Gene Summary

Gene:ABCG2; ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (Junior blood group)
Aliases: MRX, MXR, ABCP, BCRP, BMDP, MXR1, ABC15, BCRP1, CD338, GOUT1, MXR-1, CDw338, UAQTL1, EST157481
Summary:The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is included in the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the White subfamily. Alternatively referred to as a breast cancer resistance protein, this protein functions as a xenobiotic transporter which may play a major role in multi-drug resistance. It likely serves as a cellular defense mechanism in response to mitoxantrone and anthracycline exposure. Significant expression of this protein has been observed in the placenta, which may suggest a potential role for this molecule in placenta tissue. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ABCG2 (cancer-related)

Wang Y, Zhong Y, Hou T, et al.
PM2.5 induces EMT and promotes CSC properties by activating Notch pathway in vivo and vitro.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019; 178:159-167 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been closely linked to increased morbidity and mortality of lung cancer worldwide. However, the role of PM2.5 in the etiology of lung cancer and the mechanism involved in PM2.5 induced lung cancer are largely unknown. In this study, we performed chronic exposure animal model to investigate the carcinogenetic mechanisms of PM2.5 by targeting the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSC) properties through Notch1 signal pathway. The antagonism of Notch1 signal pathway was carried out in vitro cell lines of A549 and BEAS-2B to block EMT and CSC. We found that chronic PM2.5 exposure mice lung tissue pathology showed atypical hyperplasia of bronchiolar epithelium. Then, we discovered that chronic PM2.5 exposure induced notable EMT event and obvious CSC properties indicating the developing process of cell malignant behaviors. EMT characterized with decreased protein expression of E-cadherin and increased protein expression of Vimentin. CSC properties induced by chronic PM2.5 exposure characterized with increased cell-surface markers (ABCG2 and ALDH1A1) and self-renewal genes (SOX2 and OCT4). Furthermore, PM2.5 exposure activate Notch signal pathway by increasing expression of Notch1 and Hes1. At last, we blocked Notch signal pathway by inhibitor RO4929097 in vitro to explore the underlying mechanism mediating PM2.5 induced EMT and CSC. We found that blocking Notch1 could prevent PM2.5 induced malignant behaviors including EMT and CSC in A549 and BEAS-2B. These data revealed that the induction of EMT and CSC properties were involved in the lung cancer risk of PM2.5 in vivo, and blocking-up Notch1 may negatively regulate EMT and CSC to suppress the invasion and migration in vitro, thereby putatively serving as a novel therapeutic target for PM2.5 induced lung cancer.

Wu Y, Hu L, Qin Z, Wang X
MicroRNA‑302a upregulation mediates chemo‑resistance in prostate cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(5):4433-4440 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post‑transcriptional regulators that mediate the initiation and progression of human cancer. Growing evidence suggests that deregulation of miRNA expression levels underlies chemo‑resistance. To investigate whether miRNA‑302a (miR‑302a) is involved in mediating chemo‑resistance to paclitaxel in prostate cancer, a series of in vitro analyses were performed in paclitaxel‑resistant prostate cancer PC‑3PR cells and non‑resistant prostate cancer PC‑3 cells. It was demonstrated that the expression of miR‑302a was upregulated in PC‑3PR cells. Notably, ectopic expression of miR‑302a also increased resistance to paclitaxel in wild‑type PC‑3 cells. By contrast, silencing of miR‑302a in PC‑3PR cells sensitized the cells to paclitaxel. Gene and protein expression analyses suggested that the miR‑302a target gene breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) may mediate chemo‑resistance to paclitaxel in PC‑3PR cells. In conclusion, the data suggested that elevated miR‑302a levels, in part, mediate sensitivity to paclitaxel in prostate cancer through the aberrant regulation of its downstream targets, AOF2, BCRP and permeability glycoprotein 1. These data have implications for the development of novel therapeutics in prostate cancer that may improve sensitivity to chemotherapeutics.

Shi R, Wang C, Fu N, et al.
Downregulation of cytokeratin 18 enhances BCRP-mediated multidrug resistance through induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(5):3015-3026 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple drug resistance (MDR) and metastasis have been identified as the two major causes of the poor prognosis of patients with breast cancer. However, the relationship between MDR and metastasis has not been characterized. Epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process known to promote metastasis in cancer, has been shown to be associated with the MDR phenotype of many tumor types. Reduced cytokeratin 18 (CK18) expression is thought to be one of the hallmarks of EMT, and the role of CK18 in MDR of metastatic breast cancer remains unknown. In the present study, we revealed that the expression of CK18 was significantly downregulated in breast cancer tissues and in an MDR cell line overexpressing breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP), and the presence of low levels of CK18 was associated with TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, and unfavorable survival in breast cancer patients. Further results demonstrated that CK18 stable knockdown using shRNA increased BCRP expression and induced the EMT process in human breast cancer MCF‑7 cells. Moreover, CK18 knockdown was associated with the activation of the NF‑κB/Snail signaling pathway, which has been revealed to regulate EMT and BCRP. Based on these findings, we concluded that CK18 knockdown enhanced BCRP‑mediated MDR in MCF‑7 cells through EMT induction partly via the NF‑κB/Snail pathway. These findings provide a valuable insight into the potential role of CK18 in MDR, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Reduced expression of CK18 may be a novel biomarker for predicting the poor prognosis of breast cancer patients.

Koh SY, Moon JY, Unno T, Cho SK
Baicalein Suppresses Stem Cell-Like Characteristics in Radio- and Chemoresistant MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells through Up-Regulation of IFIT2.
Nutrients. 2019; 11(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Resistance to both chemotherapy and radiation therapy is frequent in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. We established treatment-resistant TNBC MDA-MB-231/IR cells by irradiating the parental MDA-MB-231 cells 25 times with 2 Gy irradiation and investigated the molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance. The resistant MDA-MB-231/IR cells were enhanced in migration, invasion, and stem cell-like characteristics. Pathway analysis by the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery revealed that the NF-κB pathway, TNF signaling pathway, and Toll-like receptor pathway were enriched in MDA-MB-231/IR cells. Among 77 differentially expressed genes revealed by transcriptome analysis, 12 genes involved in drug and radiation resistance, including interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 2 (IFIT2), were identified. We found that baicalein effectively reversed the expression of IFIT2, which is reported to be associated with metastasis, recurrence, and poor prognosis in TNBC patients. Baicalein sensitized radio- and chemoresistant cells and induced apoptosis, while suppressing stem cell-like characteristics, such as mammosphere formation, side population, expression of Oct3/4 and ABCG2, and CD44

El-Masry MW, Gouda HM, Shaheen IA, et al.
Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) gene expression in a cohort of adult Egyptian patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Afr Health Sci. 2018; 18(4):958-964 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), an aggressive clonal disease, is genetically heterozygous. The prognostic role of expression of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) gene, which behaves as a multidrug transporter, in adult AML is ambiguous.
Objective: The objective is to assess the level of mRNA expression of BCRP gene in newly diagnosed cytogenetically normal adult Egyptian AML patients; and to clarify its potential influence and association between therapeutic responsiveness and disease free survival.
Methods: The BCRP gene expression was evaluated by quantifying its mRNA using real time RT-PCR in fifty newly diagnosed cytogenetically normal adult AML patients and 20 healthy normal controls. The expression was evaluated in relation to clinical and prognostic factors, response to treatment and the survival rate.
Results: BCRP mRNA was over expressed in adult AML patients compared to controls. This study showed a positive statistical correlation between BCRP gene expression and the percent of CD34 expression. Statistical analysis did not reveal any association between BCRP expression level and chemotherapeutic responsiveness or disease free survival rate.
Conclusion: The significance of BCRP gene expression and its function in AML is very complicated, therefore more standardized clinical studies are needed.

Zhang H, Jiang H, Zhang H, et al.
Ribophorin II potentiates P-glycoprotein- and ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance via activating ERK pathway in gastric cancer.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2019; 128:574-582 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a critical reason of cancer chemotherapy failure. Ribophorin II (RPN2) has emerged as a vital regulator of MDR in multiple cancers including gastric cancer (GC). However, the roles and molecular mechanisms of RPN2 in MDR have not been well featured till now. The present study aimed to explore the roles and molecular mechanisms of RPN2 in MDR of drug-resistant GC cells. Results showed that the expressions of RPN2, multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1), and ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) were upregulated in SGC7901/DDP and SGC7901/VCR cells. Knockdown of RPN2 alleviated MDR through downregulating MDR1 and ABCG2 expressions in SGC7901/DDP and SGC7901/VCR cells. RPN2 depletion inhibited the activation of MEK/ERK pathway. RPN2 overexpression enhanced MDR by upregulating P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and ABCG2 protein expressions in SGC7901/DDP or SGC7901/VCR cells, while this effect of RPN2 was abrogated by ERK knockdown or treatment with ERK inhibitor PD98059. Our findings suggested that RPN2 potentiated P-gp- and ABCG2-mediated MDR via activating MEK/ERK pathway in GC, hinting the critical values of RPN2 in ameliorating MDR and providing a promising target for GC therapy.

Arumugam A, Subramani R, Nandy SB, et al.
Silencing growth hormone receptor inhibits estrogen receptor negative breast cancer through ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2.
Exp Mol Med. 2019; 51(1):2 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Growth hormone receptor (GHR) plays a vital role in breast cancer chemoresistance and metastasis but the mechanism is not fully understood. We determined if GHR could be a potential therapeutic target for estrogen receptor negative (ER-ve) breast cancer, which are highly chemoresistant and metastatic. GHR was stably knocked down in ER-ve breast cancer cells and its effect on cell proliferation, metastatic behavior, and chemosensitivity to docetaxel (DT) was assessed. Microarray analysis was performed to identify potential GHR downstream targets involved in chemoresistance. GHR and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2) overexpression and knockdown studies were performed to investigate the mechanism of GHR-induced chemoresistance. Patient-derived xenografts was used to study the effect of GHR and ABCG2. Immunohistochemical data was used to determine the correlation between GHR, pAKT, pmTOR, and ABCG2 expressions. GHR silencing drastically reduced the chemoresistant and metastatic behavior of ER-ve breast cancer cells and also inhibited AKT/mTOR pathway. In contrast, activation, or overexpression of GHR increased chemoresistance and metastasis by increasing the expression and promoter activity, of ABCG2. Inhibition of JAK2/STAT5 signaling repressed GHR-induced ABCG2 promoter activity and expression. Further, ABCG2 knockdown significantly increased the chemosensitivity. Finally, patient-derived xenograft studies revealed the role of GHR in chemoresistance. Overall, these findings demonstrate that targeting GHR could be a novel therapeutic approach to overcome chemoresistance and associated metastasis in aggressive ER-ve breast cancers.

Chen Y, Liu L, Li J, et al.
Effects of long noncoding RNA (linc-VLDLR) existing in extracellular vesicles on the occurrence and multidrug resistance of esophageal cancer cells.
Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(3):470-477 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the expression of linc-VLDLR in extracellular vesicles (EVs) and esophageal carcinomas development and drug resistance.
METHODS: The expression of linc-VLDLR and ABCG2 mRNA in 60 cases of esophageal carcinoma tissue, para-carcinoma tissue and the normal esophagus tissue were detected using Fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Fifty percent inhibiting concentration (IC50) of adriamycin (ADM) to Eca109 cells was detected by MTT assay, after the treatment of different concentrations of adriamycin (ADM) on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma Eca109 cell line for 24 h. EVs were extracted from culture medium after the treatment of three concentrations of ADM (setting based on the IC50) on Eca109 cells for 24 h. Linc-VLDLR expression in EVs was detected by qRT-PCR. After the treatment of the extracted EVs on virgin Eca109 cells for 48 h, then intervening these cells for 24 h by different concentrations of ADM, the new values of IC50 were detected by MTT assay. Cell cycle, cell apoptosis and ABCG2 protein expression of these Eca109 cells were detected by flow cytometry (FCM). Linc-VLDLR and ABCG2 mRNA expression in these Eca109 cells were detected by qRT-PCR.
RESULTS: Expression of linc-VLDLR and ABCG2 mRNA in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissue were significantly higher than that in esophageal atypical hyperplasia and normal esophagus tissue, P < 0.01. After the treatment of ADM on Eca109 cells for 24 h, IC50 of Eca109 cells was detected as (0.44 ± 0.02) μg/mL, thus ADM concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 μg/mL were selected to accomplish the following parts of this study. After four groups of Eca109 cells were treated by ADM in different concentrations separately, extracted EVs from the supernatant of all four groups, then labeling these four groups as EVs1, 2, 3 and 4. Linc-VLDLR expression in EVs4 was significantly higher than that in EVs1-3, P < 0.01. After the treatment of EVs1-4 on virgin Eca109 cells for 48 h, new values of IC50 of Eca109 to ADM were detected by MTT. It was found that the IC50 value of group EVs4 was significantly higher than that of other groups, P < 0.05. Flow cytometry results showed that the proliferation index of Eca109 cells in EVs4 was significantly higher than that in EVs1-3 and control groups, P < 0.01. Whereas, there was an obviously downward trend in the apoptosis rate of EVs4, compared to other three groups, P < 0.01. Linc-VLDLR and ABCG2 mRNA and protein expression level in Eca109 cells of EVs4 group were significantly higher than that of EVs1-3 and control groups, P < 0.05.
CONCLUSIONS: High expression of Linc-VLDLR and ABCG2 gene in esophageal cancer cells affected the formation of esophageal cancer drug resistance. EVs released by drug-resistant cells were proved that they could upregulate the expression of ABCG2 in esophageal cancer cells and thus regulate the drug resistance of esophageal cancer cells, which was related to the linc-VLDLR carried by EVs.

Kim KH, Cheong HJ, Lee MY, et al.
Bortezomib Is More Effective to Side Population of RPMI8226 Myeloma Cells than Classical Anti-myeloma Agents.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(1):127-133 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Cytotoxic chemotherapy-based treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) is not curative, and the disease eventually recurs. This is partially because although currently available anti-MM strategies are effective in targeting the bulk of tumor cells, they do not target the tumor-initiating subpopulation of cancer stem cells. This study investigated the prevalence and biological functions of side population (SP) cells in MM cell lines including RPMI8226, ARH77, MM.1R and IM 9.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Flow cytometry-based Hoechst 33342 staining was used to evaluate the existence of SP cells. In addition, the ability of SP cells to regenerate the original population was determined.
RESULTS: The frequency of SP cells was heterogeneous. Most cell lines (ARH77, IM9, and MM.1R) contained fewer than 1% SP cells; however, RPMI8226 contained approximately 10% SP cells. Sorted SP cells showed a higher proliferative ability and clonogenicity than the MP in the RPMI8226 myeloma cell line. The activity of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), which is associated with high rates of proliferation, was higher in SP cells. However, the expression of specific surface markers such as cluster of differentiation (CD)138, CD34, CD38, CD19, CD20, and CD27 did not differ between SP and MP cells. Bortezomib was the only agent that significantly affected proliferation of both SP and MP cells.
CONCLUSION: Our studies demonstrated that the SP fraction of myeloma cells possessed clonogenic tumor-initiating potential and revealed new mechanisms of action for bortezomib on SP cells.

You F, Luan H, Sun D, et al.
miRNA-106a Promotes Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation, Clonogenicity, Migration, and Invasion Through Inhibiting Apoptosis and Chemosensitivity.
DNA Cell Biol. 2019; 38(2):198-207 [PubMed] Related Publications
To explore the effect of miR-106a in breast cancer cell behavior and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. Tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissue were derived from 40 breast cancer patients, and miR-106a expression was measured by reverse transcription-qPCR. Breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, were treated with miRNA-106a mimic (MM) or miRNA-106a inhibitor (MI) and negative controls. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. Clonogenicity was measured by colony-forming assay. Cell migration and invasion ability were measured by scratch test and transwell assay, respectively. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry, and chemosensitivity to cisplatin was measured by MTT assay. Finally, protein expression of p53, Bax, Bcl-2, RUNX3, and ABCG2 was quantified by western blot. miR-106a expression was significantly upregulated in human breast cancer tissue relative to adjacent normal tissue. Upregulation of miR-106a enhanced breast cancer cell proliferation, colony-forming capacity, migration, and invasion of cultured breast cancer cells. Additionally, miR-106a overexpression significantly decreased breast cancer cell apoptosis and sensitivity to cisplatin. Finally, we showed miR-106a overexpression upregulated the levels of Bcl-2 and ABCG2, and downregulated the expression of P53, Bax, and RUNX3. miR-106a promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion through upregulation of Bcl-2, ABCG2, and P53, and downregulation of Bax and RUNX3.

Abou-El-Naga AM, Mutawa G, El-Sherbiny IM, Mousa SA
Activation of polymeric nanoparticle intracellular targeting overcomes chemodrug resistance in human primary patient breast cancer cells.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2018; 13:8153-8164 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Successfully overcoming obstacles due to anticancer drugs' toxicity and achieving effective treatment using unique nanotechnology is challenging. The complex nature of breast tumors is mainly due to chemoresistance. Successful docetaxel (DTX) delivery by nanoparticles (NPs) through inhibition of multidrug resistance (MDR) can be a bridge to enhance intracellular dose and achieve higher cytotoxicity for cancer cells.
Purpose: This study tested primary patient breast cancer cells in vitro with traditional free DTX in comparison with polymeric nanocarriers based on poly lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) NPs.
Materials and methods: Establishment of primary cell line from breast malignant tumor depends on enzymatic digestion. Designed DTX-loaded PLGA NPs were prepared with a solvent evaporation method; one design was supported by the use of folic acid (FA) conjugated to PLGA. The physical properties of NPs were characterized as size, charge potential, surface morphology, DTX loading, and encapsulation efficiency. In vitro cellular uptake of fluorescent NPs was examined visually with confocal fluorescence microscopy and quantitatively with flow cytometry. In vitro cytotoxicity of all DTX designed NPs against cancer cells was investigated with MTT assay. RT-PCR measurements were done to examine the expression of chemoresistant and apoptotic genes of the tested DTX NPs.
Results: Cellular uptake of DTX was time dependent and reached the maximum after loading on PLGA NPs and with FA incorporation, which activated the endocytosis mechanism. MTT assay revealed significant higher cytotoxicity of DTX-loaded FA/PLGA NPs with higher reduction of IC50 (8.29 nM). In addition, PLGA NPs, especially FA incorporated, limited DTX efflux by reducing expression of
Conclusion: FA/PLGA NPs could be a hopeful drug delivery system for DTX in breast cancer treatment.

Barkeer S, Chugh S, Karmakar S, et al.
Novel role of O-glycosyltransferases GALNT3 and B3GNT3 in the self-renewal of pancreatic cancer stem cells.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1157 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glycosylation plays a critical role in the aggressiveness of pancreatic cancer (PC). Emerging evidences indicate significant involvement of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in PC aggressiveness. However, the importance of glycosylation in pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSCs) is yet to be addressed. Hence, we evaluated the potential role of glycosylation in maintenance of stemness of PCSCs.
METHODS: Effect of glycosylation specific inhibitors on growth and PCSCs of PC cells was assessed by MTT assay and Side Population (SP) analysis. Isolated PCSCs/SP were characterized using molecular and functional assays. Expression of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) was analyzed in PCSCs by western blotting. Effect of tunicamycin on PCSCs was analyzed by tumorsphere, clonogenicity, migration assay and immunoblotting for CSCs markers. The differential expression of glycogenes in PCSCs compared to non-CSCs were determined by RT-qPCR, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. Co-expression of GALNT3 and B3GNT3 with CD44v6 was assessed in progression stages of Kras
RESULTS: Inhibition of glycosylation decreased growth and CSCs/SP in PC cells. PCSCs overexpressed CSC markers (CD44v6, ESA, SOX2, SOX9 and ABCG2), exhibited global expressional variation of TACAs and showed higher self-renewal potential. Specifically, N-glycosylation inhibition, significantly decreased tumorsphere formation, migration, and clonogenicity of PCSCs, as well as hypo-glycosylated CD44v6 and ESA. Of note, glycosyltransferases (GFs), GALNT3 and B3GNT3, were significantly overexpressed in PCSCs and co-expressed with CD44v6 at advanced PDAC stages in KC and KPC tumors. Further, GALNT3 and B3GNT3 knockdown led to a decrease in the expression of cell surface markers (CD44v6 and ESA) and self-renewal markers (SOX2 and OCT3/4) in PCSCs. Interestingly, CD44v6 was modified with sialyl Lewis a in PCSCs. Finally, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated GALNT3 KO significantly decreased self-renewal, clonogenicity, and migratory capacity in PCSCs.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, for the first time, our study showed the importance of glycosylation in mediating growth, stemness, and maintenance of PCSCs. These results indicate that elevated GALNT3 and B3GNT3 expression in PCSCs regulate stemness through modulating CSC markers.

Fukaya M, Nakamura S, Hegazy MEF, et al.
Cytotoxicity of sesquiterpene alkaloids from Nuphar plants toward sensitive and drug-resistant cell lines.
Food Funct. 2018; 9(12):6279-6286 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a critical problem in cancer chemotherapy. MDR causes the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and mutations in tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. To tackle this issue, in this study, we focused on Nuphar plants, which have been traditionally used as food. Sesquiterpene alkaloids (1-3) were isolated from N. japonicum and dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids (4-10) were isolated from N. pumilum. P-glycoprotein-overexpressing CEM/ADR5000 cells were cross-resistant to 6,6'-dihydroxythiobinupharidine (10). Using in silico molecular docking, we calculated the binding energies and simulated the interactions of these compounds with the corresponding amino acid residues at the binding site of P-gp. In addition, we investigated the cytotoxicity of these compounds towards cell lines overexpressing other ABC transporters (BCRP, ABCB5), cell lines with a knocked out tumor suppressor gene TP53 or cell lines overexpressing a deletion-activated EGFR oncogene. These cell lines were sensitive or only minimally cross-resistant to these compounds compared with their corresponding wild-type cell lines.

Chen FD, Chen HH, Ke SC, et al.
SLC27A2 regulates miR-411 to affect chemo-resistance in ovarian cancer.
Neoplasma. 2018; 65(6):915-924 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although platinum-based chemotherapies have long been used as standard treatment in ovarian cancer, cisplatin resistance is a major problem that restricts its use. Herein, we investigate the biological function of SLC27A2 and its underlying mechanisms in regulating chemo-resistance in ovarian cancer. The findings show that SLC27A2 down-regulation in primary ovarian cancer tissues correlates with chemo-resistance and poor patient survival in our patient cohort. Significantly, we demonstrate that up-regulation of SLC27A2 by lentivirus-mediated p-SLC27A2 sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin in vitro and in vivo via apoptosis. Mechanistic investigation reveals that miR-411 is the most strikingly over-expressed gene in response to ectopic expression of SLC27A2, but under-expressed in recurrent ovarian cancer tissues. Lower miR-411 expression contributes to ovarian cancer chemo-resistance in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, SLC27A2 directly binds specific sites in the miR-411 promoter region and promoter activity decreases after mutation of putative SLC27A2-binding sites. This indicates that SLC27A2 is required for the transcriptional induction of miR-411. The luciferase assays also confirm that miR-411 directly targets ABCG2 in ovarian cancer, and overall findings establish the SLC27A2-miR-411-ABCG2 pathway in the regulation of ovarian cancer chemo-resistance with potential therapeutic applications.

He C, Zhang H, Wang B, et al.
SDF-1/CXCR4 axis promotes the growth and sphere formation of hypoxic breast cancer SP cells by c-Jun/ABCG2 pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 505(2):593-599 [PubMed] Related Publications
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2) confers to the major phenotypes of side population (SP) cells, the cancer stem-like cells. In this study, the SP cells displayed a distinctly higher ABCG2 expression level, sphere formation efficiency (SFE) and growth rate even under hypoxia condition. CXCR4 overexpression by pcDNA-CXCR4 transfection robustly increased ABCG2 expression, and promoted SFE and growth of hypoxic SP cells, while CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100 could suppress the promotion. Additionally, we found that CXCR4 promoted the expression of c-Jun, a major gene in the oncogenic JNK/c-Jun pathway. Our data on electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays both showed that c-Jun directly bound with the ABCG2 promoter sequence. Moreover, overexpression of JNK/c-Jun promoted ABCG2 expression, SFE, and growth of hypoxic SP cells and the promotion could be rescued by c-Jun inhibitor SP600125. In conclusion, CXCR4 increases the growth and SFE of breast cancer SP cells under hypoxia through c-Jun-mediated transcriptional activation of ABCG2.

Salvador-Martín S, García-González X, García MI, et al.
Clinical utility of ABCB1 genotyping for preventing toxicity in treatment with irinotecan.
Pharmacol Res. 2018; 136:133-139 [PubMed] Related Publications
Preventing severe irinotecan-induced adverse reactions would allow us to offer better treatment and improve patients' quality of life. Transporters, metabolizing enzymes, and genes involved in the folate pathway have been associated with irinotecan-induced toxicity. We analyzed 12 polymorphisms in UGT1A1, ABCB1, ABCG2, ABCC4, ABCC5, and MTHFR in 158 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan and studied the association with grade >2 adverse reactions (CTCAE). Among the most frequent ADRs, the SNPs rs1128503, rs2032582, and rs1045642 in ABCB1 and rs1801133 in MTHFR were associated with hematological toxicity and overall toxicity. The SNP rs11568678 in ABCC4 was also associated with overall toxicity. After correction of P values using a false discovery rate, only ABCB1 variants remained statistically significant. Haplotype analysis in ABCB1 showed an 11.3-fold and 4.6-fold increased risk of hematological toxicity (95% CI, 1.459-88.622) and overall toxicity (95% CI, 2.283-9.386), respectively. Consequently, genotyping of the three SNPs in ABCB1 can predict overall toxicity and hematological toxicity with a diagnostic odds ratio of 4.40 and 9.94, respectively. Genotyping of ABCB1 variants can help to prevent severe adverse reactions to irinotecan-based treatments in colorectal cancer.

Cao S, Wang Z, Gao X, et al.
FOXC1 induces cancer stem cell-like properties through upregulation of beta-catenin in NSCLC.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):220 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play a critical role in tumor initiation, progression and therapy, and recent studies have indicated that Forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) is strongly associated with CSCs. This study investigates the regulatory effects of FOXC1 on CSC-like properties in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
METHODS: We analyzed FOXC1 expression in NSCLC using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database on UALCANC and performed survival analyses of NSCLC patients on Human Protein Atlas. CSC-like properties were analyzed based on CSC marker-positive cell population, self-renewal ability, stemness-related gene expression, tumorigenicity and drug resistance. The percentage of CD133
RESULTS: FOXC1 expression was found to be elevated in NSCLC tissues and negatively correlated with patient survival. FOXC1 knockdown reduced CD133
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that FOXC1 induces CSC-like properties in NSCLC by promoting beta-catenin expression. The findings indicate that FOXC1 is a potential molecular target for anti-CSC-based therapies in NSCLC.

Chakraborty R, Gupta H, Rahman R, Hasija Y
In silico analysis of nsSNPs in ABCB1 gene affecting breast cancer associated protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp).
Comput Biol Chem. 2018; 77:430-441 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women and increased expression of some polymorphic genes, which is rare within families, enhances the risk of breast cancer incidence. The correct identification of the functional SNPs of such genes is important for characterizing the functional aspect of these SNPs which can be assessed by evaluating their significant influence on the structure and function of proteins. Since the presence of SNPs in these genes affects the quality of life of a breast cancer patient, thus, the associated diagnostic markers have a reliable potential for assessing the prognosis of breast cancer. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) genes have been shown to obstruct the treatment of breast cancer by providing resistance to malignant cells from anti-cancer drugs. Some allelic variants of ABCG2 and ABCB1 are also associated with occurrence of skin toxicity during the treatment of breast cancer with anti-cancer drugs. The present study has incorporated comprehensive bioinformatics analysis to explore the possible disease-associated mutations of ABCB1 gene, a gene that resulted from gene-environment interaction study, and understand their consequential effect on the structural and functional behavior of P-glycoprotein. Two gene variants (R538S and M701R) of P-glycoprotein were selected as potentially detrimental point mutations, and these variants were modeled. Molecular dynamic simulation (MDS) studies unraveled the atomic interactions and motion trajectories of the native as well as the two mutant (R538S and M701R) structures and were predicted to have a deleterious effect on breast cancer associated P-gp. Thus, the present study may broaden the way to design novel potent drugs for overcoming the problems associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) resulting from a change in protein conformation due to a mutation in ABCB1 gene.

Abbaszadegan MR, Taghehchian N, Li L, et al.
Contribution of KCTD12 to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):853 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that the expression of potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 12 (KCTD12) as a regulator of GABAB receptor signaling is reversely associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors. In present study we examined the probable role of KCTD12 in regulation of several signaling pathways and chromatin remodelers in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
METHODS: KCTD12 ectopic expression was done in KYSE30 cell line. Comparative quantitative real time PCR was used to assess the expression of stem cell factors and several factors belonging to the WNT/NOTCH and chromatin remodeling in transfected cells in comparison with non-transfected cells.
RESULTS: We observed that the KCTD12 significantly down regulated expression of NANOG, SOX2, SALL4, KLF4, MAML1, PYGO2, BMI1, BRG1, MSI1, MEIS1, EGFR, DIDO1, ABCC4, ABCG2, and CRIPTO1 in transfected cells in comparison with non-transfected cells. Migration assay showed a significant decrease in cell movement in ectopic expressed cells in comparison with non-transfected cells (p = 0.02). Moreover, KCTD12 significantly decreased the 5FU resistance in transfected cells (p = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: KCTD12 may exert its inhibitory role in ESCC through the suppression of WNT /NOTCH, stem cell factors, and chromatin remodelers and can be introduced as an efficient therapeutic marker.

Guo J, Jin D, Wu Y, et al.
The miR 495-UBE2C-ABCG2/ERCC1 axis reverses cisplatin resistance by downregulating drug resistance genes in cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 35:204-221 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cisplatin (DDP) resistance has become the leading cause of mortality in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). miRNA dysregulation significantly contributes to tumor progression. In this study, we found that miR-495 was significantly downregulated in lung cancer tissue specimens. This study aimed to elucidate the functions, direct target genes, and molecular mechanisms of miR-495 in lung cancer. miR-495 downregulated its substrate UBE2C through direct interaction with UBE2C 3'- untranslated region. UBE2C is a proto-oncogene activated in lung cancer; however, its role in chemotherapeutic resistance is unclear. Herein, UBE2C expression levels were higher in DDP-resistant NSCLC cells; this was associated with the proliferation, invasion, and DDP resistance in induced cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells. Furthermore, epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) contributed to DDP resistance. Moreover, UBE2C knockdown downregulated vimentin. In contrast, E-cadherin was upregulated. Importantly, miR-495 and UBE2C were associated with cisplatin resistance. We attempted to evaluate their effects on cell proliferation and cisplatin resistance. We also performed EMT, cell migration, and invasion assays in DDP-resistant NSCLC cells overexpressing miR-495 and under-expressing UBE2C. Furthermore, in silico assays coupled with western blotting and luciferase assays revealed that UBE2C directly binds to the 5'-UTR of the drug-resistance genes ABCG2 and ERCC1. Furthermore, miR-495 downregulated ABCG2 and ERCC1 via regulation of UBE2C. Together, the present results indicate that the miR495-UBE2C-ABCG2/ERCC1 axis reverses DDP resistance via downregulation of anti-drug genes and reducing EMT in DDP-resistant NSCLC cells.

Erdogan S, Turkekul K, Dibirdik I, et al.
Midkine downregulation increases the efficacy of quercetin on prostate cancer stem cell survival and migration through PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 107:793-805 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To examine the functions of growth factor midkine (MK) and a flavonoid quercetin on survival, apoptosis and migration of prostate cancer (PCa) stem cells (CSCs).
KEY FINDINGS: Quercetin treatment for 24-72 h inhibited PC3 and CD44+/CD133+ stem cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of endogenous MK expression significantly suppressed proliferation of CD44
SIGNIFICANCE: Quercetin alone exhibited significant cytotoxic effects on CD44

Koka P, Mundre RS, Rangarajan R, et al.
Uncoupling Warburg effect and stemness in CD133
Mol Biol Rep. 2018; 45(6):1653-1662 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) which are known to be residing deep inside the core of the tumor in its hypoxia niche is responsible for relapse of cancers. Owing to this hypoxic niche, the residing CSCs simultaneously fuel their stemness, cancerous and drug resistance properties. Attributes of CSCs are still not properly understood in its hypoxia niche. Addressing this, we sorted CSCs from Saos-2 (osteosarcoma) cell line using CD133 antibody. The CD133

Xie ZY, Liu MS, Zhang C, et al.
Aspirin enhances the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma side population cells to doxorubicin via miR-491/ABCG2.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Zhuang X, Li X, Zhang J, et al.
Conditioned medium mimicking the tumor microenvironment augments chemotherapeutic resistance via ataxia‑telangiectasia mutated and nuclear factor‑κB pathways in gastric cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(4):2334-2342 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor microenvironment affects the processes involved in the development of gastric cancer and contributes to multidrug resistance (MDR). Although the metabolism of gastric cancer cells is known to be associated with the development of the tumor microenvironment, the exact role of metabolism in microenvironment‑induced MDR formation remains unclear. In the present study, conditioned medium (CM) formed through the metabolism of SGC‑7901 gastric carcinoma cells was used to mimic the tumor microenvironment. The effects of CM on drug resistance were evaluated in gastric carcinoma cells. The results revealed that CM was not only able to upregulate the expression levels of ATP‑binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) and MDR‑associated protein 2 (MRP2), but also upregulated the expression of certain anti‑apoptotic proteins in SGC‑7901 cells. In addition, CM activated the ataxia‑telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and NF‑κB pathways, while CM‑induced ABCG2, MRP2 and anti‑apoptotic protein upregulation was impaired by ATM and NF‑κB inhibitors. The results of the present study indicated that CM augmented chemotherapeutic resistance by activating the ATM and NF‑κB pathways in gastric cancer cells, and that these pathways may be potential therapeutic targets for cases of chemotherapeutic resistance in gastric cancer.

Wang L, Liu L, Chen Y, et al.
Correlation between adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) and drug resistance of esophageal cancer and reversal of drug resistance by artesunate.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(9):1467-1473 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study investigated the correlation between the abnormal expression of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) in esophageal cancer and the drug resistance of esophageal cancer, the reversal effect in drug resistance of artesunate (Art), and the mechanism underlying esophageal cancer using nude mice with subcutaneous xenograft as an animal model. The gene and protein expression of ABCG2 was detected in 80 cases of esophageal cancer, atypical dysplasia, and normal mucosa. A subcutaneous xenograft tumor mouse model was established by subcutaneous inoculation of esophageal cancer cell line Eca109/ABCG2 into BALB/c nu/nu nude mice. The reversal of drug resistance by Art in esophageal cancer was studied in vivo. The mice model was injected intraperitoneally with Art and/or doxorubicin (ADM). The animals were divided into six groups: high dose Art (50 mg/kg), low dose Art (25 mg/kg), ADM (1 mg/kg), ADM and high-dose Art, ADM and low-dose Art, and physiological saline as a control. ABCG2 protein expression and cellular ADM concentration were detected by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expressions of ABCG2 in esophageal cancer were significantly higher than that in the normal esophagus (P < 0.01). The volume and mass of the subcutaneously implanted tumors in the ADM+Art high- and low-dose groups were significantly decreased than that in the control group (P < 0.05), while the apoptosis rate of tumor cells and the cellular concentration of ADM were increased significantly (P < 0.05), and the ABCG2 protein expression in the tumor cells decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Abnormally high expression of ABCG2 in esophageal cancer tissues is involved in the multidrug resistance of esophageal cancer. In vivo studies showed that Art could reverse the esophageal cancer drug resistance by regulating the ABCG2 expression in tumor cells.

Macauda A, Castelli E, Buda G, et al.
Inherited variation in the xenobiotic transporter pathway and survival of multiple myeloma patients.
Br J Haematol. 2018; 183(3):375-384 [PubMed] Related Publications
Over the past four decades, remarkable progress has been made in the treatment and prognosis of multiple myeloma (MM), although it remains an incurable disease. Chemotherapy resistance is a major hurdle for treatment efficacy. Drug resistance can be innate and so driven by genes involved in the drug metabolism pathways. We performed an association study of 71 germline variants within the major genes in those pathways (ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2, and their regulators NR1I2/PXR and NR1I3/CAR) in the International Multiple Myeloma rESEarch (IMMEnSE) consortium, consisting of 1365 MM cases with survival information recruited in 5 European countries. Two of the SNPs showed a significant association with the survival of MM patients, namely rs2235013, located in ABCB1 [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1·52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·18-1·95, P = 0·00087], and rs4148388, located in ABCC2 (HR = 2·15, 95% CI = 1·44-3·22, P = 0·0001). ABCC2 plays an essential role in transporting various anticancer drugs, including several used against MM, out of the cell. In silico analyses predict that the variant alleles of four SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with ABCC2-rs4148388 are associated with increased gene expression. Overexpression of ABCC2 increases drug clearance and therefore may induce drug resistance mechanisms. In conclusion, we found a promising association between ABCC2-rs4148388 and MM outcome that is supported by a plausible biological explanation.

Reustle A, Fisel P, Renner O, et al.
Characterization of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(12):3181-3193 [PubMed] Related Publications
The efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein BCRP/ABCG2 is well-known for its contribution to multi-drug resistance in cancer. Its relevance in cancer biology independent from drug efflux remains largely elusive. Our study aimed at elucidating the biological relevance and regulatory mechanisms of BCRP/ABCG2 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and disease progression. Two independent ccRCC-cohorts [Cohort 1 (KIRC/TCGA): n = 453, Cohort 2: n = 64] were investigated to elucidate BCRP/ABCG2 mRNA and protein expression and their association with survival. The impact of BCRP/ABCG2 on response to sunitinib treatment was investigated in two independent sunitinib-treated ccRCC-cohorts based on mRNA levels. Moreover, underlying regulatory mechanisms for interindividual variability of BCRP/ABCG2 expression were systematically assessed. Owing to redundant functional properties, mRNA and protein expression of the multidrug resistance protein MDR1/ABCB1 were additionally evaluated in these cohorts. In independent ccRCC-cohorts, low BCRP/ABCG2 and MDR1/ABCB1 mRNA and protein expression were associated with severity (e.g., tumor stage) of ccRCC and poor cancer-specific survival. BCRP/ABCG2 and MDR1/ABCB1 mRNA expression were linked to decreased progression-free survival after sunitinib treatment. Germline and somatic variants influenced interindividual variability of BCRP/ABCG2 expression only moderately. miR-212-3p and miR-132-3p were identified to regulate BCRP/ABCG2 posttranscriptionally by interaction with the ABCG2 3'UTR as confirmed through reporter gene assays in RCC cell lines. In summary, BCRP/ABCG2 expression in ccRCC underlies considerable interindividual variability with impact on patient survival and response to sunitinib treatment. While germline or somatic genetic variants and DNA methylation cannot explain aberrant BCRP/ABCG2 expression, miR-212-3p and miR-132-3p were identified to contribute to posttranscriptional regulation of BCRP/ABCG2.

Nikitakis NG, Gkouveris I, Aseervatham J, et al.
DSPP-MMP20 gene silencing downregulates cancer stem cell markers in human oral cancer cells.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2018; 23:30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Recent findings indicate that dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 20 interact in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of DSPP/MMP20 gene silencing on oral cancer stem cell (OCSC) markers.
Methods: The expression of well-established OCSC markers: ABCG2; ALDH1; CD133; CD44; BMI1; LGR4, and Podoplanin in DSPP/MMP20-silenced OSCC cell line, OSC2, and controls were assayed by western blot (WB), and flow cytometry techniques. The sensitivity of OSC2 cells to cisplatin following DSPP/MMP20 silencing was also determined.
Results: DSPP/MMP20 silencing resulted in downregulation of OCSC markers, more profoundly ABCG2 (84%) and CD44 (81%), following double silencing. Furthermore, while treatment of parent (pre-silenced) OSC2 cells with cisplatin resulted in upregulation of OCSC markers, DSPP/MMP20-silenced OSC2 cells similarly treated resulted in profound downregulation of OCSC markers (72 to 94% at 50 μM of cisplatin), and a marked reduction in the proportion of ABCG2 and ALDH1 positive cells (~ 1%).
Conclusions: We conclude that the downregulation of OCSC markers may signal a reduction in OCSC population following MMP20/DSPP silencing in OSCC cells, while also increasing their sensitivity to cisplatin. Thus, our findings suggest a potential role for DSPP and MMP20 in sustaining OCSC population in OSCCs, possibly, through mechanism(s) that alter OCSC sensitivity to treatment with chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin.

Palugulla S, Devaraju P, Kayal S, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms in cyclin H gene are associated with oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral neuropathy in South Indian digestive tract cancer patients.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2018; 82(3):421-428 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Digestive tract cancer patients treated with oxaliplatin are often associated with the development of peripheral neuropathy. The aim of the present study is to identify the influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in oxaliplatin metabolism, cell cycle control, detoxification or excretion pathways with the development of oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral neuropathy (acute OXAIPN) and its severity among digestive tract cancer patients treated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 228 digestive tract cancer patients undergoing with the oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy between November 2014 and December 2016 were included in the current study. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood by standard phenol-chloroform method. Genotyping of five SNPs in four genes [GSTP
RESULTS: We found that the two genetic variants rs2230641 and rs3093816 in cyclin H (CCNH) gene were significantly associated with both the incidence and severity of acute OXAIPN. For CCNH-rs2230641 (AA vs AG+GG; dominant model) Incidence: OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.44-4.75, p = 0.001, severity; OR 4.64, 95% CI 1.58-13.62, p = 0.002. For CCNH-rs3093816 (AA vs AG+GG; dominant model); incidence: OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.57-7.50, p = 0.001; severity: OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.05-5.30, p = 0.033.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study found significant association between CCNH polymorphisms and acute OXAIPN development. However, further studies are warranted from independent groups to validate our study results.

Kim CK, Oh S, Kim SJ, et al.
Correlation of IGF1R expression with ABCG2 and CD44 expressions in human osteosarcoma.
Genes Genomics. 2018; 40(4):381-388 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is the most common type of malignant bone tumors. Insulin Growth Factor 1 receptor (IGFR1) has been known as a prognostic factor for metastasis of osteosarcoma. ABC subfamily G member2 (ABCG2) is related to resistance to anti-cancer drug, and CD44 has a role in tumor growth and metastasis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship among expression patterns of IGF1R, ABCG2, and CD44 in osteosarcoma. The expression levels of IGF1R, ABCG2, and CD44 proteins were determined in tissue arrays containing osteosarcoma tissues from 59 osteosarcoma patients. The expression pattern of IGF1R was highly correlated with the expression pattern of ABCG2 (r = 0.88) in overall osteosarcoma patients. According to pathological types, the expression pattern of IGF1R showed the higher correlation with ABGC2 (r = 0.90) and CD44 (r = 0.61) in osteoblatic type than in chondroblastic type. According to gender with pathologic type, the correlation between the expression patterns of IGF1R and CD44 was higher in male with osteoblatic type than in female with osteoblatic type. Among different age groups, the 1-10 years age group showed higher correlation in IGF1R versus CD44 (r = 0.90) and ABCG2 versus CD44 (0.80) than in other age groups. These results showed that the expression of IGF1R appears to be highly correlated with the expression of ABCG2 in osteosarcoma and with the expression of CD44 in osteosarcoma patients under age of 10, which suggests that ABCG2 and CD44 can be used as prognostic factors with IGF1R for specific prognosis and efficient treatment of osteosarcoma.

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