Gene Summary

Gene:TGFB2; transforming growth factor beta 2
Aliases: LDS4, G-TSF, TGF-beta2
Summary:This gene encodes a secreted ligand of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily of proteins. Ligands of this family bind various TGF-beta receptors leading to recruitment and activation of SMAD family transcription factors that regulate gene expression. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate a latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a mature peptide, and is found in either a latent form composed of a mature peptide homodimer, a LAP homodimer, and a latent TGF-beta binding protein, or in an active form consisting solely of the mature peptide homodimer. The mature peptide may also form heterodimers with other TGF-beta family members. Disruption of the TGF-beta/SMAD pathway has been implicated in a variety of human cancers. A chromosomal translocation that includes this gene is associated with Peters' anomaly, a congenital defect of the anterior chamber of the eye. Mutations in this gene may be associated with Loeys-Dietz syndrome. This gene encodes multiple isoforms that may undergo similar proteolytic processing. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transforming growth factor beta-2 proprotein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (119)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (17)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TGFB2 (cancer-related)

Chuo D, Liu F, Chen Y, Yin M
LncRNA MIR503HG is downregulated in Han Chinese with colorectal cancer and inhibits cell migration and invasion mediated by TGF-β2.
Gene. 2019; 713:143960 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study we investigated the role of lncRNA MIR503HG in colorectal cancer (CRC). We found that MIR503HG was downregulated and TGF-β2 was upregulated in CRC included in this study. Low levels of MIR503HG were associated with poor survival of CRC patients within 5 years after admission. MIR503HG and TGF-β2 were inversely correlated in CRC tissues, and in CRC cells, MIR503HG overexpression was accompanied by TGF-β2 downregulation, while TGF-β2 overexpression did not affect MIR503HG. TGF-β2 overexpression mediated the increased migration and invasion rates of CRC cells. MIR503HG overexpression mediated the decreased migration and invasion rates of CRC cells. Moreover, TGF-β2 overexpression reduced the effects of MIR503HG overexpression. Therefore, MIR503HG overexpression inhibits CRC cell migration and invasion mediated by TGF-β2.

Gao L, Hu Y, Tian Y, et al.
Lung cancer deficient in the tumor suppressor GATA4 is sensitive to TGFBR1 inhibition.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1665 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Tumor suppressor genes remain to be systemically identified for lung cancer. Through the genome-wide screening of tumor-suppressive transcription factors, we demonstrate here that GATA4 functions as an essential tumor suppressor in lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic GATA4 expression results in lung cancer cell senescence. Mechanistically, GATA4 upregulates multiple miRNAs targeting TGFB2 mRNA and causes ensuing WNT7B downregulation and eventually triggers cell senescence. Decreased GATA4 level in clinical specimens negatively correlates with WNT7B or TGF-β2 level and is significantly associated with poor prognosis. TGFBR1 inhibitors show synergy with existing therapeutics in treating GATA4-deficient lung cancers in genetically engineered mouse model as well as patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models. Collectively, our work demonstrates that GATA4 functions as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer and targeting the TGF-β signaling provides a potential way for the treatment of GATA4-deficient lung cancer.

Zhang X, Yang P, Luo X, et al.
High olive oil diets enhance cervical tumour growth in mice: transcriptome analysis for potential candidate genes and pathways.
Lipids Health Dis. 2019; 18(1):76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Numerous epidemiologic studies have found a close association between obesity and cancer. Dietary fat is a fundamental contributor to obesity and is a risk factor for cancer. Thus far, the impact of dietary olive oil on cancer development remains inconclusive, and little is known about its underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: Nude mouse xenograft models were used to examine the effects of high olive oil diet feeding on cervical cancer (CC) development and progression. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were observed by the methods of EdU incorporation, Wound healing and Transwell assay, separately. RNA-sequencing technology and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses were used to elucidate the molecular processes regulated by dietary fat. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and were functionally analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Enrichment of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Then, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and sub-PPI network analyses were conducted using the STRING database and Cytoscape software.
RESULTS: A high olive oil diet aggravated tumourigenesis in an experimental xenograft model of CC. Oleic acid, the main ingredient of olive oil, promoted cell growth and migration in vitro. Transcriptome sequencing analysis of xenograft tumour tissues was then performed to elucidate the regulation of molecular events regulated by dietary fat. Dietary olive oil induced 648 DEGs, comprising 155 up-regulated DEGs and 493 down-regulated DEGs. GO and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that some of the DEGs including EGR1 and FOXN2 were involved in the transcription regulation and others, including TGFB2 and COL4A3 in cell proliferation. The 15 most strongly associated DEGs were selected from the PPI network and hub genes including JUN, TIMP3, OAS1, OASL and EGR1 were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that a high olive oil diet aggravates CC progression in vivo and in vitro. We provide clues to build a potential link between dietary fat and cancerogenesis and identify areas requiring further investigation.

Yoon H, Kim M, Jang K, et al.
p27 transcriptionally coregulates cJun to drive programs of tumor progression.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019; 116(14):7005-7014 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
p27 shifts from CDK inhibitor to oncogene when phosphorylated by PI3K effector kinases. Here, we show that p27 is a cJun coregulator, whose assembly and chromatin association is governed by p27 phosphorylation. In breast and bladder cancer cells with high p27pT157pT198 or expressing a CDK-binding defective p27pT157pT198 phosphomimetic (p27CK-DD), cJun is activated and interacts with p27, and p27/cJun complexes localize to the nucleus. p27/cJun up-regulates

Kopantzev EP, Kopantseva MR, Grankina EV, et al.
Activation of IGF/IGF-IR signaling pathway fails to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells.
Pancreatology. 2019; 19(2):390-396 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer stromal cells produce various protein factors, which presumably provide cancer cells with drug resistance and may influence their ability to form metastasis via induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (ЕМТ). The goal of our project was to study the effects of IGF-I on expression of protein markers of epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation, and on expression of transcriptional regulators of EMT in pancreatic cancer cell lines.
METHODS: We used Western blot analysis to study the expression patterns of epithelial and mesenchymal protein markers in pancreatic cancer cell lines, which have been stimulated with IGF-I for various periods of time. The ELISA technique was employed to determine the concentration of IGF-I in conditioned media. Additionally, the effect of IGF-I on proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells was measured via MTS technique.
RESULTS: We investigated the effect of IGF/IGF-IR signaling pathway activation on expression levels of cell differentiation markers in five pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, Capan-2, MiaPaCa-2 and Panc1). The IGF-I stimulation led to phosphorylation of IGF-IR and activation of PI-3K/Akt signaling cascade. At the same time our results reveal that the activation of IGF/IGF-IR signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer cells does not induce a significant shift in cell phenotype towards mesenchymal differentiation and does not induce a decrease in expression levels of epithelial protein markers.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that IGF-I does not function as an effective inductor of EMT in pancreatic cancer cell lines and that stimulation of IGF-I/IGF-IR signaling pathway does not lead to EMT associated changes in cell differentiation.

Nicolas E, Demidova EV, Iqbal W, et al.
Interaction of germline variants in a family with a history of early-onset clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(3):e556 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Identification of genetic factors causing predisposition to renal cell carcinoma has helped improve screening, early detection, and patient survival.
METHODS: We report the characterization of a proband with renal and thyroid cancers and a family history of renal and other cancers by whole-exome sequencing (WES), coupled with WES analysis of germline DNA from additional affected and unaffected family members.
RESULTS: This work identified multiple predicted protein-damaging variants relevant to the pattern of inherited cancer risk. Among these, the proband and an affected brother each had a heterozygous Ala45Thr variant in SDHA, a component of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex. SDH defects are associated with mitochondrial disorders and risk for various cancers; immunochemical analysis indicated loss of SDHB protein expression in the patient's tumor, compatible with SDH deficiency. Integrated analysis of public databases and structural predictions indicated that the two affected individuals also had additional variants in genes including TGFB2, TRAP1, PARP1, and EGF, each potentially relevant to cancer risk alone or in conjunction with the SDHA variant. In addition, allelic imbalances of PARP1 and TGFB2 were detected in the tumor of the proband.
CONCLUSION: Together, these data suggest the possibility of risk associated with interaction of two or more variants.

Jiang J, Zheng M, Zhang M, et al.
PRRX1 Regulates Cellular Phenotype Plasticity and Dormancy of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Through miR-642b-3p.
Neoplasia. 2019; 21(2):216-229 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dormancy is one characteristic of cancer cells to make patients remain asymptomatic before metastasis and relapse, which is closely related to the survival rate of cancer patients, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). PRRX1 has previously been implicated in the invasion and metastasis of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in different types of human carcinoma. However, whether PRRX1 can regulate cancer dormancy and its reactivation, leading to the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, remains elusive. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PRRX1 in cellular phenotype plasticity and cancer dormancy of HNSCC cells and its association with miRNAs in HNSCC.
METHODS: The expression of PRRX1 was detected by immunohistochemical staining in primary HNSCC samples and the metastatic lymph nodes. Meanwhile, the role of PRRX1 and its relationship with miR-642b-3p and EMT in cellular phenotype plasticity and cancer dormancy of HNSCC were investigated in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: PRRX1 was significantly higher at the invasive front of HNSCC samples compared with the metastatic lymph nodes, and such switch process was accompanied by the cellular phenotype plasticity and cell dormancy activation. In HNSCC cell lines, PRRX1 positively promoted the expression of known EMT inducers and cooperated with activated TGF-β1 to contribute to EMT and migration and invasion of HNSCC cells. Then, we found that overexpression of miR-642b-3p, one of the most significantly downregulated miRNAs in PRRX1-overexpressed cells, significantly reduced the migration and invasion, and increased cell proliferation and apoptosis. And miR-642b-3p restoration reversed PRRX1-induced cell dormancy and EMT of HNSCC cells through TGF-β2 and p38. Finally, we demonstrated that overexpressed PRRX1 was closely correlated with miR-642b-3p downregulation and the upregulation of TGF-β2 and p38 in a xenograft model of HNSCC.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that PRRX1 may be one of the main driving forces for the cellular phenotype plasticity and tumor dormancy of HNSCC. Therefore, we can raise the possibility that EMT may help to keep cancer cell in dormant state and mesenchymal-epithelial transition may resurge dormancy in HNSCC.

Abukiwan A, Nwaeburu CC, Bauer N, et al.
Dexamethasone-induced inhibition of miR-132 via methylation promotes TGF-β-driven progression of pancreatic cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(1):53-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glucocorticoids (GCs) such as dexamethasone (DEX) are administered as cancer co‑treatment for palliative purposes due to their pro‑apoptotic effects in lymphoid cancer and limited side effects associated with cancer growth and chemotherapy. However, there is emerging evidence that GCs induce therapy resistance in most epithelial tumors. Our recent data reveal that DEX promotes the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). In the present study, we examined 1 primary and 2 established PDA cell lines, and 35 PDA tissues from patients who had received (n=14) or not received (n=21) GCs prior to surgery. Through microRNA microarray analysis, in silico, and RT‑qPCR analyses, we identified 268 microRNAs differentially expressed between DEX‑treated and untreated cells. With a focus on cancer progression, we selected miR‑132 and its target gene, transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF‑β2), as top candidates. miR‑132 mimics directly bound to the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of a TGF‑β2 luciferase construct and enhanced expression, as shown by increased luciferase activity. By contrast, DEX inhibited miR‑132 expression via promoter methylation. miR‑132 mimics also reduced DEX‑induced clonogenicity, migration and expression of vimentin and E‑cadherin in vitro and in tumor xenografts. In patients, GC intake prior to surgery enhanced global hypermethylation and expression of TGF‑β2 in tissues; expression of miR‑132 was detected but could not be quantified. Our results demonstrate that DEX‑mediated inhibition of miR‑132 is a key mediator in the progression of pancreatic cancer, and the findings provide a foundation for miRNA‑based therapies.

Maruschke M, Koczan D, Ziems B, Hakenberg OW
Copy Number Alterations with Prognostic Potential in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Urol Int. 2018; 101(4):417-424 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To detect chromosomal aberrations in a genome-wide manner with potential value for prognosis in groups of patients with different histopathological grading in clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a copy number alteration analysis using the Affymetrix platform and SNP 6.0 mapping arrays with samples from 48 ccRCC-patients. The data analysis was done using 3 different Software Platforms: Affymetrix Genotyping Console (version and 2 open-source packages for validation: PennCNV and PICNIC.
RESULTS: Consistent changes were found to divide the tumors into 4 groups: first group showed typical losses on 3p, second group losses on 3p plus gains on 5q, third group gains on chromosome 7 plus losses on chromosome 8; fourth group did not show any major changes. We selected the affected genes with the highest consistency and identified 13 different genes mapping in the SNP 6.0 results and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Remarkable for further consideration were the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, BRAF, MET, EGLN1; growth factors, for example, HGF, PGF and TGFB2.
CONCLUSION: A multimodal approach with a well-defined workflow for detecting genomic aberrations by using array technologies and comparing the findings with different comprehensive databases may provide insights into functional tumor processes and help to identify potential new targets for more individualized future treatment.

Pellatt AJ, Mullany LE, Herrick JS, et al.
The TGFβ-signaling pathway and colorectal cancer: associations between dysregulated genes and miRNAs.
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):191 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The TGFβ-signaling pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Loss of function of several genes within this pathway, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been seen as key events in CRC progression.
METHODS: In this study we comprehensively evaluate differential gene expression (RNASeq) of 81 genes in the TGFβ-signaling pathway and evaluate how dysregulated genes are associated with miRNA expression (Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0). We utilize paired carcinoma and normal tissue from 217 CRC cases. We evaluate the associations between differentially expressed genes and miRNAs and sex, age, disease stage, and survival months.
RESULTS: Thirteen genes were significantly downregulated and 14 were significantly upregulated after considering fold change (FC) of > 1.50 or < 0.67 and multiple comparison adjustment. Bone morphogenetic protein genes BMP5, BMP6, and BMP2 and growth differentiation factor GDF7 were downregulated. BMP4, BMP7, INHBA (Inhibin beta A), TGFBR1, TGFB2, TGIF1, TGIF2, and TFDP1 were upregulated. In general, genes with the greatest dysregulation, such as BMP5 (FC 0.17, BMP6 (FC 0.25), BMP2 (FC 0.32), CDKN2B (FC 0.32), MYC (FC 3.70), BMP7 (FC 4.17), and INHBA (FC 9.34) showed dysregulation in the majority of the population (84.3, 77.4, 81.1, 80.2, 82.0, 51.2, and 75.1% respectively). Four genes, TGFBR2, ID4, ID1, and PITX2, were un-associated or slightly upregulated in microsatellite-stable (MSS) tumors while downregulated in microsatellite-unstable (MSI) tumors. Eight dysregulated genes were associated with miRNA differential expression. E2F5 and THBS1 were associated with one or two miRNAs; RBL1, TGFBR1, TGIF2, and INHBA were associated with seven or more miRNAs with multiple seed-region matches. Evaluation of the joint effects of mRNA:miRNA identified interactions that were stronger in more advanced disease stages and varied by survival months.
CONCLUSION: These data support an interaction between miRNAs and genes in the TGFβ-signaling pathway in association with CRC risk. These interactions are associated with unique clinical characteristics that may provide targets for further investigations.

Hartana CA, Ahlén Bergman E, Zirakzadeh AA, et al.
Urothelial bladder cancer may suppress perforin expression in CD8+ T cells by an ICAM-1/TGFβ2 mediated pathway.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0200079 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The immune system plays a significant role in urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) progression, with CD8+ T cells being capable to directly kill tumor cells using perforin and granzymes. However, tumors avoid immune recognition by escape mechanisms. In this study, we aim to demonstrate tumor immune escape mechanisms that suppress CD8+ T cells cytotoxicity. 42 patients diagnosed with UBC were recruited. CD8+ T cells from peripheral blood (PB), sentinel nodes (SN), and tumor were analyzed in steady state and in vitro-stimulated conditions by flow cytometry, RT-qPCR, and ELISA. Mass spectrometry (MS) was used for identification of proteins from UBC cell line culture supernatants. Perforin was surprisingly found to be low in CD8+ T cells from SN, marked by 1.8-fold decrease of PRF1 expression, with maintained expression of granzyme B. The majority of perforin-deficient CD8+ T cells are effector memory T (TEM) cells with exhausted Tc2 cell phenotype, judged by the presence of PD-1 and GATA-3. Consequently, perforin-deficient CD8+ T cells from SN are low in T-bet expression. Supernatant from muscle invasive UBC induces perforin deficiency, a mechanism identified by MS where ICAM-1 and TGFβ2 signaling were causatively validated to decrease perforin expression in vitro. Thus, we demonstrate a novel tumor escape suppressing perforin expression in CD8+ T cells mediated by ICAM-1 and TGFβ2, which can be targeted in combination for cancer immunotherapy.

Tang YA, Chen YF, Bao Y, et al.
Hypoxic tumor microenvironment activates GLI2 via HIF-1α and TGF-β2 to promote chemoresistance in colorectal cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(26):E5990-E5999 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer patients often relapse after chemotherapy, owing to the survival of stem or progenitor cells referred to as cancer stem cells (CSCs). Although tumor stromal factors are known to contribute to chemoresistance, it remains not fully understood how CSCs in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment escape the chemotherapy. Here, we report that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs)-secreted TGF-β2 converge to activate the expression of hedgehog transcription factor GLI2 in CSCs, resulting in increased stemness/dedifferentiation and intrinsic resistance to chemotherapy. Genetic or small-molecule inhibitor-based ablation of HIF-1α/TGF-β2-mediated GLI2 signaling effectively reversed the chemoresistance caused by the tumor microenvironment. Importantly, high expression levels of HIF-1α/TGF-β2/GLI2 correlated robustly with the patient relapse following chemotherapy, highlighting a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for chemoresistance in colorectal cancer. Our study thus uncovers a molecular mechanism by which hypoxic colorectal tumor microenvironment promotes cancer cell stemness and resistance to chemotherapy and suggests a potentially targeted treatment approach to mitigating chemoresistance.

Li S, Zhang W, Wu C, et al.
HOXC10 promotes proliferation and invasion and induces immunosuppressive gene expression in glioma.
FEBS J. 2018; 285(12):2278-2291 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prognosis for patients with malignant glioma is very poor and thus the identification of new potential therapeutic targets is critically important. In this work, we report a previously unknown role for the homeobox transcription factor HOXC10 in regulating immunosuppressive gene expression in glioma cell lines and their proliferative and invasive capacities. Although HOXC10 expression is dysregulated in several types of tumors, its potential function in glioma was not known. We found that HOXC10 expression was upregulated in glioma compared with normal tissue, and that HOXC10 expression positively associated with high grading of glioma. In three independent datasets (REMBRANDT glioma, The Cancer Genome Atlas glioblastoma multiforme and GSE4412), HOXC10 upregulation was associated with short overall survival. In two glioma cell lines, HOXC10 knock-down inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion, and promoted apoptosis. In addition, HOXC10 knock-down suppressed the expression of genes that are involved in tumor immunosuppression, including those for transforming growth factor-β 2, PD-L2, CCL2 and TDO2. A ChIP assay showed that HOXC10 directly bound to the PD-L2 and TDO2 promoter regions. In summary, our results suggest that HOXC10 upregulation in glioma promotes an aggressive phenotype and induces immunosuppressive gene expression, supporting further investigation of the potential of HOXC10 as a therapeutic target in glioma.

Song K, Lv T, Chen Y, et al.
Emodin inhibits TGF-β2 by activating the FOXD3/miR‑199a axis in ovarian cancer cells in vitro.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(5):2063-2070 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is a highly metastatic malignancy and a leading cause of cancer-related death in postmenopausal women. Emodin is a natural anthraquinone isolated from several traditional Chinese medicines including Rhubarb and Polygonum cuspidatum. Recently, emodin was demonstrated to reduce the growth of human ovarian carcinoma cells. However, the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we identified that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 was significantly affected by emodin treatment in A2780 cells using microarray analysis. MicroRNA (miR)-199a was predicted as a potential miRNA targeting TGF-β2 by in silico prediction using TargetScan. The mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β2 were both significantly reduced by miR-199a. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between the expression level of miR-199a and TGF-β2 in human ovarian cancer specimens. Silencing of miR-199a with miR-199a inhibitor significantly restored the reduction in TGF-β2 expression induced by emodin. Additionally, cell viability and colony formation of A2780 cells were markedly inhibited by emodin treatment, which was mediated by miR-199a. We analyzed the primary mature miR-199a-1 and miR-199a-2 transcripts in A2780 cells treated with emodin or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and found that only pri-miR-199a-1 was regulated by emodin. A conserved binding site of Forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) was identified within pri-miR‑199a-1. We further revealed that miR-199a expression was significantly regulated by FOXD3. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that emodin may directly promote FOXD3 expression and sequentially activates miR-199a, which in turn suppresses the expression of TGF-β2 to reduce cell viability and colony formation of A2780 cells.

Fang C, Dai CY, Mei Z, et al.
microRNA-193a stimulates pancreatic cancer cell repopulation and metastasis through modulating TGF-β2/TGF-βRIII signalings.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer characterizes high recurrence and poor prognosis. In clinical practice, radiotherapy is widely used for pancreatic cancer treatment. However, the outcome remains undesirable due to tumor repopulation and following recurrence and metastasis after radiation. So, it is highly needed to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms and accordingly develop therapeutic strategies. Our previous studies revealed that dying cells from chemoradiation could stimulate repopulation of surviving pancreatic cancer cells. However, we still knew little how dying cells provoke pancreatic cancer cell repopulation. We herein would explore the significance of TGF-β2 changes and investigate the modulation of microRNA-193a (miR-193a), and identify their contributions to pancreatic cancer repopulation and metastasis.
METHODS: In vitro and in vivo repopulation models were established to mimic the biological processes of pancreatic cancer after radiation. Western blot, real-time PCR and dual-luciferase reporter assays were accordingly used to detect miR-193a and TGF-β2/TGF-βRIII signalings at the level of molecular, cellular and experimental animal model, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis, wound healing and transwell assay, vascular endothelial cell penetration experiment, and bioluminescence imaging were employed to assessthe biological behaviors of pancreatic cancer after different treatments. Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) mice models were established to evaluate the therapeutic potential of miR-193a antagonist on pancreatic cancer repopulation and metastasis after radiation.
RESULTS: miR-193a was highly expressed in the irradiated pancreatic cancer dying cells, accordingly elevated the level of miR-193a in surviving cells, and further promoted pancreatic cancer repopulation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. miR-193a accelerated pancreatic cancer cell cycle and stimulated cell proliferation and repopulation through inhibiting TGF-β2/TGF-βRIII/SMADs/E2F6/c-Myc signaling, and even destroyed normal intercellular junctions and promoted metastasis via repressing TGF-β2/TGF-βRIII/ARHGEF15/ABL2 pathway. Knockdown of miR-193a or restoration of TGF-β2/TGF-βRIII signaling in pancreatic cancer cells was found to block pancreatic cancer repopulation and metastasis after radiation. In PDX models, the treatment in combination with miR-193a antagonist and radiation was found to dramatically inhibit pancreatic cancer cell repopulation and metastasis, and further improved the survival after radiation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that miR-193a stimulated pancreatic cancer cell repopulation and metastasis through modulating TGF-β2/TGF-βRIII signalings, and miR-193a might be a potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer repopulation and metastasis.

Hachim MY, Hachim IY, Dai M, et al.
Differential expression of TGFβ isoforms in breast cancer highlights different roles during breast cancer progression.
Tumour Biol. 2018; 40(1):1010428317748254 [PubMed] Related Publications
While TGFβ plays a critical role in tumor formation and progression, the role and contribution of its three different isoforms remain unclear. In this study, we aimed at elucidating the prognostic value of the TGFβ isoforms and assessed their expression levels in breast cancer patients at different stages of the disease. We found higher levels of TGFβ1 and TGFβ3 in cancer patients compared to normal tissues, with no significant changes in TGFβ2 expression. Similarly, TGFβ1 and TGFβ3, but not TGFβ2, showed higher expression levels in advanced lymph node-positive and metastatic tumors, suggesting different roles for the different isoforms in tumor progression and the metastatic process, while in the least aggressive molecular subtype (luminal A), expression of the three TGFβ isoforms significantly correlated with expression of both TGFβ receptors, such correlation only occurred between TGFβ1 and TGFβ3 and the TGFβ type II receptor (TβRII) in the highly aggressive basal-like subtype. Interestingly, a distinct and somehow opposite pattern was observed in HER-2 tumors, only showing significant association pattern between TGFβ2 and the TGFβ type I receptor (TβRI). Finally, the three TGFβ isoforms showed distinct association patterns with patient outcome depending on the different molecular subtype, highlighting context-dependent, differential prognostic values.

Zhang C, Zhang X, Xu R, et al.
TGF-β2 initiates autophagy via Smad and non-Smad pathway to promote glioma cells' invasion.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 36(1):162 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by lethal aggressiveness and patients with GBM are in urgent need for new therapeutic avenues to improve quality of life. Current studies on tumor invasion focused on roles of cytokines in tumor microenvironment and numerous evidence suggests that TGF-β2 is abundant in glioma microenvironment and vital for glioma invasion. Autopagy is also emerging as a critical factor in aggressive behaviors of cancer cells; however, the relationship between TGF-β2 and autophagy in glioma has been poorly understood.
METHODS: U251, T98 and U87 GBM cell lines as well as GBM cells from a primary human specimen were used in vitro and in vivo to evaluate the effect of TGF-β2 on autophagy. Western blot, qPCR, immunofluorescence and transmission-electron microscope were used to detect target molecular expression. Lentivirus and siRNA vehicle were introduced to establish cell lines, as well as mitotracker and seahorse experiment to study the metabolic process in glioma. Preclinical therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in orthotopic xenograft mouse models.
RESULTS: Here we demonstrated that TGF-β2 activated autophagy in human glioma cell lines and knockdown of Smad2 or inhibition of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, attenuated TGF-β2-induced autophagy. TGF-β2-induced autophagy is important for glioma invasion due to the alteration of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metabolism conversion, particularly influencing mitochondria trafficking and membrane potential (△Ψm). Autopaghy also initiated a feedback on TGF-β2 in glioma by keeping its autocrine loop and affecting Smad2/3/7 expression. A xenograft model provided additional confirmation on combination of TGF-β inhibitor (Galunisertib) and autophagy inhibitor (CQ) to better "turn off" tumor growth.
CONCLUSION: Our findings elucidated a potential mechanism of autophagy-associated glioma invasion that TGF-β2 could initiate autophagy via Smad and non-Smad pathway to promote glioma cells' invasion.

Ciszewski WM, Sobierajska K, Wawro ME, et al.
The ILK-MMP9-MRTF axis is crucial for EndMT differentiation of endothelial cells in a tumor microenvironment.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2017; 1864(12):2283-2296 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasing evidence indicates that the tumor microenvironment is a critical factor supporting cancer progression, chemoresistance and metastasis. Recently, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been recognized as a crucial tumor stromal component promoting cancer growth and invasiveness via modulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) structure, tumor metabolism and immune reprogramming. One of the main sources of CAFs are endothelial cells undergoing the endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). EndMT is mainly promoted by the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) family secreted by tumor cells, though the role of particular members in EndMT regulation remains poorly understood. Our findings demonstrate that TGF-β2 induces mesenchymal transdifferentiation of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1 cells) to CAF-like cells in association with elongated cell morphology, modulation of stress fiber organization, higher α-SMA protein levels and activation of RhoA and Rac-1 pathways. Such regulation is similar to that observed in cells maintained using conditioned medium from invasive colorectal cancer cell line culture. Furthermore, TGF-β2 stimulation resulted in myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF) activation and upregulation. Our results demonstrate for the first time that such interaction is sufficient for integrin-linked kinase (ILK) overexpression. ILK upregulation also enhanced MRTF activation via RhoA and Rac-1-MMP9 via inside-out integrin activation. Herein, we propose a new ILK-MMP9-MRTF axis that appears to be critical for EndMT differentiation of endothelial to CAF-like cells. Thus, it might be an attractive target for cancer treatment.

Li J, Chen C, Bi X, et al.
DNA methylation of CMTM3, SSTR2, and MDFI genes in colorectal cancer.
Gene. 2017; 630:1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasingly common worldwide, including in China. Therefore, there is an increasing need to detect CRC at an early stage and to discover and evaluate diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. DNA methylation of genes in CRC is a potential epigenetic biomarker for the early detection of CRC. This study was performed to analyze the methylation frequency of six candidate genes, CMTM3, SSTR2, MDFI, NDRG4, TGFB2, and BCL2L11, in fresh-frozen CRC tissues and adjacent normal colorectal tissues, from 42 patients with CRC. DNA isolation, bisulphite modification, and pyrosequencing were performed. The sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) were evaluated to determine whether these genes showed any associations with tumor grade, stage, or diagnostic features. Among the tested genes, three genes, CMTM3, SSTR2, and MDFI were significantly methylated in CRC tissues when compared with adjacent normal colorectal tissues. The ROC analysis showed that a multigene model, including CMTM3, SSTR2, and MDFI, had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 91% with an AUC value of 0.92. The findings of this study have shown that DNA methylation of the genes, CMTM3, SSTR2, and MDFI should be studied further with a view to determining their potential role as biomarkers for CRC.

Lee Y, Park S, Lee SH, Lee H
Characterization of genetic aberrations in a single case of metastatic thymic adenocarcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):330 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thymic adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare subtype of thymic epithelial tumors. Due to its rarity, there is currently no sequencing approach for thymic adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: We performed whole exome and transcriptome sequencing on a case of thymic adenocarcinoma and performed subsequent validation using Sanger sequencing.
RESULTS: The case of thymic adenocarcinoma showed aggressive behaviors with systemic bone metastases. We identified a high incidence of genetic aberrations, which included somatic mutations in RNASEL, PEG10, TNFSF15, TP53, TGFB2, and FAT1. Copy number analysis revealed a complex chromosomal rearrangement of chromosome 8, which resulted in gene fusion between MCM4 and SNTB1 and dramatic amplification of MYC and NDRG1. Focal deletion was detected at human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles, which was previously observed in thymic epithelial tumors. We further investigated fusion transcripts using RNA-seq data and found an intergenic splicing event between the CTBS and GNG5 transcript. Finally, enrichment analysis using all the variants represented the immune system dysfunction in thymic adenocarcinoma.
CONCLUSION: Thymic adenocarcinoma shows highly malignant characteristics with alterations in several cancer-related genes.

Song P, Jiang B, Liu Z, et al.
A three-lncRNA expression signature associated with the prognosis of gastric cancer patients.
Cancer Med. 2017; 6(6):1154-1164 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as essential players in gene regulation. An ever-increasing number of lncRNAs has been found to be associated with the biogenesis and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC). We aimed to develop an lncRNA signature with prognostic value for survival outcomes of GC. Using an lncRNA mining approach, we analyzed the lncRNA expression profiles of 492 GC patients from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), which consisted of the GSE62254 set (N = 300) and the GSE15459 set (N = 192). The associations between the lncRNAs' expression and survival outcome were evaluated. A set of three lncRNAs (LINC01140, TGFB2-OT1, and RP11-347C12.10) was identified to significantly correlate with overall survival. These lncRNAs were then combined to form a single prognostic signature. Based on this three-lncRNA expression signature, patients in the GSE62254 set were classified into high- and low-risk subgroups with significantly different overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.93, P < 0.001) and disease-free survival (HR = 1.91, P < 0.001). Good reproducibility for the prognostic value of this lncRNA signature was confirmed in the GSE15459 set. Further analysis showed that the prognostic value of this signature was independent of some clinical characteristics. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that high-risk scores positively related to several molecular pathways of cancer metastasis. Our results suggest that this innovative lncRNA expression signature may be a useful biomarker for the prognosis of patients with GC based on bioinformatics analysis.

Seystahl K, Papachristodoulou A, Burghardt I, et al.
Biological Role and Therapeutic Targeting of TGF-β
Mol Cancer Ther. 2017; 16(6):1177-1186 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β contributes to the malignant phenotype of glioblastoma by promoting invasiveness and angiogenesis and creating an immunosuppressive microenvironment. So far, TGF-β

Asaduzzaman M, Constantinou S, Min H, et al.
Tumour suppressor EP300, a modulator of paclitaxel resistance and stemness, is downregulated in metaplastic breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017; 163(3):461-474 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: We have previously described a novel pathway controlling drug resistance, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness in breast cancer cells. Upstream in the pathway, three miRs (miR-106b, miR-93 and miR-25) target EP300, a transcriptional activator of E-cadherin. Upregulation of these miRs leads to the downregulation of EP300 and E-cadherin with initiation of an EMT. However, miRs regulate the expression of many genes, and the contribution to EMT by miR targets other than EP300 cannot be ruled out.
METHODS: We used lentiviruses expressing EP300-targeting shRNA to downregulate its expression in MCF-7 cells as well as an EP300-knocked-out colon carcinoma cell line. An EP300-expression plasmid was used to upregulate its expression in basal-like CAL51 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Drug resistance was determined by short-term proliferation and long-term colony formation assays. Stemness was determined by tumour sphere formation in both soft agar and liquid cultures as well as by the expression of CD44/CD24/ALDH markers. Gene expression microarray analysis was performed in MCF-7 cells lacking EP300. EP300 expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 17 samples of metaplastic breast cancer.
RESULTS: Cells lacking EP300 became more resistant to paclitaxel whereas EP300 overexpression increased their sensitivity to the drug. Expression of cancer stem cell markers, as well as tumour sphere formation, was also increased in EP300-depleted cells, and was diminished in EP300-overexpressing cells. The EP300-regulated gene signature highlighted genes associated with adhesion (CEACAM5), cytoskeletal remodelling (CAPN9), stemness (ABCG2), apoptosis (BCL2) and metastasis (TGFB2). Some genes in this signature were also validated in a previously generated EP300-depleted model of breast cancer using minimally transformed mammary epithelial cells. Importantly, two key genes in apoptosis and stemness, BCL2 and ABCG2, were also upregulated in EP300-knockout colon carcinoma cells and their paclitaxel-resistant derivatives. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that EP300 expression was low in metaplastic breast cancer, a rare, but aggressive form of the disease with poor prognosis that is characterized by morphological and physiological features of EMT.
CONCLUSIONS: EP300 plays a major role in the reprogramming events, leading to a more malignant phenotype with the acquisition of drug resistance and cell plasticity, a characteristic of metaplastic breast cancer.

Mahdavinezhad A, Yadegarazari R, Mousavi-Bahar SH, et al.
Evaluation of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 and transforming growth factor-beta2 expression in bladder cancer tissue in comparison with healthy adjacent tissue.
Investig Clin Urol. 2017; 58(2):140-145 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: The fifth most common cancer is allocated to bladder cancer (BC) worldwide. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of BC invasion and metastasis to identify target therapeutic strategies will improve disease survival. So the aim of this study was to measure expression rate of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) and transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-β2) mRNA in tissue samples of patients with BC and its healthy adjacent tissue samples and their association with muscle invasion, size and grade of the tumor.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue samples were collected from 35 newly diagnosed untreated patients with BC from 2013 to 2014. Total RNA was extracted from about 50-mg tissue samples using TRIzol reagent. TAKARA SYBR Premix EX Tag II was applied to determine the rate of mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To obtain final validation, PCR product of ZEB1 and TGF-β2 were sequenced. STATA 11 software was used to analyze the data.
RESULTS: The expression level of ZEB1 in tumor samples was significantly more than of in healthy adjacent tissue samples. Up-regulation of TGF-β2 showed a strong association with muscle invasion (p=0.017). There was also demonstrated a relationship between over expression of ZEB1 with the tumor size (p=0.050).
CONCLUSIONS: It looks ZEB1 and TGF-β2 had a role in BC patients. In this study ZEB1 expression was higher in BC tissues than that of in healthy control tissues. There was demonstrated a markedly association between overexpression of TGF-β2 and muscle invasion. Therefore, they are supposed to be candidate as potential biomarkers for early detection and progression of BC.

Thiagarajan PS, Wu X, Zhang W, et al.
Transcriptomic-metabolomic reprogramming in EGFR-mutant NSCLC early adaptive drug escape linking TGFβ2-bioenergetics-mitochondrial priming.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(50):82013-82027 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The impact of EGFR-mutant NSCLC precision therapy is limited by acquired resistance despite initial excellent response. Classic studies of EGFR-mutant clinical resistance to precision therapy were based on tumor rebiopsies late during clinical tumor progression on therapy. Here, we characterized a novel non-mutational early adaptive drug-escape in EGFR-mutant lung tumor cells only days after therapy initiation, that is MET-independent. The drug-escape cell states were analyzed by integrated transcriptomic and metabolomics profiling uncovering a central role for autocrine TGFβ2 in mediating cellular plasticity through profound cellular adaptive Omics reprogramming, with common mechanistic link to prosurvival mitochondrial priming. Cells undergoing early adaptive drug escape are in proliferative-metabolic quiescent, with enhanced EMT-ness and stem cell signaling, exhibiting global bioenergetics suppression including reverse Warburg, and are susceptible to glutamine deprivation and TGFβ2 inhibition. Our study further supports a preemptive therapeutic targeting of bioenergetics and mitochondrial priming to impact early drug-escape emergence using EGFR precision inhibitor combined with broad BH3-mimetic to interrupt BCL-2/BCL-xL together, but not BCL-2 alone.

Chen J, Shin VY, Siu MT, et al.
miR-199a-5p confers tumor-suppressive role in triple-negative breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16(1):887 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a poor prognostic factor for breast cancer since no effective targeted therapy is readily available. Our previous studies confirmed miR-199a-5p is a TNBC-specific circulating biomarker, however, its functional roles in breast cancer is largely unknown. Thus, we investigated the functional implication of miR-199a-5p in TNBC and its potential underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: MTT assay was performed to investigate the cell proliferation after transient transfection of miR-199a-5p in MDA-MB-231 cell line, followed by cell cycle analysis. Transwell invasion assay and wound healing assay were used to study the invasion and migration ability respectively. To further investigate the stemness-related characteristics of miR-199a-5p in breast cancer cells, single-cell clonogenic assay and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) assay were performed. 32 normal and 100 breast cancer patients' plasma were recruited to identify the potential circulating markers by qPCR.
RESULTS: Cell proliferation assay revealed significant inhibition after miR-199a-5p ectopic expression (p < 0.0001), as a result of decreased S phase (p = 0.0284), increased G0/G1 phase (p = 0.0260) and apoptosis (p = 0.0374). Invasiveness (p = 0.0005) and wound healing ability were also decreased upon miR-199a-5p overexpression. It significantly altered EMT-related genes expression, namely CDH1, ZEB1 and TWIST. Single-cell clonogenic assay showed decreased colonies in miR-199a-5p (p = 0.0182). Significant downregulation (p = 0.0088) and inhibited activity (p = 0.0390) of ALDH was observed in miR-199a-5p. ALDH1A3, which is the dominant isoform of ALDH, is significantly upregulated in breast cancer plasma especially in TNBC (p = 0.0248). PIK3CD was identified as a potential downstream target of miR-199a-5p.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, we unraveled, for the first time, the tumor-suppressive role of miR-199a-5p in TNBC, which attributed to EMT and cancer stemness properties, providing a novel therapeutic options towards this aggressive disease.

Yuan Z, Chen D, Chen X, et al.
Overexpression of HOXB7 protein reduces sensitivity of oral cancer cells to chemo-radiotherapy.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2016; 23(12):419-424 [PubMed] Related Publications
The upregulation of homeobox-B7 (HOXB7) in cancers has been reported. However, its role in oral cancer progression remains to be investigated. In current study, our data revealed that reconstitution of HOXB7 expression by transient transfection resulted in increased cell growth, migration and invasion in vitro. In addition, apoptosis and clonogenic assay data showed that overexpression of HOXB7 decreased the sensitivity of oral cancer cells to vincristine-induced apoptosis of HSC-4 and KB/VCR cells. Furthermore, overexpression of HOXB7 promoted oral cancer cells' migration and invasion through activation of TGFβ2/SMAD3 signaling pathway. Moreover, forced expression of HOXB7 increased Bcl-2 to Bax ratio, which would promote cell survival and induce drug and radiotherapy resistance. Altogether, our findings support the role of HOXB7 in the progression of oral cancer. Therefore, HOXB7 potentially can be a therapeutic target for oral cancer.

Cirillo N, Hassona Y, Celentano A, et al.
Cancer-associated fibroblasts regulate keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion via TGF-β-dependent pathways in genotype-specific oral cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2017; 38(1):76-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
The interrelationship between malignant epithelium and the underlying stroma is of fundamental importance in tumour development and progression. In the present study, we used cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) derived from genetically unstable oral squamous cell carcinomas (GU-OSCC), tumours that are characterized by the loss of genes such as TP53 and p16

Liu M, Xiusheng H, Xiao X, Wang Y
Overexpression of miR-422a inhibits cell proliferation and invasion, and enhances chemosensitivity in osteosarcoma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(6):3371-3378 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive malignant tumor that is mesenchymal in origin with a very low 5-year survival rate, particularly in the patients with locally advanced or metastatic tumors and recurrent disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in essential biological processes as cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in normal or cancer cells, including OS cells. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-422a in OS. We demonstrated that miR-422a expression was significantly downregulated in OS tissues and cell lines compared with the normal controls. In addition, overexpression of miR-422a was able to inhibit cell proliferation and the ability of invasion, and enhance paclitaxel and cisplatin-mediated apoptosis in OS cells. Inversely, downregulation of miR-422a exhibited an opposite role. We further demonstrated that miR-422a directly targeted TGFβ2 and regulated its expression and the activation of downstream molecules, smad2 and smad3 in OS cells. Thus, miR-422a/TGFβ2/smad axis may be a potential target for OS treatment.

Wang Z, Nakamura K, Jinnin M, et al.
Establishment and gene expression analysis of disease-derived induced pluripotent stem cells of scleroderma.
J Dermatol Sci. 2016; 84(2):186-196 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We recently generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from cultured dermal fibroblasts of systemic sclerosis (SSc-iPSC) to study the disease mechanisms.
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we have performed gene expression analysis using cultured SSc dermal fibroblasts, SSc-iPSC, and fibroblasts re-differentiated from SSc-iPSC (SSc-iPSC-FB).
METHODS: mRNA and protein levels of collagen and integrins were analyzed using PCR array, PCR, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence.
RESULTS: We compared expression pattern of TGF-β-related genes between normal iPSC (NS-iPSC) and SSc-iPSC by PCR array, and found constitutive and significant down-regulation of S100A8, Smad6, and TGF-β2 in SSc-iPSC. The expression of these genes was not altered in cultured SSc fibroblasts or SSc-iPSC-FB compared to NS fibroblasts or NS-iPSC-FB, respectively. On the other hand, the expression of collagen, integrin α and β was up-regulated in SSc fibroblasts, while SSc-iPSC-FB showed normalized levels of collagen and integrin β.
CONCLUSIONS: So far, there have been no reports investigating disease-derived iPSCs of SSc. Our results suggest that S100A8, Smad6, and TGF-β2 may be the key molecules of this disease. On the other hand, the normalization of collagen and integrins by iPSC reprogramming suggests that epigenetic modifications of genes may play a role in the mechanism of collagen accumulation seen in SSc fibroblasts, and that gene reprogramming may become novel therapeutic approach. As the limitation of this study, we established only one iPSC line from each patient, which may not be enough to discuss disease-specific phenotypes. Larger studies including increased number of iPSC lines are needed in the future.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. TGFB2, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 01 September, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999