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Mutated Genes and Abnormal Protein Expression (12)
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|IGH ||14q32.33 ||IGD1, IGH@, IGHJ, IGHV, IGHD@, IGHJ@, IGHV@, IGH.1@, IGHDY1 || ||-IGH and MALT Lymphoma || 123|
|BCL2 ||18q21.3 ||Bcl-2, PPP1R50 || ||-BCL2 and MALT Lymphoma || 40|
|FOXP1 ||3p14.1 ||MFH, QRF1, 12CC4, hFKH1B, HSPC215 || ||-FOXP1 and MALT Lymphoma || 18|
|TNFAIP3 ||6q23 ||A20, OTUD7C, TNFA1P2 || ||-TNFAIP3 and MALT Lymphoma || 15|
|CD79A ||19q13.2 ||IGA, MB-1 || ||-CD79A and MALT Lymphoma || 13|
|TP53 ||17p13.1 ||P53, BCC7, LFS1, TRP53 || ||-TP53 and MALT Lymphoma || 10|
|MYD88 ||3p22 ||MYD88D || ||-MYD88 and MALT Lymphoma || 9|
|CARD11 ||7p22 ||PPBL, BENTA, BIMP3, IMD11, CARMA1 || ||-CARD11 and MALT Lymphoma || 6|
|BIRC3 ||11q22 ||AIP1, API2, MIHC, CIAP2, HAIP1, HIAP1, MALT2, RNF49, c-IAP2 ||Translocation ||-t(11;18)(q21;q21) MALT1-API2 in MALT lymphomas |
-BIRC3 and MALT Lymphoma
|IGK ||2p12 ||IGK@ || ||-IGK and MALT Lymphoma || 4|
|MALT1 ||18q21 ||MLT, MLT1, IMD12 ||Translocation ||-t(11;18)(q21;q21) MALT1-API2 in MALT lymphomas || |
|BCL10 ||1p22 ||CLAP, mE10, CIPER, IMD37, c-E10, CARMEN ||Translocation ||-t(1;14)(p22;q32) in MALT B cell lymphoma || |
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, play an important role in not only the development and maturation of normal cells, but also the development and progression of malignant cells. In this edition of Blood, Arribas et al show that DNA methylation profiling identifies 2 subtypes of splenic marginal zone lymphoma with different clinical and genetic features. These findings provide an opportunity to better understand the biology of marginal zone lymphoma and optimize therapy by using demethylating agents to reverse the high-methylation phenotype and thereby target malignant B cells.
Martinez-Lopez A, Curiel-Olmo S, Mollejo M, et al.MYD88 (L265P) somatic mutation in marginal zone B-cell lymphoma.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(5):644-51 [PubMed
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MYD88 L265P is a somatic mutation that has been identified in about 90% of Waldenström macroglobulinemia/lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas (LPLs). It has also been detected in a subset of marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) cases, but the frequency and clinical and histologic features of these mutated MZL cases has only been partially characterized. We have developed a customized TaqMan allele-specific polymerase chain reaction for sensitive detection of this mutation in paraffin-embedded tissue. We analyzed samples from 19 patients with LPL, 88 patients with splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL), 8 patients with nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL), 21 patients with extranodal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), and 2 patients with B-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified. By integrating mutational, histologic, and clinical data, 5 cases were reclassified as LPL. After reclassification, MYD88 L265P was detected in 13/86 (15%) SMZL and in 19/24 LPL (79%) cases. The mutation was absent from NMZL and MALT cases. A strong correlation was found between the presence of an IgM monoclonal paraproteinemia and the MYD88 L265P mutation (P<0.0001). SMZL cases positive for MYD88 L265P were also associated with monoclonal IgM paraproteinemia (4/13 cases; P<0.0283), although with less serum paraproteinemia. They also had a higher frequency of plasmacytic differentiation (9/13) but with no correlation between the presence of mutation and of light chain-restricted plasma cells in tissue. Demonstration of the MYD88 L265 mutation is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of LPL, although some SMZL cases carrying the mutation do not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for LPL.
Aqil B, Merritt BY, Elghetany MT, et al.Childhood nodal marginal zone lymphoma with unusual clinicopathologic and cytogenetic features for the pediatric variant: a case report.
Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2015 Mar-Apr; 18(2):167-71 [PubMed
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Nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL) is a B-cell lymphoma that shares morphologic and immunophenotypic features with extranodal and splenic marginal zone lymphomas but lacks extranodal or splenic involvement at presentation. NMZL occurs mostly in adults with no sex predilection, at advanced stage (III or IV), with frequent relapses and a high incidence of tumoral genetic abnormalities including trisomies 3 and 18 and gain of 7q. Pediatric NMZL, however, is a rare but distinct variant of NMZL with characteristic features including male predominance, asymptomatic and localized (stage I) disease, low relapse rates with excellent outcomes, and a lower incidence of essentially similar genetic aberrations compared to adult NMZL. Here we describe a unique case of childhood NMZL with unusual clinicopathologic features for the pediatric variant including generalized lymphadenopathy, high-stage disease with persistence after therapy, unusual immunophenotype (CD5, CD23, and BCL6 positive), and unique chromosomal abnormalities including monosomy 20 and add(10)(p11.2).
Splenic marginal zone lymphoma is a rare lymphoma. Loss of 7q31 and somatic mutations affecting the NOTCH2 and KLF2 genes are the commonest genomic aberrations. Epigenetic changes can be pharmacologically reverted; therefore, identification of groups of patients with specific epigenomic alterations might have therapeutic relevance. Here we integrated genome-wide DNA-promoter methylation profiling with gene expression profiling, and clinical and biological variables. An unsupervised clustering analysis of a test series of 98 samples identified 2 clusters with different degrees of promoter methylation. The cluster comprising samples with higher-promoter methylation (High-M) had a poorer overall survival compared with the lower (Low-M) cluster. The prognostic relevance of the High-M phenotype was confirmed in an independent validation set of 36 patients. In the whole series, the High-M phenotype was associated with IGHV1-02 usage, mutations of NOTCH2 gene, 7q31-32 loss, and histologic transformation. In the High-M set, a number of tumor-suppressor genes were methylated and repressed. PRC2 subunit genes and several prosurvival lymphoma genes were unmethylated and overexpressed. A model based on the methylation of 3 genes (CACNB2, HTRA1, KLF4) identified a poorer-outcome patient subset. Exposure of splenic marginal zone lymphoma cell lines to a demethylating agent caused partial reversion of the High-M phenotype and inhibition of proliferation.
Ishizuka ET, Kanda A, Kase S, et al.Involvement of the receptor-associated prorenin system in the pathogenesis of human conjunctival lymphoma.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015; 56(1):74-80 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL) is the most common subtype of conjunctival lymphoma, though its molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis are largely unknown. We attempted to explore the association of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and (pro)renin receptor ([P]RR) in the pathogenesis of conjunctival lymphoma.
METHODS: Surgically removed conjunctiva EMZL samples were used for gene expression, and immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses of (P)RR and RAS components. Human B-lymphoblast IM-9 cells were treated with prorenin or angiotensin II (Ang II), and gene expression levels were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). In addition, immunofluorescence analysis of EMZL samples was used to evaluate the in vivo expression of those components.
RESULTS: Gene expression and immunohistochemical analyses revealed the expression of RAS components, including (P)RR and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), in EMZL tissues. Double-labeling analyses demonstrated that (P)RR and AT1R were detected in cells positive for CD20, a marker for B-cells, where they colocalized with prorenin and angiotensinogen, respectively. Prorenin stimulation of human B-lymphoblast IM-9 cells increased mRNA expression levels of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), while angiotensin II treatment upregulated the expression levels of basigin (BSG), matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)2, 9, and 14, which were abolished by (P)RR and AT1R blockades, respectively. Immunofluorescence analyses of clinical samples showed colocalizations of (P)RR and AT1R with the products of these upregulated genes.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that activation of (P)RR and AT1R is associated with the pathogenesis of conjunctival EMZL by stimulating the production of FGF2 and MMPs.
Clipson A, Wang M, de Leval L, et al.KLF2 mutation is the most frequent somatic change in splenic marginal zone lymphoma and identifies a subset with distinct genotype.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(5):1177-85 [PubMed
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To characterise the genetics of splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL), we performed whole exome sequencing of 16 cases and identified novel recurrent inactivating mutations in Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), a gene whose deficiency was previously shown to cause splenic marginal zone hyperplasia in mice. KLF2 mutation was found in 40 (42%) of 96 SMZLs, but rarely in other B-cell lymphomas. The majority of KLF2 mutations were frameshift indels or nonsense changes, with missense mutations clustered in the C-terminal zinc finger domains. Functional assays showed that these mutations inactivated the ability of KLF2 to suppress NF-κB activation by TLR, BCR, BAFFR and TNFR signalling. Further extensive investigations revealed common and distinct genetic changes between SMZL with and without KLF2 mutation. IGHV1-2 rearrangement and 7q deletion were primarily seen in SMZL with KLF2 mutation, while MYD88 and TP53 mutations were nearly exclusively found in those without KLF2 mutation. NOTCH2, TRAF3, TNFAIP3 and CARD11 mutations were observed in SMZL both with and without KLF2 mutation. Taken together, KLF2 mutation is the most common genetic change in SMZL and identifies a subset with a distinct genotype characterised by multi-genetic changes. These different genetic changes may deregulate various signalling pathways and generate cooperative oncogenic properties, thereby contributing to lymphomagenesis.
Li K, Johnson RL, Li S, et al.Nodal involvement by marginal zone B-cell lymphoma harboring t(14;22)(q32;q11) involving immunoglobulin heavy chain and light chain lambda as the sole karyotypically recognizable abnormality in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(8):5221-31 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recurrent non-random balanced chromosomal translocation, usually involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene or an immunoglobulin light chain gene and a proto-oncogene, which results in the overexpression of the latter under the control of an enhancer or promoter of the former, is a hallmark of many types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) of B-cell origin. However, translocations between IgH and the immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain lambda gene (IgL), namely, a t(14;22)(q32;q11), have rarely been described in B-cell NHL. Herein we report the first case of marginal zone B-cell lymphoma harboring a t(14;22)(q32;q11) as its sole genetic abnormality in a patient with a 12-year history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Other interesting findings of this case include: 1) the neoplastic B-cells lack expression of both surface and cytoplasmic Ig light chain as revealed by flow cytometry and 2) monoclonal rearrangement of Ig light chain kappa (IgK) only due to k-deleting element (kde) recombination event. This case illustrates the necessity of utilizing a multi-modality approach in the diagnosis of B-cell NHL.
Lee MJ, Min BJ, Choung HK, et al.Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles according to Chlamydophila psittaci infection and the response to doxycycline treatment in ocular adnexal lymphoma.
Mol Vis. 2014; 20:1037-47 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To compare genome-wide DNA methylation profiles according to Chlamydophila psittaci (Cp) infection status and the response to doxycycline treatment in Korean patients with ocular adnexal extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL).
METHODS: Twelve ocular adnexal EMZL cases were classified into two groups (six Cp-positive cases and six Cp-negative cases). Among the 12 cases, eight were treated with doxycycline as first-line therapy, and they were divided into two groups according to their response to the treatment (four doxy-responders and four doxy-nonresponders). The differences in the DNA methylation states of 27,578 methylation sites in 14,000 genes were evaluated using Illumina bead assay technology. We also validated the top-ranking differentially methylated genes (DMGs) with bisulfite direct sequencing or pyrosequencing.
RESULTS: The Infinium methylation chip assay revealed 180 DMGs in the Cp-positive group (74 hypermethylated genes and 106 hypomethylated genes) compared to the Cp-negative group. Among the 180 DMGs, DUSP22, which had two significantly hypomethylated loci, was validated, and the correlation was significant for one CpG site (Spearman coefficient=0.6478, p=0.0262). Regarding the response to doxycycline treatment, a total of 778 DMGs were revealed (389 hypermethylated genes and 336 hypomethylated genes in the doxy-responder group). In a subsequent replication study for representative hypomethylated (IRAK1) and hypermethylated (CXCL6) genes, the correlation between the bead chip analysis and pyrosequencing was significant (Spearman coefficient=0.8961 and 0.7619, respectively, p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Ocular adnexal EMZL showed distinct methylation patterns according to Cp infection and the response to doxycycline treatment in this genome-wide methylation study. Among the candidate genes, DUSP22 has a methylation status that was likely attributable to Cp infection. Our data also suggest that the methylation statuses of IRAK1 and CXCL6 may reflect the response to doxycycline treatment.
Lima KS, Albuquerque W, Arantes VN, et al.Helicobacter pylori and t(11;18)(q21;q21) translocation in gastric malt lymphoma.
Arq Gastroenterol. 2014 Apr-Jun; 51(2):84-9 [PubMed
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CONTEXT: Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is clearly associated with Helicobacter pylori gastritis and can be cured with anti- H pylori therapy alone. The presence of t(11;18)(q21;q21) translocation is thought to predict a lower response rate to anti- H pylori treatment.
OBJECTIVES: To study the presence of t(11;18)(q21;q21) genetic translocation and its clinical impact in low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma Brazilian patients.
METHODS: A consecutive series of eight patients with gastric MALT lymphoma were submitted to gastroscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, histopathological examination, H pylori search and RT-PCR-based methodology. All patients received anti-H pylori treatment. Eradicated patients were followed-up every 3-6 months for 2 years.
RESULTS: Eight patients were studied. All patients had tumor involvement restricted to the mucosa or submucosa and seven patients had low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma. All infected patients achieved H pylori eradication. Histological tumor regression was observed in 5/7 (71%) of the low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma patients. The presence of t(11;18)(q21;q21) translocation was found in 4 (57%) of these patients; among them only two had histological tumor regression following H pylori eradication.
CONCLUSIONS: RT-PCR is a feasible and efficient method to detect t(11;18)(q21;q21) translocation, being carried out in routine molecular biology laboratories. The early detection of such translocation can be very helpful for better targeting the therapy to be applied to gastric MALT lymphoma patients.
Kinoshita S, Kase S, Ando R, et al.Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human ocular adnexal lymphoma.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014; 55(6):3461-7 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: To examine the expression of VEGF in extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL) and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) of human ocular adnexa, and analyze the correlation with the intratumoral microvessel density (MVD).
METHODS: Twenty-two EMZL and 16 RLH tissues were examined in this study. Paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections were processed for immunohistochemistry with antibodies against VEGF and CD20. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression was analyzed using the ELISA and RT-PCR in the EMZL tissues. Microvessel density was determined based on the immunoreactivity for anti-CD34 antibody.
RESULTS: Vascular endothelial growth factor immunoreactivity was detected in the cytoplasm of lymphoid cells in EMZL and RLH. ELISA and RT-PCR confirmed VEGF protein and mRNA expressions in the EMZL tissue, respectively. Vascular endothelial growth factor-immunopositive rate in B-cells was significantly higher in 12 conjunctival EMZLs than four RLHs (P < 0.01) and 10 orbital EMZLs than 12 RLHs (P < 0.05). The MVD showed a significant positive correlation with the VEGF-immunopositive rate in conjunctival and orbital EMZLs.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated increased VEGF expression in human conjunctival and orbital EMZL compared with that in RLH, suggesting that VEGF plays a significant role in the pathogenesis and tumor angiogenesis of ocular adnexal lymphoma.
Kempf W, Kazakov DV, Buechner SA, et al.Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma in children: a report of 3 cases and review of the literature.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2014; 36(8):661-6 [PubMed
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: Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma (PCMZL) is one of the most common cutaneous B-cell lymphomas. It affects mostly patients in their fourth decade and manifests with multifocal nodules mostly on the arms and upper trunk in more than half of the patients. PCMZL is, however, rare in children and adolescents, with only 20 cases reported in patients aged 20 and younger. The authors present 3 cases of PCMZL in teenagers. The patients were 2 girls aged 18 and 13 and a 17-year-old boy. Two patients presented with multiple lesions involving various anatomic sites, whereas in 1 patient, 2 small closely opposed papules on the abdomen were seen. Histopathologically, the characteristic appearance of PCMZL was found in 3 of 4 specimens, with nodular infiltrates composed of small lymphocytes in the interfollicular compartment, reactive germinal centers, and plasma cells in small clusters mainly at the periphery of the infiltrates, whereas 1 specimen showed a dense lymphocytic infiltrate with small granulomas. Clonality was demonstrated by monotypic immunoglobulin light chain expression and/or monoclonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. No Borrelia burgdorferi was identified on serology or by polymerase chain reaction in any of the cases. Treatment included excision or administration of antibiotics with complete remission in all the 3 patients indicating that PCMZL in children and young adolescents follows the same indolent course with a tendency for recurrences, but excellent prognosis as in adults. The pertinent literature on PCZL in childhood and adolescence is reviewed.
Abdul-Wahab A, Tang SY, Robson A, et al.Chromosomal anomalies in primary cutaneous follicle center cell lymphoma do not portend a poor prognosis.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014; 70(6):1010-20 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The t(14;18)(q32;q21) chromosomal translocation is found in the majority of nodal follicular lymphomas but only rarely in primary cutaneous follicle center cell lymphomas (PCFCL). Recent studies have postulated that the translocation is more prevalent in PCFCL than previously described and that it might be a molecular prognostic marker.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to analyze cases of PCFCL for the presence of a t(14;18) translocation using fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect balanced translocations involving either the BCL2 or MALT1 loci and to correlate the results with growth pattern, immunophenotype, and clinical outcome.
METHOD: In all, 57 patients with PCFCL were extracted from our cutaneous lymphoma database. Retrospective analysis of clinical parameters including lesion type, location, diagnostic stage, lactate dehydrogenase, initial treatment, relapse rate, and survival was performed.
RESULTS: In all, 57 patients with PCFCL were included in this study. We detected 1 BCL2 chromosomal amplification, 4 translocations of BCL2, and 1 IGH/MALT1 translocation.
LIMITATIONS: This was a case series retrospective study.
CONCLUSIONS: PCFCL has an excellent 5-year overall survival (100% disease-specific survival). Chromosomal abnormalities of either BCL2 or MALT1 were detected in 10% of cases but do not correlate with a specific immune pathology or clinical outcome.
Villa N, Redaelli S, Lissoni S, et al.Lymph node hyperplasia: clonal chromosomal and genomic rearrangements. Report of two new cases and literature review.
Cancer Genet. 2014 Jan-Feb; 207(1-2):12-8 [PubMed
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Cytogenetic analysis is not routinely performed on lymph node hyperplasia (LH). We describe clonal chromosomal rearrangements in two unrelated cases of LH. Lymph nodes of both patients showed typical morphologic features of benign follicular hyperplasia. Cytogenetic analysis revealed clonal chromosomal rearrangements in both cases. Patient 1 showed interstitial 14q and 6q mosaic deletions, whereas patient 2 showed a terminal 14q mosaic deletion. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with IGH break-apart probes identified a partial deletion of IGH in both cases, but the loss of the LSI IGH in patient 2 and loss of the LSI IGHV in patient 1 were observed on the morphologically normal chromosome 14. In the latter case, the finding of two morphologically normal chromosomes 14 with the IGHV deletion in one of the chromosomes suggested that the first mutational event was the IGH deletion and the second event was the interstitial deletion of chromosome 14 with the IGH intact. Array comparative genomic hybridization performed on both biopsies confirmed the IGH deletion at mosaic, but not the chromosomal deletion. Patient 1 was re-biopsied after 9 months and a marginal zone lymphoma was diagnosed. The finding of clonal cytogenetic abnormalities in LH highlighted the difficulties in interpretation of results and clinical follow-up.
Gebauer N, Kuba J, Senft A, et al.MicroRNA-150 Is up-regulated in extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of MALT type.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2014 Jan-Feb; 11(1):51-6 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The mechanisms promoting malignant transformation from chronic Helicobacter pylori-gastritis to gastric extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) are insufficiently characterized. This follow-up study aimed to validate candidate microRNAs (miRs) in the process of neoplastic transformation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: MicroRNA expression signatures (n=20) were generated for a total of 60 cases of gastric lesions ranging from Wotherspoon 0-5 employing a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of the cohort was supplemented by PCR-based immunoglobulin heavy chain recombination studies.
RESULTS: Quantitative expression of miR-150, miR-142.3p, miR-375 and miR-494 was significantly de-regulated in samples from MALT lymphoma compared to those from gastritis.
CONCLUSION: The previously reported up-regulation of miR-150 in marginal zone lymphoma of MALT type was verified in an independent cohort of lymphoma samples employing a modified methodology. This further substantiates the role of miR-150 as a potential oncomiR in MALT lymphoma.
Takata K, Tanino M, Ennishi D, et al.Duodenal follicular lymphoma: comprehensive gene expression analysis with insights into pathogenesis.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(5):608-15 [PubMed
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Follicular lymphoma (FL) of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly duodenal follicular lymphoma (DFL), is a rare variant of FL with indolent clinical behavior, and this disease is included in the 2008 World Health Organization classification system. In contrast to nodal follicular lymphoma (NFL), DFL occurs most frequently in the second part of the duodenum, lacks follicular dendritic cell meshworks and has memory B-cell characteristics. However, its molecular pathogenesis is still unclear. In the present study, we examined 10 DFL, 18 NFL and 10 gastric MALT lymphoma samples using gene expression analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments and immunohistochemical analysis for 72 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from an independent series, including 32 DFL, 19 gastric MALT lymphoma and 27 NFL samples, were performed for validation of microarray data. Gene expression profiles of the three lymphoma types were compared using 2918 differentially expressed genes (DEG) and results suggested that DFL shares characteristics of MALT lymphoma. Among these DEG, CCL20 and MAdCAM-1 were upregulated in DFL and MALT but downregulated in NFL. In contrast, protocadherin gamma subfamily genes were upregulated in DFL and NFL. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical studies demonstrated concordant results. Double immunofluorescence studies revealed that CCL20 and CCR6 were co-expressed in both DFL and MALT. We hypothesize that increased expression of CCL20 and MAdCAM-1 and co-expression of CCL20 and CCR6 may play an important role in tumorigenesis.
This review will describe the current knowledge in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of pulmonary MALT (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) lymphoma. Pulmonary MALT lymphomas are low-grade B cell lymphoma and are the most frequent lymphomas arising from the lung. Tumour cells arise from mucosa associated lymphoid tissue. Unlike other sites, no pathogen has been associated with pulmonary location of MALT lymphoma. However addictive translocations involving the MALT1 gene are frequently evidenced Patients are frequently asymptomatic and present with a chronic alveolar opacity. Diagnosis requires histology that may be retrieved by minimally invasive procedures during bronchial endoscopy or by CT scan guided percutaneous biopsies. Prognosis is good and treatment may vary with abstention, surgery, radiotherapy, immunotherapy or chemotherapy.
Zhu WW, Kang L, Gao YP, et al.Expression level of valosin containing protein is associated with prognosis of primary orbital MALT lymphoma.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(11):6439-43 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the expression level of valosin-containing protein (VCP) is correlated with the prognosis of primary orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.
METHODS: VCP expression in 58 samples from primary orbital MALT lymphoma patients was determined by immunohistochemisty using monoclonal antibodies. Correlations between VCP expression level and prognosis were clarified by statistical analysis.
RESULTS: It was found that the percentage of VCP positive cells in samples of primary orbital MALT lymphoma ranged from 32% to 95%. The samples were divided into two groups (level 1 and level 2) according to the median value (45%) of the percentage of VCP positive cells. It was found that the expression level of VCP was significantly correlated with recurrence (P=0.003) and tumor size (P=0.008). At the same time, the 5-year disease-free and overall survival rate of patients of level 1 was significantly better than that of level 2 (P=0.001; P=0.032). There was no observed correlation between the expression level of VCP and other clinical features.
CONCLUSION: VCP could be a useful marker for predicting the prognosis of primary orbital MALT lymphoma.
The pathogenesis of splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) remains largely unknown. Recent high-throughput sequencing studies have identified recurrent mutations in key pathways, most notably NOTCH2 mutations in >25% of patients. These studies are based on small, heterogeneous discovery cohorts, and therefore only captured a fraction of the lesions present in the SMZL genome. To identify further novel pathogenic mutations within related biochemical pathways, we applied whole exome sequencing (WES) and copy number (CN) analysis to a biologically and clinically homogeneous cohort of seven SMZL patients with 7q abnormalities and IGHV1-2*04 gene usage. We identified 173 somatic non-silent variants, affecting 160 distinct genes. In additional to providing independent validation of the presence of mutation in several previously reported genes (NOTCH2, TNFAIP3, MAP3K14, MLL2 and SPEN), our study defined eight additional recurrently mutated genes in SMZL; these genes are CREBBP, CBFA2T3, AMOTL1, FAT4, FBXO11, PLA2G4D, TRRAP and USH2A. By integrating our WES and CN data we identified three mutated putative candidate genes targeted by 7q deletions (CUL1, EZH2 and FLNC), with FLNC positioned within the well-characterized 7q minimally deleted region. Taken together, this work expands the reported directory of recurrently mutated cancer genes in this disease, thereby expanding our understanding of SMZL pathogenesis. Ultimately, this work will help to establish a stratified approach to care including the possibility of targeted therapy.
Martínez N, Almaraz C, Vaqué JP, et al.Whole-exome sequencing in splenic marginal zone lymphoma reveals mutations in genes involved in marginal zone differentiation.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(6):1334-40 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a B-cell neoplasm whose molecular pathogenesis remains fundamentally unexplained, requiring more precise diagnostic markers. Previous molecular studies have revealed 7q loss and mutations of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), B-cell receptor (BCR) and Notch signalling genes. We performed whole-exome sequencing in a series of SMZL cases. Results confirmed that SMZL is an entity distinct from other low-grade B-cell lymphomas, and identified mutations in multiple genes involved in marginal zone development, and others involved in NF-κB, BCR, chromatin remodelling and the cytoskeleton.
Sugimoto KJ, Imai H, Shimada A, et al.Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the uterus suspected of having transformed from a marginal zone B-cell lymphoma harboring trisomy 18: a case report and review of the literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013; 6(12):2979-88 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The patient was a 72-year-old female with the chief complaint of abdominal fullness. A giant primary myoma of the uterine cervix was suspected, and total hysterectomy was performed. Based on a postoperative histopathological examination of the tumor a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was made in the uterus and a mass in the greater omentum was diagnosed as a marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL). No flow-cytometry studies or chromosome or gene examinations were performed on a fresh specimen. The results of an examination of a paraffin block histopathology specimen by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) showed no mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1) (18q21.1), B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) (18q21.3), or BCL6 (3q27) split signals in either the uterus or the greater omentum, however, trisomy 18 was detected in approximately 50%-70% of the tumor cells in both the uterus and the greater omentum. Trisomy 18 was present in around 15-33% of the DLBCL cells and MZBCL cells. These findings suggested a strong possibility that the tumor cells in the uterus and greater omentum were the same clone and that transformation from MZBCL to DLBCL had occurred. Since DLBCLs that result from a transformation usually have a worse outcome than de novo DLBCLs, even when a DLBCL seems to have originated in the uterus the surrounding tissue should always be examined, and caution should be exercised in regard to transformation from a low-grade B-cell lymphoma to a DLBCL.
Zhang GP, Cao PF, Feng LJDetection and clinical significance of genes in primary gastrointestinal MALT lymphoma.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(4):3223-8 [PubMed
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In clinical practice, we found that some primary gastrointestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma had different prognosis. This study aimed to explore the role of IGH rearrangement, p53 and ATM gene variations in the assessment of prognosis in primary gastrointestinal MALT lymphoma. In 50 cases of primary gastrointestinal MALT lymphoma (1) IGH arrangement was found in 59.5% of patients with primary gastrointestinal MALT lymphoma; IGH arrangement was found in 48.4% of patients with primary gastrointestinal MALT lymphoma at stage I-II and in 90.9% of patients at stage III-IV (χ(2) = 6.093, p < 0.05). Average survival time in patients with IGH rearrangement was 16.39 months, being shorter than that in patients with non-IGH rearrangement (38.13 months) (t = 3.239, p < 0.01). (2) p53 gene deletion was found in 31.0% of patients with primary gastrointestinal MALT lymphoma; p53 gene deletion was found in 22.6 % of patients with primary gastrointestinal MALT lymphoma at stage I-II and in 54.5% of patients at stage III-IV (χ(2) = 3.882, p < 0.05). Average survival time in patients with p53 gene deletion was 8.0 months, being shorter than that of patients with normal p53 gene (32.81 months) (t = 3.609, p < 0.01). (3) ATM gene deletion was found in 23.8% of patients with primary gastrointestinal MALT lymphoma; ATM gene deletion was found in 16.1 % of patients with primary gastrointestinal MALT lymphoma at stage I-II and in 45.5% of patients at stage III-IV (χ(2) = 3.849, p < 0.05). Average survival time in patients with ATM gene deletion was 6.10 months, which is shorter than that of patients with normal ATM gene (31.71 months) (t = 3.503, p < 0.01). (4) IGH rearrangement, p53 and ATM gene deletion were no correlation with tumor location. (5) Average survival time in primary gastrointestinal MALT lymphoma patients of non-gene or single gene change was 33.42 months, which is longer than that of patients with multiple genes change (6.67 months) (t = 4.013,p < 0.01). There was a high incidence of IGH rearrangement or p53 and ATM gene deletion in patients at stage III-IV. The average survival time was shorter in these patients. Average survival time in primary gastrointestinal MALT lymphoma patients with multiple genes abnormalities was shorter than that in non-gene or single gene change patients. IGH rearrangement, p53 and ATM gene deletion may play a synergistic role in the occurrence and development of the primary gastrointestinal MALT lymphoma. Patients with multiple genes abnormalities had poor prognosis, and they should be advised early united chemotherapy.
Zhang S, Wei M, Liang Q, et al.The t(14;18)(q32;q21)/IGH-MALT1 translocation in gastrointestinal extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma).
Histopathology. 2014; 64(6):791-8 [PubMed
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AIMS: Studies have indicated that the t(14;18)(q32;q21)/IGH-MALT1 translocation is present in extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). However, only a few studies have investigated the incidence of t(14;18)/IGH-MALT1 in primary gastrointestinal MALT lymphomas or in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). The overall significance of t(14;18)/IGH-MALT1 in gastrointestinal MALT lymphomas is not clear. We examined 41 gastrointestinal MALT lymphoma and 23 DLBCL cases, with the aim of further understanding the role of t(14;18)/IGH-MALT1 in these diseases.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) assays for the detection of t(14;18)/IGH-MALT1 and t(11;18)(q21;q21)/API2-MALT1, along with immunostaining and histological evaluations, were performed on selected cases. Of the 64 analysed cases, one gastric MALT lymphoma and one colonic MALT lymphoma were positive for t(14;18)/IGH-MALT1.
CONCLUSIONS: We describe what are, to our knowledge, the first reported primary colonic MALT lymphoma carrying t(14;18)(q32;q21)/IGH-MALT1, and one of the few reported cases of gastric MALT lymphoma with this translocation. As this translocation is seen in only a few gastrointestinal MALT lymphomas, it is not useful as a diagnostic marker for routine clinical services. Although these findings suggest that t(14;18)/IGH-MALT1 is a rare molecular event in gastrointestinal MALT lymphomas and DLBCLs, further studies to elucidate the role of this genetic alteration in these diseases are indicated.
Several autoimmune diseases, including primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), are associated with an increased risk for lymphoma. Polymorphisms of TNFAIP3, which encodes the A20 protein that plays a key role in controlling nuclear factor κB activation, have been associated with several autoimmune diseases. Somatic mutations of TNFAIP3 have been observed in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma subtype frequently associated with pSS. We studied germline and somatic abnormalities of TNFAIP3 in 574 patients with pSS, including 25 with lymphoma. Nineteen additional patients with pSS and lymphoma were available for exome sequence analysis. Functional abnormalities of A20 were assessed by gene reporter assays. The rs2230926 exonic variant was associated with an increased risk for pSS complicated by lymphoma (odds ratio, 3.36 [95% confidence interval, 1.34-8.42], and odds ratio, 3.26 [95% confidence interval, 1.31-8.12], vs controls and pSS patients without lymphoma, respectively; P = .011). Twelve (60%) of the 20 patients with paired germline and lymphoma TNFAIP3 sequence data had functional abnormalities of A20: 6 in germline DNA, 5 in lymphoma DNA, and 1 in both. The frequency was even higher (77%) among pSS patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Some of these variants showed impaired control of nuclear factor κB activation. These results support a key role for germline and somatic variations of A20 in the transformation between autoimmunity and lymphoma.
Nodal marginal zone lymphoma is a poorly defined entity in the World Health Organization classification, based largely on criteria of exclusion and the diagnosis often remains subjective. Follicular lymphoma lacking t(14;18) has similar characteristics which results in a major potential diagnostic overlap which this study aims to dissect. Four subgroups of lymphoma samples (n=56) were analyzed with high-resolution array comparative genome hybridization: nodal marginal zone lymphoma, t(14;18)-negative follicular lymphoma, localized t(14:18)-positive follicular lymphoma and disseminated t(14;18)-positive follicular lymphoma. Gains on chromosomes 7, 8 and 12 were observed in all subgroups. The mean number of aberrations was higher in disseminated t(14;18)-positive follicular lymphoma than in localized t(14:18)-positive follicular lymphoma (P<0.01) and the majority of alterations in localized t(14:18)-positive follicular lymphoma were also found in disseminated t(14;18)-positive follicular lymphoma. Nodal marginal zone lymphoma was marked by 3q gains with amplifications of four genes. A different overall pattern of aberrations was seen in t(14;18)-negative follicular lymphoma compared to t(14;18)-positive follicular lymphoma. t(14;18)-negative follicular lymphoma is characterized by specific (focal) gains on chromosome 3, as observed in nodal marginal zone lymphoma. Our results support the notion that localized t(14:18)-positive follicular lymphoma represents an early phase of disseminated t(14;18)-positive follicular lymphoma. t(14;18)-negative follicular lymphoma bears aberrations that are more like those in nodal marginal zone lymphoma, suggesting a relation between these groups.
Cerrone M, Collina F, De Chiara A, et al.BCL10 expression and localization in ocular adnexa MALT lymphomas: a comparative cytogenetic and immunohistochemical study.
Histol Histopathol. 2014; 29(1):77-87 [PubMed
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T(1;14) (p22;q32) involving BCL10 and IGH genes is a rare but recurrent chromosomal aberration in MALT-type lymphoma. It is rarely described in ocular adnexa B cell lymphomas, although nuclear BCL10 shuttling seems to be critical for disease progression in this district. We have evaluated the translocations MALT lymphoma-related in a series of 45 ocular adnexa cases, focusing in particular on their relation with BCL10 expression and its cellular topographic distribution. A prognostic tissue microarray (TMA) with ocular adnexa MALT lymphomas was designed. A study of BCL10 expression and its topographic distribution was performed through immunohistochemistry. In addition the assessment of t(14;18) (q32;q21), t(1;14) (p22;q32) and t(11;18) (q21;q21) was determined by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH). Our series revealed t(14;18) (q32;q21) in 6/43 cases (14,3%). t(1;14) (p22;q32), never described in ocular adnexa MALT lymphomas, was observed in 3/31 (9,7%), two of which exhibited the gain of 3' upstream BCL10 gene signal (4%), whereas no case showed t(11;18) (q21;q21). Moreover, BCL10 expression was observed in 18/45 cases. In particular its nuclear expression was revealed in 12/45 cases, cytoplasmic expression in 5/45 and both cytoplasmic and nuclear expression in 1/45. Statistical analysis demonstrated that while BCL10 cytoplasmic expression is significantly related to the presence of the investigated chromosomal aberrations, in particular with t(14;18) (q32;q21), BCL10 nuclear shuttling does not show any correlation with these translocations. Our data support that BCL10 nuclear distribution is neither related to BCL10 rearrangement nor to other known translocations.
The API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein is created by the recurrent t(11;18)(q21;q21) chromosomal translocation in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. We identified receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1) as a novel API2-MALT1-associated protein, and demonstrate that RIP1 is required for API2-MALT1 to stimulate canonical nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). API2-MALT1 promotes ubiquitination of RIP1 at lysine (K) 377, which is necessary for full NF-κB activation. Furthermore, we found that TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) recruitment is required for API2-MALT1 to induce RIP1 ubiquitination, NF-κB activation and cellular transformation. Although both TRAF2 and RIP1 interact with the API2 moiety of API2-MALT1, this moiety alone is insufficient to induce RIP1 ubiquitination or activate NF-κB, indicating that API2-MALT1-dependent RIP1 ubiquitination represents a gain of function requiring the concerted actions of both the API2 and MALT1 moieties of the fusion. Intriguingly, constitutive RIP1 ubiquitination was recently demonstrated in several solid tumors, and now our study implicates RIP1 ubiquitination as a critical component of API2-MALT1-dependent lymphomagenesis.
The etiology and pathogenesis of ocular adnexal extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (OAEMZL) are still unknown and the association with Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) has been shown in only some geographic regions. Herein, we comprehensively examined the frequency of chromosomal translocations as well as CARD11, MYD88 (L265P), and A20 mutations/deletions in 45 C. psittaci negative OAEMZLs. t(14;18)(q32;q21) IGH-MALT1 and t(11;18)(q21;q21) API2-MALT1 were not detected in any of the analyzed tumors while three tumors harbored IGH translocations to an unidentified partner. CARD11 mutations were not found in all analyzed tumors, while the MYD88 L265P mutation was detected in three (6.7%) tumors. A20 mutations and deletions were each detected in seven (15.6%) and six (13.3%) tumors, respectively. Therefore, the observed genetic aberrations could account for the activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-kB signaling pathway in only a minority of the cases. Further studies are needed to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of OAEMZL.
Zhu J, Wei RL, Pi YL, Guo QSignificance of Bcl10 gene mutations in the clinical diagnosis of MALT-type ocular adnexal lymphoma in the Chinese population.
Genet Mol Res. 2013; 12(2):1194-204 [PubMed
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We investigated the expression of Bcl10 gene mutations in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL), atypical lymphoid hyperplasia (ALH), and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) in the Chinese population and its role in clinical diagnosis and pathogenesis. Forty-three samples were collected during patient surgeries. Pathological diagnosis confirmed OAL in 23 cases, ALH in 10 cases, and RLH in 10 cases. Normal peripheral lymph tissues from 12 cases were used as negative controls. Bcl10 gene expression was examined using molecular biological methods, and DNA sequences and mutations were compared with published data. The protein expression of Bcl10 and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) were detected with immunohistological and immunofluorescence colocalization. Bcl10 gene expression was detected in 15 OAL cases. Novel mutations were found in 11 cases. Notably, 1 mutation, which matched a published mutation, was detected in 1 ALH case; 1 novel mutation was found in 1 RLH case; and no Bcl10 gene mutation was found in controls. Most novel mutations were truncation mutations, resulting in a truncated protein product of 99 amino acids (compared to the full-length 233 amino acids; GenBank accession No. EF189176). Results of tests for abnormal Bcl10 gene expression in nuclei or cytoplasm were consistent with changes in NF-κB translocation. This report is the first of newly discovered mutations in the Bcl10 gene in the Chinese population. The distribution of the mutations is consistent with and more sensitive than that of the pathological diagnosis. These mutations can be used to identify the stage and clinical characteristics even when morphological changes are absent.
Traverse-Glehen A, Bachy E, Baseggio L, et al.Immunoarchitectural patterns in splenic marginal zone lymphoma: correlations with chromosomal aberrations, IGHV mutations, and survival. A study of 76 cases.
Histopathology. 2013; 62(6):876-93 [PubMed
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AIMS: To describe 76 cases of splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL), including correlations with clinical and other characteristics.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients were predominantly female, with a median age of 62 years. The main clinical presentation was splenomegaly, except for eight cases presenting with evolution of autoimmune disorders or spontaneous splenic rupture. White pulp infiltration was nodular, with a monophasic (42%) or biphasic (53%) pattern, and associated diffuse or nodular infiltration of the red pulp, except for four cases which had atrophic white pulp. Plasmacytic differentiation and the MYD88 L265P mutation were observed in 18% and 5% of the cases, respectively. Histological progression was considered in cases with a significant association of large cells with Ki67 > 30% and macronodular architecture (P = 0.001). Other significant correlations were found between del7q (44%) and del6q (17%) (P = 0.018), IGHV1-2*04 segment usage (35%) (P = 0.001) and unmutated IGHV (39%) (P = 0.019), and between CD5 expression (27%) and higher lymphocytosis (P = 0.002). Patients requiring intensive chemotherapy after splenectomy because of clinical and/or histological progression had significantly shorter overall survival (P = 0.012).
CONCLUSIONS: We report the histological spectrum of SMZL, and discuss the differential diagnosis and requirement for molecular and cytogenetic analysis in atypical cases.
Arribas AJ, Gómez-Abad C, Sánchez-Beato M, et al.Splenic marginal zone lymphoma: comprehensive analysis of gene expression and miRNA profiling.
Mod Pathol. 2013; 26(7):889-901 [PubMed
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Splenic marginal zone lymphoma is a small B-cell neoplasm whose molecular pathogenesis is still essentially unknown and whose differentiation from other small B-cell lymphomas is hampered by the lack of specific markers. We have analyzed the gene expression and miRNA profiles of 31 splenic marginal zone lymphoma cases. For comparison, 7 spleens with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, 10 spleens infiltrated by chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 12 spleens with follicular lymphoma, 6 spleens infiltrated by mantle cell lymphoma and 15 lymph nodes infiltrated by nodal marginal zone lymphoma were included. The results were validated by qRT-PCR in an independent series including 77 paraffin-embedded splenic marginal zone lymphomas. The splenic marginal zone lymphoma miRNA signature had deregulated expression of 51 miRNAs. The most highly overexpressed miRNAs were miR-155, miR-21, miR-34a, miR-193b and miR-100, while the most repressed miRNAs were miR-377, miR-27b, miR-145, miR-376a and miR-424. MiRNAs located in 14q32-31 were underexpressed in splenic marginal zone lymphoma compared with reactive lymphoid tissues and other B-cell lymphomas. Finally, the gene expression data were integrated with the miRNA profile to identify functional relationships between genes and deregulated miRNAs. Our study reveals miRNAs that are deregulated in splenic marginal zone lymphoma and identifies new candidate diagnostic molecules for splenic marginal zone lymphoma.
Recurrent Structural Abnormalities
Selected list of common recurrent structural abnormalities
This is a highly selective list aiming to capture structural abnormalies which are frequesnt and/or significant in relation to diagnosis, prognosis, and/or characterising specific cancers. For a much more extensive list see the Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer.