Gene Summary

Gene:CREBBP; CREB binding protein
Summary:This gene is ubiquitously expressed and is involved in the transcriptional coactivation of many different transcription factors. First isolated as a nuclear protein that binds to cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), this gene is now known to play critical roles in embryonic development, growth control, and homeostasis by coupling chromatin remodeling to transcription factor recognition. The protein encoded by this gene has intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity and also acts as a scaffold to stabilize additional protein interactions with the transcription complex. This protein acetylates both histone and non-histone proteins. This protein shares regions of very high sequence similarity with protein p300 in its bromodomain, cysteine-histidine-rich regions, and histone acetyltransferase domain. Mutations in this gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS). Chromosomal translocations involving this gene have been associated with acute myeloid leukemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:CREB-binding protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Rubinstein-Taybi SyndromeCREBBP mutation in Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome is an autosomal dominant chromosomal disorder characterized by mental retardation, broad thumbs, and webbing of fingers and toes. Individuals with RTS have an increased risk of brain tumors and certain other cancers.
View Publications119
Breast CancerCREBBP and Breast Cancer View Publications20
Esophageal CancerCREBBP and Esophageal Cancer
CREBBP alterations were noted in a GWAS study of Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Song, 2014))
View Publications6

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CREBBP (cancer-related)

Ando M, Saito Y, Xu G, et al.
Chromatin dysregulation and DNA methylation at transcription start sites associated with transcriptional repression in cancers.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2188 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although promoter-associated CpG islands have been established as targets of DNA methylation changes in cancer, previous studies suggest that epigenetic dysregulation outside the promoter region may be more closely associated with transcriptional changes. Here we examine DNA methylation, chromatin marks, and transcriptional alterations to define the relationship between transcriptional modulation and spatial changes in chromatin structure. Using human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal carcinoma as a model, we show aberrant enrichment of repressive H3K9me3 at the transcriptional start site (TSS) with methylation-associated, tumor-specific gene silencing. Further analysis identifies a hypermethylated subtype which shows a functional convergence on MYC targets and association with CREBBP/EP300 mutation. The tumor-specific shift to transcriptional repression associated with DNA methylation at TSSs was confirmed in multiple tumor types. Our data may show a common underlying epigenetic dysregulation in cancer associated with broad enrichment of repressive chromatin marks and aberrant DNA hypermethylation at TSSs in combination with MYC network activation.

Su YF, Tsai EM, Chen CC, et al.
Targeted sequencing of a specific gene panel detects a high frequency of ARID1A and PIK3CA mutations in ovarian clear cell carcinoma.
Clin Chim Acta. 2019; 494:1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the mutational profile in epithelial ovarian cancer using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens from a Taiwanese population by performing targeted sequencing of 9 cancer-associated genes.
METHODS: Targeted sequencing was performed on 32 formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens, consisting of matched samples from 16 epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Genetic alterations in the 9 cancer-associated genes were detected using a deep sequencing (>1000×) approach.
RESULTS: ARID1A and PIK3CA were the most frequently mutated genes. Specifically, ARID1A mutations and PIK3CA mutations were detected in 77.8% and 66.7% of ovarian clear cell carcinoma patients, respectively. Mutations in other genes, including MLH1 (6.3%) and CREBBP (6.3%), were detected in the Taiwanese population. We also identified coexisting ARID1A-PIK3CA mutations (43.8%) and ARID1A-KRAS mutations (12.5%) in tumors. It should also be noted that we identified the presence of three coexisting mutations, the ARID1A-KRAS-PIK3CA mutations and the ARID1A-CREBBP-PIK3CA mutations.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we identified novel genetic alterations in patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) in a Taiwanese populations. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of chromatin remodeling to examine the role of the PI3K/AKT pathway, to determine the critical roles of these mechanisms in tumor development and the progression of ovarian malignancy and to investigate new targeted therapies. Overall, our findings were reliable and are worthy of further study.

Oyama R, Kito F, Takahashi M, et al.
Establishment and characterization of a novel dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma cell line, NCC-dCS1-C1.
Hum Cell. 2019; 32(2):202-213 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma is an aggressive mesenchymal tumor of the bone, and novel therapies are needed to improve its clinical outcomes. Patient-derived cell lines are essential tools for elucidating disease mechanisms associated with poor prognosis and for developing therapies. However, few lines and xenografts have been previously reported in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. We established a novel patient-derived dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma cell line, NCC-dCS1-C1. Primary dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma tissues were obtained at the time of surgery and subjected to primary tissue culture. The cell line was established and authenticated by assessing DNA microsatellite short tandem repeats. The cells maintained in monolayer cultures exhibited constant growth, spheroid formation capacity, and invasion ability. When the cells were implanted into mice, they exhibited histological features similar to those of the original tumor. Genomic analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms showed aberrant genomic contents. The DNA sequencing revealed the absence of IDH1/2 mutations. The global targeted sequencing revealed that the cell line preserved homozygous deletion of CDKN2A and CREBBP. A proteomic study by mass spectrometry unveiled similar but distinct molecular backgrounds in the original tumor and the established cell line, suggesting that tumor cell functions might be altered during the establishment of the cell line. Using a screening approach, four anti-cancer drugs with anti-proliferative effects at a low concentration were identified. In conclusion, a novel dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma cell line, NCC-dCS1-C1, was successfully established from primary tumor tissues. The NCC-dCS1-C1 cell line will be a useful tool for investigations of the mechanisms underlying dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas.

Smid M, Wilting SM, Uhr K, et al.
The circular RNome of primary breast cancer.
Genome Res. 2019; 29(3):356-366 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of RNAs that is under increasing scrutiny, although their functional roles are debated. We analyzed RNA-seq data of 348 primary breast cancers and developed a method to identify circRNAs that does not rely on unmapped reads or known splice junctions. We identified 95,843 circRNAs, of which 20,441 were found recurrently. Of the circRNAs that match exon boundaries of the same gene, 668 showed a poor or even negative (

Schmidt J, Ramis-Zaldivar JE, Bonzheim I, et al.
Blood. 2018; 132(25):2687-2690 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/12/2019 Related Publications

Devan J, Janikova A, Mraz M
New concepts in follicular lymphoma biology: From BCL2 to epigenetic regulators and non-coding RNAs.
Semin Oncol. 2018; 45(5-6):291-302 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma (FL) was partially revealed 3 decades ago, with the discovery of the translocation that brings BCL2 under the influence of immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancers in a vast majority of cases. Despite the importance of this seminal observation, it has become increasingly clear that additional genetic alterations need to occur to trigger neoplastic transformation and disease progression. The evolution of FL involves developmental arrest and disruption of the normal function of one or more of epigenetic regulators including KMT2D/MLL2, EZH2, CBP/CREBBP, p300/EP300, and HIST1H1 in >95% of cases. B-cells "arrested" in germinal centers acquire dozens of additional genetic aberrations that influence key pathways controlling their physiological development including B Cell Receptor (BCR) signaling, PI3K/AKT, TLR, mTOR, NF-κB, JAK/STAT, MAPK, CD40/CD40L, chemokine, and interleukin signaling. Additionally, most cases of FL do not result from linear accumulation of genomic aberrations, but rather evolve from a common progenitor cell population by diverse evolution, creating multiple FL subclones in one patient. Moreover, one of the subclones might acquire a combination of aberrations involving genes controlling cell survival and proliferation including MDM2, CDKN2A/B, BCL6, MYC, TP53, β2M, FOXO1, MYD88, STAT3, or miR-17-92, and this can lead to the transformation of an initially indolent FL to an aggressive lymphoma (2%-3% risk per year). The complexity of the disease is also underscored by the importance of its interactions with the microenvironment that can substantially influence disease development and prognosis. Interpreting individual aberrations in relation to their impact on normal processes, their frequency, position in the disease evolution, and the consequences of their (co)occurrence, are the basis for understanding FL pathogenesis. This is necessary for the identification of patients with risk of early progression or transformation, for the development of novel targeted therapies, and for personalized treatment approaches. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge of molecular pathways and microenvironmental components involved in FL biology, and discuss them in the context of physiological B-cell development, FL evolution, and targeted therapies.

Koh J, Nam SK, Roh H, et al.
Somatic mutational profiles of stage II and III gastric cancer according to tumor microenvironment immune type.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2019; 58(1):12-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
We aimed to determine somatic mutational profiles of stage II/III gastric cancers (GCs) according to their tumor microenvironment immune types (TMITs), which classify cancer based on co-assessment of PD-L1 expression and CD8

Xu H, Yao F
Microarray-Based Gene Expression Analysis Identifies Potential Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers for Waldenström Macroglobulinemia.
Acta Haematol. 2018; 140(2):87-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM), also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, is rare but a clinicopathologically distinct B-cell malignancy. This study assessed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) to identify potential WM biomarkers and uncover the underlying the molecular mechanisms of WM progression using gene expression profiles from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. DEGs were identified using the LIMMA package and their potential functions were then analyzed by using the gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis by using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins database. Data showed that among 1,756 DEGs, 926 were upregulated and 830 were downregulated by comparing WM BM CD19+ with normal PB CD19+ B cell samples, whereas 241 DEGs (95 upregulated and 146 downregulated) were identified by comparing WM BM CD138+ with normal BM CD138+ plasma cell samples. The DEGs were enriched in different GO terms and pathways, including the apoptotic process, cell cycle arrest, immune response, cell adhesion, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway. Hub nodes in the PPI network included CDK1, JUN, CREBBP, EP300, CAD, CDK2, and MAPK14. Bioinformatics analysis of the GSE9656 dataset identified 7 hub genes that might play an important role in WM development and progression. Some of the candidate genes and pathways may serve as promising therapeutic targets for WM.

Hellmuth JC, Louissaint A, Szczepanowski M, et al.
Duodenal-type and nodal follicular lymphomas differ by their immune microenvironment rather than their mutation profiles.
Blood. 2018; 132(16):1695-1702 [PubMed] Related Publications
Duodenal-type follicular lymphoma (DTFL) is a rare and highly indolent follicular lymphoma (FL) variant. It is morphologically and immunophenotypically indistinguishable from typical FL, characterized by restricted involvement of intestinal mucosa, and lacks extraintestinal manifestations. The molecular determinants of this distinct clinical behavior are largely unknown. Thirty-eight diagnostic biopsies from patients with DTFL were evaluated. The 10-year overall survival rate was 100% in clinically evaluable patients (n = 19). We compared the targeted mutation profile of DTFL (n = 31), limited-stage typical FL (LSTFL; n = 17), and advanced-stage typical FL (ASTFL; n = 241). The mutation frequencies of recurrently mutated genes, including

Ling ZA, Xiong DD, Meng RM, et al.
LncRNA NEAT1 Promotes Deterioration of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Based on In Vitro Experiments, Data Mining, and RT-qPCR Analysis.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 48(2):540-555 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Accumulated evidence indicates that lncRNA NEAT1 has important roles in various malignant tumors. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis to explore the exact role of NEAT1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: The effects of NEAT1 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were measured by in vitro experiments. The expression level and clinical value of NEAT1 in HCC was evaluated based on data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Oncomine, and in-house real-time quantitative (RT-qPCR). Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analyses were conducted to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms of NEAT1.
RESULTS: NEAT1 siRNA not only inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of HCC cells but also induced HCC cell apoptosis. A total of four records from TCGA, Oncomine, and RT-qPCR analysis were combined to assess the expression level of NEAT1 in HCC. The pooled standard mean deviation (SMD) indicated that NEAT1 was up-regulated in HCC (SMD = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.36-0.73; P < 0.0001). The area under the curve value of the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.71. NEAT1 expression was also related to race (P = 0.025) and distant metastasis (P = 0.002). Additionally, the results of GO, KEGG pathway, and PPI network analyses suggest that NEAT1 may promote the progression of HCC by interacting with several tumor-related genes (SP1, MDM4, CREBBP, TRAF5, CASP8, TRAF1, KAT2A, and HIST4H4).
CONCLUSIONS: NEAT1 contributes to the deterioration of HCC and provides a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and therapy of HCC.

Intlekofer AM, Joffe E, Batlevi CL, et al.
Integrated DNA/RNA targeted genomic profiling of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using a clinical assay.
Blood Cancer J. 2018; 8(6):60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/12/2019 Related Publications
We sought to define the genomic landscape of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsy specimens. We used targeted sequencing of genes altered in hematologic malignancies, including DNA coding sequence for 405 genes, noncoding sequence for 31 genes, and RNA coding sequence for 265 genes (FoundationOne-Heme). Short variants, rearrangements, and copy number alterations were determined. We studied 198 samples (114 de novo, 58 previously treated, and 26 large-cell transformation from follicular lymphoma). Median number of GAs per case was 6, with 97% of patients harboring at least one alteration. Recurrent GAs were detected in genes with established roles in DLBCL pathogenesis (e.g. MYD88, CREBBP, CD79B, EZH2), as well as notable differences compared to prior studies such as inactivating mutations in TET2 (5%). Less common GAs identified potential targets for approved or investigational therapies, including BRAF, CD274 (PD-L1), IDH2, and JAK1/2. TP53 mutations were more frequently observed in relapsed/refractory DLBCL, and predicted for lack of response to first-line chemotherapy, identifying a subset of patients that could be prioritized for novel therapies. Overall, 90% (n = 169) of the patients harbored a GA which could be explored for therapeutic intervention, with 54% (n = 107) harboring more than one putative target.

Garcia-Carpizo V, Ruiz-Llorente S, Sarmentero J, et al.
CREBBP/EP300 bromodomains are critical to sustain the GATA1/MYC regulatory axis in proliferation.
Epigenetics Chromatin. 2018; 11(1):30 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The reported antitumor activity of the BET family bromodomain inhibitors has prompted the development of inhibitors against other bromodomains. However, the human genome encodes more than 60 different bromodomains and most of them remain unexplored.
RESULTS: We report that the bromodomains of the histone acetyltransferases CREBBP/EP300 are critical to sustain the proliferation of human leukemia and lymphoma cell lines. EP300 is very abundant at super-enhancers in K562 and is coincident with sites of GATA1 and MYC occupancy. In accordance, CREBBP/EP300 bromodomain inhibitors interfere with GATA1- and MYC-driven transcription, causing the accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. The CREBBP/CBP30 bromodomain inhibitor CBP30 displaces CREBBP and EP300 from GATA1 and MYC binding sites at enhancers, resulting in a decrease in the levels of histone acetylation at these regulatory regions and consequently reduced gene expression of critical genes controlled by these transcription factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data shows that inhibition of CREBBP/EP300 bromodomains can interfere with oncogene-driven transcriptional programs in cancer cells and consequently hold therapeutic potential.

Roberts I, Fordham NJ, Rao A, Bain BJ
Neonatal leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2018; 182(2):170-184 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neonatal leukaemia is defined as occurring within the first 28 days of life and most, if not all, cases are congenital. With the exception of Down syndrome-associated transient abnormal myelopoiesis, which is not considered here, neonatal leukaemias are rare. In two-thirds of patients the disease manifests as an acute myeloid leukaemia, frequently with monocytic/monoblastic characteristics. Most other cases are acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, particularly B lineage, but some are mixed phenotype or blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms. The most frequently observed cytogenetic/molecular abnormality is t(4;11)(q21.3;q23.3)/KMT2A-AFF1 followed by t(1;22)(p13.3;q13.1)/RBM15-MKL1 and t(8;16)(p11.2;p13.3)/KAT6A-CREBBP. Common clinical features include prominent hepatosplenomegaly and a high incidence of skin involvement, sometimes in the absence of bone marrow disease. A distinctive feature is the occurrence of spontaneous remission in some cases, particularly in association with t(8;16). In this review, we summarise current knowledge of the clinical, cytogenetic and molecular features of neonatal leukaemia and discuss clinical management of these cases.

Katoh M
Multi‑layered prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation, organ fibrosis and cancer associated with canonical WNT/β‑catenin signaling activation (Review).
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 42(2):713-725 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/12/2019 Related Publications
β‑catenin/CTNNB1 is an intracellular scaffold protein that interacts with adhesion molecules (E‑cadherin/CDH1, N‑cadherin/CDH2, VE‑cadherin/CDH5 and α‑catenins), transmembrane‑type mucins (MUC1/CD227 and MUC16/CA125), signaling regulators (APC, AXIN1, AXIN2 and NHERF1/EBP50) and epigenetic or transcriptional regulators (BCL9, BCL9L, CREBBP/CBP, EP300/p300, FOXM1, MED12, SMARCA4/BRG1 and TCF/LEF). Gain‑of‑function CTTNB1 mutations are detected in bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and uterine cancer, whereas loss‑of‑function CTNNB1 mutations are also detected in human cancer. ABCB1, ALDH1A1, ASCL2, ATF3, AXIN2, BAMBI, CCND1, CD44, CLDN1, CTLA4, DKK1, EDN1, EOMES, FGF18, FGF20, FZD7, IL10, JAG1, LEF1, LGR5, MITF, MSX1, MYC, NEUROD1, NKD1, NODAL, NOTCH2, NOTUM, NRCAM, OPN, PAX3, PPARD, PTGS2, RNF43, SNAI1, SP5, TCF7, TERT, TNFRSF19, VEGFA and ZNRF3 are representative β‑catenin target genes. β‑catenin signaling is involved in myofibroblast activation and subsequent pulmonary fibrosis, in addition to other types of fibrosis. β‑catenin and NF‑κB signaling activation are involved in field cancerization in the stomach associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and in the liver associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and other etiologies. β‑catenin‑targeted therapeutics are functionally classified into β‑catenin inhibitors targeting upstream regulators (AZ1366, ETC‑159, G007‑LK, GNF6231, ipafricept, NVP‑TNKS656, rosmantuzumab, vantictumab, WNT‑C59, WNT974 and XAV939), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting protein‑protein interactions (CGP049090, CWP232228, E7386, ICG‑001, LF3 and PRI‑724), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting epigenetic regulators (PKF118‑310), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting mediator complexes (CCT251545 and cortistatin A) and β‑catenin inhibitors targeting transmembrane‑type transcriptional outputs, including CD44v6, FZD7 and LGR5. Eradicating H. pylori and HCV is the optimal approach for the first‑line prevention of gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), respectively. However, β‑catenin inhibitors may be applicable for the prevention of organ fibrosis, second‑line HCC prevention and treating β‑catenin‑driven cancer. The multi‑layered prevention and treatment strategy of β‑catenin‑related human diseases is necessary for the practice of personalized medicine and implementation of precision medicine.

Lu H, Yang S, Zhu H, et al.
Targeted next generation sequencing identified clinically actionable mutations in patients with esophageal sarcomatoid carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):251 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Esophageal sarcomatoid carcinoma (ESC) is a rare disease with a mixture of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components in the tumor. Its genetic background and mechanisms of oncogenesis remain largely unknown.
METHODS: Here we performed targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) on a pan-cancer gene panel in 15 ESC tumors to explore their genetic alterations, and aimed to identify clinically actionable mutations for future treatment instructions.
RESULTS: TP53 alterations were identified in all patients. Alterations in receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) were identified in 10 out of 15 patients. Members of downstream RAS and PI3-kinase pathways are also mutated in 10 patients, and PIK3CA is the top mutated gene in these pathways. In addition, we identified mutations on histone modification genes in 5 patients, including histone acetyltransferase gene EP300 and its homologue CREBBP, lysine methyltransferase genes KMT2A and KMT2B, and lysine demethylase gene KDM5A. Finally, mismatch repair (MMR) genes and proofreading gene POLE all together were mutated in one third of the ESC patients.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to unravel the mutational profile of ESC tumors. Our findings could match 9 patients to the targeted therapies currently available in clinical practice or in active clinical trials, suggesting the potential utility of targeted therapies for this rare disease in the future.

Lackraj T, Goswami R, Kridel R
Pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2018; 31(1):2-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is presented as a germinal centre B cell lymphoma that is characterized by an indolent clinical course, but remains - paradoxically - largely incurable to date. The last years have seen significant progress in our understanding of FL lymphomagenesis, which is a multi-step process beginning in the bone marrow with the hallmark t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation. The pathobiology of FL is complex and combines broad somatic changes at the level of both the genome and the epigenome, the latter evidenced by highly recurrent mutations in chromatin-modifying genes such as KMT2D and CREBBP. While the importance of the FL microenvironment has since long been well understood, it has become evident that somatic lesions within tumour cells re-educate normal immune and stromal cells to their advantage. Enhanced understanding of FL pathogenesis is currently leading to refined therapeutic targeting of perturbed biology, paving the way for precision medicine in this lymphoma subtype.

Ji MM, Huang YH, Huang JY, et al.
Histone modifier gene mutations in peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified.
Haematologica. 2018; 103(4):679-687 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/12/2019 Related Publications
Due to heterogeneous morphological and immunophenotypic features, approximately 50% of peripheral T-cell lymphomas are unclassifiable and categorized as peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified. These conditions have an aggressive course and poor clinical outcome. Identification of actionable biomarkers is urgently needed to develop better therapeutic strategies. Epigenetic alterations play a crucial role in tumor progression. Histone modifications, particularly methylation and acetylation, are generally involved in chromatin state regulation. Here we screened the core set of genes related to histone methylation (

Krøigård AB, Larsen MJ, Lænkholm AV, et al.
Identification of metastasis driver genes by massive parallel sequencing of successive steps of breast cancer progression.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(1):e0189887 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/12/2019 Related Publications
Cancer results from alterations at essential genomic sites and is characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Identification of driver genes of metastatic progression is essential, as metastases, not primary tumors, are fatal. To gain insight into the mutational concordance between different steps of malignant progression we performed exome sequencing and validation with targeted deep sequencing of successive steps of malignant progression from pre-invasive stages to asynchronous distant metastases in six breast cancer patients. Using the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous mutations, a surprisingly large number of cancer driver genes, ranging between 3 and 145, were estimated to confer a selective advantage in the studied primary tumors. We report a substantial amount of metastasis specific mutations and a number of novel putative metastasis driver genes. Most notable are the DCC, ABCA13, TIAM2, CREBBP, BCL6B and ZNF185 genes, mainly mutated exclusively in metastases and highly likely driver genes of metastatic progression. We find different genes and pathways to be affected at different steps of malignant progression. The Adherens junction pathway is affected in four of the six studied patients and this pathway most likely plays a vital role in the metastatic process.

Terai H, Kitajima S, Potter DS, et al.
ER Stress Signaling Promotes the Survival of Cancer "Persister Cells" Tolerant to EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(4):1044-1057 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/12/2019 Related Publications
An increasingly recognized component of resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) involves persistence of a drug-tolerant subpopulation of cancer cells that survive despite effective eradication of the majority of the cell population. Multiple groups have demonstrated that these drug-tolerant persister cells undergo transcriptional adaptation via an epigenetic state change that promotes cell survival. Because this mode of TKI drug tolerance appears to involve transcriptional addiction to specific genes and pathways, we hypothesized that systematic functional screening of EGFR TKI/transcriptional inhibitor combination therapy would yield important mechanistic insights and alternative drug escape pathways. We therefore performed a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 enhancer/suppressor screen in EGFR-dependent lung cancer PC9 cells treated with erlotinib + THZ1 (CDK7/12 inhibitor) combination therapy, a combination previously shown to suppress drug-tolerant cells in this setting. As expected, suppression of multiple genes associated with transcriptional complexes (EP300, CREBBP, and MED1) enhanced erlotinib/THZ1 synergy. Unexpectedly, we uncovered nearly every component of the recently described ufmylation pathway in the synergy suppressor group. Loss of ufmylation did not affect canonical downstream EGFR signaling. Instead, absence of this pathway triggered a protective unfolded protein response associated with STING upregulation, promoting protumorigenic inflammatory signaling but also unique dependence on Bcl-xL. These data reveal that dysregulation of ufmylation and ER stress comprise a previously unrecognized TKI drug tolerance pathway that engages survival signaling, with potentially important therapeutic implications.

Kahl BS
Follicular lymphoma: are we ready for a risk-adapted approach?
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2017; 2017(1):358-364 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/12/2019 Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma is the most common indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the Western hemisphere. The natural history of FL appears to have been favorably impacted by the introduction of rituximab after randomized clinical trials demonstrated that the addition of rituximab to standard chemotherapy induction has improved the overall survival. Yet, the disease is biologically and clinically heterogeneous with wide variations in outcomes for individual patients. The ability to accurately risk-stratify patients and then tailor therapy to the individual is an area of ongoing research. Historically, tumor grade, tumor burden, and the FL international prognostic index (version 1 and version 2) have been used to distinguish low-risk from high-risk patients. Biologic factors such as mutations in key genes can identify patients at high risk for poor outcomes to first-line therapy (mutational status of 7 genes [EZH2, ARID1A, MEF2B, EP300, FOX01, CREBBP, and CARD11] with Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index). More recently, the quality of the response to initial therapy, as measured by either PET imaging or by remission duration, has been show to identify individuals at high risk. However, several unmet needs remain, including a better ability to identify high-risk patients at diagnosis, the development of predictive biomarkers for targeted agents, and strategies to reduce the risk of transformation.

Zamò A, Pischimarov J, Horn H, et al.
The exomic landscape of t(14;18)-negative diffuse follicular lymphoma with 1p36 deletion.
Br J Haematol. 2018; 180(3):391-394 [PubMed] Related Publications
Predominantly diffuse t(14;18) negative follicular lymphoma (FL) with 1p36 deletion shows distinctive clinical, morphological and molecular features that distinguish it from classical FL. In order to investigate whether it possesses a unique mutation profile, we performed whole exome sequencing of six well-characterised cases. Our analysis showed that the mutational landscape of this subtype is largely distinct from classical FL. It appears to harbour several recurrent mutations, affecting STAT6, CREBBP and basal membrane protein genes with high frequency. Our data support the view that this FL subtype should be considered a separate entity from classical FL.

Green MR
Chromatin modifying gene mutations in follicular lymphoma.
Blood. 2018; 131(6):595-604 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/12/2019 Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells. Although the overall survival of FL patients has recently improved with the introduction of novel therapies, there is significant heterogeneity in patient outcome and a need for rationally designed therapeutic strategies that target disease biology. Next-generation sequencing studies have identified chromatin modifying gene (CMG) mutations as a hallmark of FL, highlighting epigenetic modifiers as an attractive therapeutic target in this disease. Understanding the complex roles of these mutations will be central to identifying and adaptively targeting associated vulnerabilities. Recent studies have provided insight into the functional consequences of the most frequently mutated CMGs (

Yamauchi M, Urabe Y, Ono A, et al.
Serial profiling of circulating tumor DNA for optimization of anti-VEGF chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 142(7):1418-1426 [PubMed] Related Publications
Understanding the molecular changes in tumors in response to anti-VEGF chemotherapy is crucial for optimization of the treatment strategy for metastatic colorectal cancer. We prospectively investigated changes in the amount and constitution of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in serial peripheral blood samples during chemotherapy. Sixty-one plasma samples taken at different time points (baseline, remission, and post-progression) and pre-treatment tumor samples were collected from 21 patients who received bevacizumab-containing first-line chemotherapy. Extracted DNA was sequenced by next-generation sequencing using a panel of 90 oncogenes. Candidate ctDNAs in plasma were validated using mutational data from matching tumors. ctDNAs encoding one to six trunk mutations were found in all 21 cases, and the mutant allele frequency (MAF) was distributed over a wide range (1-89%). Significant decreases in the MAF at remission and increases in the MAF after progression were observed (p < 0.001). Reduction in the MAF to below 2% in the remission period was strongly associated with better survival (16.6 vs. 32.5 months, p < 0.001). In two cases, mutations (in CREBBP and FBXW7 genes) were newly detected in ctDNA at a low frequency of around 1% in the post-progression period. The use of ctDNA allows elucidation of the tumor clonal repertoire and tumor evolution during anti-VEGF chemotherapy. Changes in ctDNA levels could be useful as predictive biomarkers for survival. Mutations newly detected in ctDNA in the late treatment period might reveal the rise of a minor tumor clone that may show resistance to anti-VEGF therapy.

Duex JE, Swain KE, Dancik GM, et al.
Functional Impact of Chromatin Remodeling Gene Mutations and Predictive Signature for Therapeutic Response in Bladder Cancer.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(1):69-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Urothelial carcinoma accounts for most of the bladder cancer cases. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, we found that a significant percentage (83%) of tumors had mutations in chromatin-remodeling genes. Here, we examined the functional relevance of mutations in two chromatin-remodeling genes, EP300 and its paralog, CREBBP, which are mutated in almost one-third of patients. Interestingly, almost half of missense mutations cluster in the histone-acetyltransferase (HAT) domain of EP300/CREBBP. This domain catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group to target molecules such as histones, thereby regulating chromatin dynamics. Thus, patients with EP300 or CREBBP mutations may have alterations in the ability of the corresponding proteins to modify histone proteins and control transcriptional profiles. In fact, it was determined that many of the missense HAT mutations in EP300 (64%) and CREBBP (78%) were HAT-inactivating. These inactivating mutations also correlated with invasive disease in patients. Strikingly, the prediction software Mutation Assessor accurately predicted the functional consequences of each HAT missense mutation. Finally, a gene expression signature was developed that associated with loss of HAT activity and that this signature was associated with more aggressive cancer in four patient datasets. Further supporting the notion that this score accurately reflects HAT activity, we found it is responsive to treatment of cancer cells to mocetinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor.

Beije N, Helmijr JC, Weerts MJA, et al.
Somatic mutation detection using various targeted detection assays in paired samples of circulating tumor DNA, primary tumor and metastases from patients undergoing resection of colorectal liver metastases.
Mol Oncol. 2016; 10(10):1575-1584 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/12/2019 Related Publications
Assessing circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising method to evaluate somatic mutations from solid tumors in a minimally-invasive way. In a group of twelve metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients undergoing liver metastasectomy, from each patient DNA from cell-free DNA (cfDNA), the primary tumor, metastatic liver tissue, normal tumor-adjacent colon or liver tissue, and whole blood were obtained. Investigated was the feasibility of a targeted NGS approach to identify somatic mutations in ctDNA. This targeted NGS approach was also compared with NGS preceded by mutant allele enrichment using synchronous coefficient of drag alteration technology embodied in the OnTarget assay, and for selected mutations with digital PCR (dPCR). All tissue and cfDNA samples underwent IonPGM sequencing for a CRC-specific 21-gene panel, which was analyzed using a standard and a modified calling pipeline. In addition, cfDNA, whole blood and normal tissue DNA were analyzed with the OnTarget assay and with dPCR for specific mutations in cfDNA as detected in the corresponding primary and/or metastatic tumor tissue. NGS with modified calling was superior to standard calling and detected ctDNA in the cfDNA of 10 patients harboring mutations in APC, ATM, CREBBP, FBXW7, KRAS, KMT2D, PIK3CA and TP53. Using this approach, variant allele frequencies in plasma ranged predominantly from 1 to 10%, resulting in limited concordance between ctDNA and the primary tumor (39%) and the metastases (55%). Concordance between ctDNA and tissue markedly improved when ctDNA was evaluated for KRAS, PIK3CA and TP53 mutations by the OnTarget assay (80%) and digital PCR (93%). Additionally, using these techniques mutations were observed in tumor-adjacent tissue with normal morphology in the majority of patients, which were not observed in whole blood. In conclusion, in these mCRC patients with oligometastatic disease NGS on cfDNA was feasible, but had limited sensitivity to detect all somatic mutations present in tissue. Digital PCR and mutant allele enrichment before NGS appeared to be more sensitive to detect somatic mutations.

Marneth AE, Prange KHM, Al Hinai ASA, et al.
C-terminal BRE overexpression in 11q23-rearranged and t(8;16) acute myeloid leukemia is caused by intragenic transcription initiation.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(3):828-836 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of the BRE (brain and reproductive organ-expressed) gene defines a distinct pediatric and adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subgroup. Here we identify a promoter enriched for active chromatin marks in BRE intron 4 causing strong biallelic expression of a previously unknown C-terminal BRE transcript. This transcript starts with BRE intron 4 sequences spliced to exon 5 and downstream sequences, and if translated might code for an N terminally truncated BRE protein. Remarkably, the new BRE transcript was highly expressed in over 50% of 11q23/KMT2A (lysine methyl transferase 2A)-rearranged and t(8;16)/KAT6A-CREBBP cases, while it was virtually absent from other AML subsets and normal tissues. In gene reporter assays, the leukemia-specific fusion protein KMT2A-MLLT3 transactivated the intragenic BRE promoter. Further epigenome analyses revealed 97 additional intragenic promoter marks frequently bound by KMT2A in AML with C-terminal BRE expression. The corresponding genes may be part of a context-dependent KMT2A-MLLT3-driven oncogenic program, because they were higher expressed in this AML subtype compared with other groups. C-terminal BRE might be an important contributor to this program because in a case with relapsed AML, we observed an ins(11;2) fusing CHORDC1 to BRE at the region where intragenic transcription starts in KMT2A-rearranged and KAT6A-CREBBP AML.

Hashwah H, Schmid CA, Kasser S, et al.
Inactivation of CREBBP expands the germinal center B cell compartment, down-regulates MHCII expression and promotes DLBCL growth.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017; 114(36):9701-9706 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/12/2019 Related Publications
The genes encoding the histone acetyl-transferases (HATs) CREB binding protein (CREBBP) and EP300 are recurrently mutated in the activated B cell-like and germinal center (GC) B cell-like subtypes of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here, we introduced a patient mutation into a human DLBCL cell line using CRISPR and deleted

Horton SJ, Giotopoulos G, Yun H, et al.
Early loss of Crebbp confers malignant stem cell properties on lymphoid progenitors.
Nat Cell Biol. 2017; 19(9):1093-1104 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/12/2019 Related Publications
Loss-of-function mutations of cyclic-AMP response element binding protein, binding protein (CREBBP) are prevalent in lymphoid malignancies. However, the tumour suppressor functions of CREBBP remain unclear. We demonstrate that loss of Crebbp in murine haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) leads to increased development of B-cell lymphomas. This is preceded by accumulation of hyperproliferative lymphoid progenitors with a defective DNA damage response (DDR) due to a failure to acetylate p53. We identify a premalignant lymphoma stem cell population with decreased H3K27ac, which undergoes transcriptional and genetic evolution due to the altered DDR, resulting in lymphomagenesis. Importantly, when Crebbp is lost later in lymphopoiesis, cellular abnormalities are lost and tumour generation is attenuated. We also document that CREBBP mutations may occur in HSPCs from patients with CREBBP-mutated lymphoma. These data suggest that earlier loss of Crebbp is advantageous for lymphoid transformation and inform the cellular origins and subsequent evolution of lymphoid malignancies.

Triki M, Lapierre M, Cavailles V, Mokdad-Gargouri R
Expression and role of nuclear receptor coregulators in colorectal cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2017; 23(25):4480-4490 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/12/2019 Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common human cancers and the cause of about 700000 deaths per year worldwide. Deregulation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway is a key event in CRC initiation. This pathway interacts with other nuclear signaling pathways, including members of the nuclear receptor superfamily and their transcription coregulators. In this review, we provide an overview of the literature dealing with the main coactivators (NCoA-1 to 3, NCoA-6, PGC1-α, p300, CREBBP and MED1) and corepressors (N-CoR1 and 2, NRIP1 and MTA1) of nuclear receptors and summarize their links with the WNT/β-catenin signaling cascade, their expression in CRC and their role in intestinal physiopathology.

Wang X, Cui H, Lou Z, et al.
Cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein induces metastatic renal cell carcinoma by mediating the expression of matrix metallopeptidase-2/9 and proteins associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 15(6):4191-4198 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most frequently occurring malignancy of the kidney worldwide. Anti-angiogenic targeted therapies inhibit the progression of RCC, however, limited effects on the invasion or metastasis of tumor cells have been observed. Cyclic AMP responsive element‑binding protein (CREB) is a serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, cycle progression and metastasis, amongst others. Our previous research demonstrated that phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) was upregulated in human renal cancer cell lines and tissues, and decreased pCREB at the Ser133 site inhibited the growth and metastatic activity of OS‑RC‑2 cells. However, the role of CREB in RCC metastasis requires further investigation. Thus, the present study further investigated the role of CREB in RCC metastasis. The present study demonstrated that knockdown of CREB using small interfering RNA (siRNA) that targeted CREB (siCREB) significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of 786‑O and OS‑RC‑2 cells, however, the opposite effect was observed in ACHN cells. In addition, knockdown of CREB suppressed the expression of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)‑2/9 and proteins associated with epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) in 786‑O and OS‑RC‑2 cells, and promoted expression in ACHN cells. Furthermore, the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that pCREB (Ser133) had a direct interaction with the fibronectin promoter, however, pCREB (Ser133) did not target the vimentin promoter in RCC. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that CREB regulated metastatic RCC by mediating the expression of MMP‑2/9 and EMT‑associated proteins, however, CREB‑mediated MMP‑2/9 and EMT‑associated protein expression may be induced by different pathways in different RCC cells.

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