Gene Summary

Gene:PARP1; poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1
Summary:This gene encodes a chromatin-associated enzyme, poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase, which modifies various nuclear proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The modification is dependent on DNA and is involved in the regulation of various important cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and tumor transformation and also in the regulation of the molecular events involved in the recovery of cell from DNA damage. In addition, this enzyme may be the site of mutation in Fanconi anemia, and may participate in the pathophysiology of type I diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PARP1 (cancer-related)

Ramezani S, Sharafshah A, Mirzanejad L, Hadavi M
Association of PARP1 rs4653734, rs907187 and rs1136410 variants with breast cancer risk among Iranian women.
Gene. 2019; 712:143954 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the highest cause of mortality among female cancer patients. In some cases, BC is due to Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP1) gene dysregulation, which has been involved in various important cellular processes. Among Iranian women, the association between PARP1 polymorphisms and BC was never studied before so in this case-control study, the genetic association of three SNPs (rs1136410, rs907187 and rs4653734) was analyzed with susceptibility to BC.
METHODS: The study subjects were 386 Iranian females divided into 186 patients and 200 healthy controls. The genotypes of PARP1 variants were detected using ARMS and a combined ARMS-RFLP PCR method.
RESULTS: The results showed that Carriers of CG and GG genotypes of the variant rs4653734 were at higher risk of BC compared with wild-type carriers (CC) and this variant was statistically significant under a recessive model of inheritance. Moreover, rs907187 was related to increased BC risk in the CC and GG genotypes under dominant and recessive models of inheritance. The G allele frequency of rs4653734 and rs907187 was higher in breast cancer patients than in normal subjects. No association was detected between rs1136410 and susceptibility to BC among studied groups. Furthermore, A-G-C haplotype was linked to an increased BC risk, whereas A-C-C and A-C-G haplotypes were related to a decreased risk of BC. In Silico predictions suggested that rs907187 affects E2F and E2F-4 transcription factors binding site.
CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggests that rs907187 and rs4653734 have remarkable associations with BC risk among Iranian women.

Chiodi I, Picco G, Martino C, Mondello C
Cellular response to glutamine and/or glucose deprivation in in vitro transformed human fibroblasts.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(6):3555-3564 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neoplastic transformation is characterized by metabolic rewiring to sustain the elevated biosynthetic demands of highly proliferative cancer cells. To obtain the precursors for macromolecule biosynthesis, cancer cells avidly uptake and metabolize glucose and glutamine. Thus, targeting the availability or metabolism of these nutrients is an attractive anticancer therapeutic strategy. To improve our knowledge concerning how cancer cells respond to nutrient withdrawal, the response to glutamine and/or glucose starvation was studied in human in vitro transformed fibroblasts, deeply characterized at the cellular and molecular level. Concomitant starvation of both nutrients led to rapid loss of cellular adhesion (~16 h after starvation), followed by cell death. Deprivation of glucose alone had the same effect, although at a later time (~48 h after starvation), suggesting that glucose plays a key role in enabling cell attachment to the extracellular matrix. Glutamine deprivation did not induce rapid cell death, but caused a prolonged arrest of cellular proliferation; the cells started dying only 96 h after starvation. Before massive cell death occurred, the effects of all the starvation conditions were reversible. Autophagy activation was observed in cells incubated in the absence of glucose for more than 48 h, while autophagy was not detected under the other starvation conditions. Markers of apoptotic cell death, such as caspase 3, caspase 9 and poly(ADP‑ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP‑1) proteolytic fragments, were not observed under any growth condition. Glucose and/or glutamine deprivation caused very rapid PARP‑1 activation, with marked PARP‑1 (poly‑ADP) ribosylation and protein (poly‑ADP) ribosylation. This activation was not due to starvation‑induced DNA double‑strand breaks, which appeared at the late stages of deprivation, when most cells died. Collectively, these results highlight a broad range of consequences of glucose and glutamine starvation, which may be taken into account when nutrient availability is used as a target for anticancer therapies.

Gröschel S, Hübschmann D, Raimondi F, et al.
Defective homologous recombination DNA repair as therapeutic target in advanced chordoma.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1635 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chordomas are rare bone tumors with few therapeutic options. Here we show, using whole-exome and genome sequencing within a precision oncology program, that advanced chordomas (n = 11) may be characterized by genomic patterns indicative of defective homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair and alterations affecting HR-related genes, including, for example, deletions and pathogenic germline variants of BRCA2, NBN, and CHEK2. A mutational signature associated with HR deficiency was significantly enriched in 72.7% of samples and co-occurred with genomic instability. The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor olaparib, which is preferentially toxic to HR-incompetent cells, led to prolonged clinical benefit in a patient with refractory chordoma, and whole-genome analysis at progression revealed a PARP1 p.T910A mutation predicted to disrupt the autoinhibitory PARP1 helical domain. These findings uncover a therapeutic opportunity in chordoma that warrants further exploration, and provide insight into the mechanisms underlying PARP inhibitor resistance.

Mesquita KA, Alabdullah M, Griffin M, et al.
ERCC1-XPF deficiency is a predictor of olaparib induced synthetic lethality and platinum sensitivity in epithelial ovarian cancers.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 153(2):416-424 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: PARP inhibitor maintenance therapy in platinum sensitive sporadic ovarian cancers improves progression free survival. However, biomarker for synthetic lethality in platinum sensitive sporadic disease is yet to be defined. ERCC1-XPF heterodimer is a key player in nucleotide excision repair (NER) involved in the repair of platinum induced DNA damage. In the current study, we tested whether ERCC1-XPF deficiency would predict synthetic lethality to the PARP inhibitor Olaparib and platinum sensitivity in ovarian cancers.
METHODS: ERCC1, XPF and PARP1 protein expression was evaluated in tumors from a cohort of 331 patients treated at Nottingham University Hospitals and correlated to clinicopathological features and survival. Pre-clinically, ERCC1 and XPF was depleted in A2780 (platinum sensitive) and A2780cis (platinum resistant) ovarian cancer cell lines and tested for platinum sensitivity as well as for Olaparib induced synthetic lethality.
RESULTS: Low ERCC1 was significantly associated with improved progression free survival (PFS) in patients with ovarian cancers in univariate (p = 0.001) and multivariate (p = 0.002) analysis. In addition, low ERCC1/low XPF (p = 0.003) or low ERCC1/low PARP1 (p = 0.0001) tumors was also linked to better PFS compared to high ERCC1/high XPF or high ERCC1/high PARP1 tumors. Pre-clinically, ERCC1 or XPF depletion not only increased platinum sensitivity but also increased toxicity to Olaparib therapy. Increased sensitivity was associated with DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) accumulation, cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: The data provide evidence that low ERCC1 is not only a predictor of platinum sensitivity but is also a promising biomarker for Olaparib induced synthetic lethality in ovarian cancers.

Hybiak J, Domagala P, Domagala W
BRCA1 and PARP1 mRNA expression during progression from normal breast to ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive breast cancer: a laser microdissection study.
Pol J Pathol. 2018; 69(4):347-355 [PubMed] Related Publications
The contribution of DNA damage repair mechanisms to the progression of normal breast to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma is largely unknown. The purpose of this report was to assess the mRNA expression levels of two important genes associated with DNA repair, BRCA1 and PARP1, in normal breast tissue, DCIS G1, G2 and G3, and co-existing adjacent invasive ductal carcinoma. BRCA1 and PARP1 mRNA expression was assessed in 32 ductal carcinomas in situ of the breast using a laser microdissection and pressure catapulting system and quantitative real-time PCR. The relative expression of BRCA1 mRNA was significantly increased in DCIS G2 and DCIS G3 relative to normal breast tissue (p = 0.02, p = 0.001, respectively). Significant differences in BRCA1 expression were observed between DCIS G1 and G2 (p = 0.02) and between DCIS G1 and G3 (p = 0.0007). No significant differences in BRCA1 expression were observed between normal breast tissue and DCIS G1 and between DCIS component and adjacent invasive ductal carcinoma. No significant differences in the relative expression of PARP1 mRNA were observed between groups. Increased BRCA1 mRNA expression (but not PARP1 mRNA) occurs early in the development of breast cancer, i.e. at the noninvasive (DCIS) stage, suggesting a demand for increased activity of a DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination. DCIS G1 and normal breast tissue share highly similar BRCA1 and PARP1 expression level. This finding supports the idea that DCIS G1 belongs to a separate family of precursor lesions with low malignant potential.

Hurley RM, Wahner Hendrickson AE, Visscher DW, et al.
53BP1 as a potential predictor of response in PARP inhibitor-treated homologous recombination-deficient ovarian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 153(1):127-134 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have shown substantial activity in homologous recombination- (HR-) deficient ovarian cancer and are undergoing testing in other HR-deficient tumors. For reasons that are incompletely understood, not all patients with HR-deficient cancers respond to these agents. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that changes in alternative DNA repair pathways affect PARP inhibitor (PARPi) sensitivity in ovarian cancer models. This has not previously been assessed in the clinical setting.
METHODS: Clonogenic and plasmid-based HR repair assays were performed to compare BRCA1-mutant COV362 ovarian cancer cells with or without 53BP1 gene deletion. Archival biopsies from ovarian cancer patients in the phase I, open-label clinical trial of PARPi ABT-767 were stained for PARP1, RAD51, 53BP1 and multiple components of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathway. Modified histochemistry- (H-) scores were determined for each repair protein in each sample. HRD score was determined from tumor DNA.
RESULTS: 53BP1 deletion increased HR in BRCA1-mutant COV362 cells and decreased PARPi sensitivity in vitro. In 36 women with relapsed ovarian cancer, responses to the PARPi ABT-767 were observed exclusively in cancers with HR deficiency. In this subset, 7 of 18 patients (39%) had objective responses. The actual HRD score did not further correlate with change from baseline tumor volume (r = 0.050; p = 0.87). However, in the HR-deficient subset, decreased 53BP1 H-score was associated with decreased antitumor efficacy of ABT-767 (r = -0.69, p = 0.004).
CONCLUSION: Differences in complementary repair pathways, particularly 53BP1, correlate with PARPi response of HR-deficient ovarian cancers.

Nicolas E, Demidova EV, Iqbal W, et al.
Interaction of germline variants in a family with a history of early-onset clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(3):e556 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Identification of genetic factors causing predisposition to renal cell carcinoma has helped improve screening, early detection, and patient survival.
METHODS: We report the characterization of a proband with renal and thyroid cancers and a family history of renal and other cancers by whole-exome sequencing (WES), coupled with WES analysis of germline DNA from additional affected and unaffected family members.
RESULTS: This work identified multiple predicted protein-damaging variants relevant to the pattern of inherited cancer risk. Among these, the proband and an affected brother each had a heterozygous Ala45Thr variant in SDHA, a component of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex. SDH defects are associated with mitochondrial disorders and risk for various cancers; immunochemical analysis indicated loss of SDHB protein expression in the patient's tumor, compatible with SDH deficiency. Integrated analysis of public databases and structural predictions indicated that the two affected individuals also had additional variants in genes including TGFB2, TRAP1, PARP1, and EGF, each potentially relevant to cancer risk alone or in conjunction with the SDHA variant. In addition, allelic imbalances of PARP1 and TGFB2 were detected in the tumor of the proband.
CONCLUSION: Together, these data suggest the possibility of risk associated with interaction of two or more variants.

Zella D, Curreli S, Benedetti F, et al.
Mycoplasma promotes malignant transformation in vivo, and its DnaK, a bacterial chaperone protein, has broad oncogenic properties.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(51):E12005-E12014 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
We isolated a strain of human mycoplasma that promotes lymphomagenesis in SCID mice, pointing to a p53-dependent mechanism similar to lymphomagenesis in uninfected p53

Köcher S, Beyer B, Lange T, et al.
A functional ex vivo assay to detect PARP1-EJ repair and radiosensitization by PARP-inhibitor in prostate cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(7):1685-1696 [PubMed] Related Publications
Here, we present a functional assay to detect the repair switch to the alternative PARP1-dependent end joining (PARP1-EJ) pathway and the associated susceptibility to PARPi-mediated radiosensitization in freshly collected tumor samples from prostate cancer (PCa) patients, thereby facilitating the selection of patients who should benefit from combined PARPi plus radiotherapy (RT) treatment. Our optimized ex-vivo approach sustains tumor slices for up to 15 days under culture conditions that maintain proliferation and oxygenation rates, as measured by EdU incorporation and pimonidazole staining, respectively. We present a robust system to analyze DSB repair using, for the first time in an ex vivo tumor slice setting, two DSB-markers simultaneously i.e. γH2AX and 53BP1. A computer-based processing method (i) controls variations in DNA content and slicing on the number of repair foci and (ii) measures the PARPi-mediated enhancement ratio on DSB foci numbers to ensure inter-patient-comparability. We validated this approach using a PC3 xenograft model with its previously described repair switch to PARP1-EJ. More importantly, we show that approximately 30% of the analyzed tumor tissue samples collected from PCa patients display a switch to PARP1-EJ, as indicated by the enhanced number of residual γH2AX/53BP1 foci exclusively after PARPi+RT. Furthermore, normal prostatic tissues show no repair switch to PARP1-EJ, indicating that this repair switch and its associated radiosensitizing effect is tumor-specific. Collectively, we present here a predictive assay for the switch to PARP1-EJ that enables individualization of anti-cancer treatment using a combination of RT and radiosensitizing anticancer agents such as PARPi in PCa.

Li X, Li C, Jin J, et al.
High PARP-1 expression predicts poor survival in acute myeloid leukemia and PARP-1 inhibitor and SAHA-bendamustine hybrid inhibitor combination treatment synergistically enhances anti-tumor effects.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 38:47-56 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: PARP-1 plays a critical role in DNA damage repair and contributes to progression of cancer. To explore the role of PARP-1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we analyzed the expression of PARP-1 in AML and its relation to the clinical prognosis. Then, we investigated the efficacy and mechanism of PARP inhibitor BMN673 (Talazoparib) combined with NL101, a novel SAHA-bendamustine hybrid in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: The expression of PARP-1 in 339 cytogenetically normal AML (CN-AML) cases was evaluated using RT-PCR. According to the expression of PARP-1, the clinical characteristics and prognosis of the patients were grouped and compared. The combination effects of BMN673 and NL101 were studied in AML cells and B-NSG mice xenograft model of MV4-11.
FINDINGS: We found patients in high PARP-1 expression group had higher levels of blast cells in bone marrow (P = .003) and white blood cells (WBC) in peripheral blood (P = .008), and were associated with a more frequent FLT3-ITD mutation (28.2% vs 17.3%, P = .031). The overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) of the high expression group were significantly shorter than those in the low expression group (OS, P = .005 and EFS, P = .004). BMN673 combined with NL101 had a strong synergistic effect in treating AML. The combination significantly induced cell apoptosis and arrested cell cycle in G2/M phase. Mechanistically, BMN673 and NL101 combinatorial treatment promoted DNA damage. In vivo, the combination effectively delayed the development of AML and prolonged survival.
INTERPRETATION: High PARP-1 expression predicts poor survival in CN-AML patients. The synergistic effects of PARP inhibitor BMN673 in combination with SAHA-bendamustine hybrid, NL101, provide a new therapeutic strategy against AML. FUND: National Natural Science Foundation of China and Zhejiang Provincial Key Innovation Team.

Que KT, Zhou Y, You Y, et al.
MicroRNA-31-5p regulates chemosensitivity by preventing the nuclear location of PARP1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):268 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression and thereby contribute to the modulation of numerous complex and disease-relevant cellular processes, including cell proliferation, cell motility, apoptosis and stress response. miRNA-31-5p is encoded on a genomic fragile site, 9p21.3, which is reportedly lost in many hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that miR-31-5p alters chemosensitivity and that miR-31-5p mimics may influence sensitivity to chemotherapeutics in HCC as well as in a variety of other cancers.
METHODS: MiR-31-5p and PARP1 in HCC tissues were tested by RT-PCR and histological analysis, respectively. Next, clonogenic assay and western blot were used to detect miR-31-5p and PARP1 to modulate sensitivity to OXA-based chemotherapy. The distribution of OXA in the nuclear and intracellular was detected by ICP-MS. Coimmunoprecipitation was used to characterize the protein-protein interaction between PARP1 and ABCB9. A xenograft nude mouse model was used to examine the in vivo effects of miR-31-5p.
RESULTS: Reintroduction of miR-31-5p into miR-31-5p-null Hep3B cells significantly enhanced clonogenic resistance to oxaliplatin. Although miR-31-5p re-expression increased chemoresistance, it paradoxically increased the relative intracellular accumulation of oxaliplatin. This effect was coupled with a significantly decreased intranuclear concentration of oxaliplatin by ICP-MS. miR-31-5p prevents the nuclear location of PARP1 detected by immunofluorescence, histological analysis and Western blotting analysis. We subsequently identified an indirect miR-31-5p-mediated upregulation of ABCB9, which is a transporter associated with drug accumulation in lysosomes, along with an increased uptake of oxaliplatin to lysosomes; these phenomena were associated with a downregulation of PARP1, a bipotential transcriptional regulator with multiple miR-31-5p binding sites. However, the indirect overexpression of ABCB9 promoted cellular chemosensitivity, suggesting that miR-31-5p promotes chemoresistance largely via an ABCB9-independent mechanism.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our data suggest that the loss of miR-31-5p from HCC tumors promotes chemosensitivity, and this knowledge may be prognostically beneficial in the context of therapeutic sensitivity.

Liu H, Zhang H, Wu X, et al.
Nuclear cGAS suppresses DNA repair and promotes tumorigenesis.
Nature. 2018; 563(7729):131-136 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accurate repair of DNA double-stranded breaks by homologous recombination preserves genome integrity and inhibits tumorigenesis. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a cytosolic DNA sensor that activates innate immunity by initiating the STING-IRF3-type I IFN signalling cascade

Gopalakrishnan V, Dahal S, Radha G, et al.
Characterization of DNA double-strand break repair pathways in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Mol Carcinog. 2019; 58(2):219-233 [PubMed] Related Publications
Efficient DNA repair is indispensable for maintaining genomic integrity in humans. Cancer associated deletions and mutations are mainly due to misrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Classical nonhomologous end joining (c-NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) are two major DSB repair pathways in humans. An error prone, alternative NHEJ pathway that utilizes microhomology was also reported in cancer cells and to a lesser extent in normal cells. In the present study, we evaluated the efficiency of various DSB repair pathways in the most common lymphoma, the diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here we show that DNA repair through c-NHEJ pathway is limited in SUDHL8, a cell line derived from a DLBCL patient. Unlike c-NHEJ, microhomology mediated end joining (MMEJ) was predominant at physiological temperature. Consistent with the observation, expression level of repair proteins such as LIGASE I, LIGASE III, PARP1, CtIP, and MRE11 was higher in DLBCL cells when compared to c-NHEJ proteins. Further, inhibition of LIGASE I or MRE11, led to reduction in the efficiency of MMEJ in DLBCL cells. Besides, HR-mediated DSB repair occurring through gene conversion was observed. Thus, our results reveal the predominance of MMEJ over c-NHEJ in repairing DSBs in DLBCL cells, while error-free repair through HR was also evident.

Awasthee N, Rai V, Verma SS, et al.
Anti-cancer activities of Bharangin against breast cancer: Evidence for the role of NF-κB and lncRNAs.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2018; 1862(12):2738-2749 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths in women worldwide. Bharangin is a diterpenoid quinonemethide that has demonstrated therapeutic potential against leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma cells. Whether this diterpenoid exhibit activities against breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Herein, we provide evidence that bharangin suppresses the proliferation of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453, MDA-MB-468 and T-47D breast cancer cells. As examined by AO/PI staining, DAPI staining, sub-G1 analysis, phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase activation, DNA laddering, and poly-ADP ribose polymerase cleavage, the diterpenoid induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. The growth inhibitory effect of bharangin on breast cancer cells was further confirmed from colony-formation assay. Furthermore, the cancer cell migration was also suppressed by the diterpenoid. Mechanistically, bharangin was found to modulate multiple cancer related cell signalling pathways in breast cancer cells. Bharangin suppressed the expression of cell survival and invasive proteins, and induced Bax and mitochondrial depolarization in breast cancer cells. The diterpenoid also suppressed the activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF)-κB induced by okadaic acid. Finally, the diterpenoid induced the expression of tumor suppressor lncRNAs (MEG-3, GAS-5), while down-regulating oncogenic H19 expression. Overall, these results suggest that bharangin exhibits anti-carcinogenic, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities against breast cancer cells. The modulation of lncRNA expression and inhibition of NF-κB activation by bharangin may contribute to its anti-carcinogenic activities.

Yang F, Guo L, Cao Y, et al.
MicroRNA-7-5p Promotes Cisplatin Resistance of Cervical Cancer Cells and Modulation of Cellular Energy Homeostasis by Regulating the Expression of the PARP-1 and BCL2 Genes.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:6506-6516 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND Resistance to cisplatin results in recurrence or relapse of cervical cancer in women. An understanding of the mechanisms of cisplatin resistance will be important to improve the efficacy of cisplatin treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of microRNA-7-5p (mir-7-5p) in cisplatin-resistant cervical cancer cells in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression levels of miR-7-5p were detected in cisplatin-resistant cervical cancer cells, HeLa, and SiHa cells (HPV16-positive), and in clinical tissue samples, using miR-7-5p inhibition and a luciferase reporter assay. Fifteen paired cervical cancer tissue samples and adjacent normal cervical tissues were obtained from 15 patients who underwent surgery for cervical cancer. Western blot and flow cytometry were used to investigate cell apoptosis. The expression of mir-7-5p was detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RESULTS The level of miR-7-5p was increased in cisplatin-resistant HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cells. Increased expression of miR-7-5p inhibited DNA repair by modulating the expression of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), reducing energy consumption, and promoting autophagy via suppression of the expression of Bcl-2. These findings supported that increasing energy generation and reducing energy consumption, resulted in miR-7-5p maintaining energy homeostasis during cisplatin treatment. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study showed that there was a protective role of miR-7-5p in cervical cancer cells treated with cisplatin and that miR-7-5p expression maintained energy homeostasis in cisplatin-resistant cervical cancer cells. However, miR-7-5p reduced energy consumption via inhibiting PARP-1 expression, and miR-7-5p increased energy generation by suppressing the expression of Bcl-2.

Bashir K, Sarwar R, Saeed S, et al.
Interaction among susceptibility genotypes of PARP1 SNPs in thyroid carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(9):e0199007 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may alter the repair mechanism which makes the person susceptible to DNA damage. Polymorphic variants in these DNA repair pathway genes such as Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase- 1 (PARP1) have been associated with susceptibility of several types of cancer including thyroid. Many studies have been published on PARP1 gene polymorphisms and carcinogenesis with inconsistent results. The present study was designed to explore the link between the PARP1 polymorphisms and thyroid cancer risk. This case-control study was comprised of 456 thyroid cancer patients and 400 healthy controls. Three SNPs of PARP1 gene; rs1136410, rs1805414 and rs1805404 were analyzed using ARMS-PCR. The combined genotype and haplotype analysis were performed using haploview software 4.2. Major allele homozygote (CC) of rs1136410 and combined genotype (TT+TC) of rs180414 showed a significant association with thyroid cancer risk (OR = 1.30; 95% CI 0.99-1.77; P = 0.05) and (OR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.27-0.67; P = 0.03). Histological subtype analysis showed the significant association of selected PARP1 SNPs with papillary, follicular and anaplastic subtypes in thyroid cancer patients. Haplotype analysis showed that TCT (p = 0.01), CTT (p = 0.02) and CTC (p = 0.03) were significantly higher in controls when compared to cases. However, TTC (p = 0.05) and TCC (p = 0.01) haplotype frequency was significantly higher in cases compared to controls. Global haplotype analysis showed that there was an overall significant difference between cases and controls (p = 0.001). Identification of these genetic risk markers may provide evidence for exploring insight into mechanisms of pathogenesis and subsequently aid in developing novel therapeutic strategies for thyroid cancer.

da Cunha Colombo Bonadio RR, Fogace RN, Miranda VC, Diz MDPE
Homologous recombination deficiency in ovarian cancer: a review of its epidemiology and management.
Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2018; 73(suppl 1):e450s [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Ovarian cancer patients with homologous recombination deficiencies exhibit specific clinical behaviors, and improved responses to treatments, such as platinum-based chemotherapy and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, have been observed. Germline mutations in the BRCA 1/2 genes are the most well-known mechanisms of homologous recombination deficiency. However, other mechanisms, such as germline and somatic mutations in other homologous recombination genes and epigenetic modifications, have also been implicated in homologous recombination deficiency. The epidemiology and implications of these other mechanisms need to be better understood to improve the treatment strategies for these patients. Furthermore, an evaluation of various diagnostic tests to investigate homologous recombination deficiency is essential. Comprehension of the role of homologous recombination deficiency in ovarian cancer also allows the development of therapeutic combinations that can improve the efficacy of treatment. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology and management of homologous recombination deficiency in ovarian cancer patients.

Jin N, Burkard ME
MACROD2, an Original Cause of CIN?
Cancer Discov. 2018; 8(8):921-923 [PubMed] Related Publications

Bi Y, Verginadis II, Dey S, et al.
Radiosensitization by the PARP inhibitor olaparib in BRCA1-proficient and deficient high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas.
Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 150(3):534-544 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 15-25% of high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC) harbor BRCA1/2 mutations. Inhibition of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is synthetically lethal to cells and tumors with BRCA1/2 mutation. Our goal was to investigate the radiosensitizing effects of PARP inhibitor olaparib in HGSOC with different BRCA1 status.
METHODS: The radiosensitizing effects of olaparib were tested on BRCA1-proficient and deficient HGSOC by clonogenic survival and tumor growth assays. The effects of olaparib and radiation on DNA damage, PARP activity, and apoptosis were determined.
RESULTS: BRCA1-deficient HGSOC cells were more sensitive to RT alone and exhibited significantly higher levels of olaparib-mediated radiosensitization compared to BRCA1-proficient cells. Furthermore, when combined with RT, olaparib inhibited DNA damage repair and PARP1 activity, increased apoptosis, decreased growth of HGSOC xenografts and increased overall host survival. The growth-inhibitory effects of the combined olaparib and RT treatment were more pronounced in mice bearing BRCA1-deficient tumors compared to BRCA1-proficient tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: These results provide a preclinical rationale for improved treatment modalities using olaparib as an effective radiosensitizer in HGSOC, particularly in tumors with BRCA1-deficiencies.

Zimmermann M, Murina O, Reijns MAM, et al.
CRISPR screens identify genomic ribonucleotides as a source of PARP-trapping lesions.
Nature. 2018; 559(7713):285-289 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
The observation that BRCA1- and BRCA2-deficient cells are sensitive to inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) has spurred the development of cancer therapies that use these inhibitors to target deficiencies in homologous recombination

Pietanza MC, Waqar SN, Krug LM, et al.
Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase II Study of Temozolomide in Combination With Either Veliparib or Placebo in Patients With Relapsed-Sensitive or Refractory Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2018; 36(23):2386-2394 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Purpose Both temozolomide (TMZ) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are active in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). This phase II, randomized, double-blind study evaluated whether addition of the PARP inhibitor veliparib to TMZ improves 4-month progression-free survival (PFS). Patients and Methods A total of 104 patients with recurrent SCLC were randomly assigned 1:1 to oral veliparib or placebo 40 mg twice daily, days 1 to 7, and oral TMZ 150 to 200 mg/m

Gogola E, Duarte AA, de Ruiter JR, et al.
Selective Loss of PARG Restores PARylation and Counteracts PARP Inhibitor-Mediated Synthetic Lethality.
Cancer Cell. 2018; 33(6):1078-1093.e12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase (PARPi) have recently entered the clinic for the treatment of homologous recombination (HR)-deficient cancers. Despite the success of this approach, drug resistance is a clinical hurdle, and we poorly understand how cancer cells escape the deadly effects of PARPi without restoring the HR pathway. By combining genetic screens with multi-omics analysis of matched PARPi-sensitive and -resistant Brca2-mutated mouse mammary tumors, we identified loss of PAR glycohydrolase (PARG) as a major resistance mechanism. We also found the presence of PARG-negative clones in a subset of human serous ovarian and triple-negative breast cancers. PARG depletion restores PAR formation and partially rescues PARP1 signaling. Importantly, PARG inactivation exposes vulnerabilities that can be exploited therapeutically.

Pashaiefar H, Yaghmaie M, Tavakkoly-Bazzaz J, et al.
PARP-1 Overexpression as an Independent Prognostic Factor in Adult Non-M3 Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2018; 22(6):343-349 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) plays an important role in the repair of damaged DNA and has prognostic significance in a variety of human malignancies. However, little is known about its expression levels and clinical implication in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was done to evaluate PARP-1 expression levels in the bone marrow of 65 patients with non-M3 AML and 54 healthy counterparts. The correlation of PARP-1 expression with clinicopathological features of non-M3 AML patients was also analyzed.
RESULTS: Non-M3 AML patients have higher PARP-1 expression than the healthy controls (p < 0.01). Patients with adverse cytogenetic risk have higher PARP-1 expression than other cytogenetic risk groups (p = 0.004). The PARP-1 median expression level divided AML patients into PARP-1 low-expressed and PARP-1 high-expressed groups. High expression levels of PARP-1 were associated with worse overall survival (OS) (p = 0.01) and relapse-free survival (RFS) (p = 0.005). Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that high PARP-1 expression was an independent risk factor for both OS and RFS.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that PARP-1 overexpression may define an important risk factor in non-M3 AML patients and PARP-1 is a potential therapeutic target for AML treatment.

Hurtado AM, Luengo-Gil G, Chen-Liang TH, et al.
Transcriptomic rationale for synthetic lethality-targeting ERCC1 and CDKN1A in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2018; 182(3):373-383 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the absence of mutations in the DNA repair machinery in myeloid malignancies, the advent of high-throughput sequencing and discovery of splicing and epigenetics defects in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) prompted us to revisit a pathogenic role for genes involved in DNA damage response. We screened for misregulated DNA repair genes by enhanced RNA-sequencing on bone marrow from a discovery cohort of 27 CMML patients and 9 controls. We validated 4 differentially expressed candidates in CMML CD34

Maifrede S, Nieborowska-Skorska M, Sullivan-Reed K, et al.
Tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced defects in DNA repair sensitize FLT3(ITD)-positive leukemia cells to PARP1 inhibitors.
Blood. 2018; 132(1):67-77 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Mutations in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), such as internal tandem duplications (ITDs), can be found in up to 23% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and confer a poor prognosis. Current treatment options for FLT3(ITD)-positive AMLs include genotoxic therapy and FLT3 inhibitors (FLT3i's), which are rarely curative. PARP1 inhibitors (PARP1i's) have been successfully applied to induce synthetic lethality in tumors harboring BRCA1/2 mutations and displaying homologous recombination (HR) deficiency. We show here that inhibition of FLT3(ITD) activity by the FLT3i AC220 caused downregulation of DNA repair proteins BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51, and LIG4, resulting in inhibition of 2 major DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways, HR, and nonhomologous end-joining. PARP1i, olaparib, and BMN673 caused accumulation of lethal DSBs and cell death in AC220-treated FLT3(ITD)-positive leukemia cells, thus mimicking synthetic lethality. Moreover, the combination of FLT3i and PARP1i eliminated FLT3(ITD)-positive quiescent and proliferating leukemia stem cells, as well as leukemic progenitors, from human and mouse leukemia samples. Notably, the combination of AC220 and BMN673 significantly delayed disease onset and effectively reduced leukemia-initiating cells in an FLT3(ITD)-positive primary AML xenograft mouse model. In conclusion, we postulate that FLT3i-induced deficiencies in DSB repair pathways sensitize FLT3(ITD)-positive AML cells to synthetic lethality triggered by PARP1i's. Therefore, FLT3(ITD) could be used as a precision medicine marker for identifying AML patients that may benefit from a therapeutic regimen combining FLT3 and PARP1i's.

Qi H, Lu Y, Lv J, et al.
The long noncoding RNA
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(3) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for a large proportion of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. The functional impact of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human cancer is not fully understood. Here, we identified a novel oncogenic lncRNA termed as

Shen YT, Evans JC, Zafarana G, et al.
BRCA Status Does Not Predict Synergism of a Carboplatin and Olaparib Combination in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines.
Mol Pharm. 2018; 15(7):2742-2753 [PubMed] Related Publications
Over 50% of epithelial ovarian cancers express the BRCAness profile that leads to a dysfunctional homologous recombination repair system. The combination of a dysfunctional homologous recombination repair system and a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor results in a synthetic lethal phenotype. The PARP inhibitor olaparib, approved as a monotherapy for patients with a germline BRCA mutation, has shown promising results in preclinical studies when combined with DNA damaging agents, such as carboplatin. However, dose-limiting toxicities have hindered the use of a combination therapy with olaparib in the clinical setting. By concurrent administration of carboplatin and olaparib at various molar ratios of drugs, the aim of this study was to explore the optimal dosing ratio of carboplatin-olaparib combinations in a comprehensive panel of eight BRCA-proficient and -deficient high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) cell lines. Overall, synergy was observed in the BRCA1/2-mutated or defective cell lines when olaparib was combined at lower molar ratios of olaparib to carboplatin. Immunostaining of γH2AX foci revealed increased DNA damage as a result of this synergistic drug combination in the UWB1.289 paired cell lines. In vitro activity of the individual agents, carboplatin and olaparib, did not correlate with PARP1 expression in each cell line. Importantly, synergism was also observed in a subset of BRCA wild-type cell lines (OV90 and PEO4) suggesting therapeutic benefits of this combination beyond BRCA-dependent synthetic lethality. The administration of drugs at synergistic ratios has the potential to increase efficacy and reduce toxicity.

Pettitt SJ, Krastev DB, Brandsma I, et al.
Genome-wide and high-density CRISPR-Cas9 screens identify point mutations in PARP1 causing PARP inhibitor resistance.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):1849 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Although PARP inhibitors (PARPi) target homologous recombination defective tumours, drug resistance frequently emerges, often via poorly understood mechanisms. Here, using genome-wide and high-density CRISPR-Cas9 "tag-mutate-enrich" mutagenesis screens, we identify close to full-length mutant forms of PARP1 that cause in vitro and in vivo PARPi resistance. Mutations both within and outside of the PARP1 DNA-binding zinc-finger domains cause PARPi resistance and alter PARP1 trapping, as does a PARP1 mutation found in a clinical case of PARPi resistance. This reinforces the importance of trapped PARP1 as a cytotoxic DNA lesion and suggests that PARP1 intramolecular interactions might influence PARPi-mediated cytotoxicity. PARP1 mutations are also tolerated in cells with a pathogenic BRCA1 mutation where they result in distinct sensitivities to chemotherapeutic drugs compared to other mechanisms of PARPi resistance (BRCA1 reversion, 53BP1, REV7 (MAD2L2) mutation), suggesting that the underlying mechanism of PARPi resistance that emerges could influence the success of subsequent therapies.

Knittel G, Rehkämper T, Nieper P, et al.
DNA damage pathways and B-cell lymphomagenesis.
Curr Opin Hematol. 2018; 25(4):315-322 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent lymphoma genome sequencing projects have shed light on the genomic landscape of indolent and aggressive lymphomas, as well as some of the molecular mechanisms underlying recurrent mutations and translocations in these entities. Here, we review these recent genomic discoveries, focusing on acquired DNA repair defects in lymphoma. In addition, we highlight recently identified actionable molecular vulnerabilities associated with recurrent mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), which serves as a model entity.
RECENT FINDINGS: The results of several large lymphoma genome sequencing projects have recently been reported, including CLL, T-PLL and DLBCL. We align these discoveries with proposed mechanisms of mutation acquisition in B-cell lymphomas. Moreover, novel autochthonous mouse models of CLL have recently been generated and we discuss how these models serve as preclinical tools to drive the development of novel targeted therapeutic interventions. Lastly, we highlight the results of early clinical data on novel compounds targeting defects in the DNA damage response of CLL with a particular focus on deleterious ATM mutations.
SUMMARY: Defects in DNA repair pathways are selected events in cancer, including lymphomas. Specifically, ATM deficiency is associated with PARP1- and DNA-PKcs inhibitor sensitivity in vitro and in vivo.

Hou D, Liu Z, Xu X, et al.
Increased oxidative stress mediates the antitumor effect of PARP inhibition in ovarian cancer.
Redox Biol. 2018; 17:99-111 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
PARP inhibitors have been widely tested in clinical trials, especially for the treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer, and were shown to be highly successful. Because PARP primarily functions in sensing and repairing DNA strand breaks, the therapeutic effect of PARP inhibition is generally believed to be attributed to impaired DNA repair. We here report that oxidative stress is also increased by PARP inhibition and mediates the antitumor effect. We showed that PARP1 is highly expressed in specimens of high grade serous ovarian carcinoma and its activity is required for unperturbed proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. Inhibition or depletion of PARP leads to not only an increase in DNA damage, but also an elevation in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Importantly, antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated the induction of DNA damage and the perturbation of proliferation by PARP inhibition or depletion. We further showed that NADPH oxidases 1 and 4 were significantly upregulated by PARP inhibition and were partially responsible for the induction of oxidative stress. Depletion of NOX1 and NOX4 partially rescued the growth inhibition of PARP1-deficient tumor xenografts. Our findings suggest that in addition to compromising the repair of DNA damage, PARP inhibition or depletion may exert extra antitumor effect by elevating oxidative stress in ovarian cancer cells.

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