Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.Literature Analysis
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.
Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (9)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: SRC (cancer-related)
Clinical significance of serum MicroRNA-203 in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.Bioengineered. 2019; 10(1):345-352 [
This study aimed to detect serum miR-203 expression levels in AML and explore its potential clinical significance. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to measure the serum miR-203 levels in 134 patients with AML and 70 healthy controls. The results demonstrated that serum miR-203 expression was significantly reduced in AML patients compared with healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis revealed miR-203 could distinguish AML cases from normal controls. Low serum miR-203 levels were associated with worse clinical features, as well as poorer overall survival and relapse free survival of AML patients. Moreover, multivariate analysis confirmed low serum miR-203 expression to be an independent unfavorable prognostic predictor for AML. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the downstream genes and pathways of miR-203 was closely associated with tumorigenesis. Downregulation of miR-203 in AML cell lines upregulated the expression levels of oncogenic promoters such as CREB1, SRC and HDAC1. Thus, these findings demonstrated that serum miR-203 might be a promising biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of AML.
Ali H, AbdelMageed M, Olsson L, et al.
Utility of G protein-coupled receptor 35 expression for predicting outcome in colon cancer.Tumour Biol. 2019; 41(6):1010428319858885 [
The utility of mRNA and protein determinations of G protein-coupled receptor 35, that is, GPR35a (GPR35 V1) and GPR35b (GPR35 V2/3), as indicators of outcome for colon cancer patients after curative surgery was investigated. Expression levels of V1 and V2/3 GPR35, carcinoembryonic antigen and CXCL17 mRNAs were assessed in primary tumours and regional lymph nodes of 121 colon cancer patients (stage I-IV), colon cancer cell lines and control colon epithelial cells using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Expression of G protein-coupled receptor 35 was investigated by two-colour immunohistochemistry and immunomorphometry. GPR35 V2/3 mRNA, but not V1 mRNA, was expressed in colon cancer cell lines, primary colon tumours and control colon epithelial cells. Haematoxylin and eosin positive (H&E(+)), but not H&E(-), lymph nodes expressed high levels of GPR35 V2/3 mRNA (
Glycoprotein NMB (GPNMB) is highly expressed in many types of malignant tumors and thought to be a poor prognostic factor in those cancers, including breast cancer. Glycoprotein NMB is a type IA transmembrane protein that has a long extracellular domain (ECD) and a short intracellular domain (ICD). In general, the ECD of a protein is involved in protein-protein or protein-carbohydrate interactions, whereas the ICD is important for intracellular signaling. We previously reported that GPNMB contributes to the initiation and malignant progression of breast cancer through the hemi-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (hemITAM) in its ICD. Furthermore, we showed that the tyrosine residue in hemITAM is involved in induction of the stem-like properties of breast cancer cells. However, the contribution of the ECD to its tumorigenic function has yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we focused on the region, the so-called kringle-like domain (KLD), that is conserved among species, and made a deletion mutant, GPNMB(ΔKLD). Enhanced expression of WT GPNMB induced sphere and tumor formation in breast epithelial cells; in contrast, GPNMB(ΔKLD) lacked these activities without affecting its molecular properties, such as subcellular localization, Src-induced tyrosine phosphorylation at least in overexpression experiments, and homo-oligomerization. Additionally, GPNMB(ΔKLD) lost its cell migration promoting activity, even though it reduced E-cadherin expression. Although the interaction partner binding to KLD has not yet been identified, we found that the KLD of GPNMB plays an important role in its tumorigenic potential.
Cai G, Yu W, Song D, et al.
Discovery of fluorescent coumarin-benzo[b]thiophene 1, 1-dioxide conjugates as mitochondria-targeting antitumor STAT3 inhibitors.Eur J Med Chem. 2019; 174:236-251 [
STAT3 has been extensively studied as a potential antitumor target. Though studies on regulating STAT3 mainly focus on the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr705 residue, the phosphorylation at Ser727 residue of STAT3 protein is also closely associated with the mitochondrial import of STAT3 protein. N, N-diethyl-7-aminocoumarin is a fluorescent mitochondria-targeting probe. In this study, a series of STAT3 inhibitors were developed by connecting N, N-diethyl-7-aminocoumarin fluorophore with benzo [b]thiophene 1, 1-dioxide moiety. All designed compounds displayed potent anti-proliferative activity against cancer cells. The representative compound 7a was mainly accumulated in mitochondria visualized by its fluorescence. STAT3 phosphorylation was inhibited by compound 7a at both Tyr705 and Ser727 residues. Compound 7a inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation whereas had no influence on the phosphorylation levels of STAT1, JAK2, Src and Erk1/2, indicating good selectivity of compound 7a. Moreover, compound 7a down-regulated the expression of STAT3 target genes Bcl-2 and Cyclin D1, increased ROS production and remarkably reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential to induce mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, compound 7ain vivo suppressed breast cancer 4T1 implanted tumor growth. Taken together, these results highlighted that compound 7a might be a promising mitochondria-targeting STAT3 inhibitor for cancer therapy.
The inactivation of tumor suppressor gene positive regulatory domain containing I (PRDM1) and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) have been detected in the majority of extranodal NK/T‑cell lymphoma, nasal type (EN‑NK/T‑NT) cases. In the present study, their association with and effects on the clinicopathologic features of EN‑NK/T‑NT are described. PRDM1 was revealed to be expressed in 19 out of 58 patients (32.8%) with EN‑NK/T‑NT, and phosphorylated STAT3 was overexpressed in 42 out of 58 (72.4%). Oncogenic pathways were investigated by NanoString encounter technology in 5 PRDM1(+) and 5 PRDM1(‑) EN‑NK/T‑NT specimens. Multiple oncogenic pathways involved in cell apoptosis, cellcycle (CC) and angiogenesis were discriminately activated in EN‑NK/T‑NT cases, and in PRDM1(+) cases in particular. The sustained activation of the Janus kinase 3 (JAK)/STAT3 pathway was more pronounced. In addition, missense mutations in the SRC homology 2 domain of STAT3 were detected in 7 out of 37 EN‑NK/T‑NT cases (18.92%), and the acquired mutation was related to the activation of the JAK3/STAT3 pathway. The downregulation of PRDM1 and upregulation of phospho‑STAT3 (Tyr705) were associated with angiocentric infiltration of EN‑NK/T‑NT (P=0.039). Notably, the prognosis of patients in the PRDM1(+)/STAT3 [mutated (mut‑)] group was considerably improved than that of patients in the STAT3(mut+)/PRDM(‑) group (P=0.037). In addition, the inhibition of NK/T cell lymphoma cell lines by Stattic and tofacitinib could suppress cell proliferation by inducing cell apoptosis or arresting the CC. The present results revealed that the JAK3/STAT3 oncogenic pathway and PRDM1 expression could stratify clinicopathologic features of EN‑NK/T‑NT. The inhibition of the JAK3/STAT3 pathway may serve as a treatment option for EN‑NK/T‑NT.
Cai MJ, Cui Y, Fang M, et al.
Inhibition of PSMD4 blocks the tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma.Gene. 2019; 702:66-74 [
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary cancer of the liver with high mortality and frequent recurrence. Although various therapies provide potential cure for HCC patients, unfortunately the five-year survival rate of advanced HCC remains dismal. It is critical to explore the pathogenesis of HCC and identify novel biomarkers for early HCC diagnosis. PSMD4 is a major receptor of the 26S proteasome involved in ubiquitindependent and proteasome-mediated protein degradation. In our study, PSMD4 was overexpressed in HCC tissues and cell lines determined by Northern blot, western blot and immunohistochemistry. The silencing of PSMD4 blocked cell proliferation and tumor growth, induced cell apoptosis and inhibited the proteasome activity. Western blot results showed that the knockdown of PSMD4 blocked the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), phosphorylated Sarcoma tyrosine kinase (P-SRC) and Bcl-2, but improved the levels of p53 and Bax in HCC, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer and endometrial cancer cell lines. Taken together, these findings indicated that the subunit of 26S proteasome PSMD4 exerts as an oncogene in HCC and other cancers via regulating the expression p53, Bcl-2 and Bax. These findings enriched the pathogenesis of HCC, and provided a new biomarker for cancers diagnosis and a new target for cancers therapy.
Cinobufotalin is a chemical compound extracted from the skin of dried bufo toads that may have curative potential for certain malignancies through different mechanisms; however, these mechanisms remain unexplored in breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor mechanism of cinobufotalin in breast cancer by using microarray data and in silico analysis. The microarray data set GSE85871, in which cinobufotalin exerted influences on the MCF‑7 breast cancer cells, was acquired from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed. Subsequently, protein interaction analysis was conducted, which clarified the clinical significance of core genes, and Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes were used to analyze cinobufotalin‑related pathways. The Connectivity Map (CMAP) database was used to select existing compounds that exhibited curative properties similar to those of cinobufotalin. A total of 1,237 DEGs were identified from breast cancer cells that were treated with cinobufotalin. Two core genes, SRC proto‑oncogene non‑receptor tyrosine kinase and cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, were identified as serving a vital role in the onset and development of breast cancer, and their expression levels were markedly reduced following cinobufotalin treatment as detected by the microarray of GSE85871. It also was revealed that the 'neuroactive ligand‑receptor interaction' and 'calcium signaling' pathways may be crucial for cinobufotalin to perform its functions in breast cancer. Conducting a matching search in CMAP, miconazole and cinobufotalin were indicated to possessed similar molecular mechanisms. In conclusion, cinobufotalin may serve as an effective compound for the treatment of a subtype of breast cancer that is triple positive for the presence of estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptor‑2 receptors, and its mechanism may be related to different pathways. In addition, cinobufotalin is likely to exert its antitumor influences in a similar way as miconazole in MCF‑7 cells.
Kang M, Park SH, Park SJ, et al.
p44/42 MAPK signaling is a prime target activated by phenylethyl resorcinol in its anti-melanogenic action.Phytomedicine. 2019; 58:152877 [
BACKGROUND: Melanin plays a crucial role in protecting human skin against exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, its overproduction induces hyperpigmentation disorders of the skin.
PURPOSE: To investigate effects of phenylethyl resorcinol as one resorcinol derivative on melanogenesis and its mechanisms using B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and human epidermal melanocytes.
METHODS: Effects of phenylethyl resorcinol on melanogenesis and its mechanism of action were examined using several in vitro assays (i.e., cell survival, melanin content, cellular tyrosinase activity, real-time PCR analysis, luciferase-reporter assay, Western blot analysis, and ELISAs for cyclic AMP (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA), cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)).
RESULTS: Phenylethyl resorcinol reduced both melanin content and tyrosinase activity in these cells. Phenylethyl resorcinol also suppressed tyrosinase activity in cell-free tyrosinase enzyme assay. Although phenylethyl resorcinol decreased mRNA levels of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-2, it did not affect mRNA levels of melanogenic gene microphthalmia-associated transcriptional factor (MITF) or TRP-1. Phenylethyl resorcinol had no effects on cAMP signaling or NF-κB signaling based on results of cyclic AMP response element (CRE)-luciferase reporter assay, cAMP production, protein kinase A (PKA) activity, Western blot assays for phosphorylated CRE-binding protein (CREB), NF-κB-luciferase reporter assay, and Western blot assays for phosphorylated NF-κB. However, phenylethyl resorcinol induced activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling. Specifically, phenylethyl resorcinol increased AP-1 reporter activity and increased phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK, but not p38 MAPK or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). MEK1/2 and Src, upstream molecules of p44/42 MAPK were also phosphorylated by phenylethyl resorcinol. In addition, phenylethyl resorcinol-induced decreases in melanin content, tyrosinase activity, and MITF protein levels were attenuated by PD98059, a p44/42 MAPK inhibitor.
CONCLUSION: These data indicate that the anti-melanogenic activity of phenylethyl resorcinol is mediated by activation of p44/42 MAPK, indicating that phenylethyl resorcinol may be a potential therapeutic agent for treating hyperpigmentation skin disorders.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type of brain tumor, with an overall survival of 17 months under the current standard of care therapy. CD99, an over-expressed transmembrane protein in several malignancies, has been considered a potential target for immunotherapy. To further understand this potentiality, we analyzed the differential expression of its two isoforms in human astrocytoma specimens, and the CD99 involved signaling pathways in glioma model U87MG cell line. CD99 was also analyzed in GBM molecular subtypes. Whole transcriptomes by RNA-Seq of
BACKGROUND: The seed and soil hypothesis was proposed over a century ago to describe why cancer cells (seeds) grow in certain organs (soil). Since then, the genetic properties that define the cancer cells have been heavily investigated; however, genomic mediators within the organ microenvironment that mediate successful metastatic growth are less understood. These studies sought to identify cancer- and organ-specific genomic programs that mediate metastasis.
METHODS: In these studies, a set of 14 human breast cancer patient-derived xenograft (PDX) metastasis models was developed and then tested for metastatic tropism with two approaches: spontaneous metastases from mammary tumors and intravenous injection of PDX cells. The transcriptomes of the cancer cells when growing as tumors or metastases were separated from the transcriptomes of the microenvironment via species-specific separation of the genomes. Drug treatment of PDX spheroids was performed to determine if genes activated in metastases may identify targetable mediators of viability.
RESULTS: The experimental approaches that generated metastases in PDX models were identified. RNA sequencing of 134 tumors, metastases, and normal non-metastatic organs identified cancer- and organ-specific genomic properties that mediated metastasis. A common genomic response of the liver microenvironment was found to occur in reaction to the invading PDX cells. Genes within the cancer cells were found to be either transiently regulated by the microenvironment or permanently altered due to clonal selection of metastatic sublines. Gene Set Enrichment Analyses identified more than 400 gene signatures that were commonly activated in metastases across basal-like PDXs. A Src signaling signature was found to be extensively upregulated in metastases, and Src inhibitors were found to be cytotoxic to PDX spheroids.
CONCLUSIONS: These studies identified that during the growth of breast cancer metastases, there were genomic changes that occurred within both the cancer cells and the organ microenvironment. We hypothesize that pathways upregulated in metastases are mediators of viability and that simultaneously targeting changes within different cancer cell pathways and/or different tissue compartments may be needed for inhibition of disease progression.
6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) is a key enzyme that converts 6-phosphogluconate into ribulose-5-phosphate with NADP
The Src kinase family (SKF) includes non‑receptor tyrosine kinases that interact with many cellular cytosolic, nuclear and membrane proteins, and is involved in the progression of cellular transformation and oncogenic activity. However, there is little to no evidence on the effect of SKF or its inhibitors on melanogenesis. Therefore, the present study investigated whether C‑terminal Src kinase inhibition can induce melanogenesis and examined the associated signaling pathways and mRNA expression of melanogenic proteins. First, whether stimulators of melanogenesis, such as ultraviolet B and α‑melanocyte‑stimulating hormone, can dephosphorylate Src protein was evaluated, and the results revealed that SU6656 and PP2 inhibited the phosphorylation of Src in G361 cells. Src inhibition by these chemical inhibitors induced melanogenesis in G361 cells and upregulated the mRNA expression levels of melanogenesis‑associated genes encoding microphthalmia‑associated transcription factor, tyrosinase‑related protein 1 (TRP1), TRP2, and tyrosinase. In addition, Src inhibition by small interfering RNA induced melanogenesis and upregulated the mRNA expression levels of melanogenesis‑associated genes. As the p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding (CREB) pathways serve key roles in melanogenesis, the present study further examined whether Src mediates melanogenesis via these pathways. As expected, Src inhibition via SU6656 or PP2 administration induced the phosphorylation of p38 or CREB, as determined by western blotting analysis, and increased the levels of phosphorylated p38 or CREB, as determined by immunofluorescence staining. In addition, the induced pigmentation and melanin content of G361 cells by Src inhibitors was significantly inhibited by p38 or CREB inhibitors. Taken together, these data indicate that Src is associated with melanogenesis, and Src inhibition induces melanogenesis via the MAPK and CREB pathways in G361 cells.
Hong X, Yu JJ
Silencing of lysyl oxidase‑like 2 inhibits the migration, invasion and epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition of renal cell carcinoma cells through the Src/FAK signaling pathway.Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(5):1676-1690 [
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of lysyl oxidase‑like 2 (LOXL2) on the invasion, migration and epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells through the steroid receptor coactivator (Src)/focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway. RCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected from 80 patients with RCC. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the positive expression rate of the LOXL2 protein. The expression levels of LOXL2 in the HK‑2, 786‑O, ACHN, Caki1 and A498 cell lines were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR). The high LOXL2‑expressing 786‑O cells were selected for gene silencing experiments, whereas Caki1 cells, which exhibited low LOXL2 expression, were used for overexpression experiments. RT‑qPCR and western blot analysis were applied to determine the expression of LOXL2, FAK, Src, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑9, epithelial (E)‑cadherin, neuronal (N)‑cadherin and vimentin. A MTT assay, a Transwell assay, a wound healing assay and flow cytometry were performed to detect cell proliferation, invasion, migration, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis, respectively. The protein expression rate of LOXL2 in RCC tissues was higher compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. Compared with adjacent normal tissues, the mRNA and protein expression levels of LOXL2, FAK, Src, MMP‑9, N‑cadherin and vimentin and the levels of FAK and Src phosphorylation were increased, while the mRNA and protein expression levels of E‑cadherin were decreased in RCC tissues. Following the transfection of 786‑O cells with small interfering (si) RNA against LOXL2, the mRNA and protein expression levels of FAK, Src, MMP‑9, N‑cadherin and vimentin and the levels of phosphorylated FAK and Src were notably decreased in the si‑LOXL2 and PP2 inhibitor treated groups, while that of E‑cadherin was substantially increased. Additionally, cell proliferation, invasion, migration and the percentage of RCC cells in the G1 phase were reduced, and cell apoptosis was increased. Additionally, Caki1 cells transfected with LOXL2 exhibited an opposite trend. In summary, these results indicate that LOXL2 silencing inhibits the invasion, migration and EMT in RCC cells through inhibition of the Src/FAK signaling pathway.
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) cases with an age of onset <40 years suggests a germline genetic cause. In total, 51 simplex cases were included to test the hypothesis of CRC as a mendelian trait caused by either heterozygous autosomal dominant or bi-allelic autosomal recessive pathogenic variants.
METHODS: The cohort was whole exome sequenced (WES) at 100× coverage. Both a dominant- and recessive model were used for searching predisposing genetic factors. In addition, we assayed recessive variants of potential moderate risk that were enriched in our young-onset CRC cohort. Variants were filtered using a candidate cancer gene list or by selecting variants more likely to be pathogenic based on variant type (e.g., loss-of-function) or allele frequency.
RESULTS: We identified one pathogenic variant in PTEN in a patient subsequently confirmed to have a hereditary hamartoma tumor syndrome (Cowden syndrome) and one patient with a pathogenic heterozygous variant in PMS2 that was originally not identified by WES due to low quality reads resulting from pseudogenes. In addition, we identified three heterozygous candidate missense variants in known cancer susceptibility genes (BMPR1A, BRIP1, and SRC), three truncating variants in possibly novel cancer genes (CLSPN, SEC24B, SSH2) and four candidate missense variants in ACACA, NR2C2, INPP4A, and DIDO1. We also identify five possible autosomal recessive candidate genes: ATP10B, PKHD1, UGGT2, MYH13, TFF3.
CONCLUSION: Two clear pathogenic variants were identified in patients that had not been identified clinically. Thus, the chance of detecting a hereditary cancer syndrome in patients with CRC at young age but without family history is 2/51 (4%) and therefore the clinical benefit of genetic testing in this patient group is low. Of note, using stringent filtering, we have identified a total of ten candidate heterozygous variants and five possibly biallelic autosomal recessive candidate genes that warrant further study.
Huang YW, Tsai HC, Wang SW, et al.
Amphiregulin Promotes Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C Expression and Lymphangiogenesis through STAT3 Activation in Human Chondrosarcoma Cells.Cell Physiol Biochem. 2019; 52(1):1-15 [
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignancy of bone, characterized by a high metastatic potential. Increasing clinical data highlight the important role played by lymphangiogenesis in cancer metastasis. Amphiregulin (AR) has been implicated in tumor metastasis and lymphangiogenesis, but its association with vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) expression and lymphangiogenesis in chondrosarcoma is unclear.
METHODS: We used qPCR, ELISA and Western blotting to detect AR-induced VEGF-C expression in chondrosarcoma cells. Lymphangiogenesis was investigated by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) migration and tube formation. An in vivo experiment examined AR expression in tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis.
RESULTS: In this study, we found that both AR and VEGF-C expression correlated with tumor stage and were significantly higher than levels found in normal cartilage. Exogenous AR promoted VEGF-C expression in chondrosarcoma cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and subsequently increased migration and tube formation of LECs. AR also increased VEGF-C expression and lymphangiogenesis through the Src/MEK/ERK/STAT3 signaling pathway. However, it is unclear as to how an EGFR ligand (AR) induces activation of the Src kinase. Knockdown of AR decreased VEGF-C expression in chondrosarcoma cells. Similarly, lymphangiogenesis was abolished in AR knockdown cells in an in vivo model of chondrosarcoma.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that AR occurs through the Src/MEK/ERK/STAT-3 pathway, activating VEGF-C expression and contributing to lymphangiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma. Thus, AR could be a therapeutic target in metastasis and lymphangiogenesis of chondrosarcoma.
Huang WC, Jang TH, Tung SL, et al.
A novel miR-365-3p/EHF/keratin 16 axis promotes oral squamous cell carcinoma metastasis, cancer stemness and drug resistance via enhancing β5-integrin/c-met signaling pathway.J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):89 [
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BACKGROUND: Targeting the c-Met signaling pathway has become a therapeutic strategy in multiple types of cancer. We unveiled a novel c-Met regulating mechanism that could be applied as a modality for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) therapy.
METHODS: Upregulation of keratin 16 (KRT16) was found by comparing isogenic pairs of low and high invasive human OSCC lines via microarray analysis. OSCC cells with ectopic expression or silencing of KRT16 were used to scrutinize functional roles and associated molecular mechanisms.
RESULTS: We observed that high KRT16 expression significantly correlated with poorer pathological differentiation, advanced stages, increased lymph nodes metastasis, and decreased survival rate from several Taiwanese OSCC patient cohorts. We further revealed that miR-365-3p could target ETS homologous factor (EHF), a KRT16 transcription factor, to decrease migration, invasion, metastasis and chemoresistance in OSCC cells via inhibition of KRT16. Under confocal microscopic examination, c-Met was found possibly partially associates with KRT16 through β5-integrin. Colocalization of these three proteins may facilitate c-Met and β5-integrin-mediated signaling in OSCC cells. Depletion of KRT16 led to increased protein degradation of β5-integrin and c-Met through a lysosomal pathway leading to inhibition of their downstream Src/STAT3/FAK/ERK signaling in OSCC cells. Knockdown of KRT16 enhanced chemosensitivity of OSCC towards 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Various combination of c-Met inhibitor (foretinib), protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor (genistein), β5-integrin antibody, and 5-FU markedly augmented cytotoxic effects in OSCC cells as well as tumor killing effects in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that targeting a novel miR-365-3p/EHF/KRT16/β5-integrin/c-Met signaling pathway could improve treatment efficacy in OSCC.
BACKGROUND: c-Src is a driver oncogene well-known for tumorigenic signaling, but little for metabolic function. Previous reports about c-Src regulation of glucose metabolism prompted us to investigate its function in other nutrient modulation, particularly in lipid metabolism.
METHODS: Oil-red O staining, cell growth assay, and tumor volume measurement were performed to determine lipid amount and growth inhibitory effect of treatments in lung cancer cells and xenograft model. Gene expression was evaluated by immunoblotting and relative RT-PCR. Transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was assessed by luciferase assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using ROS sensing dye. Oxygen consumption rate was evaluated by Seahorse XF Mito Stress Test. Clinical relevance of candidate proteins was examined using patient samples and public database analysis.
FINDINGS: Inhibition of Src induced lipolysis and increased intracellular ROS. Src inhibition derepressed PPARγ transcriptional activity leading to induced expression of lipolytic gene fatty acid binding protein (FABP) 4 which accompanies reduced lipid droplets and decreased tumor growth. The reverse correlation of Src and FABP4 was confirmed in pair-matched lung cancer patient samples, and further analysis using public datasets revealed upregulation of lipolytic genes is associated with better prognosis of cancer patients.
INTERPRETATION: This study provides an insight of how oncogenic factor Src concurrently regulates both cellular signaling pathways and metabolic plasticity to drive cancer progression. FUND: National Research Foundation of Korea and Korea Health Industry Development Institute.
Shen J, Li L, Yang T, et al.
Drug Sensitivity Screening and Targeted Pathway Analysis Reveal a Multi-Driver Proliferative Mechanism and Suggest a Strategy of Combination Targeted Therapy for Colorectal Cancer Cells.Molecules. 2019; 24(3) [
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Treatment of colorectal cancer mostly relies on traditional therapeutic approaches, such as surgery and chemotherapy. Limited options of targeted therapy for colorectal cancer narrowly focus on blocking cancer-generic targets VEGFR and EGFR. Identifying the oncogenic drivers, understanding their contribution to proliferation, and finding inhibitors to block such drivers are the keys to developing targeted therapy for colorectal cancer. In this study, ten colorectal cancer cell lines were screened against a panel of protein kinase inhibitors blocking key oncogenic signaling pathways. The results show that four of the 10 cell lines did not respond to any kinase inhibitors significantly, the other six were mildly inhibited by AZD-6244, BMS-754807, and/or dasatinib. Mechanistic analyses demonstrate that these inhibitors independently block the MAP kinase pathway, IR/IGF-1R/AKT pathway, and Src kinases, suggesting a multi-driver nature of proliferative signaling in these cells. Most of these cell lines were potently and synergistically inhibited by pair-wise combinations of these drugs. Furthermore, seven of the 10 cell lines were inhibited by the triple combination of AZD-6244/BMS-754807/dasatinib with IC
Fu Q, Huang Y, Ge C, et al.
SHIP1 inhibits cell growth, migration, and invasion in non‑small cell lung cancer through the PI3K/AKT pathway.Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(4):2337-2350 [
Src homology 2‑containing inositol‑5'‑phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) serves a vital role in the occurrence and development of hematological tumors, but there is limited knowledge regarding the role of SHIP1 in various solid tumors, including lung cancer. In the present study, the aim was to investigate the expression and functional mechanisms of SHIP1 in non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The Gene Expression Omnibus database demonstrated that SHIP1 had low expression in NSCLC. Further studies using fresh tissues and cell lines also confirmed this observation. Biological function analyses revealed that SHIP1 overexpression notably suppressed cell growth, migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo in NSCLC. Mechanistic analyses indicated that SHIP1 inactivated the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway to suppress signals associated with the cell cycle and epithelial‑mesenchymal transition. In clinical specimens, reduced SHIP1 is an unfavorable factor and is negatively associated with the T classification, N classification and clinical stage. Furthermore, patients with low SHIP1 levels exhibited reduced survival rate, compared with patients with high levels of the protein. Notably, the promoter of the SHIP1 gene lacks CpG islands, and the suppression of SHIP1 expression is not associated with epidermal growth factor receptor or Kirsten rat sarcoma mutations. Thus, the present study demonstrated that SHIP1 inhibits cell growth, migration and invasion in NSCLC through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Additionally, reduced SHIP1 expression may be an unfavorable factor for NSCLC.
Gurdal H, Tuglu MM, Bostanabad SY, Dalkiliç B
Partial agonistic effect of cetuximab on epidermal growth factor receptor and Src kinase activation in triple‑negative breast cancer cell lines.Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(4):1345-1356 [
Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody developed to inhibit the binding of growth factors and the subsequent activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Triple‑negative breast cancer (TNBC) is resistant to cetuximab treatment. The aim of the present study was to examine the partial agonistic properties of cetuximab, which not only blocks ligand binding, but also partially triggers EGFR activation, which may lead to cetuximab resistance in TNBC. The phosphorylation of growth factor receptors and their signalling pathways were evaluated by determining the phosphorylation of EGFR, insulin‑like growth factor receptor (IGF‑1R), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)‑2, Src kinase, phosphoinositide‑3‑kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and serine/threonine‑specific protein kinase (Akt) and the degradation of EGFR, and by assessing the morphology and proliferation of MDA‑MB‑231 and MDA‑MB‑468 cells. Cetuximab treatment led to the phosphorylation of EGFR, VEGFR‑2, IGF‑1R and downstream signalling molecules, Src kinase and PI3K in these cells, as well as Akt in the MDA‑MB‑231 cells. The cetuximab‑mediated phosphorylation of IGF‑1R, VEGFR‑2 and Akt was inhibited by the EGFR kinase inhibitor, AG1478, and the Src kinase inhibitor, PP2. Cetuximab treatment led to the degradation of EGFR. The cetuximab‑induced phosphorylation and EGFR degradation were less prominent compared with those induced by EGF. Cetuximab partially inhibited EGF‑mediated responses. Cetuximab, similar with EGF, altered cellular morphology in a serum‑free medium. In both cell lines, the Src kinase inhibitor enhanced the cetuximab‑induced anti‑proliferative response. These results indicate that cetuximab exerts a partial agonistic effect on EGFR, which activates Src kinase and subsequently transactivates IGF‑1R and VEGFR‑2. This partial agonistic property is likely one of the mechanisms underlying the resistance of TNBC to cetuximab.
BACKGROUND: Lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4) has been found to be dysregulated in several human malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of LOXL4 in HCC progression remains largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the clinical significance and biological involvement of LOXL4 in the progression of HCC.
METHODS: LOXL4 expression was measured in HCC tissues and cell lines. Overexpression, shRNA-mediated knockdown, recombinant human LOXL4 (rhLOXL4), and deletion mutants were applied to study the function of LOXL4 in HCC. Exosomes derived from HCC cell lines were assessed for the ability to promote cancer progression in standard assays. The effects of LOXL4 on the FAK/Src pathway were examined by western blotting.
RESULTS: LOXL4 was commonly upregulated in HCC tissues and predicted a poor prognosis. Elevated LOXL4 was associated with tumor differentiation, vascular invasion, and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Overexpression of LOXL4 promoted, whereas knockdown of LOXL4 inhibited cell migration and invasion of HCC in vitro, and overexpressed LOXL4 promoted intrahepatic and pulmonary metastases of HCC in vivo. Most interestingly, we found that HCC-derived exosomes transferred LOXL4 between HCC cells, and intracellular but not extracellular LOXL4 promoted cell migration by activating the FAK/Src pathway dependent on its amine oxidase activity through a hydrogen peroxide-mediated mechanism. In addition, HCC-derived exosomes transferred LOXL4 to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) though a paracrine mechanism to promote angiogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel function of LOXL4 in tumor metastasis mediated by exosomes through regulation of the FAK/Src pathway and angiogenesis in HCC.
Hirotsu Y, Mochizuki H, Amemiya K, et al.
Deficiency of mismatch repair genes is less frequently observed in signet ring cell compared with non-signet ring cell gastric cancer.Med Oncol. 2019; 36(3):23 [
Signet ring cell (SRC) gastric cancer at advanced stage has poor prognosis. While a recent study reported nearly one-third of SRC cases contain tumors with deficient mismatch repair (MMR) genes, other studies in SRC have been inconclusive. To re-analyze the results, we performed immunohistochemical staining of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 proteins in 38 SRC gastric tumors compared with 109 non-SRC (NSRC) tumors from 94 patients. In contrast to the previous study, all SRC gastric tumors normally expressed MMR proteins, whereas 22 of 109 of NSRC (20%) showed deficient MMR proteins. To reinforce our results, we referred to the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) genomic database and found that only 6 (6%) of 99 samples with diffuse gastric tumors showed deficient MMR, whereas 64 (21%) of 304 in intestinal gastric tumors showed deficient MMR. Our results as well as the TCGA database indicated that MMR genes are infrequently inactivated in SRC gastric cancer. These findings indicate that SRC patients may not be the best candidates for immuno-oncology therapy.
Zhu J, Han S
miR-150-5p promotes the proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cervical carcinoma cells via targeting SRCIN1.Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(4):738-747 [
Cervical carcinoma is one of the most universal cancers among women. Recent researches have reported that microRNA-150-5p (miR-150-5p) is up-regulated in diverse carcinomas containing cervical carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the potential role of miR-150-5p in the progress of cervical carcinoma cells including proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).The ability of miR-150-5p to promote carcinogenesis was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot assays, respectively. Bioinformatics analyses predicted and identified whether SRC kinase signaling inhibitor 1 (SRCIN1) was served as a potential target of miR-150-5p. C-33A and HeLa cells were utilized to determine the function of miR-150-5p through targeting SRCIN1. Among the aberrantly expressed miRNAs, miR-150-5p was significantly revealed differential expression in cervical carcinoma cell lines and was closely relevant to cell growth regulation. Furthermore, we found that SRCIN1 overexpression could obviously inhibit the proliferation and EMT of cervical cancer cells triggered by miR-150-5p mimics as well as accelerated the apoptosis of cervical carcinoma cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that miR-150-5p could promote the proliferation and EMT of cervical carcinoma cells via targeting SRCIN1. Thus, miR-150-5p may hold a promise as a prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for cervical carcinoma.
Lee JH, Kim C, Lee J, et al.
Arctiin is a pharmacological inhibitor of STAT3 phosphorylation at tyrosine 705 residue and potentiates bortezomib-induced apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects in human multiple myeloma cells.Phytomedicine. 2019; 55:282-292 [
BACKGROUND: Arctiin is a main component from the fruits of Arctium lappa L., that can be prescribed for cold or flu in East Asian countries; it has also been found to exert chemopreventive actions against various tumor cells.
HYPOTHESIS: In view of this evidence, we examined arctiin for its ability to trigger apoptosis and inhibit the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in human multiple myeloma (MM) cells.
METHODS: We evaluated the effect of arctiin on STAT3 signaling cascades and its regulated functional responses in MM cells.
RESULTS: Arctiin effectively blocked the constitutive activation of STAT3 phosphorylation in the residue of tyrosine 705. Arctiin also abrogated the constitutive activation of Src phosphorylation and Janus-activated kinases (JAKs) 1/2. Furthermore, it was found that arctiin treatment clearly enhanced the mRNA and protein levels of protein tyrosine phosphatase ε (PTPε), and the silencing of PTPε caused a reversal of the arctiin-induced PTPε expression and the blockadge of STAT3 phosphorylation. Interestingly, arctiin could not repress IL-6-induced STAT3 activation in serum-starved U266 cells and when arctiin was incubated with a complete culture medium in RPMI 8226 and MM.1S cells. Arctiin suppressed cell proliferation, accumulated cells in the G2/M cell-cycle phase, and induced apoptosis within U266 cells, although the knockdown of PTPε prevented PARP cleavage and caspase-3 activation induced by the arctiin. In addition, arctiin exerted cytotoxicity in MM cells, but did not do so in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Arctiin down-modulated diverse oncogenic gene products regulated by STAT3, although the induction of apoptosis by arctiin was abrogated upon transfection with pMXs-STAT3C in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. Arctiin also potentiated bortezomib-induced antitumor effects in U266 cells.
CONCLUSION: On the whole, our results indicate that arctiin is a potentially new inhibitor of constitutive STAT3 activation through the induction of PTPε in MM, cells and therefore has great value in treating various tumors sheltering constitutively activated STAT3.
Li CF, Chen JY, Ho YH, et al.
Snail-induced claudin-11 prompts collective migration for tumour progression.Nat Cell Biol. 2019; 21(2):251-262 [
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a pivotal mechanism for cancer dissemination. However, EMT-regulated individual cancer cell invasion is difficult to detect in clinical samples. Emerging evidence implies that EMT is correlated to collective cell migration and invasion with unknown mechanisms. We show that the EMT transcription factor Snail elicits collective migration in squamous cell carcinoma by inducing the expression of a tight junctional protein, claudin-11. Mechanistically, tyrosine-phosphorylated claudin-11 activates Src, which suppresses RhoA activity at intercellular junctions through p190RhoGAP, maintaining stable cell-cell contacts. In head and neck cancer patients, the Snail-claudin-11 axis prompts the formation of circulating tumour cell clusters, which correlate with tumour progression. Overexpression of snail correlates with increased claudin-11, and both are associated with a worse outcome. This finding extends the current understanding of EMT-mediated cellular migration via a non-individual type of movement to prompt cancer progression.
Despite significant progress, our understanding of how specific oncogenes transform cells is still limited and likely underestimates the complexity of downstream signalling events. To address this gap, we use mass spectrometry-based chemical proteomics to characterize the global impact of an oncogene on the expressed kinome, and then functionally annotate the regulated kinases. As an example, we identify 63 protein kinases exhibiting altered expression and/or phosphorylation in Src-transformed mammary epithelial cells. An integrated siRNA screen identifies nine kinases, including SGK1, as being essential for Src-induced transformation. Accordingly, we find that Src positively regulates SGK1 expression in triple negative breast cancer cells, which exhibit a prominent signalling network governed by Src family kinases. Furthermore, combined inhibition of Src and SGK1 reduces colony formation and xenograft growth more effectively than either treatment alone. Therefore, this approach not only provides mechanistic insights into oncogenic transformation but also aids the design of improved therapeutic strategies.
Asiri A, Raposo TP, Alfahed A, Ilyas M
TGFβ1-induced cell motility but not cell proliferation is mediated through Cten in colorectal cancer.Int J Exp Pathol. 2018; 99(6):323-330 [
PubMed] Article available free on
PMC after 01/12/2019
Cten (C-terminal tensin-like) is a member of the tensin protein family found in complex with integrins at focal adhesions. It promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell motility. The precise mechanisms regulating Cten are unknown, although we and others have shown that Cten could be under the regulation of several cytokines and growth factors. Since transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) regulates integrin function and promotes EMT/cell motility, we were prompted to investigate whether TGF-β1 induces EMT and cell motility through Cten signalling in colorectal cancer. TGF-β1 signalling was modulated by either stimulation with TGF-β1 or knockdown of TGF-β1 in the CRC cell lines SW620 and HCT116. The effect of this modulation on expression of Cten, EMT markers and on cellular function was tested. The role of Cten as a direct mediator of TGF-β1 signalling was investigated in a CRC cell line in which the Cten gene had been deleted (SW620
Leonetti E, Gesualdi L, Scheri KC, et al.
c-Src Recruitment is Involved in c-MET-Mediated Malignant Behaviour of NT2D1 Non-Seminoma Cells.Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(2) [
PubMed] Article available free on
PMC after 01/12/2019
Kano Y, Gebregiworgis T, Marshall CB, et al.
Tyrosyl phosphorylation of KRAS stalls GTPase cycle via alteration of switch I and II conformation.Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):224 [
PubMed] Article available free on
PMC after 01/12/2019
Deregulation of the RAS GTPase cycle due to mutations in the three RAS genes is commonly associated with cancer development. Protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 promotes RAF-to-MAPK signaling pathway and is an essential factor in RAS-driven oncogenesis. Despite the emergence of SHP2 inhibitors for the treatment of cancers harbouring mutant KRAS, the mechanism underlying SHP2 activation of KRAS signaling remains unclear. Here we report tyrosyl-phosphorylation of endogenous RAS and demonstrate that KRAS phosphorylation via Src on Tyr32 and Tyr64 alters the conformation of switch I and II regions, which stalls multiple steps of the GTPase cycle and impairs binding to effectors. In contrast, SHP2 dephosphorylates KRAS, a process that is required to maintain dynamic canonical KRAS GTPase cycle. Notably, Src- and SHP2-mediated regulation of KRAS activity extends to oncogenic KRAS and the inhibition of SHP2 disrupts the phosphorylation cycle, shifting the equilibrium of the GTPase cycle towards the stalled 'dark state'.
Wang JR, Liu B, Zhou L, Huang YX
MicroRNA-124-3p suppresses cell migration and invasion by targeting ITGA3 signaling in bladder cancer.Cancer Biomark. 2019; 24(2):159-172 [
BACKGROUND: A growing body of studies have demonstrated the aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to human tumor metastasis. MicroRNA-124-3p (miR-124-3p), which is down-regulated in various cancers, has been found to be involved in several signaling pathways relevant to tumor cell migration and invasion. However, the roles of miR-124-3p in human bladder cancer remain unclear. This study aims to investigate the functional significance of miR-124-3p and to understand how it targets the integrin receptor, and thus affects the progression of human bladder cancer.
METHODS: Clinical specimens from 36 patients and three human bladder cancer cell lines were analyzed for miR-124-3p and integrin α3 (ITGA3) . To investigate the effects of miR-124-3p and ITGA3 on proliferation of bladder cancer cells, the MTT assay, colon-formation assay and flow cytometry were performed. In addition, wound healing assay and transwell assay were carried out to examine the migration and invasion of the bladder cancer cells transfected with miR-124-3p mimics or si-ITGA3. The luciferase reporter assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot were applied to validate the miR-124-3p directly binding with ITGA3. Finally, western blot was used to examine the expression level of the proteins involved in FAK/PI3K/AKT and FAK/Src signal pathway as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process.
RESULTS: The down-regulation of miR-124-3p and up-regulation of ITGA3 were observed in clinical specimens and bladder cancer cell lines. Overexpression of miR-124-3p or silencing ITGA3 inhibited tumor cell migration and invasion. Luciferase assay confirmed miR-124-3p directly targets ITGA3, and western blot suggested that miR-124-3p plays a crucial role in the EMT and metastasis of human bladder cancer through FAK/PI3K/AKT and FAK/Src signaling mechanism. Also, by targeting ITGA3, miR-124-3p can modulate the expression of N- and E-cadherin, and thus inhibit the EMT.
CONCLUSIONS: By targeting ITGA3 and downstream FAK/PI3K/AKT and FAK/Src signaling pathways, miR-124-3p suppresses cell migration and invasion in bladder cancer. Our study reasonably speculates that miR-124-3p can be potentially developed as a therapeutic target and prognostic biomarker for bladder cancer.