Sequence
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Gene Silencing
  • Receptors, Thyroid Hormone
  • Bone Cancer
  • Protein Binding
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Soft Tissue Sarcoma
  • Receptors, Steroid
  • MicroRNAs
  • Brain Tumours
  • Leukaemia
  • Tamoxifen
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Transcription Factor AP-1
  • Breast Cancer
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Brain Tumours
  • Cell Movement
  • Transcriptional Activation
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TCF12 (cancer-related)

Liu N, Song J, Xie Y, et al.
Different roles of E proteins in t(8;21) leukemia: E2-2 compromises the function of AETFC and negatively regulates leukemogenesis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019; 116(3):890-899 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The AML1-ETO fusion protein, generated by the t(8;21) chromosomal translocation, is causally involved in nearly 20% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases. In leukemic cells, AML1-ETO resides in and functions through a stable protein complex, AML1-ETO-containing transcription factor complex (AETFC), that contains multiple transcription (co)factors. Among these AETFC components, HEB and E2A, two members of the ubiquitously expressed E proteins, directly interact with AML1-ETO, confer new DNA-binding capacity to AETFC, and are essential for leukemogenesis. However, the third E protein, E2-2, is specifically silenced in AML1-ETO-expressing leukemic cells, suggesting E2-2 as a negative factor of leukemogenesis. Indeed, ectopic expression of E2-2 selectively inhibits the growth of AML1-ETO-expressing leukemic cells, and this inhibition requires the bHLH DNA-binding domain. RNA-seq and ChIP-seq analyses reveal that, despite some overlap, the three E proteins differentially regulate many target genes. In particular, studies show that E2-2 both redistributes AETFC to, and activates, some genes associated with dendritic cell differentiation and represses MYC target genes. In AML patients, the expression of E2-2 is relatively lower in the t(8;21) subtype, and an E2-2 target gene,

Wang Y, Yang Q, Cheng Y, et al.
Myosin Heavy Chain 10 (MYH10) Gene Silencing Reduces Cell Migration and Invasion in the Glioma Cell Lines U251, T98G, and SHG44 by Inhibiting the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:9110-9119 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND The myosin heavy chain 10 or MYH10 gene encodes non-muscle myosin II B (NM IIB), and is involved in tumor cell migration, invasion, extracellular matrix (ECM) production, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This study aimed to investigate the effects of the MYH10 gene on normal human glial cells and glioma cell lines in vitro, by gene silencing, and to determine the signaling pathways involved. MATERIAL AND METHODS The normal human glial cell line HEB, and the glioma cell lines, U251, T98G, and SHG44 were studied. Plasmid transfection silenced the MYH10 gene. The cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay evaluated cell viability. Cell migration and invasion were evaluated using scratch and transwell assays. Western blot measured the protein expression levels, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression levels, for MYH10, metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA-1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2), collagen 1, E-cadherin, vimentin, Wnt3a, β-catenin, and cyclin D1. RESULTS The MYH10 gene was overexpressed in U251, T98G, and SHG44 cells. MYH10 expression was down-regulated following siMYH10 plasmid interference, which also inhibited glioma cell migration and invasion. MYH10 gene silencing resulted in reduced expression of MTA-1, MPP-2, MMP-9 and vimentin, and increased expression of TIMP-2, E-cadherin and collagen 1 at the protein and mRNA level, and inhibited the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. CONCLUSIONS In human glioma cell lines, silencing the MYH10 gene reduced cell migration and invasion, by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which may regulate the ECM and inhibit EMT in human glioma.

Saavedra D, Neninger E, Rodriguez C, et al.
CIMAvax-EGF: Toward long-term survival of advanced NSCLC.
Semin Oncol. 2018; 45(1-2):34-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common histologic type of lung cancer. Medical and scientific progress has led to longer survival in an increasing number of patients suffering from cancer. Concerning patients with advanced NSCLC, there is a subgroup with long-term survival. The human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family plays a key role in tumor development. This cluster of genes is associated with augmented angiogenesis and enhanced proliferation, survival, and migration of tumor cells. The CIMAvax-EGF vaccine consists of a chemical conjugate of the EGF with the P64 protein derived from the Meningitis B bacteria and the Montanide ISA 51, as adjuvant. The vaccine induces antibodies against EGF that results in EGF withdrawal. CIMAvax-EGF has been demonstrated to be safe and immunogenic in advanced NSCLC patients. Here we summarize the current knowledge of the mechanism of action of CIMAvax-EGF, highlighting the impact of this anti-EGF-based vaccine on the long-term survival of advanced NSCLC patients.

Wei L, He F, Zhang W, et al.
Bioinformatics analysis of microarray data to reveal the pathogenesis of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.
Biol Res. 2018; 51(1):26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is the main cause of pediatric brain tumor death. This study was designed to identify key genes associated with DIPG.
METHODS: The gene expression profile GSE50021, which consisted of 35 pediatric DIPG samples and 10 normal brain samples, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by limma package. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed by the DAVID tool. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, and transcription factor (TF)-microRNA (miRNA)-target gene network were constructed using Cytoscape. Moreover, the expression levels of several genes were validated in human glioma cell line U251 and normal glia HEB cells through real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
RESULTS: A total of 378 DEGs were screened (74 up-regulated and 304 down-regulated genes). In the PPI network, GRM1, HTR2A, GRM7 and GRM2 had higher degrees. Besides, GRM1 and HTR2A were significantly enriched in the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway, and calcium signaling pathway. In addition, TFAP2C was a significant down-regulated functional gene and hsa-miR-26b-5p had a higher degree in the TF-miRNA-target gene network. PCR analysis revealed that GRM7 and HTR2A were significantly downregulated while TFAP2C was upregulated in U251 cells compared with that in HEB cells (p < 0.001). GRM2 was not detected in cells.
CONCLUSIONS: GRM1 and HTR2A might function in DIPG through the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway and the calcium signaling pathway. Furthermore, the TFAP2C and hsa-miR-26b-5p might play important roles in the development and progression mechanisms of DIPG.

Cao J, Wei J, Yang P, et al.
Genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screening in gastrointestinal stromal tumor with Imatinib resistance.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):121 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 Knockout Screening was applied to investigate novel targets in imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). 20 genes and 2 miRNAs have been selected by total reads of sgRNA and sgRNA diversity, which has been further validated in imatinib-resistant GIST cells by CCK8 and qPCR analysis. Our study has finally revealed 9 genes (DBP, NR3C1, TCF12, TP53, ZNF12, SOCS6, ZFP36, ACYP1, and DRD1) involved in imatinib-resistant GIST-T1 cells. TP53 and SOCS6 may be the most promising candidate genes for imatinib-resistance due to the possible signaling pathway, such as apoptosis pathway and Wnt signaling pathway, JAK-STAT signaling pathway. It is necessary to perform more studies to discover novel targets in imatinib-resistant GIST, including DBP, NR3C1, TCF12, ZNF12, ZFP36, ACYP1 and DRD1.

Liu J, Jiang J, Hui X, et al.
Mir-758-5p Suppresses Glioblastoma Proliferation, Migration and Invasion by Targeting ZBTB20.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 48(5):2074-2083 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine the cellular functions and clinical significance of micro-758-5p (miR-758-5p) in glioblastoma (GBM) by targeting zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 20 (ZBTB20).
METHODS: Fifty-five paired GBM tissues and adjacent normal tissues, GBM cell lines (U118, LN-299, H4, A172, U87-MG, and U251), and normal human astrocyte cell line (HEB) were used. miR-758-5p mimics, ZBTB20 siRNA, and pcDNA3.1-ZBTB20 were transiently transduced into cancer cells independently or together. qRT-PCR was conducted to analyze the expression of miR-758-5p and ZBTB20. Luciferase reporter assays were performed to determine the effect of miR-758-5p on ZBTB20. Western blot was applied to measure the expression of ZBTB20, PCNA, and cleaved caspase3. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8), colony formation, FACS, and Transwell assays were carried out to detect cellular proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. Xenograft experiments were implemented to evaluate tumor growth and metastasis in vivo.
RESULTS: miR-758-5p was significantly downregulated in GBM tissues and cell lines compared with that in adjacent normal tissues and HEB cells. miR-758-5p overexpression inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of GBM cells and induced apoptosis by regulating the ZBTB20 expression. Pearson correlation analysis also confirmed that miR-758-5p was inversely correlated with ZBTB20 in GBM tissues. miR-758-5p suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. The restored ZBTB20 expression partially rescued the miR-758-5p-induced inhibition of GBM cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis revealed that a high miR-758-5p expression indicated an enhanced prognosis of patients with GBM.
CONCLUSION: miR-758-5p suppressed GBM progression by targeting ZBTB20. The miR-758-5p/ZBTB20 axis might be a promising therapeutic target for GBM treatment.

Chai C, Song LJ, Han SY, et al.
MicroRNA-21 promotes glioma cell proliferation and inhibits senescence and apoptosis by targeting SPRY1 via the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
CNS Neurosci Ther. 2018; 24(5):369-380 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: Our study aims to investigate the effect of microRNA-21 (miR-21) on the proliferation, senescence, and apoptosis of glioma cells by targeting SPRY1 via the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
METHODS: Glioma tissues and brain tissues were collected for this study after surgical decompression for traumatic brain injury. RT-qPCR was employed to measure mRNA levels of miR-21, SPRY1, PTEN, PI3K, and AKT, and Western blotting was conducted to determine protein levels of SPRY1, PTEN, PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, Caspase-3, Caspase-9, P53, GSK3, and p-GSK3. Human glioma U87 cells were assigned into the blank, negative control (NC), miR-21 mimics, miR-21 inhibitors, siRNA-SPRY1, and miR-21 inhibitors + siRNA-SPRY1 groups, with human HEB cells serving as the normal group. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were determined by MTT and flow cytometry, respectively.
RESULTS: Compared with control group, an increased expression of miR-21, PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, P53, and p-GSK3, and a decreased expression of SPRY1, PTEN, Caspase-3, and Caspase-9 were observed in the glioma group, and no significant differences were found in the expression of GSK3. SPRY1 was verified to be the target gene of miR-21. Compared with the blank and NC groups, levels of PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, P53, and p-GSK3 increased while levels of SPRY1, PTEN, Caspase-3, and Caspase-9 decreased in the miR-21 mimics and siRNA-SPRY1 groups; the miR-21 inhibitors group reversed the tendency; furthermore, the miR-21 inhibitors group showed decreased cell proliferation but promoted apoptosis, which were opposite to the results of the miR-21 mimics and siRNA-SPRY1 groups.
CONCLUSION: MicroRNA-21 might promote cell proliferation and inhibit cell senescence and apoptosis of human glioma cells by targeting SPRY1 via the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

Yeh YJ, Lin CM, Chen TT
Human IGF-I Eb-peptide induces cell attachment and lamellipodia outspread of metastatic breast carcinoma cells (MDA-MB-231).
Exp Cell Res. 2017; 358(2):199-208 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) has been intensively studied, the functions of E-domain peptides of pro-IGF-I, however, have been overlooked. In our laboratory, several anti-cancer activities of the E-peptide of pro-IGF-I have been identified for the longest isoforms of human and rainbow trout E-peptides. These activities include dose-dependent inhibition of colony formation, inhibition of cancer cell metastasis and invasion through matrigel, suppression of cancer-induced angiogenesis, and attenuation of expression of apoptotic genes in favor of cell death. In this study, we were able to produce two-tagged recombinant human Eb-peptide (hEb) of pro-IGF-I with a purity over 99%. With its antimicrobial peptide (AMP)-like characteristics such as binding to the cytoplasmic membrane, and the affinity to the substratum of culture plate, hEb forms a layer of interface rapidly which facilitates the attachment of breast carcinoma cells, MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, the likely conformational change of homo-dimerized hEb through a single disulfide bond, as well as the ability to trigger clathrin-mediated endocytosis may play important roles for inducing lamellipodia outspread in MDA-MB-231 cells. With the highly purified hEb-peptide, not only could we study its function(s) in detail but also the minimum requirement for cancerous cells to metastasize to a suitable environment and grow.

Chen QB, Liang YK, Zhang YQ, et al.
Decreased expression of TCF12 contributes to progression and predicts biochemical recurrence in patients with prostate cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(6):1010428317703924 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a member of helix-loop-helix protein family, transcription factor 12 functions as either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor in various human cancers. However, there are no reports on its involvement in prostate cancer. To investigate clinical relevance of transcription factor 12 in prostate cancer and to evaluate its roles in malignant phenotypes of this cancer in vitro and in vivo, we here examined expression patterns of transcription factor 12 protein in 50 prostate cancer tissue specimens by immunohistochemistry. Then, associations of transcription factor 12 expression with various clinicopathological characteristics and patients' prognosis of prostate cancer were evaluated. Its involvements in cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumor growth were determined by in vitro and in vivo experiments. As a result, the positive immunostaining of transcription factor 12 protein was localized in cytoplasm and/or nucleus of prostate cancer cells. Its expression levels were decreased with prostate cancer Gleason score increased. Statistically, the decreased expression of transcription factor 12 protein more frequently occurred in prostate cancer patients with high Gleason score, positive metastasis, prostate-specific antigen failure, and short biochemical recurrence-free survival (all p < 0.05). Importantly, multivariate analysis showed that the status of transcription factor 12 expression was an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence-free survival in prostate cancer. Functionally, enforced expression of transcription factor 12 suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, transcription factor 12 protein may be a novel molecule which plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression and patients' prognosis, suggesting it might be a promising therapeutic target for prostate cancer therapy.

Ji T, Zhang X, Li W
microRNA‑205 acts as a tumor suppressor and directly targets YAP1 in glioma.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(2):1431-1438 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioma is the most common form of primary malignant tumor that occurs in the central nervous system. The underlying molecular mechanism of the carcinogenesis and progression of glioma remains to be elucidated. It is well‑established that microRNAs (miRs) are associated with the regulation of glioma initiation and progression, and may represent a novel effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of glioma. In the present study, the expression, roles and molecular mechanisms of miR‑205 in glioma were investigated. The expression levels of miR‑205 in glioma tissues, normal brain tissues, human glioma and normal HEB glial cell lines were determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR). To explore the functional roles of miR‑205 in glioma cells, a Cell Counting kit 8 assay, and Transwell migration and invasion assays were employed. The molecular mechanisms underlying the roles of miR‑205 in glioma cells were investigated using bioinformatics analysis, a luciferase reporter assay, RT‑qPCR and western blot analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that miR‑205 expression was markedly low in glioma tissues and cell lines compared with normal brain tissue and a glial cell line. Upregulation of miR‑205 in vitro decreased cell viability, migration and invasion in glioma. Further investigation of the potential molecular mechanism demonstrated that the tumor suppressive functions of miR‑205 in regulating the proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells were mediated by a direct target gene, yes associated protein 1 (YAP1). The results of the present study suggested that miR‑205 inhibited glioma growth and metastasis by directly targeting YAP1, and that miR‑205 should be investigated as a novel therapeutic target for anti‑cancer treatment.

Yeo J, Crawford EL, Zhang X, et al.
A lung cancer risk classifier comprising genome maintenance genes measured in normal bronchial epithelial cells.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):301 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Annual low dose CT (LDCT) screening of individuals at high demographic risk reduces lung cancer mortality by more than 20%. However, subjects selected for screening based on demographic criteria typically have less than a 10% lifetime risk for lung cancer. Thus, there is need for a biomarker that better stratifies subjects for LDCT screening. Toward this goal, we previously reported a lung cancer risk test (LCRT) biomarker comprising 14 genome-maintenance (GM) pathway genes measured in normal bronchial epithelial cells (NBEC) that accurately classified cancer (CA) from non-cancer (NC) subjects. The primary goal of the studies reported here was to optimize the LCRT biomarker for high specificity and ease of clinical implementation.
METHODS: Targeted competitive multiplex PCR amplicon libraries were prepared for next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of transcript abundance at 68 sites among 33 GM target genes in NBEC specimens collected from a retrospective cohort of 120 subjects, including 61 CA cases and 59 NC controls. Genes were selected for analysis based on contribution to the previously reported LCRT biomarker and/or prior evidence for association with lung cancer risk. Linear discriminant analysis was used to identify the most accurate classifier suitable to stratify subjects for screening.
RESULTS: After cross-validation, a model comprising expression values from 12 genes (CDKN1A, E2F1, ERCC1, ERCC4, ERCC5, GPX1, GSTP1, KEAP1, RB1, TP53, TP63, and XRCC1) and demographic factors age, gender, and pack-years smoking, had Receiver Operator Characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC) of 0.975 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99). The overall classification accuracy was 93% (95% CI 88%-98%) with sensitivity 93.1%, specificity 92.9%, positive predictive value 93.1% and negative predictive value 93%. The ROC AUC for this classifier was significantly better (p < 0.0001) than the best model comprising demographic features alone.
CONCLUSIONS: The LCRT biomarker reported here displayed high accuracy and ease of implementation on a high throughput, quality-controlled targeted NGS platform. As such, it is optimized for clinical validation in specimens from the ongoing LCRT blinded prospective cohort study. Following validation, the biomarker is expected to have clinical utility by better stratifying subjects for annual lung cancer screening compared to current demographic criteria alone.

Urbini M, Astolfi A, Pantaleo MA, et al.
HSPA8 as a novel fusion partner of NR4A3 in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(7):582-586 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a very rare sarcoma most often arising in the soft tissue. Rare EMC of the bone have been reported. EMC exhibits distinctive clinico-pathological and genetic features; however, despite the name, it lacks any feature of cartilaginous differentiation. EMC is characterized by the rearrangement of the NR4A3, which, in most cases (about 62-75%), is fused with EWSR1 and less frequently with other partners, including TAF15 (27%), TCF12 (4%), TFG, and FUS. We herein report the identification by whole-transcriptome sequencing of HSPA8 as a novel fusion partner of NR4A3 in a case of EMC. FISH analysis confirmed the presence of a genomic HSPA8-NR4A3 translocation in the vast majority of tumor cells. Our findings expand the spectrum of NR4A3 fusion partners involved in EMC pathobiology.

Feng L, Ma J, Ji H, et al.
miR-330-5p suppresses glioblastoma cell proliferation and invasiveness through targeting ITGA5.
Biosci Rep. 2017; 37(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The present study intended to investigate the biological effects of miR-330-5p on glioblastoma (GBM) cell proliferation and invasiveness by targeting integrin α5 (ITGA5). The expressions of miR-330-5p and ITGA5 mRNA in GBM cell lines (U87, U251, and U373) and normal brain glial cell line (HEB) were detected using RT-qPCR. Protein expression of ITGA5 was examined using Western blot. The present study used MTT assay, colony formation assay, Transwell assay, wound healing assay, and flow cytometry analysis in order to determine the biological functions of GBM cells (including cell proliferation, invasion, migration, apoptosis, and cell cycle). The present study applied dual-luciferase reporter gene assay to identify the target relationship between miR-330-5p and ITGA5. miR-330-5p was low-expressed in GBM cell lines while ITGA5 was high-expressed compared with HEB. miR-330-5p could directly target ITGA5 as well as suppress its expression in GBM cells. Up-regulation of miR-330-5p and down-regulation of ITGA5 both have an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. Meanwhile, they could also promote GBM cell apoptosis. miR-330-5p could suppress proliferation and invasion of GBM cells through targeting ITGA5.

Aihara K, Mukasa A, Nagae G, et al.
Genetic and epigenetic stability of oligodendrogliomas at recurrence.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2017; 5(1):18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Among diffuse gliomas, oligodendrogliomas show relatively better prognosis, respond well to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and seldom progress to very aggressive tumors. To elucidate the genetic and epigenetic background for such behavior and tumor evolution during tumor relapse, we comparatively analyzed 12 pairs of primary and recurrent oligodendrogliomas with 1p/19q-codeletion. Initial treatment for these patients was mostly chemotherapy alone. Temozolomide was used for 3, and procarbazine, nimustine and vincristine (PAV chemotherapy) were used for 7 patients. World Health Organization histological grade at recurrence was mostly stable; it was increased in 2, the same in 9, and decreased in 1 cases. Whole-exome sequencing demonstrated that the rate of shared mutation between the primary and recurrent tumors was relatively low, ranging from 3.2-57.9% (average, 33.3%), indicating a branched evolutionary pattern. The trunk alterations that existed throughout the course were restricted to IDH1 mutation, 1p/19q-codeletion, and TERT promoter mutation, and mutation of the known candidate tumor suppressor genes CIC and FUBP1 were not consistently observed between primary and recurrent tumors. Multiple sampling from different regions within a tumor showed marked intratumoral heterogeneity. Notably, in general, the number of mutations was not significantly different after recurrence, remaining under 100, and no hypermutator phenotype was observed. FUBP1 mutation, loss of chr. 9p21, and TCF12 mutation were among a few recurrent de novo alterations that were found at recurrence, indicating that these events were clonally selected at recurrence but were not enough to enhance malignancy. Genome-wide methylation status, measured by Illumina 450 K arrays, was stable between recurrence and the primary tumor. In summary, although oligodendroglioma displays marked mutational heterogeneity, histological malignant transformation accompanying events such as considerable increase in mutation number and epigenetic profile change were not observed at recurrence, indicating that noticeable temporal and spatial genetic heterogeneity in oligodendrogliomas does not result in rapid tumor progression.

Godoy PR, Montaldi AP, Sakamoto-Hojo ET
HEB silencing induces anti-proliferative effects on U87MG cells cultured as neurospheres and monolayers.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 14(6):5253-5260 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal tumor and novel strategies are required to overcome resistance. Transcription factor 12 (HEB) has been associated with neural and stem cell proliferation, is overexpressed in certain tumor types and is induced in irradiated U87MG cells. The present study aimed to determine whether HEB knockdown, with or without irradiation, may sensitize GBM cells. U87MG GBM and ACBRI‑371 primary human astrocytes were cultured in monolayers or neurospheres. Cell proliferation and death, cell cycle and sub‑G1 detection, and cluster of differentiation (CD) 133 immunofluorescence were analyzed by flow cytometry, whereas HEB protein expression was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and western blotting. Greater HEB protein expression was observed in U87MG neurospheres compared with ACBRI‑371, and the two cell lines exhibited nuclear HEB expression. HEB silencing in cells grown in monolayers induced a significant reduction in proliferation and decreased the proportion of cells in G0/G1 phase. In addition, HEB silencing reduced (two‑fold) the number of neurospheres compared with control scrambled (SCR) cells. HEB silencing combined with irradiation reduced U87MG cell proliferation when cultured in monolayers and reduced neurosphere cell number compared with the SCR irradiated group; however, not significantly. Differentiation of U87MG cells from neurospheres was reduced in HEB‑silenced cells, whereas in irradiated cells the proportion of CD133+ cells was similar in HEB‑silenced cells compared with the SCR control. These results suggest that HEB may contribute to the proliferation and maintenance of GBM cells. However, only limited effects were exerted by irradiation in HEB‑silenced cells. HEB may be a potential target to decrease proliferation in U87MG GBM cells, grown as monolayers or neurospheres, and may provide important information for the development of novel strategies for cancer therapy.

Du C, Pan P, Jiang Y, et al.
Microarray data analysis to identify crucial genes regulated by CEBPB in human SNB19 glioma cells.
World J Surg Oncol. 2016; 14(1):258 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioma is one of the most common primary malignancies in the brain or spine. The transcription factor (TF) CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (CEBPB) is important for maintaining the tumor initiating capacity and invasion ability. To investigate the regulation mechanism of CEBPB in glioma, microarray data GSE47352 was analyzed.
METHODS: GSE47352 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including three samples of SNB19 human glioma cells transduced with non-target control small hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviral vectors for 72 h (normal glioma cells) and three samples of SNB19 human glioma cells transduced with CEBPB shRNA lentiviral vectors for 72 h (CEBPB-silenced glioma cells). The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using limma package and then annotated. Afterwards, the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) software was applied to perform enrichment analysis for the DEGs. Furthermore, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and transcriptional regulatory network were constructed using Cytoscape software.
RESULTS: Total 529 DEGs were identified in the normal glioma cells compared with the CEBPB-silenced glioma cells, including 336 up-regulated and 193 down-regulated genes. The significantly enriched pathways included chemokine signaling pathway (which involved CCL2), focal adhesion (which involved THBS1 and THBS2), TGF-beta signaling pathway (which involved THBS1, THBS2, SMAD5, and SMAD6) and chronic myeloid leukemia (which involved TGFBR2 and CCND1). In the PPI network, CCND1 (degree = 29) and CCL2 (degree = 12) were hub nodes. Additionally, CEBPB and TCF12 might function in glioma through targeting others (CEBPB → TCF12, CEBPB → TGFBR2, and TCF12 → TGFBR2).
CONCLUSIONS: CEBPB might act in glioma by regulating CCL2, CCND1, THBS1, THBS2, SMAD5, SMAD6, TGFBR2, and TCF12.

Jung SH, Kim MS, Jung CK, et al.
Mutational burdens and evolutionary ages of thyroid follicular adenoma are comparable to those of follicular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(43):69638-69648 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) precedes follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) by definition with a favorable prognosis compared to FTC. However, the genetic mechanism of FTA to FTC progression remains unknown. For this, it is required to disclose FTA and FTC genomes in mutational and evolutionary perspectives. We performed whole-exome sequencing and copy number profiling of 14 FTAs and 13 FTCs, which exhibited previously-known gene mutations (NRAS, HRAS, BRAF, TSHR and EIF1AX) and copy number alterations (CNAs) (22q loss and 1q gain) in follicular tumors. In addition, we found eleven potential cancer-related genes with mutations (EZH1, SPOP, NF1, TCF12, IGF2BP3, KMT2C, CNOT1, BRIP1, KDM5C, STAG2 and MAP4K3) that have not been reported in thyroid follicular tumors. Of note, FTA genomes showed comparable levels of mutations to FTC in terms of the number, sequence composition and functional consequences (potential driver mutations) of mutations. Analyses of evolutionary ages using somatic mutations as molecular clocks further identified that FTA genomes were as old as FTC genomes. Whole-transcriptome sequencing did not find any gene fusions with potential significance. Our data indicate that FTA genomes may be as old as FTC genomes, thus suggesting that follicular thyroid tumor genomes during the transition from FTA to FTC may stand stable at genomic levels in contrast to the discernable changes at pathologic and clinical levels. Also, the data suggest a possibility that the mutational profiles obtained from early biopsies may be useful for the molecular diagnosis and therapeutics of follicular tumor patients.

Zhang X, Fan Y, Liu B, et al.
Med19 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation by regulating CBFA2T3/HEB expression.
Breast Cancer. 2017; 24(3):433-441 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mediator complex 19 (Med19) is a pivotal subunit of the Mediator complex, and its aberrant expression is involved in tumourigenesis. We aimed to explore the mechanism by which Med19 promotes the proliferation of breast cancer.
METHODS: Lentivirus-mediated inhibition of Med19, ectopic expression of Med19 and ectopic expression of core-binding factor subunit alpha 2 to translocation 3 (CBFA2T3) were applied in human breast cancer cell lines. Human breast cancer cell proliferation was determined using CCK8 and colony formation assays after lentivirus infection. The expression of Med19, CBFA2T3 and HEB was measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The correlation between Med19 and CBFA2T3 expression in tissue from 25 cases of human breast cancer was analysed.
RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrate that cell proliferation and colony formation capacity were significantly inhibited after Med19 inhibition in vitro. The expression of CBFA2T3 was distinctly up-regulated in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells when Med19 was knocked down; however, the expression of HEB, which is targeted by CBFA2T3, was down-regulated. Meanwhile, ectopic expression of Med19 in BT-549 and Hs578T human breast cancer cells inhibited CBFA2T3 expression but enhanced HEB expression. The proliferation capacity of human breast cancer cells was increased when Med19 was overexpressed, but the effect of Med19 up-regulation could be reversed by CBFA2T3 overexpression. Furthermore, a negative correlation between Med19 and CBFA2T3 expression was demonstrated by Western blotting in human breast cancer tissue.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that Med19 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and that this effect is associated with CBFA2T3 and HEB. These results provide new insights into the potential role of Med19 in the regulation of breast carcinogenesis, and Med19 may be a useful therapeutic target in breast cancer therapy.

Yue H, Zhu J, Xie S, et al.
MDC1-AS, an antisense long noncoding RNA, regulates cell proliferation of glioma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 81:203-209 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Growing number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as new modulators in cancer origination and progression. A lncRNA, mediator of DNA damage checkpoint protein 1antisense RNA (MDC1-AS), with unknown function, is the antisense transcript of tumor suppressor MDC1.
METHOD: In this study, we investigated the expression pattern and functional role of lncRNA MDC1-AS in glioma by using real time PCR and gain-/loss-of-function studies.
RESULT: The results showed that the expression levels of lncRNA MDC1-AS and MDC1 were significantly downregulated in glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues, and in glioma cell lines U87MG, U251 and HEB. Overexpression of MDC1-AS resulted in significant inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle in U87MG and U251. We also found that MDC1-AS expression was positively correlated with MDC1 expression. In addition, the inhibitory role of MDC1-AS was remarkably diminished when MDC1 was knockdown.
CONCLUSION: Together, the results suggest that MDC1-AS is a novel tumor suppressor through up-regulation of its antisense tumor-suppressing gene MDC1 in glioma and leads us to propose that MDC1-AS may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for glioma.

Chen YF, Yang CC, Kao SY, et al.
MicroRNA-211 Enhances the Oncogenicity of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Carcinoma by Repressing TCF12 and Increasing Antioxidant Activity.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(16):4872-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
miR-211 expression in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been implicated in poor patient survival. To investigate the oncogenic roles of miR-211, we generated K14-EGFP-miR-211 transgenic mice tagged with GFP. Induction of oral carcinogenesis in transgenic mice using 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) resulted in more extensive and severe tongue tumorigenesis compared with control animals. We found that 4NQO and arecoline upregulated miR-211 expression in OSCC cells. In silico and experimental evidence further revealed that miR-211 directly targeted transcription factor 12 (TCF12), which mediated suppressor activities in OSCC cells and was drastically downregulated in tumor tissues. We used GeneChip analysis and bioinformatic algorithms to identify transcriptional targets of TCF12 and confirmed through reporter and ChIP assays that family with sequence similarity 213, member A (FAM213A), a peroxiredoxin-like antioxidative protein, was repressed transcriptionally by TCF12. FAM213A silencing in OSCC cells diminished oncogenic activity, reduced the ALDH1-positive cell population, and increased reactive oxygen species. TCF12 and FAM213A expression was correlated inversely in head and neck carcinoma samples according to The Cancer Genome Atlas. OSCC patients bearing tumors with high FAM213A expression tended to have worse survival. Furthermore, 4NQO treatment downregulated TCF12 and upregulated FAM213A by modulating miR-211 both in vitro and in vivo Overall, our findings develop a mouse model that recapitulates the molecular and histopathologic alterations of human OSCC pathogenesis and highlight a new miRNA-mediated oncogenic mechanism. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4872-86. ©2016 AACR.

Droog M, Nevedomskaya E, Kim Y, et al.
Comparative Cistromics Reveals Genomic Cross-talk between FOXA1 and ERα in Tamoxifen-Associated Endometrial Carcinomas.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(13):3773-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tamoxifen, a small-molecule antagonist of the transcription factor estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) used to treat breast cancer, increases risks of endometrial cancer. However, no parallels of ERα transcriptional action in breast and endometrial tumors have been found that might explain this effect. In this study, we addressed this issue with a genome-wide assessment of ERα-chromatin interactions in surgical specimens obtained from patients with tamoxifen-associated endometrial cancer. ERα was found at active enhancers in endometrial cancer cells as marked by the presence of RNA polymerase II and the histone marker H3K27Ac. These ERα binding sites were highly conserved between breast and endometrial cancer and enriched in binding motifs for the transcription factor FOXA1, which displayed substantial overlap with ERα binding sites proximal to genes involved in classical ERα target genes. Multifactorial ChIP-seq data integration from the endometrial cancer cell line Ishikawa illustrated a functional genomic network involving ERα and FOXA1 together with the enhancer-enriched transcriptional regulators p300, FOXM1, TEAD4, FNFIC, CEBP8, and TCF12. Immunohistochemical analysis of 230 primary endometrial tumor specimens showed that lack of FOXA1 and ERα expression was associated with a longer interval between breast cancer and the emergence of endometrial cancer, exclusively in tamoxifen-treated patients. Our results define conserved sites for a genomic interplay between FOXA1 and ERα in breast cancer and tamoxifen-associated endometrial cancer. In addition, FOXA1 and ERα are associated with the interval time between breast cancer and endometrial cancer only in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3773-84. ©2016 AACR.

Zhou J, Wang W, Xie Y, et al.
Proteomics-Based Identification and Analysis of Proteins Associated with Helicobacter pylori in Gastric Cancer.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0146521 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a spiral-shaped Gram-negative bacterium that causes the most common chronic infection in the human stomach. Approximately 1%-3% of infected individuals develop gastric cancer. However, the mechanisms by which H. pylori induces gastric cancer are not completely understood. The available evidence indicates a strong link between the virulence factor of H. pylori, cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), and gastric cancer. To further characterize H. pylori virulence, we established three cell lines by infecting the gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901 and AGS with cagA+ H. pylori and transfecting SGC-7901 with a vector carrying the full-length cagA gene. We detected 135 differently expressed proteins from the three cell lines using proteome technology, and 10 differential proteins common to the three cell lines were selected and identified by LC-MS/MS as well as verified by western blot: β-actin, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD), pre-mRNA-processing factor 19 homolog (PRPF19), ATP synthase, calmodulin (CaM), p64 CLCP, Ran-specific GTPase-activating protein (RanGAP), P43 and calreticulin. Detection of the expression of these proteins and genes encoding these proteins in human gastric cancer tissues by real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot revealed that the expression of β-ACTIN, LDH, DLD, PRPF19 and CaM genes were up-regulated and RanGAP was down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues and/or metastatic lymph nodes compared to peri-cancerous tissues. High gene expression was observed for H. pylori infection in gastric cancer tissues. Furthermore, the LDH, DLD and CaM genes were demethylated at the promoter -2325, -1885 and -276 sites, respectively, and the RanGAP gene was highly methylated at the promoter -570 and -170 sites in H. pylori-infected and cagA-overexpressing cells. These results provide new insights into the molecular pathogenesis and treatment targets for gastric cancer with H. pylori infection.

L'Abbate A, Tolomeo D, De Astis F, et al.
t(15;21) translocations leading to the concurrent downregulation of RUNX1 and its transcription factor partner genes SIN3A and TCF12 in myeloid disorders.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:211 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Through a combined approach integrating RNA-Seq, SNP-array, FISH and PCR techniques, we identified two novel t(15;21) translocations leading to the inactivation of RUNX1 and its partners SIN3A and TCF12. One is a complex t(15;21)(q24;q22), with both breakpoints mapped at the nucleotide level, joining RUNX1 to SIN3A and UBL7-AS1 in a patient with myelodysplasia. The other is a recurrent t(15;21)(q21;q22), juxtaposing RUNX1 and TCF12, with an opposite transcriptional orientation, in three myeloid leukemia cases. Since our transcriptome analysis indicated a significant number of differentially expressed genes associated with both translocations, we speculate an important pathogenetic role for these alterations involving RUNX1.

Ji MH, Kim SK, Kim CY, et al.
Physiological Expression and Accumulation of the Products of Two Upstream Open Reading Frames mrtl and MycHex1 Along With p64 and p67 Myc From the Human c-myc Locus.
J Cell Biochem. 2016; 117(6):1407-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
In addition to the canonical c-Myc p64 and p67 proteins, the human c-myc locus encodes two distinct proteins, mrtl (myc-related translation/localization regulatory factor) and MycHex1 (Myc Human Exon 1), from the upstream open reading frames within the 5'-untranslated region of the c-myc P0 mRNA. The aim of this study is to examine simultaneously, for the first time, mrtl, MycHex1, c-Myc p64, and p67 in human tumor cell lines and pediatric brain tumor tissues. Western blot analysis demonstrated endogenous mrtl, MycHex1, c-Myc p64, and p67 simultaneously. The relative abundance of mrtl and MycHex1 were consistent among a variety of human tumor cell lines, and the relative intensities of mrtl and MycHex1 correlated positively. Confocal imaging revealed mrtl predominantly localized to the nuclear envelope, along with prominent reticular pattern in the cytoplasm. MycHex1 was observed as a series of bright foci located within the nucleus, a subset of which colocalized with fibrillarin. mrtl and MycHex1 co-immunoprecipitated with RACK1, c-Myc, fibrillarin, coilin, and with each other. These findings suggest that mrtl and MycHex1 have multiple interaction partners in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Sequence analyses confirmed a known polymorphism of mrtl at base 1965 (G>T) and new mutations at bases 1900 (C>G) and 1798 (C>G). Evidence is presented for expression and stable accumulation of all four proteins encoded by three distinct non-overlapping open reading frames within the human c-myc locus. Additional work is warranted to further elucidate the functional or regulatory roles of these molecules in regulation of c-Myc and in oncogenesis.

Park CK, Park I, Lee S, et al.
Genomic dynamics associated with malignant transformation in IDH1 mutated gliomas.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(41):43653-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The genomic mechanism responsible for malignant transformation remains an open question for glioma researchers, where differing conclusions have been drawn based on diverse study conditions. Therefore, it is essential to secure direct evidence using longitudinal samples from the same patient. Moreover, malignant transformation of IDH1-mutated gliomas is of potential interest, as its genomic mechanism under influence of oncometabolite remains unclear, and even higher rate of malignant transformation was reported in IDH1-mutated low grade gliomas than in wild-type IDH1 tumors. We have analyzed genomic data using next-generation sequencing technology for longitudinal samples from 3 patients with IDH1-mutated gliomas whose disease had progressed from a low grade to a high grade phenotype. Comprehensive analysis included chromosomal aberrations as well as whole exome and transcriptome sequencing, and the candidate driver genes for malignant transformation were validated with public database. Integrated analysis of genomic dynamics in clonal evolution during the malignant transformation revealed alterations in the machinery regulating gene expression, including the spliceosome complex (U2AF2), transcription factors (TCF12), and chromatin remodelers (ARID1A). Moreover, consequential expression changes implied the activation of genes associated with the restoration of the stemness of cancer cells. The alterations in genetic regulatory mechanisms may be the key factor for the major phenotypic changes in IDH1 mutated gliomas. Despite being limited to a small number of cases, this analysis provides a direct example of the genomic changes responsible for malignant transformation in gliomas.

Tang X, Hou Y, Yang G, et al.
Stromal miR-200s contribute to breast cancer cell invasion through CAF activation and ECM remodeling.
Cell Death Differ. 2016; 23(1):132-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The activation of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) is a key event in tumor progression, and alternative extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins derived from CAFs induce ECM remodeling and cancer cell invasion. Here we found that miR-200 s, which are generally downregulated in activated CAFs in breast cancer tissues and in normal fibroblasts (NFs) activated by breast cancer cells, are direct mediators of NF reprogramming into CAFs and of ECM remodeling. NFs with downregulated miR-200 s displayed the traits of activated CAFs, including accelerated migration and invasion. Ectopic expression of miR-200 s in CAFs at least partially restored the phenotypes of NFs. CAF activation may be governed by the targets of miR-200 s, Fli-1 and TCF12, which are responsible for cell development and differentiation; Fli-1 and TCF12 were obviously elevated in CAFs. Furthermore, miR-200 s and their targets influenced collagen contraction by CAFs. The upregulation of fibronectin and lysyl oxidase directly by miR-200 or indirectly through Fli-1 or TCF12 contributed to ECM remodeling, triggering the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells both in vitro and vivo. Thus, these data provide important and novel insights into breast CAF activation and ECM remodeling, which trigger tumor cell invasion.

Krishnamoorthy V, Carr T, de Pooter RF, et al.
Repression of Ccr9 transcription in mouse T lymphocyte progenitors by the Notch signaling pathway.
J Immunol. 2015; 194(7):3191-200 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The chemokine receptor CCR9 controls the immigration of multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cells into the thymus to sustain T cell development. Postimmigration, thymocytes downregulate CCR9 and migrate toward the subcapsular zone where they recombine their TCR β-chain and γ-chain gene loci. CCR9 is subsequently upregulated and participates in the localization of thymocytes during their selection for self-tolerant receptor specificities. Although the dynamic regulation of CCR9 is essential for early T cell development, the mechanisms controlling CCR9 expression have not been determined. In this article, we show that key regulators of T cell development, Notch1 and the E protein transcription factors E2A and HEB, coordinately control the expression of Ccr9. E2A and HEB bind at two putative enhancers upstream of Ccr9 and positively regulate CCR9 expression at multiple stages of T cell development. In contrast, the canonical Notch signaling pathway prevents the recruitment of p300 to the putative Ccr9 enhancers, resulting in decreased acetylation of histone H3 and a failure to recruit RNA polymerase II to the Ccr9 promoter. Although Notch signaling modestly modulates the binding of E proteins to one of the two Ccr9 enhancers, we found that Notch signaling represses Ccr9 in T cell lymphoma lines in which Ccr9 transcription is independent of E protein function. Our data support the hypothesis that activation of Notch1 has a dominant-negative effect on Ccr9 transcription and that Notch1 and E proteins control the dynamic expression of Ccr9 during T cell development.

Goodings C, Tripathi R, Cleveland SM, et al.
Enforced expression of E47 has differential effects on Lmo2-induced T-cell leukemias.
Leuk Res. 2015; 39(1):100-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
LIM domain only-2 (LMO2) overexpression in T cells induces leukemia but the molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. In hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, Lmo2 is part of a protein complex comprised of class II basic helix loop helix proteins, Tal1and Lyl1. The latter transcription factors heterodimerize with E2A proteins like E47 and Heb to bind E boxes. LMO2 and TAL1 or LYL1 cooperate to induce T-ALL in mouse models, and are concordantly expressed in human T-ALL. Furthermore, LMO2 cooperates with the loss of E2A suggesting that LMO2 functions by creating a deficiency of E2A. In this study, we tested this hypothesis in Lmo2-induced T-ALL cell lines. We transduced these lines with an E47/estrogen receptor fusion construct that could be forced to homodimerize with 4-hydroxytamoxifen. We discovered that forced homodimerization induced growth arrest in 2 of the 4 lines tested. The lines sensitive to E47 homodimerization accumulated in G1 and had reduced S phase entry. We analyzed the transcriptome of a resistant and a sensitive line to discern the E47 targets responsible for the cellular effects. Our results suggest that E47 has diverse effects in T-ALL but that functional deficiency of E47 is not a universal feature of Lmo2-induced T-ALL.

Yuan Q, Gao W, Liu B, Ye W
Upregulation of miR-184 enhances the malignant biological behavior of human glioma cell line A172 by targeting FIH-1.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2014; 34(4):1125-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In recent years, miRNAs have been suggested to play key roles in the formation and development of human glioma. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect and mechanism of miR-184 expression on the malignant behavior of human glioma cells.
METHODS: The relative quantity of miR-184 was determined in human glioma cell lines, and the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) was explored using western blotting. The effects of miR-184 inhibition on cell viability and apoptosis were explored, and the miR-184 target gene was determined using a luciferase assay and western blotting. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used to evaluate cell growth and apoptosis. Matrigel invasion and scratch assays were performed to measure the ability of cell invasion and migration.
RESULTS: miR-184 and HIF-1α protein levels were significantly upregulated in human glioma cells. Downregulation of miR-184 inhibited cell viability and increased the HEB cell apoptotic rate. Luciferase and western blot assays verified that FIH-1 was the target gene of miR-184 and negatively controlled the protein level of HIF-1α. Inhibition of HIF-1α by siRNA facilitated the apoptosis of HEB cells and suppressed A172 cell invasion and migration.
CONCLUSION: miR-184 upregulation enhanced the malignant phenotype of human glioma cancer cells by reducing FIH-1 protein expression.

Broehm CJ, Wu J, Gullapalli RR, Bocklage T
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma with a t(9;16)(q22;p11.2) resulting in a NR4A3-FUS fusion.
Cancer Genet. 2014; 207(6):276-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by rearrangement of NR4A3. A t(9;22)(q22;q12), creating a fusion protein of EWSR1 and NR4A3, has been reported as a unique, recurring translocation in most cases. Reported variant translocations have resulted in fusion of NR4A3 with three other genes: TAF15, TCF12, and TFG. We report a case of EMC in a 59-year-old man who presented with a 6-month history of an enlarging mass in the proximal right thigh. The karyotype of fresh tissue from tumor taken at incisional biopsy revealed a t(9;16)(q22;p11.2). There was no evidence of an EWSR1 rearrangement by dual-color break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Dual-color FISH probes revealed fusion of NR4A3 and FUS, a member of the TET family of genes, which includes EWSR1 and TAF15. Break-apart FISH probe results confirmed rearrangement of FUS. These findings show that a fusion product of FUS and NR4A3 may be an additional pathway to development of EMC.

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