EP300

Gene Summary

Gene:EP300; E1A binding protein p300
Aliases: p300, KAT3B, RSTS2
Location:22q13.2
Summary:This gene encodes the adenovirus E1A-associated cellular p300 transcriptional co-activator protein. It functions as histone acetyltransferase that regulates transcription via chromatin remodeling and is important in the processes of cell proliferation and differentiation. It mediates cAMP-gene regulation by binding specifically to phosphorylated CREB protein. This gene has also been identified as a co-activator of HIF1A (hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha), and thus plays a role in the stimulation of hypoxia-induced genes such as VEGF. Defects in this gene are a cause of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome and may also play a role in epithelial cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:histone acetyltransferase p300
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 16 March 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Rubinstein-Taybi SyndromeEP300 mutation in Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome is an autosomal dominant chromosomal disorder characterized by mental retardation, broad thumbs, and webbing of fingers and toes. Individuals with RTS have an increased risk of brain tumors and certain other cancers.
View Publications21
Breast CancerEP300 and Breast Cancer View Publications20
Lung CancerEP300 and Lung Cancer View Publications9
Ovarian CancerEP300 and Ovarian Cancer View Publications7
Esophageal CancerEP300 and Esophageal CancerPrognostic View Publications5
Stomach CancerEP300 and Stomach Cancer View Publications2

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: EP300 (cancer-related)

Rosanò L, Cianfrocca R, Tocci P, et al.
Endothelin A receptor/β-arrestin signaling to the Wnt pathway renders ovarian cancer cells resistant to chemotherapy.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(24):7453-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
The high mortality of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is mainly caused by resistance to the available therapies. In EOC, the endothelin-1 (ET-1, EDN1)-endothelin A receptor (ETAR, EDNRA) signaling axis regulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a chemoresistant phenotype. However, there is a paucity of knowledge about how ET-1 mediates drug resistance. Here, we define a novel bypass mechanism through which ETAR/β-arrestin-1 (β-arr1, ARRB1) links Wnt signaling to acquire chemoresistant and EMT phenotype. We found that ETAR/β-arr1 activity promoted nuclear complex with β-catenin and p300, resulting in histone acetylation, chromatin reorganization, and enhanced transcription of genes, such as ET-1, enhancing the network that sustains chemoresistance. Silencing of β-arr1 or pharmacologic treatment with the dual ETAR/ETBR antagonist macitentan prevented core complex formation and restored drug sensitivity, impairing the signaling pathways involved in cell survival, EMT, and invasion. In vivo macitentan treatment reduced tumor growth, vascularization, intravasation, and metastatic progression. The combination of macitentan and cisplatinum resulted in the potentiation of the cytotoxic effect, indicating that macitentan can enhance sensitivity to chemotherapy. Investigations in clinical specimens of chemoresistant EOC tissues confirmed increased recruitment of β-arr1 and β-catenin to ET-1 gene promoter. In these tissues, high expression of ETAR significantly associated with poor clinical outcome and chemoresistance. Collectively, our findings reveal the existence of a novel mechanism by which ETAR/β-arr1 signaling is integrated with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway to sustain chemoresistance in EOC, and they offer a solid rationale for clinical evaluation of macitentan in combination with chemotherapy to overcome chemoresistance in this setting.

Jeon BN, Kim MK, Yoon JH, et al.
Two ZNF509 (ZBTB49) isoforms induce cell-cycle arrest by activating transcription of p21/CDKN1A and RB upon exposure to genotoxic stress.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014; 42(18):11447-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
ZNF509 is unique among POK family proteins in that four isoforms are generated by alternative splicing. Short ZNF509 (ZNF509S1, -S2 and -S3) isoforms contain one or two out of the seven zinc-fingers contained in long ZNF509 (ZNF509L). Here, we investigated the functions of ZNF509 isoforms in response to DNA damage, showing isoforms to be induced by p53. Intriguingly, to inhibit proliferation of HCT116 and HEK293 cells, we found that ZNF509L activates p21/CDKN1A transcription, while ZNF509S1 induces RB. ZNF509L binds to the p21/CDKN1A promoter either alone or by interacting with MIZ-1 to recruit the co-activator p300 to activate p21/CDKN1A transcription. In contrast, ZNF509S1 binds to the distal RB promoter to interact and interfere with the MIZF repressor, resulting in derepression and transcription of RB. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that ZNF509 is highly expressed in normal epithelial cells, but was completely repressed in tumor tissues of the colon, lung and skin, indicating a possible role as a tumor suppressor.

Yoo HM, Kang SH, Kim JY, et al.
Modification of ASC1 by UFM1 is crucial for ERα transactivation and breast cancer development.
Mol Cell. 2014; 56(2):261-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Biological roles for UFM1, a ubiquitin-like protein, are largely unknown, and therefore we screened for targets of ufmylation. Here we show that ufmylation of the nuclear receptor coactivator ASC1 is a key step for ERα transactivation in response to 17β-estradiol (E2). In the absence of E2, the UFM1-specific protease UfSP2 was bound to ASC1, which maintains ASC1 in a nonufmylated state. In the presence of E2, ERα bound ASC1 and displaced UfSP2, leading to ASC1 ufmylation. Polyufmylation of ASC1 enhanced association of p300, SRC1, and ASC1 at promoters of ERα target genes. ASC1 overexpression or UfSP2 knockdown promoted ERα-mediated tumor formation in vivo, which could be abrogated by treatment with the anti-breast cancer drug tamoxifen. In contrast, expression of ufmylation-deficient ASC1 mutant or knockdown of the UFM1-activating E1 enzyme UBA5 prevented tumor growth. These findings establish a role for ASC1 ufmylation in breast cancer development by promoting ERα transactivation.

Gao YB, Chen ZL, Li JG, et al.
Genetic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(10):1097-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the deadliest cancers. We performed exome sequencing on 113 tumor-normal pairs, yielding a mean of 82 non-silent mutations per tumor, and 8 cell lines. The mutational profile of ESCC closely resembles those of squamous cell carcinomas of other tissues but differs from that of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation were mutated in 99% of cases by somatic alterations of TP53 (93%), CCND1 (33%), CDKN2A (20%), NFE2L2 (10%) and RB1 (9%). Histone modifier genes were frequently mutated, including KMT2D (also called MLL2; 19%), KMT2C (MLL3; 6%), KDM6A (7%), EP300 (10%) and CREBBP (6%). EP300 mutations were associated with poor survival. The Hippo and Notch pathways were dysregulated by mutations in FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 or FAT4 (27%) or AJUBA (JUB; 7%) and NOTCH1, NOTCH2 or NOTCH3 (22%) or FBXW7 (5%), respectively. These results define the mutational landscape of ESCC and highlight mutations in epigenetic modulators with prognostic and potentially therapeutic implications.

Thapa D, Meng P, Bedolla RG, et al.
NQO1 suppresses NF-κB-p300 interaction to regulate inflammatory mediators associated with prostate tumorigenesis.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(19):5644-55 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: NADPH reductase
NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is needed to maintain a cellular pool of antioxidants, and this enzyme may contribute to tumorigenesis on the basis of studies in NQO1-deficient mice. In this work, we sought deeper insights into how NQO1 contributes to prostate carcinogenesis, a setting in which oxidative stress and inflammation are established contributors to disease development and progression. In the TRAMP mouse model of prostate cancer, NQO1 was highly expressed in tumor cells. NQO1 silencing in prostate cancer cells increased levels of nuclear IKKα and NF-κB while decreasing the levels of p53, leading to interactions between NF-κB and p300 that reinforce survival signaling. Gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of a set of immune-associated transcripts associated with inflammation and tumorigenesis in cells in which NQO1 was attenuated, with IL8 confirmed functionally in cell culture as one key NQO1-supported cytokine. Notably, NQO1-silenced prostate cancer cells were more resistant to androgen deprivation. Furthermore, NQO1 inhibition increased migration, including under conditions of androgen deprivation. These results reveal a molecular link between NQO1 expression and proinflammatory cytokine signaling in prostate cancer. Furthermore, our results suggest that altering redox homeostasis through NQO1 inhibition might promote androgen-independent cell survival via opposing effects on NF-κB and p53 function.

Lenz HJ, Kahn M
Safely targeting cancer stem cells via selective catenin coactivator antagonism.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(9):1087-92 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/09/2015 Related Publications
Throughout our life, long-lived somatic stem cells (SSC) regenerate adult tissues both during homeostatic processes and repair after injury. The role of aberrant regulation of SSC has also recently gained prominence in the field of cancer research. Following malignant transformation, so termed cancer stem cells (CSC), endowed with the same properties as SSC (i.e. the ability to both self-renew and generate differentiated progenitors), play a major part in tumor initiation, therapy resistance and ultimately relapse. The same signaling pathways involved in regulating SSC maintenance are involved in the regulation of CSC. CSC exist in a wide array of tumor types, including leukemias, and brain, breast, prostate and colon tumors. Consequently, one of the key goals in cancer research over the past decade has been to develop therapeutic strategies to safely eliminate the CSC population without damaging the endogenous SSC population. A major hurdle to this goal lies in the identification of the key mechanisms that distinguish CSC from the normal endogenous tissue stem cells. This review will discuss the discovery of the specific CBP/catenin antagonist ICG-001 and the ongoing clinical development of the second generation CBP/catenin antagonist PRI-724. Importantly, specific CBP/catenin antagonists appear to have the ability to safely eliminate CSC by taking advantage of an intrinsic differential preference in the way SSC and CSC divide.

Yang H, Salz T, Zajac-Kaye M, et al.
Overexpression of histone deacetylases in cancer cells is controlled by interplay of transcription factors and epigenetic modulators.
FASEB J. 2014; 28(10):4265-79 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) that deacetylate histone and nonhistone proteins play crucial roles in a variety of cellular processes. The overexpression of HDACs is reported in many cancer types and is directly linked to accelerated cell proliferation and survival. However, little is known about how HDAC expression is regulated in cancer cells. In this study, we found that HDAC1 and HDAC2 promoters are regulated through collaborative binding of transcription factors Sp1/Sp3 and epigenetic modulators, including histone H3K4 methyltransferase SET1 and histone acetyltransferase p300, whose levels are also elevated in colon cancer cell lines and patient samples. Interestingly, Sp1 and Sp3 differentially regulate HDAC1 and HDAC2 promoter activity. In addition, Sp1/Sp3 recruits SET1 and p300 to the promoters. SET1 knockdown (KD) results in a loss of the H3K4 trimethylation mark at the promoters, as well as destabilizes p300 at the promoters. Conversely, p300 also influences SET1 recruitment and H3K4me3 level, indicating a crosstalk between p300 and SET1. Further, SET1 KD reduces Sp1 binding to the HDAC1 promoter through the increase of Sp1 acetylation. These results indicate that interactions among transcription factors and epigenetic modulators orchestrate the activation of HDAC1 and HDAC2 promoter activity in colon cancer cells.

Kishimoto W, Nishikori M
Molecular pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma.
J Clin Exp Hematop. 2014; 54(1):23-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
t(14;18) translocation has been recognized as a genetic hallmark of follicular lymphoma (FL), but it is now known that additional genetic aberrations are required for the development of FL. With recent advances in the technology for DNA analysis, recurrent gene aberrations such as TNFRSF14, EPHA7, EZH2, CREBBP, EP300, MLL2 and MEF2B have been identified. A few t(14;18)-positive B cells can be detected in healthy individuals, and these B cells are reported to have their own biological features that are closely associated with the pathogenesis of FL. On the other hand, FL is characterized by a unique microenvironment. Further understanding of the pathogenesis of FL is expected to contribute to the development of novel treatment approaches for this disease.

Reece KM, Richardson ED, Cook KM, et al.
Epidithiodiketopiperazines (ETPs) exhibit in vitro antiangiogenic and in vivo antitumor activity by disrupting the HIF-1α/p300 complex in a preclinical model of prostate cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
The downstream targets of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) play an important role in tumor progression and angiogenesis. Therefore, inhibition of HIF-mediated transcription has potential in the treatment of cancer. One attractive strategy for inhibiting HIF activity is the disruption of the HIF-1α/p300 complex, as p300 is a crucial coactivator of hypoxia-inducible transcription. Several members of the epidithiodiketopiperazine (ETP) family of natural products have been shown to disrupt the HIF-1α/p300 complex in vitro; namely, gliotoxin, chaetocin, and chetomin. Here, we further characterized the molecular mechanisms underlying the antiangiogenic and antitumor effects of these ETPs using a preclinical model of prostate cancer. In the rat aortic ring angiogenesis assay, gliotoxin, chaetocin, and chetomin significantly inhibited microvessel outgrowth at a GI50 of 151, 8, and 20 nM, respectively. In vitro co-immunoprecipitation studies in prostate cancer cell extracts demonstrated that these compounds disrupted the HIF-1α/p300 complex. The downstream effects of inhibiting the HIF-1α/p300 interaction were evaluated by determining HIF-1α target gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Dose-dependent decreases in levels of secreted VEGF were detected by ELISA in the culture media of treated cells, and the subsequent downregulation of VEGFA, LDHA, and ENO1 HIF-1α target genes were confirmed by semi-quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, treatment with ETPs in mice bearing prostate tumor xenografts resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth. These results suggest that directly targeting the HIF-1α/p300 complex with ETPs may be an effective approach for inhibiting angiogenesis and tumor growth.

Mouradov D, Sloggett C, Jorissen RN, et al.
Colorectal cancer cell lines are representative models of the main molecular subtypes of primary cancer.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(12):3238-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human colorectal cancer cell lines are used widely to investigate tumor biology, experimental therapy, and biomarkers. However, to what extent these established cell lines represent and maintain the genetic diversity of primary cancers is uncertain. In this study, we profiled 70 colorectal cancer cell lines for mutations and DNA copy number by whole-exome sequencing and SNP microarray analyses, respectively. Gene expression was defined using RNA-Seq. Cell line data were compared with those published for primary colorectal cancers in The Cancer Genome Atlas. Notably, we found that exome mutation and DNA copy-number spectra in colorectal cancer cell lines closely resembled those seen in primary colorectal tumors. Similarities included the presence of two hypermutation phenotypes, as defined by signatures for defective DNA mismatch repair and DNA polymerase ε proofreading deficiency, along with concordant mutation profiles in the broadly altered WNT, MAPK, PI3K, TGFβ, and p53 pathways. Furthermore, we documented mutations enriched in genes involved in chromatin remodeling (ARID1A, CHD6, and SRCAP) and histone methylation or acetylation (ASH1L, EP300, EP400, MLL2, MLL3, PRDM2, and TRRAP). Chromosomal instability was prevalent in nonhypermutated cases, with similar patterns of chromosomal gains and losses. Although paired cell lines derived from the same tumor exhibited considerable mutation and DNA copy-number differences, in silico simulations suggest that these differences mainly reflected a preexisting heterogeneity in the tumor cells. In conclusion, our results establish that human colorectal cancer lines are representative of the main subtypes of primary tumors at the genomic level, further validating their utility as tools to investigate colorectal cancer biology and drug responses.

Yan F, Yu Y, Chow DC, et al.
Identification of verrucarin a as a potent and selective steroid receptor coactivator-3 small molecule inhibitor.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e95243 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Members of the steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family are overexpressed in numerous types of cancers. In particular, steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC-3) has been recognized as a critical coactivator associated with tumor initiation, progression, recurrence, metastasis, and chemoresistance where it interacts with multiple nuclear receptors and other transcription factors to enhance their transcriptional activities and facilitate cross-talk between pathways that stimulate cancer progression. Because of its central role as an integrator of growth signaling pathways, development of small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) against SRCs have the potential to simultaneously disrupt multiple signal transduction networks and transcription factors involved in tumor progression. Here, high-throughput screening was performed to identify compounds able to inhibit the intrinsic transcriptional activities of the three members of the SRC family. Verrucarin A was identified as a SMI that can selectively promote the degradation of the SRC-3 protein, while affecting SRC-1 and SRC-2 to a lesser extent and having no impact on CARM-1 and p300 protein levels. Verrucarin A was cytotoxic toward multiple types of cancer cells at low nanomolar concentrations, but not toward normal liver cells. Moreover, verrucarin A was able to inhibit expression of the SRC-3 target genes MMP2 and MMP13 and attenuated cancer cell migration. We found that verrucarin A effectively sensitized cancer cells to treatment with other anti-cancer drugs. Binding studies revealed that verrucarin A does not bind directly to SRC-3, suggesting that it inhibits SRC-3 through its interaction with an upstream effector. In conclusion, unlike other SRC SMIs characterized by our laboratory that directly bind to SRCs, verrucarin A is a potent and selective SMI that blocks SRC-3 function through an indirect mechanism.

Nye MD, Almada LL, Fernandez-Barrena MG, et al.
The transcription factor GLI1 interacts with SMAD proteins to modulate transforming growth factor β-induced gene expression in a p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor (PCAF)-dependent manner.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(22):15495-506 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/05/2015 Related Publications
The biological role of the transcription factor GLI1 in the regulation of tumor growth is well established; however, the molecular events modulating this phenomenon remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism underlying the role of GLI1 as an effector of TGFβ signaling in the regulation of gene expression in cancer cells. TGFβ stimulates GLI1 activity in cancer cells and requires its transcriptional activity to induce BCL2 expression. Analysis of the mechanism regulating this interplay identified a new transcriptional complex including GLI1 and the TGFβ-regulated transcription factor, SMAD4. We demonstrate that SMAD4 physically interacts with GLI1 for concerted regulation of gene expression and cellular survival. Activation of the TGFβ pathway induces GLI1-SMAD4 complex binding to the BCL2 promoter whereas disruption of the complex through SMAD4 RNAi depletion impairs GLI1-mediated transcription of BCL2 and cellular survival. Further characterization demonstrated that SMAD2 and the histone acetyltransferase, PCAF, participate in this regulatory mechanism. Both proteins bind to the BCL2 promoter and are required for TGFβ- and GLI1-stimulated gene expression. Moreover, SMAD2/4 RNAi experiments showed that these factors are required for the recruitment of GLI1 to the BCL2 promoter. Finally, we determined whether this novel GLI1 transcriptional pathway could regulate other TGFβ targets. We found that two additional TGFβ-stimulated genes, INTERLEUKIN-7 and CYCLIN D1, are dependent upon the intact GLI1-SMAD-PCAF complex for transcriptional activation. Collectively, these results define a novel epigenetic mechanism that uses the transcription factor GLI1 and its associated complex as a central effector to regulate gene expression in cancer cells.

Pop MS, Stransky N, Garvie CW, et al.
A small molecule that binds and inhibits the ETV1 transcription factor oncoprotein.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2014; 13(6):1492-502 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
Members of the ETS transcription factor family have been implicated in several cancers, where they are often dysregulated by genomic derangement. ETS variant 1 (ETV1) is an ETS factor gene that undergoes chromosomal translocation in prostate cancers and Ewing sarcomas, amplification in melanomas, and lineage dysregulation in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Pharmacologic perturbation of ETV1 would be appealing in these cancers; however, oncogenic transcription factors are often deemed "undruggable" by conventional methods. Here, we used small-molecule microarray screens to identify and characterize drug-like compounds that modulate the biologic function of ETV1. We identified the 1,3,5-triazine small molecule BRD32048 as a top candidate ETV1 perturbagen. BRD32048 binds ETV1 directly, modulating both ETV1-mediated transcriptional activity and invasion of ETV1-driven cancer cells. Moreover, BRD32048 inhibits p300-dependent acetylation of ETV1, thereby promoting its degradation. These results point to a new avenue for pharmacologic ETV1 inhibition and may inform a general means to discover small molecule perturbagens of transcription factor oncoproteins.

Wang R, Liu W, Helfer CM, et al.
Activation of SOX2 expression by BRD4-NUT oncogenic fusion drives neoplastic transformation in NUT midline carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(12):3332-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/06/2015 Related Publications
BRD4 is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of different cancers. It is also the target of translocation t(15;19) that accounts for the highly aggressive NUT midline carcinoma (NMC). We discovered that t(15;19) NMC cells display the ability to grow into stem cell-like spheres and express an exceptionally high level of the stem cell marker, SOX2. The BRD4-NUT fusion oncogene resulting from t(15;19) translocation is required for the abnormal activation of SOX2, which drives the stem cell-like proliferation and cellular transformation in NMC cells. SOX2 knockdown phenocopies the effects of BRD4-NUT inhibition, whereas ectopic SOX2 expression rescues the phenotype. The BRD4-NUT-induced abnormal SOX2 activation was observed in multiple NMC cell lines as well as in NMC primary tumors. We further demonstrate that BRD4-NUT oncoprotein recruits p300 to stimulate transcription activation and that inhibition of p300 represses SOX2 transcription in NMC cells. These studies identify this stem cell marker as a novel BRD4-NUT target that supports the highly aggressive transforming activity of t(15;19) carcinomas. Our study provides new mechanistic insights for understanding how alteration of BRD4 function by BRD4-NUT oncogene leads to the highly malignant NMC carcinoma. Because abnormal stem cell self-renewal is frequently observed during tumor formation and metastasis, the aberrant stem cell-like proliferation associated with BRD4 dysregulation observed in NMC carcinoma may have implications for studying the oncogenic mechanism of other BRD4-associated tumors.

Chabot PR, Raiola L, Lussier-Price M, et al.
Structural and functional characterization of a complex between the acidic transactivation domain of EBNA2 and the Tfb1/p62 subunit of TFIIH.
PLoS Pathog. 2014; 10(3):e1004042 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/06/2015 Related Publications
Infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can lead to a number of human diseases including Hodgkin's and Burkitt's lymphomas. The development of these EBV-linked diseases is associated with the presence of nine viral latent proteins, including the nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2). The EBNA2 protein plays a crucial role in EBV infection through its ability to activate transcription of both host and viral genes. As part of this function, EBNA2 associates with several host transcriptional regulatory proteins, including the Tfb1/p62 (yeast/human) subunit of the general transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) and the histone acetyltransferase CBP(CREB-binding protein)/p300, through interactions with its C-terminal transactivation domain (TAD). In this manuscript, we examine the interaction of the acidic TAD of EBNA2 (residues 431-487) with the Tfb1/p62 subunit of TFIIH and CBP/p300 using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimeter (ITC) and transactivation studies in yeast. NMR studies show that the TAD of EBNA2 binds to the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of Tfb1 (Tfb1PH) and that residues 448-471 (EBNA2₄₄₈₋₄₇₁) are necessary and sufficient for this interaction. NMR structural characterization of a Tfb1PH-EBNA2₄₄₈₋₄₇₁ complex demonstrates that the intrinsically disordered TAD of EBNA2 forms a 9-residue α-helix in complex with Tfb1PH. Within this helix, three hydrophobic amino acids (Trp458, Ile461 and Phe462) make a series of important interactions with Tfb1PH and their importance is validated in ITC and transactivation studies using mutants of EBNA2. In addition, NMR studies indicate that the same region of EBNA2 is also required for binding to the KIX domain of CBP/p300. This study provides an atomic level description of interactions involving the TAD of EBNA2 with target host proteins. In addition, comparison of the Tfb1PH-EBNA2₄₄₈₋₄₇₁ complex with structures of the TAD of p53 and VP16 bound to Tfb1PH highlights the versatility of intrinsically disordered acidic TADs in recognizing common target host proteins.

Li D, Bi FF, Chen NN, et al.
Epigenetic repression of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) in BRCA1-mutated breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(5):1315-25 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/06/2015 Related Publications
Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) plays a critical role in breast cancer progression. However, the epigenetic mechanism regulating PEMT transcription remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the first promoter-specific transcript 1 is the major PEMT mRNA species, and methylation of the -132 site is a key regulatory element for the PEMT gene in BRCA1-mutated breast cancer. Mechanistically, hypermethylated -132 site-mediated loss of active histone marks H3K9ac and increase of repressive histone marks H3K9me enrichment synergistically inhibited PEMT transcription. Clinicopathological data indicated that a hypermethylated -132 site was associated with histological grade (P = 0.031) and estrogen receptor status (P = 0.004); univariate survival and multivariate analyses demonstrated that lymph node metastasis was an independent and reliable prognostic factor for BRCA1-mutated breast cancer patients. Our findings imply that genetic (e.g., BRCA1 mutation) and epigenetic mechanisms (e.g., DNA methylation and histone modifications) are jointly involved in the malignant progression of PEMT-related breast cancer.

Song Y, Li L, Ou Y, et al.
Identification of genomic alterations in oesophageal squamous cell cancer.
Nature. 2014; 509(7498):91-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oesophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive cancers and is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Approximately 70% of global oesophageal cancer cases occur in China, with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) being the histopathological form in the vast majority of cases (>90%). Currently, there are limited clinical approaches for the early diagnosis and treatment of ESCC, resulting in a 10% five-year survival rate for patients. However, the full repertoire of genomic events leading to the pathogenesis of ESCC remains unclear. Here we describe a comprehensive genomic analysis of 158 ESCC cases, as part of the International Cancer Genome Consortium research project. We conducted whole-genome sequencing in 17 ESCC cases and whole-exome sequencing in 71 cases, of which 53 cases, plus an additional 70 ESCC cases not used in the whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing, were subjected to array comparative genomic hybridization analysis. We identified eight significantly mutated genes, of which six are well known tumour-associated genes (TP53, RB1, CDKN2A, PIK3CA, NOTCH1, NFE2L2), and two have not previously been described in ESCC (ADAM29 and FAM135B). Notably, FAM135B is identified as a novel cancer-implicated gene as assayed for its ability to promote malignancy of ESCC cells. Additionally, MIR548K, a microRNA encoded in the amplified 11q13.3-13.4 region, is characterized as a novel oncogene, and functional assays demonstrate that MIR548K enhances malignant phenotypes of ESCC cells. Moreover, we have found that several important histone regulator genes (MLL2 (also called KMT2D), ASH1L, MLL3 (KMT2C), SETD1B, CREBBP and EP300) are frequently altered in ESCC. Pathway assessment reveals that somatic aberrations are mainly involved in the Wnt, cell cycle and Notch pathways. Genomic analyses suggest that ESCC and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma share some common pathogenic mechanisms, and ESCC development is associated with alcohol drinking. This study has explored novel biological markers and tumorigenic pathways that would greatly improve therapeutic strategies for ESCC.

Wisnieski F, Calcagno DQ, Leal MF, et al.
Differential expression of histone deacetylase and acetyltransferase genes in gastric cancer and their modulation by trichostatin A.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):6373-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, even though its incidence and mortality have declined over the recent few decades. Epigenetic control using histone deacetylase inhibitors, such as trichostatin A (TSA), is a promising cancer therapy. This study aimed to assess the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of three histone deacetylases (HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3), two histone acetyltransferases (GCN5 and PCAF), and two possible targets of these histone modifiers (MYC and CDKN1A) in 50 matched pairs of gastric tumors and corresponding adjacent nontumors samples from patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, as well as their correlations and their possible associations with clinicopathological features. Additionally, we evaluated whether these genes are sensitive to TSA in gastric cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrated downregulation of HDAC1, PCAF, and CDKN1A in gastric tumors compared with adjacent nontumors (P < 0.05). On the other hand, upregulation of HDAC2, GCN5, and MYC was observed in gastric tumors compared with adjacent nontumors (P < 0.05). The mRNA level of MYC was correlated to HDAC3 and GCN5 (P < 0.05), whereas CDKN1A was correlated to HDAC1 and GCN5 (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). In addition, the reduced expression of PCAF was associated with intestinal-type gastric cancer (P = 0.03) and TNM stages I/II (P = 0.01). The increased expression of GCN5 was associated with advanced stage gastric cancer (P = 0.02) and tumor invasion (P = 0.03). The gastric cell lines treated with TSA showed different patterns of histone deacetylase and acetyltransferase mRNA expression, downregulation of MYC, and upregulation of CDKN1A. Our findings suggest that alteration of histone modifier genes play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis, contributing to MYC and CDKN1A deregulation. In addition, all genes studied here are modulated by TSA, although this modulation appears to be dependent of the genetic background of the cell line.

Davies AH, Reipas KM, Pambid MR, et al.
YB-1 transforms human mammary epithelial cells through chromatin remodeling leading to the development of basal-like breast cancer.
Stem Cells. 2014; 32(6):1437-50 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/06/2015 Related Publications
There is growing evidence that cancer-initiation could result from epigenetic changes. Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is a transcription/translation factor that promotes the formation of tumors in transgenic mice; however, the underlying molecular events are not understood. To explore this in a human model system, YB-1 was expressed in mammary epithelial cells under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter. The induction of YB-1 promoted phenotypes associated with malignancy in three-dimensional breast acini cultures. This was attributed to YB-1 enhancing the expression and activity of the histone acetyltransferase p300 leading to chromatin remodeling. Specifically, this relaxation of chromatin allowed YB-1 to bind to the BMI1 promoter. The induction of BMI1 engaged the Polycomb complex resulting in histone H2A ubiquitylation and repression of the CDKN2A locus. These events manifested functionally as enhanced self-renewal capacity that occurred in a BMI1-dependent manner. Conversely, p300 inhibition with anacardic acid prevented YB-1 from binding to the BMI1 promoter and thereby subverted self-renewal. Despite these early changes, full malignant transformation was not achieved until RSK2 became overexpressed concomitant with elevated human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) activity. The YB-1/RSK2/hTERT expressing cells formed tumors in mice that were molecularly subtyped as basal-like breast cancer. We conclude that YB-1 cooperates with p300 to allow BMI1 to over-ride p16(INK4a) -mediated cell cycle arrest enabling self-renewal and the development of aggressive breast tumors.

Roy DM, Walsh LA, Chan TA
Driver mutations of cancer epigenomes.
Protein Cell. 2014; 5(4):265-96 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/06/2015 Related Publications
Epigenetic alterations are associated with all aspects of cancer, from tumor initiation to cancer progression and metastasis. It is now well understood that both losses and gains of DNA methylation as well as altered chromatin organization contribute significantly to cancer-associated phenotypes. More recently, new sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of driver mutations in epigenetic regulators, providing a mechanistic link between the cancer epigenome and genetic alterations. Oncogenic activating mutations are now known to occur in a number of epigenetic modifiers (i.e. IDH1/2, EZH2, DNMT3A), pinpointing epigenetic pathways that are involved in tumorigenesis. Similarly, investigations into the role of inactivating mutations in chromatin modifiers (i.e. KDM6A, CREBBP/EP300, SMARCB1) implicate many of these genes as tumor suppressors. Intriguingly, a number of neoplasms are defined by a plethora of mutations in epigenetic regulators, including renal, bladder, and adenoid cystic carcinomas. Particularly striking is the discovery of frequent histone H3.3 mutations in pediatric glioma, a particularly aggressive neoplasm that has long remained poorly understood. Cancer epigenetics is a relatively new, promising frontier with much potential for improving cancer outcomes. Already, therapies such as 5-azacytidine and decitabine have proven that targeting epigenetic alterations in cancer can lead to tangible benefits. Understanding how genetic alterations give rise to the cancer epigenome will offer new possibilities for developing better prognostic and therapeutic strategies.

Jeong E, Koo JE, Yeon SH, et al.
PPARδ deficiency disrupts hypoxia-mediated tumorigenic potential of colon cancer cells.
Mol Carcinog. 2014; 53(11):926-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ is highly expressed in colon epithelial cells and closely linked to colon carcinogenesis. However, the role of PPARδ in colon cancer cells in a hypoxic tumor microenvironment is not fully understood. We found that expression of the tumor-promoting cytokines, IL-8 and VEGF, induced by hypoxia (<1% O2) and deferoxamine (a hypoxia mimetic) was significantly attenuated in PPARδ-deficient HCT116 colon cancer cells. Consequently, PPARδ-knockout colon cancer cells exposed to hypoxia and deferoxamine failed to stimulate endothelial cell vascularization and macrophage migration/proliferation, whereas wild-type cells were able to induce angiogenesis and macrophage activation in response to hypoxic stress. Hypoxic stress induced transcriptional activation of PPARδ, but not its protein expression, in HCT116 cells. Exogenous expression of p300 potentiated deferoxamine-induced PPARδ transactivation, while siRNA knockdown of p300 abolished hypoxia- and deferoxamine-induced PPARδ transactivation. PPARδ associated with p300 upon hypoxic stress as demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation studies. PI3K inhibitors or siRNA knockdown of Akt suppressed the PPARδ transactivation induced by hypoxia and deferoxamine in HCT116 cells, leading to decreased expression of IL-8 and VEGF. Collectively, these results reveal that PPARδ is required for hypoxic stress-mediated cytokine expression in colon cancer cells, resulting in promotion of angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment, and macrophage proliferation in the tumor microenvironment. p300 and the PI3K/Akt pathway play a role in the regulation of PPARδ transactivation induced by hypoxic stress. Our results demonstrate the positive crosstalk between PPARδ in tumor cells and the hypoxic tumor microenvironment and provide potential therapeutic targets for colon cancer.

Pietras A, Katz AM, Ekström EJ, et al.
Osteopontin-CD44 signaling in the glioma perivascular niche enhances cancer stem cell phenotypes and promotes aggressive tumor growth.
Cell Stem Cell. 2014; 14(3):357-69 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/06/2015 Related Publications
Stem-like glioma cells reside within a perivascular niche and display hallmark radiation resistance. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying these properties will be vital for the development of effective therapies. Here, we show that the stem cell marker CD44 promotes cancer stem cell phenotypes and radiation resistance. In a mouse model of glioma, Cd44(-/-) and Cd44(+/-) animals showed improved survival compared to controls. The CD44 ligand osteopontin shared a perivascular expression pattern with CD44 and promoted glioma stem cell-like phenotypes. These effects were mediated via the γ-secretase-regulated intracellular domain of CD44, which promoted aggressive glioma growth in vivo and stem cell-like phenotypes via CBP/p300-dependent enhancement of HIF-2α activity. In human glioblastoma multiforme, expression of CD44 correlated with hypoxia-induced gene signatures and poor survival. Altogether, these data suggest that in the glioma perivascular niche, osteopontin promotes stem cell-like properties and radiation resistance in adjacent tumor cells via activation of CD44 signaling.

Pattabiraman DR, McGirr C, Shakhbazov K, et al.
Interaction of c-Myb with p300 is required for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by human AML oncogenes.
Blood. 2014; 123(17):2682-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
The MYB oncogene is widely expressed in acute leukemias and is important for the continued proliferation of leukemia cells, suggesting that MYB may be a therapeutic target in these diseases. However, realization of this potential requires a significant therapeutic window for MYB inhibition, given its essential role in normal hematopoiesis, and an approach for developing an effective therapeutic. We previously showed that the interaction of c-Myb with the coactivator CBP/p300 is essential for its transforming activity. Here, by using cells from Booreana mice which carry a mutant allele of c-Myb, we show that this interaction is essential for in vitro transformation by the myeloid leukemia oncogenes AML1-ETO, AML1-ETO9a, MLL-ENL, and MLL-AF9. We further show that unlike cells from wild-type mice, Booreana cells transduced with AML1-ETO9a or MLL-AF9 retroviruses fail to generate leukemia upon transplantation into irradiated recipients. Finally, we have begun to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying these observations by gene expression profiling. This identified several genes previously implicated in myeloid leukemogenesis and HSC function as being regulated in a c-Myb-p300-dependent manner. These data highlight the importance of the c-Myb-p300 interaction in myeloid leukemogenesis and suggest disruption of this interaction as a potential therapeutic strategy for acute myeloid leukemia.

Xu X, Yu T, Shi J, et al.
Thymine DNA glycosylase is a positive regulator of Wnt signaling in colorectal cancer.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(13):8881-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/03/2015 Related Publications
Wnt signaling plays an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC). Although the mechanisms of β-catenin degradation have been well studied, the mechanism by which β-catenin activates transcription is still not fully understood. While screening a panel of DNA demethylases, we found that thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) up-regulated Wnt signaling. TDG interacts with the transcription factor TCF4 and coactivator CREB-binding protein/p300 in the Wnt pathway. Knocking down TDG by shRNAs inhibited the proliferation of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. In CRC patients, TDG levels were significantly higher in tumor tissues than in the adjacent normal tissues. These results suggest that TDG warrants consideration as a potential biomarker for CRC and as a target for CRC treatment.

Haery L, Lugo-Picó JG, Henry RA, et al.
Histone acetyltransferase-deficient p300 mutants in diffuse large B cell lymphoma have altered transcriptional regulatory activities and are required for optimal cell growth.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:29 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent genome-wide studies have shown that approximately 30% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cases harbor mutations in the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) coactivators p300 or CBP. The majority of these mutations reduce or eliminate the catalytic HAT activity. We previously demonstrated that the human DLBCL cell line RC-K8 expresses a C-terminally truncated, HAT-defective p300 protein (p300ΔC-1087), whose expression is essential for cell proliferation.
METHODS: Using results from large-scale DLBCL studies, we have identified and characterized a second C-terminally truncated, HAT-defective p300 mutant, p300ΔC-820, expressed in the SUDHL2 DLBCL cell line. Properties of p300ΔC-820 were characterized in the SUDHL2 DLBCL cell line by Western blotting, co-immunoprecipitation, and shRNA gene knockdown, as well by using cDNA expression vectors for p300ΔC-820 in pull-down assays, transcriptional reporter assays, and immunofluorescence experiments. A mass spectrometry-based method was used to compare the histone acetylation profile of DLBCL cell lines expressing various levels of wild-type p300.
RESULTS: We show that the SUDHL2 cell line expresses a C-terminally truncated, HAT-defective form of p300 (p300ΔC-820), but no wild-type p300. The p300ΔC-820 protein has a wild-type ability to localize to subnuclear "speckles," but has a reduced ability to enhance transactivation by transcription factor REL. Knockdown of p300ΔC-820 in SUDHL2 cells reduced their proliferation and soft agar colony-forming ability. In RC-K8 cells, knockdown of p300ΔC-1087 resulted in increased expression of mRNA and protein for REL target genes A20 and IκBα, two genes that have been shown to limit the growth of RC-K8 cells when overexpressed. Among a panel of B-lymphoma cell lines, low-level expression of full-length p300 protein, which is characteristic of the SUDHL2 and RC-K8 cells, was associated with decreased acetylation of histone H3 at lysines 14 and 18.
CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of p300 mutations in DLBCL suggests that HAT-deficient p300 activity defines a subtype of DLBCL, which we have investigated using human DLBCL cell lines RC-K8 and SUDHL2. Our results suggest that truncated p300 proteins contribute to DLBCL cell growth by affecting the expression of specific genes, perhaps through a mechanism that involves alterations in global histone acetylation.

Rangel LP, Costa DC, Vieira TC, Silva JL
The aggregation of mutant p53 produces prion-like properties in cancer.
Prion. 2014 Jan-Feb; 8(1):75-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor suppressor protein p53 loses its function in more than 50% of human malignant tumors. Recent studies have suggested that mutant p53 can form aggregates that are related to loss-of-function effects, negative dominance and gain-of-function effects and cancers with a worsened prognosis. In recent years, several degenerative diseases have been shown to have prion-like properties similar to mammalian prion proteins (PrPs). However, whereas prion diseases are rare, the incidence of these neurodegenerative pathologies is high. Malignant tumors involving mutated forms of the tumor suppressor p53 protein seem to have similar substrata. The aggregation of the entire p53 protein and three functional domains of p53 into amyloid oligomers and fibrils has been demonstrated. Amyloid aggregates of mutant p53 have been detected in breast cancer and malignant skin tumors. Most p53 mutations related to cancer development are found in the DNA-binding domain (p53C), which has been experimentally shown to form amyloid oligomers and fibrils. Several computation programs have corroborated the predicted propensity of p53C to form aggregates, and some of these programs suggest that p53C is more likely to form aggregates than the globular domain of PrP. Overall, studies imply that mutant p53 exerts a dominant-negative regulatory effect on wild-type (WT) p53 and exerts gain-of-function effects when co-aggregating with other proteins such as p63, p73 and acetyltransferase p300. We review here the prion-like behavior of oncogenic p53 mutants that provides an explanation for their dominant-negative and gain-of-function properties and for the high metastatic potential of cancers bearing p53 mutations. The inhibition of the aggregation of p53 into oligomeric and fibrillar amyloids appears to be a promising target for therapeutic intervention in malignant tumor diseases.

Chen H, Guan Y, Yuan G, et al.
A perylene derivative regulates HIF-1α and Stat3 signaling pathways.
Bioorg Med Chem. 2014; 22(4):1496-505 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is becoming increasingly evident that improving the cure rate of many cancers will require treatment regimens hit more than one validated tumor targets. Developing an anti-cancer agent that targets two oncoproteins simultaneously is a promising strategy for accomplishing this goal. It would be expected to promote drug efficacy, reduce therapy-resistant without introducing additional toxic side effects. HIF-1α is a key regulator of the cellular response to hypoxia and is involved in tumor angiogenesis and cancer cell survival, glucose metabolism, and invasion. Stat3 has several oncogenic functions, including suppression of anti-tumor immune responses and promotion of inflammation. Recently, we have identified the perylene derivative, TEL03, as a dual inhibitor that targets both HIF-1α and Stat3. TEL03 blocks the expression of both HIF-1α and Stat3, regulated oncogenes (e.g., Bcl-2, VEGF, Glut1, and others) in cancer cells, and induces cancer cell apoptosis. The results demonstrated that: (i) TEL03 blocks Stat3 phosphorylation, and inhibits Stat3 transcriptional activity; and (ii) interferes the binding of HIF-1α to p300/CBP inducing its degradation by proteasomes under hypoxic conditions. Our in vivo tests showed that as a dual inhibitor, TEL03 dramatically inhibited tumor growth, and provided the evidence that targeting both HIF-1α and Stat3 simultaneously could be a promising strategy for breast and pancreatic cancer therapies.

Zhong J, Ding L, Bohrer LR, et al.
p300 acetyltransferase regulates androgen receptor degradation and PTEN-deficient prostate tumorigenesis.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(6):1870-80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/03/2015 Related Publications
Overexpression of the histone acetyltransferase p300 is implicated in the proliferation and progression of prostate cancer, but evidence of a causal role is lacking. In this study, we provide genetic evidence that this generic transcriptional coactivator functions as a positive modifier of prostate tumorigenesis. In a mouse model of PTEN deletion-induced prostate cancer, genetic ablation of p300 attenuated expression of the androgen receptor (AR). This finding was confirmed in human prostate cancer cells in which PTEN expression was abolished by RNA interference-mediated attenuation. These results were consistent with clinical evidence that the expression of p300 and AR correlates positively in human prostate cancer specimens. Mechanistically, PTEN inactivation increased AR phosphorylation at serine 81 (Ser81) to promote p300 binding and acetylation of AR, thereby precluding its polyubiquitination and degradation. In support of these findings, in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer in the mouse, we found that p300 was crucial for AR target gene expression. Taken together, our work identifies p300 as a molecular determinant of AR degradation and highlights p300 as a candidate target to manage prostate cancer, especially in cases marked by PTEN loss.

Wang E, Zhang C, Polavaram N, et al.
The role of factor inhibiting HIF (FIH-1) in inhibiting HIF-1 transcriptional activity in glioblastoma multiforme.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e86102 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/03/2015 Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) accounts for about 38% of primary brain tumors in the United States. GBM is characterized by extensive angiogenesis induced by vascular growth factors and cytokines. The transcription of these growth factors and cytokines is regulated by the Hypoxia-Inducible-Factor-1(HIF-1), which is a key regulator mediating the cellular response to hypoxia. It is known that Factor Inhibiting HIF-1, or FIH-1, is also involved in the cellular response to hypoxia and has the capability to physically interact with HIF-1 and block its transcriptional activity under normoxic conditions. Delineation of the regulatory role of FIH-1 will help us to better understand the molecular mechanism responsible for tumor growth and progression and may lead to the design of new therapies targeting cellular pathways in response to hypoxia. Previous studies have shown that the chromosomal region of 10q24 containing the FIH-1 gene is often deleted in GBM, suggesting a role for the FIH-1 in GBM tumorigenesis and progression. In the current study, we found that FIH-1 is able to inhibit HIF-mediated transcription of GLUT1 and VEGF-A, even under hypoxic conditions in human glioblastoma cells. FIH-1 has been found to be more potent in inhibiting HIF function than PTEN. This observation points to the possibility that deletion of 10q23-24 and loss or decreased expression of FIH-1 gene may lead to a constitutive activation of HIF-1 activity, an alteration of HIF-1 targets such as GLUT-1 and VEGF-A, and may contribute to the survival of cancer cells in hypoxia and the development of hypervascularization observed in GBM. Therefore FIH-1 can be potential therapeutic target for the treatment of GBM patients with poor prognosis.

Wu D, Sunkel B, Chen Z, et al.
Three-tiered role of the pioneer factor GATA2 in promoting androgen-dependent gene expression in prostate cancer.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014; 42(6):3607-22 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/03/2015 Related Publications
In prostate cancer, androgen receptor (AR) binding and androgen-responsive gene expression are defined by hormone-independent binding patterns of the pioneer factors FoxA1 and GATA2. Insufficient evidence of the mechanisms by which GATA2 contributes to this process precludes complete understanding of a key determinant of tissue-specific AR activity. Our observations suggest that GATA2 facilitates androgen-responsive gene expression by three distinct modes of action. By occupying novel binding sites within the AR gene locus, GATA2 positively regulates AR expression before and after androgen stimulation. Additionally, GATA2 engages AR target gene enhancers prior to hormone stimulation, producing an active and accessible chromatin environment via recruitment of the histone acetyltransferase p300. Finally, GATA2 functions in establishing and/or sustaining basal locus looping by recruiting the Mediator subunit MED1 in the absence of androgen. These mechanisms may contribute to the generally positive role of GATA2 in defining AR genome-wide binding patterns that determine androgen-responsive gene expression profiles. We also find that GATA2 and FoxA1 exhibit both independent and codependent co-occupancy of AR target gene enhancers. Identifying these determinants of AR transcriptional activity may provide a foundation for the development of future prostate cancer therapeutics that target pioneer factor function.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. EP300 gene, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/EP300.htm Accessed:

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