ABCG2

Gene Summary

Gene:ABCG2; ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 2 (Junior blood group)
Aliases: MRX, MXR, ABCP, BCRP, BMDP, MXR1, ABC15, BCRP1, CD338, GOUT1, CDw338, UAQTL1, EST157481
Location:4q22
Summary:The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is included in the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the White subfamily. Alternatively referred to as a breast cancer resistance protein, this protein functions as a xenobiotic transporter which may play a major role in multi-drug resistance. It likely serves as a cellular defense mechanism in response to mitoxantrone and anthracycline exposure. Significant expression of this protein has been observed in the placenta, which may suggest a potential role for this molecule in placenta tissue. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 28 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 28 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ABCG2 (cancer-related)

Mishra MN, Vangara KK, Palakurthi S
Transcriptional targeting of human liver carboxylesterase (hCE1m6) and simultaneous expression of anti-BCRP shRNA enhances sensitivity of breast cancer cells to CPT-11.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(11):6345-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The major factor limiting the efficacy of breast cancer chemotherapy is multidrug resistance due to overexpression of the breast cancer resistance protein ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 2 (ABCG2). We hypothesized that conversion of camptothecin-11 (CPT-11) to its highly cytotoxic metabolite SN-38 by a mutant human carboxyl esterase (hCE1m6) specifically in cancer cells and inhibition of ABCG2 by anti-ABCG2 short hairpin RNA, leads to accumulation of a higher concentration of SN-38, resulting in higher therapeutic efficacy and less toxicity to normal cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mutant human carboxyl esterase hCE1m6 with human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter was integrated into the VISA (VP16-Gal4-WPRE) amplification system. The plasmid was transfected into MCF-12A, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 cells using JetPRIME®. Cancer-specific expression of hCE1m6 in breast cancer cell lines was tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real time-PCR) and western blot. In vitro conversion of CPT-11 to SN-38 was evaluated on lysates of transfected cells. Cytotoxicity of CPT-11 against cells transfected with the plasmid was evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.
RESULTS: Real-time PCR and western blot analysis revealed that hCE1m6 was expressed only in breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, but not in the normal MCF-12A breast cell line. From the CPT-11 conversion assay on cell lysates, it was found that expressed hCE1m6 in cancer cells was able to effectively convert CPT-11 to SN-38.
CONCLUSION: Breast cancer cell lines transfected with hCE1m6 showed an increased susceptibility to CPT-11 in comparison to MCF-12A cells.

Guzel E, Karatas OF, Duz MB, et al.
Differential expression of stem cell markers and ABCG2 in recurrent prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2014; 74(15):1498-505 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common tumor type related to mortality in males in the developed countries. Studies have demonstrated that therapeutic tools mostly ineffective to give positive outcome especially for PCa. Cancer stem cells are composed of a small cell population, which are supposed to have roles in tumorigenesis, metastasis, and tumor recurrence after chemo-radiotherapy. The aim of this research is to investigate expressions of stem cell markers in recurrent PCa and non-recurrent PCa tumors as well as in adjacent normal prostate tissues.
METHODS: We compared the expression of important stemness regulators like SOX2, OCT4, KLF4, and ABCG2 in recurrent, non-recurrent PCa and adjacent normal tissue samples using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).
RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that SOX2 and OCT4 are strongly overexpressed in PCa samples. Recurrent PCa samples are markedly positive for stem cell markers SOX2, OCT4, and KLF4. Furthermore, non-recurrent PCa samples presented low levels of ABCG2, a multidrug resistance protein, compared to both normal and recurrent samples, which might be associated with chemo-sensitivity.
CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced expression of ABCG2 and stem cell markers including SOX2, OCT4, and KLF4 in the recurrent PCa tissues postulates the suggestion that enrichment for cells with stem cell characteristics in these tissues might be playing a critical role for chemoresistance and recurrence of cancer.

Kim RJ, Bae E, Hong YK, et al.
PTEN loss-mediated Akt activation increases the properties of cancer stem-like cell populations in prostate cancer.
Oncology. 2014; 87(5):270-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that the PTEN/PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway plays an important role in regulating the prostate cancer stem-like cell population by upregulating ABCG2.
METHODS: Targeted PTEN knockdown in human prostate DU145 and 22Rv1 cells using a small interfering RNA were confirmed by immunoblot analysis using antibodies of PTEN, phospho-Akt, Akt, and α-tubulin. Knockdown PTEN DU145 and 22Rv1 cells were augmented, and the stem cell-like properties were examined by cell viability and tumor sphere formation and treated by Akt IV inhibitor to provide the signal transduction pathway. Luciferase activity assays were performed.
RESULTS: The knockdown of PTEN in prostate cancer cell lines increased the stem-like properties of the cells, including their sphere-forming ability, stem cell population number, epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related gene expression, and ABCG2 expression. Additionally, PTEN expression was highly associated with elevated expression of phospho-Akt. Treatment with an Akt inhibitor suppressed the PTEN-mediated effects on the properties of these stem-like cells as well as drug resistance, ABCG2 expression, and the NF-κB pathway.
CONCLUSION: The loss of PTEN in prostate cancer cells resulted in an increased PI3K/Akt pathway. Due to the Akt activation, PTEN loss may play an important role in prostate cancer by promoting cancer stemness through a mechanism that involves enhanced NF-κB signaling.

Liu C, Liu Y, Xu XX, et al.
Potential effect of matrix stiffness on the enrichment of tumor initiating cells under three-dimensional culture conditions.
Exp Cell Res. 2015; 330(1):123-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cell (CSC) or tumor initiating cell (TIC) plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. Biophysical forces in tumor microenvironment have an important effect on tumor formation and development. In this study, the potential effect of matrix stiffness on the biological characteristics of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) TICs, especially the enrichment of HNSCC TICs, was investigated under three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions by means of alginate gel (ALG) beads with different matrix stiffnesses. ALG beads with soft (21 kPa), moderate (70 kPa) and hard (105 kPa) stiffness were generated by changing alginate concentration. It was found that significant HNSCC TIC enrichment was achieved in the ALG beads with moderate matrix stiffness (70 kPa). The gene expression of stemness markers Oct3/4 and Nanog, TIC markers CD44 and ABCG2 was enhanced in cells under this moderate (70 kPa) stiffness. HNSCC TIC proportion was also highly enriched under moderate matrix stiffness, accompanying with higher tumorigenicity, metastatic ability and drug resistance. And it was also found that the possible molecular mechanism underlying the regulated TIC properties by matrix stiffness under 3D culture conditions was significantly different from 2D culture condition. Therefore, the results achieved in this study indicated that 3D biophysical microenvironment had an important effect on TIC characteristics and alginate-based biomimetic scaffolds could be utilized as a proper platform to investigate the interaction between tumor cells and 3D microenvironment.

Vladušić T, Hrašćan R, Krušlin B, et al.
Histological groups of human postpubertal testicular germ cell tumours harbour different genetic alterations.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(8):4005-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumours are the most common malignancies in young males. Molecular biology studies of these tumours are often contradictory. Two histological groups, seminoma and non-seminoma, differ both morphologically and in malignant behaviour. Although a common cytogenetic feature is seen, namely the amplification of the 12p chromosomal region, the development mechanisms of less aggressive seminomas and more aggressive non-seminomas are unknown.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Occurrence of structural genetic alterations was analyzed in 18 seminomas and 22 non-seminomas for genes involved in the malignant tumour phenotype: cadherin 1, Type 1, E-cadherin (Epithelial), CDH1; adenomatous polyposis coli, APC; NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1, NME1; tumour protein P53, TP53; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, CDKN2A; retinoblastoma 1, RB1; RAD51 recombinase, RAD51; mutS homolog 2, MSH2; MutL homolog 1, MLH1; breast cancer 1, early onset, BRCA1; BCL2-Associated X Protein, BAX; ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family G (WHITE), Member 2, ABCG2. Genetic alterations, loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability, were analyzed using restriction fragment or microsatellite repeat length polymorphisms.
RESULTS: A difference in genetic alteration occurrence between seminomas and non-seminomas was observed.
CONCLUSION: Occurrence of genetic alterations correlates with clinical behaviour of these tumours and may indicate that such alterations could occur early in the development of seminomas and non-seminomas.

Castillo V, Valenzuela R, Huidobro C, et al.
Functional characteristics of cancer stem cells and their role in drug resistance of prostate cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(3):985-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have the ability to self-renew and differentiate to give rise to heterogeneous phenotype of the tumor cells. It is believed that these cells are involved in metastasis, recurrence and therapy resistance in various cancers. CSCs have been identified in prostate cancer (PCa), one of the most diagnosed malignancies in men over the world, for which chemotherapy resistance is a major problem in the treatment of castration-resistant advanced stages. Molecular signatures, gene expression and functional features have been reported for PCa CSCs. Most data come from cell lines which may not represent the actual tumor. In the present work, a CSCs enriched population obtained from PCa explants was functionally characterized and analyzed for drug resistance. Tumorsphere cultures positive for ABCG2 transporter, CD133, CD44, cytokeratins 5 and 18 (CK5 and CK18) and negatives for androgen receptor (AR) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) showed higher clonogenic capacity, holoclone-forming ability, colony-forming capacity in soft agar and lower proliferative and apoptotic rate than control adherent cell cultures. Furthermore, exposing tumorsphere cultures to ABCG2 substrate drugs resulted in a high survival rate compared with control PCa cells. This high drug resistance was decreased using a selective inhibitor of ABCG2. According to these results, tumorspheres from PCa explants showed a functional stem phenotype and a marked drug resistance, probably mediated by high expression of the ABCG2 transporter, which might be considered as a suitable therapeutic target for CSCs.

Zhang XL, Zhang LN, Huang HM, et al.
[Sorting of side population cells from multiple myeloma cell lines and analysis of their biological characteristics].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2014; 22(3):747-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was aimed to sort the side population (SP) cells from human multiple myeloma cell lines, then detect the biological characteristics of those SP cells. After Hoechst33342 staining, intracellular Hoechst33342 fluorescence staining differences of myeloma cell lines observed by the fluorescence microscopy. The fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) technology was used to isolate SP cells and main population (MP) cells; proliferative capacity in vitro was determined by cell growth curve; the cell colony forming ability was compared by colony forming test. The CD138 expression was detected by flow cytometry. The expression of ABCG2 mRNA was detected by reverse transcription PCR; CCK-8 assay and colony forming test were used to evaluate the effect of bortezomib on the cell proliferation, vitality and colony forming ability of the two populations. The results showed that the myeloma cell lines had a small proportion of SP cells, especially, RPMI 8226 cells accounted for the highest proportion of SP cells (7.10 ± 2.69)%, which have also been confirmed under the fluorescence microscope; the proliferative activity and cell colony forming ability of SP cells were significantly higher than those of MP cells (P < 0.05). The expression levels of CD138 in SP and MP cells were not significantly different (P > 0.05). RT-PCR results showed that SP cells expressed the drug-resistance gene ABCG2, but MP cells hardly express these genes. The inhibition rate of bortezomib on SP cells was significantly lower than that on MP cells (P < 0.05), however, the difference was not significant (P > 0.05) at bortezomib 40 nmol/L. Bortezomib could reduce colony formation in the both two cell populations, but more severe reduction appeared in the MP cells. It is concluded that the myeloma cell line contain a small amount of SP cells with the cancer stem cell characteristics.

Yan HQ, Huang XB, Ke SZ, et al.
Interleukin 6 augments lung cancer chemotherapeutic resistance via ataxia-telangiectasia mutated/NF-kappaB pathway activation.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(9):1220-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although it is known that ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) contribute to multiple drug resistance (MDR) in tumor chemotherapy, the exact role of ATM activation in MDR resulting from increased IL-6 expression is still unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that the activation of the ATM-NF-kappaB pathway, resulting from increased IL-6 expression, plays a central role in augmented chemoresistance in lung cancer cell lines. This result was supported by the increased expressions of Bcl-2, Mcl-1, Bcl-xl, and the upregulation of MDR-associated protein ABCG2. The higher level of IL-6 reveals not only higher ATM/NF-kappaB activity but also increased expressions of ABCG2, Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bcl-xl. Most importantly, lung cancer cells themselves upregulated IL-6 secretion by activating the p38/NF-kappaB pathway through treatment with cisplatin and camptothecin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that chemotherapeutic agents increase IL-6 expression, hence activating the ATM/NF-kappaB pathway, augmenting anti-apoptotic protein expression and contributing to MDR. This indicates that both IL-6 and ATM are potential targets for the treatment of chemotherapeutic resistance in lung cancer.

Wang XK, He JH, Xu JH, et al.
Afatinib enhances the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic agents by eradicating cancer stem-like cells.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(16):4431-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSC) have garnered significant attention as a therapeutic focus, based on evidence that they may represent an etiologic root of treatment-resistant cells. Indeed, expression of the multidrug resistance protein ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) confers chemoresistance to CSCs, where it serves as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target. Here, we show that afatinib, a small-molecule inhibitor of the tyrosine kinases EGFR, HER2, and HER4, preferentially eliminated side population cells with CSC character, in both cell lines and patient-derived leukemia cells, by decreasing ABCG2 expression. In these cells, afatinib also acted in parallel to suppress self-renewal capacity and tumorigenicity. Combining afatinib with the DNA-damaging drug topotecan enhanced the antitumor effect of topotecan in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic investigations suggested that ABCG2 suppression by afatinib did not proceed by proteolysis through the ubiquitin-dependent proteosome, lysosome, or calpain. Instead, we found that afatinib increased DNA methyltransferase activity, thereby leading to methylation of the ABCG2 promoter and to a decrease in ABCG2 message level. Taken together, our results advocate the use of afatinib in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs to improve efficacy by improving CSC eradication.

Xiong B, Ma L, Hu X, et al.
Characterization of side population cells isolated from the colon cancer cell line SW480.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(3):1175-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Side population (SP) cells may play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and the recurrence of cancer. Many types of cell lines and tissues have demonstrated the presence of SP cells, including colon cancer cell lines. This study aimed to identify cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the SP of the colon cancer cell line SW480. SP cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), followed by serum-free medium (SFM) culture. The self-renewal, differentiated progeny, clone formation, proliferation, invasion ability, cell cycle, chemosensitivity and tumorigenic properties in SP and non-SP (NSP) cells were investigated through in vitro culture and in vivo serial transplantation. The expression profiles of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein transporters and stem cell-related genes were examined by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The human colon cancer cell lines SW480, Lovo and HCT116 contain 1.1 ± 0.10, 0.93 ± 0.11 and 1.33 ± 0.05% SP cells, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that SP cells could differentiate into SP and NSP cells. SP cells had a higher proliferation potency and CFE than NSP cells. Compared to NSP cells, SP cells were also more resistant to CDDP and 5-FU, and were more invasive and displayed increased tumorigenic ability. Moreover, SP cells showed higher mRNA and protein expression of ABCG2, MDR1, OCT-4, NANOG, SOX-2, CD44 and CD133. SP cells isolated from human colon cancer cell lines harbor CSC properties that may be related to the invasive potential and therapeutic resistance of colon cancer.

Tonigold M, Rossmann A, Meinold M, et al.
A cisplatin-resistant head and neck cancer cell line with cytoplasmic p53(mut) exhibits ATP-binding cassette transporter upregulation and high glutathione levels.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014; 140(10):1689-704 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines with cytoplasmically sequestered mutant p53 (p53(mut_c)) are frequently more resistant to cisplatin (CDDP) than cells with mutant but nuclear p53 (p53(mut_n)). The aim of the study was to identify underlying mechanisms implicated in CDDP resistance of HNSCC cells carrying cytoplasmic p53(mut).
METHODS: Microarray analysis, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry were used to identify and evaluate candidate genes involved in CDDP resistance of p53(mut_c) cells. RNAi knockdown or treatment with inhibitors together with flow cytometry-based methods was used for functional assessment of the identified candidate genes. Cellular metabolic activity was assessed with the XTT assay, and the redox capacity of cells was evaluated by measuring cellular glutathione (GSH) levels.
RESULTS: Upregulation of ABCC2 and ABCG2 transporters was observed in CDDP-resistant p53(mut_c) HNSCC cells. Furthermore, p53(mut_c) cells exhibited a pronounced side population that could be suppressed by RNAi knockdown of ABCG2 as well as treatment with the ATP-binding-cassette transporter inhibitors imatinib, MK571 and tariquidar. Metabolic activity and cellular GSH levels were higher in CDDP-resistant p53(mut_c) cells, consistent with a higher capacity to fend off cytotoxic oxidative effects such as those caused by CDDP treatment. Finally, ABCC2/G2 inhibition of HNSCC cells with MK571 markedly enhanced CDDP sensitivity of HNSCC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The observations in this study point to a major role of p53(mut_c) in conferring a stem cell like phenotype to HNSCC cells that is associated with ABCC2/G2 overexpression, high GSH and metabolic activity levels as well as CDDP resistance.

Li W, Zhai B, Zhi H, et al.
Association of ABCB1, β tubulin I, and III with multidrug resistance of MCF7/DOC subline from breast cancer cell line MCF7.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):8883-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Docetaxel is a first-line chemotherapeutic agent for treating advanced breast cancer. The development of chemoresistance or multidrug resistance (MDR), however, results in breast cancer chemotherapy failure. This study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying docetaxel-resistance in treatment of breast cancer. The docetaxel-resistant subline MCF7/DOC, derived from the parental sensitive breast cancer cell line MCF7, was established by intermittent exposure to moderate concentrations of docetaxel, followed by examination of its phenotypes. The MCF7/DOC subline showed cross resistance against paclitaxel, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and 5-Fu. Compared to the parental MCF7, MCF7/DOC cells were enlarged with heterogeneous sizes and a cobblestone and polygonal appearance. They were arrested at G2/M phase and proliferated slowly. The colony formation potential of MCF7/DOC in soft agar was significantly increased. MCF7/DOC cells showed reduced intracellular accumulation and increased efflux of rhodamine 123. The mRNA expression level of adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, i.e., ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCG2, and β tubulin isotypes were characterized by quantitative PCR. High-level expression of ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin mRNA in MCF7/DOC was detected. Downregulation of ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin mediated by three combined siRNAs resulted in stronger growth inhibition of MCF7/DOC than inhibition of the expression of individual genes. ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin might contribute to the MDR of MCF7/DOC and be potential therapeutic targets for overcoming MDR of breast cancer.

Lim YC, Kang HJ, Moon JH
C-Met pathway promotes self-renewal and tumorigenecity of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma stem-like cell.
Oral Oncol. 2014; 50(7):633-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Increasing evidence indicates that a rare subpopulation of cancer cells, namely, cancer stem cells (CSCs), is the primary cause of tumorigenesis in some tumor types, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-Met, are involved in tongue development and carcinogenesis of HNSCC. Here, we investigated whether activation of HGF/c-Met signaling influences the stem cell traits of HNSCC CSC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: After HGF treatment, we assessed the sphere-forming capacity and stem cell marker expression in HNSCC stem-like cells compared with the respective control cells in vitro. In addition, we evaluated the effect of c-Met knockdown on the sphere-forming capacity, stem cell marker expression, and cisplatin chemosensitivity of HNSCC stem-like cells in vitro. Furthermore, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of c-Met knockdown on the capacity of HNSCC stem-like cells to initiate tumor growth in the orthotopic mouse model.
RESULTS: HGF treatment promoted the sphere-forming capacity of HNSCC stem-like cells and increased the expression of stem cell markers such as Oct4, Sox2, and CD44. Transcriptional levels of c-Met was increased in cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 1 activity, a putative marker for HNSCC stem-like cells, compared to cells with low activity. In contrast, knockdown of c-Met attenuated the sphere-forming capacity and stem cell markers expression in HNSCC stem-like cells, and augmented cisplatin chemosensitivity by decreased side population cells and suppression of an ABCG2 transporter gene. Furthermore, knockdown of c-Met in HNSCC stem-like cells inhibits tumor formation of mice in a xenograft model and increases mice survival.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that inhibition of the c-Met pathway could serve as a potent therapeutic strategy to target HNSCC stem-like cells.

Zhu Y, Liu XJ, Yang P, et al.
Alkylglyceronephosphate synthase (AGPS) alters lipid signaling pathways and supports chemotherapy resistance of glioma and hepatic carcinoma cell lines.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(7):3219-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemotherapy continues to be a mainstay of cancer treatment, although drug resistance is a major obstacle. Lipid metabolism plays a critical role in cancer pathology, with elevated ether lipid levels. Recently, alkylglyceronephosphate synthase (AGPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the critical step in ether lipid synthesis, was shown to be up-regulated in multiple types of cancer cells and primary tumors. Here, we demonstrated that silencing of AGPS in chemotherapy resistance glioma U87MG/DDP and hepatic carcinoma HepG2/ADM cell lines resulted in reduced cell proliferation, increased drug sensitivity, cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis through reducing the intracellular concentration of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), lysophosphatidic acid-ether (LPAe) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), resulting in reduction of LPA receptor and EP receptors mediated PI3K/AKT signaling pathways and the expression of several multi-drug resistance genes, like MDR1, MRP1 and ABCG2. β-catenin, caspase-3/8, Bcl-2 and survivin were also found to be involved. In summary, our studies indicate that AGPS plays a role in cancer chemotherapy resistance by mediating signaling lipid metabolism in cancer cells.

Januchowski R, Zawierucha P, Ruciński M, et al.
Drug transporter expression profiling in chemoresistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2014; 68(4):447-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is characterized by the higher mortality among gynecological cancers. In results of MDR development during chemotherapy cancer cells become resistant to further treatment. Microarray techniques can provide information about MDR development at gene expression level. ABC and SLC transporters are most important proteins responsible for this phenomenon. In this study changes of ABC and SLC genes expression pattern in drugs resistant sublines of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line were demonstrated. The cytostatic resistant sublines were generated by culture of A2780 cell line with an increasing concentration of the indicated drugs. As screening methods, we used Affymetrix U219 Human Genome microarrays. Independent t-tests were used to determinate statistical significances of results. Genes that expression levels were higher than assumed threshold (upregulated above threefold and downregulated under -3 fold) were visualized using scatter plot method, selected and listed in table. Between the ABC genes increased expression of seven genes and decreased expression of three genes were observed. Expression of two genes was increased or decreased depending on the cell line. We observed significant (more than tenfold) increase in expression of four ABC genes: ABCA8, ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCG2 and decreased expression of ABCA3 gene. We also observed changes in expression of 32 SLC genes. Between them we observe increased expression of 17 genes and decreased expression of 15 genes. Expression of four genes was increased or decreased dependent on cell line. The expression of nine SLC genes increased or decreased very significantly (more than tenfold). Five genes were significantly upregulated: SLC2A9, SLC16A3, SLC16A14, SLC38A4 and SLC39A8. Four additional genes were significantly downregulated: SLC2A14, SLC6A15, SLC8A1 and SLC27A2. Expression profiles of these genes give strong arguments for assumption of correlation between expression of ABC and SLC genes and drug resistance phenomenon. Identifying correlations between specific drug transporters and cytostatic drug resistance will require further investigation.

Li W, Tamamura R, Wang B, et al.
Expressions of ABCG2, CD133, and podoplanin in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:132349 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is one of the most common salivary gland malignant tumors with a high risk of recurrence and metastasis. Current studies on cancer stem cells (CSCs) have verified that CSCs are the driving force behind tumor initiation and progression, suggesting that new cancer therapies may be established by effectively targeting and killing the CSCs. The primary goal of this study is to investigate the expression patterns of ABCG2, CD133, and podoplanin in ACC of minor salivary glands by immunohistochemistry analysis. We found that ABCG2 was weakly expressed in normal looking salivary gland tissues. A significant upregulation of ABCG2 expression in ACC was observed with a similar expression pattern of Ki-67. CD133 was detected in apical membrane of epithelial cells and podoplanin was expressed positively in myoepithelial cells of both normal looking tissue and ACC. However, no significant difference was found of the expression pattern of CD133 and podoplanin between normal looking tissues and ACC. Our observations suggest that CSCs may exist in quiescent cells with ABCG2 positive staining, which are surrounded by cells with positive expression of ABCG2 and Ki-67 in ACC, and costaining with ABCG2 and Ki-67 may help predict the location of CSCs.

Yasunaga M, Matsumura Y
Role of SLC6A6 in promoting the survival and multidrug resistance of colorectal cancer.
Sci Rep. 2014; 4:4852 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) might be improved by the identification of a signalling pathway that could be targeted with novel therapeutics. The results of this study indicate that the taurine transporter SLC6A6 is highly expressed in CRC cells compared with normal colonocytes. SLC6A6 knockdown (KD) attenuated cell survival and was accompanied by enhanced drug sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), doxycycline (DOX) and SN-38. Both the population frequency of the side population (SP) cells and their cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties (such as tumour initiation, differentiation and chemoresistance) were abrogated by SLC6A6-KD. Conversely, SLC6A6 overexpression increased cell survival and the proportion of SP cells, enhancing multidrug resistance (MDR). Additionally, SLC6A6-siRNA treatment enhanced the cytotoxic effects of all 3 drugs, whereas the efficacy of ABCG2-siRNA treatment was limited to its 2 substrate drugs, DOX and SN-38. This study indicates that SLC6A6 plays an important role in the maintenance of CSC characteristics, thus promoting cell survival signalling and chemoresistance. Therefore, SLC6A6 inhibition may be a promising therapeutic strategy for refractory CRC.

Shi L, Wang Z, Sun G, et al.
miR-145 inhibits migration and invasion of glioma stem cells by targeting ABCG2.
Neuromolecular Med. 2014; 16(2):517-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite advances in clinical therapies and technologies, the prognosis for patients with malignant glioma is poor. Our previous research demonstrated that glioma stem cells (GSCs) were crucial for glioma malignancy and accelerated tumor migration and invasion. The migration and invasion of malignant glioma cells into the surrounding normal brain tissues cause the poor outcome. miR-145, a miRNA found to be expressed in neurons, was recently found to have reduced expression in glioblastoma multiforme tumors. And miR-145 loss in glioma cells led to increased cell proliferation and invasion. However, its function on the migration and invasion of GSCs was still unknown. In this study, we aimed to identify the effects and mechanisms of miR-145 on the migration and invasion of GSCs. Our investigations revealed that miR-145 was low expressed in malignant glioma tissues and their corresponding GSCs. Knockdown of miR-145 in vitro could enhance the migration and invasion of GSCs, while up-regulation of miR-145 had the opposite effects. Further investigation of the potential mechanism demonstrated that the function of miR-145 in regulating the migration and invasion of GSCs is mediated by its targeting of ABCG2 mRNA. ABCG2 is an ATP-binding cassette transporter protein, which was identified to be overexpressed in GSCs and higher-grade glioma tissues. We found that miR-145 was negative correlated with ABCG2 levels in GSCs, and reduction in ABCG2 expression decreased the cell migration and invasion of GSCs. Further, a luciferase reporter proved that ABCG2 was a direct target of miR-145 in GSCs. Thus, these findings underscore the potential of miR-145 to regulate the migration and invasion of GSCs through targeting ABCG2.

El Mesallamy HO, Rashed WM, Hamdy NM, Hamdy N
High-dose methotrexate in Egyptian pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the impact of ABCG2 C421A genetic polymorphism on plasma levels, what is next?
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014; 140(8):1359-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: High-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) is a cornerstone antineoplastic drug in most treatment protocols of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Among the membrane efflux transporters of MTX, the human breast cancer resistant protein is the second member of the G subfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux pump (ABCG2). A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in ABCG2, the exchange of C to A at position 421, represents 13 % in the Middle Eastern population. We studied the effect of this SNP on the plasma levels of HD-MTX in Egyptian pediatric ALL.
METHODS: Two hundred ALL patients were recruited from Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt-57357, and all were treated according to the St Jude Total XV protocol. Determination of plasma MTX levels was done at 23, 42 and 68 h. Genotyping of C421A of ABCG2 was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.
RESULTS: We found 14.5 % of the variant allele of the ABCG2 C421A SNP. The statistical association between ABCG2 421C>A SNP and the cutoff toxic plasma level of 24 h HD-MTX infusion at different time points tested was not statistically significant. There was no statistical significance between steady-state plasma concentration in patients with and without with this SNP.
CONCLUSION: To date, this is the largest study on Egyptian ALL patients for this SNP. This study shows that there is no effect of ABCG2 421C>A on plasma concentrations of HD-MTX. Replacing candidate gene association studies with genome-wide studies of HD-MTX is now mandatory and is part of our research blueprint.

Wu WR, Zhang R, Shi XD, et al.
Notch1 is overexpressed in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and is associated with its proliferation, invasiveness and sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil in vitro.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(6):2515-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Notch signaling pathway has been reported to play crucial roles in inhibiting hepatocyte differentiation and allowing formation of intrahepatic bile ducts. However, little is known about its significance in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Notch1 expression in ICC tissues and cells. The expression of Notch1 was examined in paraffin-embedded sections of ICC (n=44) by immunohistochemistry. Notch1 was knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi) in cultured ICC cells (RBE and HCCC-9810). The proliferation, invasiveness and sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), colony formation assays, Transwell assays and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression levels of several multidrug resistance (MDR)-related genes, MDR1-P-glycoprotein (ABCB‑1), breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG‑2) and the multidrug resistance protein isoform 1 (MRP‑1), were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. Notch1 was overexpressed in cell membranes and cytoplasm of ICC compared with the adjacent liver tissue (35/44, 79.5%) and this was more common in cases with tumor size≥5 cm (p=0.021) and HBs-Ag positive (p=0.018). By silencing Notch1, the proliferation and invasiveness of ICC cells were inhibited and the inhibition rate of 5-FU was markedly increased. In addition, IC50 values of 5-FU in RBE cells were decreased from 148.74±0.72 to 5.37±0.28 µg/ml and the corresponding values for HCCC-9810 cells were 326.92±0.87 to 42.60±0.35 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, Notch1 silencing clearly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells treated by 5-FU compared with the control. Notch1 knockdown led to diminished expression levels of ABCB‑1 and MRP‑1. Therefore, Notch may play important roles in the development of ICC. Silencing Notch1 can inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of ICC cells and increase their sensitivity to 5-FU in vitro.

Glodkowska-Mrowka E, Mrowka P, Basak GW, et al.
Statins inhibit ABCB1 and ABCG2 drug transporter activity in chronic myeloid leukemia cells and potentiate antileukemic effects of imatinib.
Exp Hematol. 2014; 42(6):439-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite undisputed success of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), development of drug resistance and inability to cure the disease challenge clinicians and researchers. Additionally, recent reports regarding cardiovascular toxicities of second and third generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors prove that there is still a place for novel therapeutic combinations in CML. We have previously shown that statins are able to modulate activity of chemotherapeutics or antibodies used in oncology. Therefore, we decided to verify that statins are able to potentiate antileukemic activity of imatinib, still a frontline treatment of CML. Lovastatin, a cholesterol lowering drug, synergistically potentiates antileukemic activity of imatinib in cell lines and in primary CD34+ CML cells from patients in different phases of the disease, including patients resistant to imatinib with no detectable mutations. This effect is related to increased intracellular concentration of imatinib in CD34+ CML cells and cell lines measured using uptake of (14)C-labeled imatinib. Lovastatin does not influence influx but significantly inhibits efflux of imatinib mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters: ABCB1 and ABCG2. The addition of cholesterol completely reverses these effects. Statins do not affect expression of ABCB1 and ABCG2 genes. The effects are drug-class specific, as observed with other statins. Our results suggest that statins may offer a valuable addition to imatinib in a select group of CML patients.

Wang F, Wang XK, Shi CJ, et al.
Nilotinib enhances the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs in CD34⁺CD38⁻ stem cells and ABC transporter overexpressing leukemia cells.
Molecules. 2014; 19(3):3356-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Incomplete chemotherapeutic eradication of leukemic CD34⁺CD38⁻ stem cells is likely to result in disease relapse. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of nilotinib on eradicating leukemia stem cells and enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. Our results showed that ABCB1 and ABCG2 were preferentially expressed in leukemic CD34⁺CD38⁻ cells. Nilotinib significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and mitoxantrone in CD34⁺CD38⁻ cells and led to increased apoptosis. Moreover, nilotinib strongly reversed multidrug resistance and increased the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 in primary leukemic blasts overexpressing ABCB1 and/or ABCG2. Studies with ABC transporter-overexpressing carcinoma cell models confirmed that nilotinib effectively reversed ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated drug resistance, while showed no significant reversal effect on ABCC1- and ABCC4-mediated drug resistance. Results from cytotoxicity assays showed that CD34⁺CD38⁻ cells exhibited moderate resistance (2.41-fold) to nilotinib, compared with parental K562 cells. Furthermore, nilotinib was less effective in blocking the phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl and CrkL (a substrate of Bcr-Abl kinase) in CD34⁺CD38⁻ cells. Taken together, these data suggest that nilotinib particularly targets CD34⁺CD38⁻ stem cells and MDR leukemia cells, and effectively enhances the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs by blocking the efflux function of ABC transporters.

Mato E, González C, Moral A, et al.
ABCG2/BCRP gene expression is related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition inducer genes in a papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line (TPC-1).
J Mol Endocrinol. 2014; 52(3):289-300 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor malignancy is associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and resistance to chemotherapy. However, little is known about the relationship between the EMT and the multidrug-resistance gene in thyroid tumor progression. We investigated whether the expression of the ABCG2/BCRP gene is associated with ZEB1 and other EMT inducer genes involved in tumor dedifferentiation. We established a subpopulation of cells that express the ABCG2/BCRP gene derived from the thyroid papillary carcinoma cell line (TPC-1), the so-called TPC-1 MITO-resistant subline. The most relevant findings in these TPC-1 selected cells were a statistically significant upregulation of ZEB1 and TWIST1 (35- and 15-fold change respectively), no changes in the relative expression of vimentin and SNAIL1, and no expression of E-cadherin. The TPC-1 MITO-resistant subline displayed a faster migration and greater invasive ability than parental cells in correlation with a significant upregulation of the survivin (BIRC5) gene (twofold change, P<0.05). The knockdown of ZEB1 promoted nuclear re-expression of E-cadherin, reduced expression of vimentin, N-cadherin, and BIRC5 genes, and reduced cell migration (P<0.05). Analysis of human thyroid carcinoma showed a slight overexpression of the ABCG2/BCRP at stages I and II (P<0.01), and a higher overexpression at stages III and IV (P<0.01). SNAIL1, TWIST1, and ZEB1 genes showed higher expression at stages III and IV than at stages I and II. E- and N-cadherin genes were upregulated at stages I and II of the disease (ninefold and tenfold change, respectively, P<0.01) but downregulated at stages III and IV (fourfold lower, P<0.01). These results could be a promising starting point for further study of the role of the ABCG2/BCRP gene in the progression of thyroid tumor.

DA Silva VA, DA Silva KA, Delou JM, et al.
Modulation of ABCC1 and ABCG2 proteins by ouabain in human breast cancer cells.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(3):1441-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
ABCC1 and ABCG2 are two transporters associated with multi-drug resistance to cancer chemotherapy. Ouabain is a cardiotonic steroid, currently considered as a hormone associated with arterial hypertension. Previous studies have suggested that ouabain can modulate ABCB1 and ABCC1 expression in cancer and renal cell lines. The present study investigated the effects of physiological concentrations of ouabain on the expression and activity of ABCC1 and ABCG2 in two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, the first known to be responsive to estrogens. Cell viability and proliferation assays showed that 1 μM ouabain reduced proliferation of MCF7, but not if MDA-MB-231 cells. On the other hand, 10 nM ouabain increased proliferation of MDA-MB-231, but not of MCF7 cells. Ouabain (10 nM) prevented the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin in MCF7 cells, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Treatment of cells under different ouabain concentrations for 24 h did not cause any significant effects in the expression of ABCG2 or ABCC1 in either cell line. However, the activity of ABCC1 was increased when MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with 10 mM and 1 nM ouabain respectively. These results claim attention to the possibility that breast cancer patients with high levels of endogenous ouabain may have different responses to chemotherapy.

Wang PC, Weng CC, Hou YS, et al.
Activation of VCAM-1 and its associated molecule CD44 leads to increased malignant potential of breast cancer cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(3):3560-79 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
VCAM-1 (CD106), a transmembrane glycoprotein, was first reported to play an important role in leukocyte adhesion, leukocyte transendothelial migration and cell activation by binding to integrin VLA-1 (α4β1). In the present study, we observed that VCAM-1 expression can be induced in many breast cancer epithelial cells by cytokine stimulation in vitro and its up-regulation directly correlated with advanced clinical breast cancer stage. We found that VCAM-1 over-expression in the NMuMG breast epithelial cells controls the epithelial and mesenchymal transition (EMT) program to increase cell motility rates and promote chemoresistance to doxorubicin and cisplatin in vitro. Conversely, in the established MDAMB231 metastatic breast cancer cell line, we confirmed that knockdown of endogenous VCAM-1 expression reduced cell proliferation and inhibited TGFβ1 or IL-6 mediated cell migration, and increased chemosensitivity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that knockdown of endogenous VCAM-1 expression in MDAMB231 cells reduced tumor formation in a SCID xenograft mouse model. Signaling studies showed that VCAM-1 physically associates with CD44 and enhances CD44 and ABCG2 expression. Our findings uncover the possible mechanism of VCAM-1 activation facilitating breast cancer progression, and suggest that targeting VCAM-1 is an attractive strategy for therapeutic intervention.

Au A, Aziz Baba A, Goh AS, et al.
Association of genotypes and haplotypes of multi-drug transporter genes ABCB1 and ABCG2 with clinical response to imatinib mesylate in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2014; 68(3):343-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The introduction and success of imatinib mesylate (IM) has become a paradigm shift in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treatment. However, the high efficacy of IM has been hampered by the issue of clinical resistance that might due to pharmacogenetic variability. In the current study, the contribution of three common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ABCB1 (T1236C, G2677T/A and C3435T) and two SNPs of ABCG2 (G34A and C421A) genes in mediating resistance and/or good response among 215 CML patients on IM therapy were investigated. Among these patients, the frequency distribution of ABCG2 421 CC, CA and AA genotypes were significantly different between IM good response and resistant groups (P=0.01). Resistance was significantly associated with patients who had homozygous ABCB1 1236 CC genotype with OR 2.79 (95%CI: 1.217-6.374, P=0.01). For ABCB1 G2677T/A polymorphism, a better complete cytogenetic remission was observed for patients with variant TT/AT/AA genotype, compared to other genotype groups (OR=0.48, 95%CI: 0.239-0.957, P=0.03). Haplotype analysis revealed that ABCB1 haplotypes (C1236G2677C3435) was statistically linked to higher risk to IM resistance (25.8% vs. 17.4%, P=0.04), while ABCG2 diplotype A34A421 was significantly correlated with IM good response (9.1% vs. 3.9%, P=0.03). In addition, genotypic variant in ABCG2 421C>A was associated with a major molecular response (MMR) (OR=2.20, 95%CI: 1.273-3.811, P=0.004), whereas ABCB1 2677G>T/A variant was associated with a significantly lower molecular response (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.248-0.974, P=0.04). However, there was no significant correlation of these SNPs with IM intolerance and IM induced hepatotoxicity. Our results suggest the usefulness of genotyping of these single nucleotide polymorphisms in predicting IM response among CML patients.

Huang W, Wan C, Luo Q, et al.
Genistein-inhibited cancer stem cell-like properties and reduced chemoresistance of gastric cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(3):3432-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genistein, the predominant isoflavone found in soy products, has exerted its anticarcinogenic effect in many different tumor types in vitro and in vivo. Accumulating evidence in recent years has strongly indicated the existence of cancer stem cells in gastric cancer. Here, we showed that low doses of genistein (15 µM), extracted from Millettia nitida Benth var hirsutissima Z Wei, inhibit tumor cell self-renewal in two types of gastric cancer cells by colony formation assay and tumor sphere formation assay. Treatment of gastric cancer cells with genistein reduced its chemoresistance to 5-Fu (fluorouracil) and ciplatin. Further results indicated that the reduced chemoresistance may be associated with the inhibition of ABCG2 expression and ERK 1/2 activity. Furthermore, genistein reduced tumor mass in the xenograft model. Together, genistein inhibited gastric cancer stem cell-like properties and reduced its chemoresistance. Our results provide a further rationale and experimental basis for using the genistein to improve treatment of patients with gastric cancer.

Liu L, Zuo LF, Guo JW
ABCG2 gene amplification and expression in esophageal cancer cells with acquired adriamycin resistance.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 9(4):1299-304 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resistance to chemotherapeutic agents is the main reason for treatment failure in patients with cancer. The primary mechanism of multidrug resistance (MDR) is the overexpression of drug efflux transporters, including ATP‑binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2). To the best of our knowledge, the MDR mechanisms of esophageal cancer have not been described. An adriamycin (ADM)-resistant subline, Eca109/ADM, was generated from the Eca109 esophageal cancer cell line by a stepwise selection in ADM from 0.002 to 0.02 ng/µl. The resulting subline, designated Eca109/ADM, revealed a 3.29-fold resistance against ADM compared with the Eca109 cell line. The ABCG2 gene expression in the Eca109/ADM cells was increased compared with that of the Eca109 cells. The cellular properties of the Eca109/ADM cells were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and western blotting. The ABCG2 expression levels were detected by RT-PCR and flow cytometry, and the drug efflux effect was detected by flow cytometry. The present study detected the correlation between ABCG2 and the multidrug resistance of esophageal cancer. ABCG2 gene expression and the drug efflux effect of the Eca109/ADM cells were increased compared with those of the Eca109 cells. Collectively, the results of this study indicated that the overexpression of ABCG2 in the Eca109/ADM cells resulted in drug efflux, which may be responsible for the development of esophageal cancer MDR.

Yao Q, Sun JG, Ma H, et al.
Monitoring microRNAs using a molecular beacon in CD133+/ CD338+ human lung adenocarcinoma-initiating A549 cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(1):161-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and a lack of effective methods for early diagnosis has greatly impacted the prognosis and survival rates of the affected patients. Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are considered to be largely responsible for tumor genesis, resistance to tumor therapy, metastasis, and recurrence. In addition to representing a good potential treatment target, TICs can provide clues for the early diagnosis of cancer. MicroRNA (miRNA) alterations are known to be involved in the initiation and progression of human cancer, and the detection of related miRNAs in TICs is an important strategy for lung cancer early diagnosis. As Hsa-miR-155 (miR-155) can be used as a diagnostic marker for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a smart molecular beacon of miR-155 was designed to image the expression of miR-155 in NSCLC cases. TICs expressing CD133 and CD338 were obtained from A549 cells by applying an immune magnetic bead isolation system, and miR-155 was detected using laser-scanning confocal microscopy. We found that intracellular miR- 155 could be successfully detected using smart miR-155 molecular beacons. Expression was higher in TICs than in A549 cells, indicating that miR-155 may play an important role in regulating bio-behavior of TICs. As a non-invasive approach, molecular beacons could be implemented with molecular imaging to diagnose lung cancer at early stages.

Noori-Daloii MR, Saffari M, Raoofian R, et al.
The multidrug resistance pumps are inhibited by silibinin and apoptosis induced in K562 and KCL22 leukemia cell lines.
Leuk Res. 2014; 38(5):575-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Silibinin have been introduced for several years as a potent antioxidant in the field of nutraceuticals. Based on wide persuasive effects of this drug, we have decided to investigate the effects of silibinin on chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in vitro models, K562 and KCL22 cell lines. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, microculture tetrazolium test (MTT assay) and real-time PCR were employed to evaluate the effects of silibinin on cell cytotoxicity, cell proliferation and expression of various multidrug resistance genes in these cell lines, respectively. Our results have shown that presence of silibinin has inhibitory effects on cell proliferation of K562 and KCL22 cell lines. Also, our data indicated that silibinin, in a dose-dependent manner with applying no cytotoxic effects, inhibited cell proliferation and reduced mRNA expression levels of some transporter genes e.g. MDR1, MRP3, MRP2, MRP1, MRP5, MRP4, ABCG2, ABCB11, MRP6 and MRP7. The multifarious in vitro inhibitory effects of silibinin are in agreement with growing body of evidence that silibinin would be an efficient anticancer agent in order to be used in multi-target therapy to prevail the therapeutic hold backs against CML.

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