Gene Summary

Gene:BIRC3; baculoviral IAP repeat containing 3
Aliases: AIP1, API2, MIHC, CIAP2, HAIP1, HIAP1, IAP-1, MALT2, RNF49, c-IAP2
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the IAP family of proteins that inhibit apoptosis by binding to tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors TRAF1 and TRAF2, probably by interfering with activation of ICE-like proteases. The encoded protein inhibits apoptosis induced by serum deprivation but does not affect apoptosis resulting from exposure to menadione, a potent inducer of free radicals. It contains 3 baculovirus IAP repeats and a ring finger domain. Transcript variants encoding the same isoform have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BIRC3 (cancer-related)

Jeong Y, Lim JW, Kim H
Lycopene Inhibits Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated NF-κB Signaling and Induces Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.
Nutrients. 2019; 11(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Generation of excess quantities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by mitochondrial dysfunction facilitates rapid growth of pancreatic cancer cells. Elevated ROS levels in cancer cells cause an anti-apoptotic effect by activating survival signaling pathways, such as NF-κB and its target gene expression. Lycopene, a carotenoid found in tomatoes and a potent antioxidant, displays a protective effect against pancreatic cancer. The present study was designed to determine if lycopene induces apoptosis of pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells by decreasing intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels, and consequently suppressing NF-κB activation and expression of NF-κB target genes including cIAP1, cIAP2, and survivin. The results show that the lycopene decreased intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels, mitochondrial function (determined by the mitochondrial membrane potential and oxygen consumption rate), NF-κB activity, and expression of NF-κB-dependent survival genes in PANC-1 cells. Lycopene reduced cell viability with increases in active caspase-3 and the Bax to Bcl-2 ratio in PANC-1 cells. These findings suggest that supplementation of lycopene could potentially reduce the incidence of pancreatic cancer.

Toyoda K, Maeshima AM, Nomoto J, et al.
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with t(11;18)(q21;q21) translocation: long-term follow-up results.
Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(7):1675-1687 [PubMed] Related Publications
Translocation (11;18)(q21;q21) is found in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, resulting in API2/MALT1 gene fusion. It is known that t(11;18)-positive MALT lymphoma shows a tendency to disseminate and be resistant to Helicobacter pylori eradication by antibiotics. However, the prognostic features including recurrence and histological transformation (HT) remain unknown. We conducted a single-institute retrospective analysis of 464 patients with newly diagnosed MALT lymphoma, evaluating the impact of t(11;18) on clinical outcomes. One hundred and six patients were screened for the translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization and/or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Of these patients, 26 patients (25%) were diagnosed as MALT lymphoma with t(11;18). The patients had a significantly shortened progression-free survival (PFS at 10 years; 26% v 57%; P = 0.004) compared to those without t(11;18). However, this did not translate into overall survival or incidence of HT. We confirmed previous reports stating that t(11;18)-positive MALT lymphoma showed disseminated disease and refractoriness to H. pylori eradication therapy. Patients with t(11;18) had more frequent monoclonal gammopathy, especially of IgM subtype (31% v 8%; P = 0.008), some of which developed class switch. These findings characterize the features of t(11;18)-positive MALT lymphoma, suggesting that it comprises a distinct clinical entity of MALT lymphoma.

Lukosiute-Urboniene A, Jasukaitiene A, Silkuniene G, et al.
Human antigen R mediated post-transcriptional regulation of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins in pancreatic cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2019; 25(2):205-219 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To determine the association of human antigen R (HuR) and inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAP1, IAP2) and prognosis in pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: Protein and mRNA expression levels of IAP1, IAP2 and HuR in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) were compared with normal pancreatic tissue. The correlations among IAP1/IAP2 and HuR as well as their respective correlations with clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests were used for survival analysis. Immunoprecipitation assay was performed to demonstrate HuR binding to IAP1, IAP2 mRNA. PANC1 cells were transfected with either anti-HuR siRNA or control siRNA for 72 h and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot analysis was carried out.
RESULTS: RT-PCR analysis revealed that HuR, IAP1, IAP2 mRNA expression were accordingly 3.3-fold, 5.5-fold and 8.4 higher in the PDAC when compared to normal pancreas (
CONCLUSION: HuR mediated overexpression of IAP1 significantly correlates with poor outcomes and early progression of pancreatic cancer. Further studies are needed to assess the underlying mechanisms.

Zhang W, An F, Xia M, et al.
Increased HMGB1 expression correlates with higher expression of c-IAP2 and pERK in colorectal cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(3):e14069 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and colorectal cancer (CRC).In this prospective study, patients with CRC undergoing primary surgery and healthy subjects (control group) were enrolled from July 2013 to December 2014. The serum HMGB1 concentration and HMGB1 mRNA expression were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to determine HMGB1, pERK, and c-inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (c-IAP2) protein expression levels in the cancer tissues.A total 144 patients with CRC and 50 healthy subjects underwent serum HMGB1 testing. Resected specimens of 50 patients were used for HMGB1 mRNA and protein expression analyses. Mean serum HMGB1 level in the patients with CRC was higher than that of the control group (8.42 μg/L vs 1.79 μg/L, P < .05). Mean serum HMGB1 level in the patients with CRC with distant metastasis was significantly higher than that of the controls (13.32 μg/L vs 7.37 μg/L, P < .05). The HMGB1 mRNA and protein expression levels in the CRC tissues were significantly higher than those in the adjacent normal mucosa. HMGB1 protein expression positively correlated with the lymph node metastasis. There were positive correlations between HMGB1 and c-IAP2 (r = 0.457, P < .05), HMGB1 and pERK (r = 0.461, P < .05), as well as pERK and c-IAP2 (r = 0.399, P < .05).HMGB1 expression in CRC correlates with distant and lymph node metastasis. It may inhibit apoptosis by inducing activation of pERK and c-IAP2.

Zhang S, Yang Y, Weng W, et al.
Fusobacterium nucleatum promotes chemoresistance to 5-fluorouracil by upregulation of BIRC3 expression in colorectal cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests a potential relationship between gut microbiota and the host response to chemotherapeutic drugs including 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu). Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) has been linked to the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Unfortunately, little was known about the relationship between Fn infection and chemotherapeutic efficacy. Here, we investigate the potential relationship between Fn infection and chemotherapeutic efficacy of 5-Fu in CRC.
METHODS: Differentially expressed genes of CRC cell lines induced by Fn infection were analyzed based on a whole genome microarray analysis Then, we explored the relationship between upregulation of BIRC3 induced by Fn infection and chemoresistance to 5-Fu in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we dissected the mechanisms involved in Fn-induced BIRC3 expression. Finally, we investigated the clinical relevance of Fn infection, BIRC3 protein expression and chemoresistance to 5-Fu treatment in CRC patients.
RESULTS: BIRC3 was the most upregulated gene induced by Fn infection via the TLR4/NF-κB pathway in CRC cells; Fn infection reduced the chemosensitivity of CRC cells to 5-Fu through upregulation of BIRC3 in vitro and in vivo. High Fn abundance correlated with chemoresistance in advanced CRC patients who received standard 5-Fu-based adjuvant chemotherapy after radical surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: Our evidence suggests that Fn and BIRC3 may serve as promising therapeutic targets for reducing chemoresistance to 5-Fu treatment in advanced CRC.

Bashanfer SAA, Saleem M, Heidenreich O, et al.
Disruption of MAPK1 expression in the ERK signalling pathway and the RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 fusion gene attenuate the differentiation and proliferation and induces the growth arrest in t(8;21) leukaemia cells.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(3):2027-2040 [PubMed] Related Publications
The t(8;21) translocation is one of the most frequent chromosome abnormalities associated with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). This abberation deregulates numerous molecular pathways including the ERK signalling pathway among others. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the gene expression patterns following siRNA‑mediated suppression of RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 and MAPK1 in Kasumi‑1 and SKNO‑1 cells and to determine the differentially expressed genes in enriched biological pathways. BeadChip microarray and gene ontology analysis revealed that RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 and MAPK1 suppression reduced the proliferation rate of the t(8;21) cells with deregulated expression of several classical positive regulator genes that are otherwise known to enhance cell proliferation. RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 suppression exerted an anti‑apoptotic effect through the overexpression of BCL2, BIRC3 and CFLAR genes, while MAPK1 suppression induced apopotosis in t(8;21) cells by the apoptotic mitochondrial changes stimulated by the activity of upregulated TP53 and TNFSF10, and downregulated JUN gene. RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 suppression supported myeloid differentiation by the differential expression of CEBPA, CEBPE, ID2, JMJD6, IKZF1, CBFB, KIT and CDK6, while MAPK1 depletion inhibited the differentiation of t(8;21) cells by elevated expression of ADA and downregulation of JUN. RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 and MAPK1 depletion induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. Accumulation of cells in the G1 phase was largely the result of downregulated expression of TBRG4, CCNE2, FOXO4, CDK6, ING4, IL8, MAD2L1 and CCNG2 in the case of RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 depletion and increased expression of RASSF1, FBXO6, DADD45A and P53 in the case of MAPK1 depletion. Taken together, the current results demonstrate that MAPK1 promotes myeloid cell proliferation and differentiation simultaneously by cell cycle progression while suppresing apoptosis.

Zhang Z, Song N, Peng Y, et al.
Evironmental pollutant perfluorodecanoic acid upregulates cIAP2 to suppress gastric cell senescence.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(2):981-988 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in gastric carcinogenesis and its mechanism remains unknown. Our previous research revealed that PFDA regulated the growth of human gastric cells. However, its core molecules and basic mechanisms are still not clear. In the present study, cDNA microarrays were used to determine mRNA changes in AGS cells after treatment with PFDA. DAVID analysis of the genes with >2‑fold increased expression in microarray data revealed five genes which were involved in cancer pathways. The most upregulated gene was cIAP2, whose upregulation in AGS was confirmed by western blot analysis and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses. In order to investigate the role of cIAP2 in cell proliferation, cIAP2 siRNA was employed to regulate cIAP2 expression following PFDA treatment. The results revealed that the growth rate of cIAP2‑knockdown cells was reduced by about 50% compared to the control. Given that our previous flow cytometric assays revealed no significant change (3.7 vs. 6.4%) in the percentage of apoptotic cells when PFDA was added to the medium and cIAP2 expression was upregulated, we next applied flow cytometry to assess whether cIAP2 would lead to cell cycle variations. The research data revealed that the proportion of cells in the G1, S and G2 phases was not significantly altered with the decrease of cIAP2 expression. Finally, the role of cIAP2 in AGS cell senescence was investigated, and the results indicated that cell senescence was significantly increased in the cIAP2 siRNA group in comparison to the control siRNA group. Since p53 has been identified as a tumor suppressor and its molecular alterations are common in different human tumors, we investigated the relationship of p53 with cIAP2. The experimental results demonstrated that cIAP2 regulated the expression of p53 and thus was likely to be a potential mechanism for PFDA‑induced growth promotion. Overall, the results revealed that PFDA may suppress cellular senescence induced by p53 through the regulation of cIAP2 protein expression.

Li D, Liu J, Wang X, et al.
Biological Potential and Mechanism of Prodigiosin from
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(11) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tripyrrole molecules have received renewed attention due to reports of numerous biological activities, including antifungal, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, antimalarial, immunosuppressive, and anticancer activities. In a screen of bacterial strains with known toxicities to termites, a red pigment-producing strain, HDZK-BYSB107, was isolated from

Gao Y, Liu H, Wang H, et al.
Baicalin inhibits breast cancer development via inhibiting IĸB kinase activation in vitro and in vivo.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(6):2727-2736 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and therapeutic potential of baicalin in breast cancer. Baicalin is used to treat inflammatory diseases. The effects of baicalin were assessed in breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB‑231 cells, and human breast cancer xenograft mice. Cells were treated with 0, 20 or 30 µM baicalin for 48 h, while xenograft mice were treated with intraperitoneal injection of 0, 100 or 200 mg/kg baicalin for 30 days. The results demonstrated that treatment with baicalin dose-dependently suppressed breast cancer cell invasion, migration and proliferation, and also induced G1/S-phase cell cycle arrest in vitro and in vivo. Baicalin alleviated inflammation injury and inhibited the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, thus suppressing nuclear factor (NF)-ĸB-p65 activation via inhibition of IĸB kinase. Investigation of the mechanism underlying baicalin activity indicated that it inhibited protein expression of NF-ĸB-p65, leading to NF-ĸB‑induced increased expression of CCND1, BCL2, BIRC2 and BIRC3, thus inhibiting cell proliferation, invasion and migration and suppressing anti-apoptotic factors in vitro and in vivo. In addition, baicalin did not affect non-tumorigenic normal breast epithelial cells. These results indicate that baicalin may exert therapeutic effects in breast cancer.

Mikulandra M, Kobescak A, Verillaud B, et al.
Radio-sensitization of head and neck cancer cells by a combination of poly(I:C) and cisplatin through downregulation of survivin and c-IAP2.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2019; 42(1):29-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common cancers. Concurrent radio-chemotherapy is the standard of care for advanced tumors. However, there is a need for more efficient regimens with less side effects resulting from high doses. Therefore, we set out to explore the therapeutic potential of ternary combinations by bringing together irradiation, cis-platinum and a TLR3 agonist, poly(I:C), with the aim to reduce the dosage of each treatment. This approach is based on our previous work, which revealed a selective cytotoxic effect of TLR3 agonists against malignant cells when combined with other anti-neoplastic agents.
METHODS: We explored the survival of HNSCC-derived cells (Detroit 562, FaDu, SQ20B and Cal27) using MTT and caspase 3/7 activation assays. The radio-sensitization effects of poly(I:C) and cisplatin were assessed using Western blotting, cell cycle progression, ROS formation and qRT-PCR assays.
RESULTS: We found that the combination of poly(I:C) and cisplatin downregulated c-IAP2 and survivin expression, reduced cell survival, induced anti-apoptotic gene expression and apoptosis, increased ROS formation and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in the HNSCC-derived cells tested.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that a combined poly(I:C) and cisplatin treatment reduces the survival and induces the radio-sensitivity of HNSCC-derived cells, thus providing a rationale for the development of novel strategies for the treatment of head and neck cancer.

Sbattella M, Zanichelli A, Ghia P, et al.
Splenic marginal zone lymphomas in acquired C1-inhibitor deficiency: clinical and molecular characterization.
Med Oncol. 2018; 35(9):118 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angioedema due to acquired deficiency of the inhibitor of the first component of complement (C1-INH) is a rare disease known as acquired angioedema (AAE). About 70% of patients with AEE display autoantibodies to C1-INH, the remaining patients have no antibodies to C1-INH. The clinical features of C1-INH deficiency include recurrent, self-limiting local swellings involving the skin, the gastrointestinal tract, and the upper respiratory tract. Swelling is due to accumulation of bradykinin released from high molecular weight kininogen. Patients with angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (AEE) often have an associated lymphoproliferative disease including Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL). Among AAE patients with NHL, splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) has a higher prevalence (66%) compared to general population (2%) In the present study, we focused on patients with SMZL in AAE. We found 24 AAE patients with NHL and, among them 15 SMZL (62.5% of all NHL). We found NOTCH 2 activation in 4 /15 patients (26.6%) with SMZL, while no patients carried MYD 88 or BIRC3 mutations. Restricted immunoglobulin gene repertoire analysis showed that the IGHV1-2*04 allele was found to be over-represented in the group of patients with or without lymphoproliferative disease presenting with autoantibodies to C1-INH (41 of 55 (75%) of patients; p value 0.011) when compared to the control group of patients with AEE without antibodies to C1-INH, (7 of 27 (26%) of patients). Immunophenotyping failed to demonstrate the presence of autoreactive clones against C1-inhibitor. Taken together, these findings suggest a role for antigenic stimulation in the pathogenesis of lymphomas associated with AEE.

Messeha SS, Zarmouh NO, Mendonca P, et al.
The inhibitory effects of plumbagin on the NF-қB pathway and CCL2 release in racially different triple-negative breast cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0201116 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer (BC) is the second leading cause of death among women in the US, and its subtype triple-negative BC (TNBC) is the most aggressive BC with poor prognosis. In the current study, we investigated the anticancer effects of the natural product plumbagin (PL) on racially different TNBC cells. The PL effects were examined in two TNBC cell lines: MDA-MB-231 (MM-231) and MDA-MB-468 (MM-468), representing Caucasian Americans and African Americans, respectively. The results obtained indicate that PL inhibited cell viability and cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in both cell lines. Notably, MM-468 cells were 5-fold more sensitive to PL than MM-231 cells were. Testing PL and Taxol® showed the superiority of PL over Taxol® as an antiproliferative agent in MM-468 cells. PL treatment resulted in an approximately 20-fold increase in caspase-3 activity with 3 μM PL in MM-468 cells compared with an approximately 3-fold activity increase in MM-231 cells with 8 μM PL. Moreover, the results indicate a higher sensitivity to PL in MM-468 cells than in MM-231 cells. The results also show that PL downregulated CCL2 cytokine expression in MM-468 cells by 30% compared to a 90% downregulation in MM-231 cells. The ELISA results confirmed the array data (35% vs. 75% downregulation in MM-468 and MM-231 cells, respectively). Moreover, PL significantly downregulated IL-6 and GM-CSF in the MM-231 cells. Indeed, PL repressed many NF-қB-regulated genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. The compound significantly downregulated the same genes (BIRC3, CCL2, TLR2, and TNF) in both types of cells. However, PL impacted five more genes in MM-231 cells, including BCL2A1, ICAM1, IKBKE, IL1β, and LTA. In conclusion, the data obtained in this study indicate that the quinone compound PL could be a novel cancer treatment for TNBC in African American women.

Lee SR, Jin H, Kim WT, et al.
Tristetraprolin activation by resveratrol inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(3):1269-1278 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resveratrol (RSV) is a polyphenolic compound that naturally occurs in grapes, peanuts and berries. Considerable research has been conducted to determine the benefits of RSV against various human cancer types. Tristetraprolin (TTP) is an AU-rich element-binding protein that regulates mRNA stability and has decreased expression in human cancer. The present study investigated the biological effect of RSV on TTP gene regulation in colon cancer cells. RSV inhibited the proliferation and invasion/metastasis of HCT116 and SNU81 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, RSV induced a dose-dependent increase in TTP expression in HCT116 and SNU81 cells. The microarray experiment revealed that RSV significantly increased TTP expression by downregulating E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1), a downstream target gene of TTP and regulated genes associated with inflammation, cell proliferation, cell death, angiogenesis and metastasis. Although TTP silencing inhibited TTP mRNA expression, the expression was subsequently restored by RSV. Small interfering RNA-induced TTP inhibition attenuated the effects of RSV on cell growth. In addition, RSV induced the mRNA-decaying activity of TTP and inhibited the relative luciferase activity of baculoviral IAP repeat containing 3 (cIAP2), large tumor suppressor kinase 2 (LATS2), E2F1, and lin‑28 homolog A (Lin28) in HCT116 and SNU81 cells. Therefore, RSV enhanced the inhibitory activity of TTP in HCT116 and SNU81 cells by negatively regulating cIAP2, E2F1, LATS2, and Lin28 expression. In conclusion, RSV suppressed the proliferation and invasion/metastasis of colon cancer cells by activating TTP.

Ishikawa C, Senba M, Mori N
Mitotic kinase PBK/TOPK as a therapeutic target for adult T‑cell leukemia/lymphoma.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(2):801-814 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adult T‑cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a disorder involving human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV‑1)-infected T‑cells characterized by increased clonal neoplastic proliferation. PDZ-binding kinase (PBK) [also known as T‑lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK)] is a serine/threonine kinase expressed in proliferative cells and is phosphorylated during mitosis. In this study, the expression and phosphorylation of PBK/TOPK were examined by western blot analysis and RT‑PCR. We found that PBK/TOPK was upregulated and phosphorylated in HTLV‑1-transformed T‑cell lines and ATLL‑derived T‑cell lines. Notably, CDK1/cyclin B1, which phosphorylates PBK/TOPK, was overexpressed in these cells. HTLV‑1 infection upregulated PBK/TOPK expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in co-culture assays. The potent PBK/TOPK inhibitors, HI‑TOPK‑032, and fucoidan from brown algae, decreased the proliferation and viability of these cell lines in a dose‑dependent manner. By contrast, the effect of HI‑TOPK‑032 on PBMCs was less pronounced. Treatment with HI‑TOPK‑032 resulted in G1 cell cycle arrest, and decreased CDK6 expression and pRb phosphorylation, which are critical determinants of progression through the G1 phase. In addition, HI‑TOPK‑032 induced apoptosis, as evidenced by morphological changes, the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase with the activation of caspase‑3, -8 and -9, and an increase in the sub‑G1 cell population and APO2.7-positive cells. Moreover, HI‑TOPK‑032 inhibited the expression of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (c-IAP2), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), survivin and myeloid cell leukemia‑1 (Mcl‑1), and induced the expression of Bak and interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFIT)1, 2 and 3. It is noteworthy that the use of this inhibitor led to the inhibition of the phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK)α, IKKβ, IκBα, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and Akt, and to the decreased protein expression of JunB and JunD, suggesting that PBK/TOPK affects the nuclear factor-κB, Akt and activator protein‑1 signaling pathways. In vivo, the administration of HI‑TOPK‑032 suppressed tumor growth in an ATLL xenograft model. Thus, on the whole, this study on the identification and functional analysis of PBK/TOPK suggests that this kinase is a promising molecular target for ATLL treatment.

Xu B, Li S, Lv W, et al.
Transcriptomic analysis reveals the underlying pro-malignant functions of Gankyrin for colorectal cancer via affecting tumor necrosis factor pathway.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2018; 117:1011-1016 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recently increasing evidence had indicated Gankyrin play an important role for the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its function mechanisms remain unclear. The goal of this study was to further illuminate the roles of Gankyrin in CRC using microarray data.
METHODS: The microarray data of CRC was extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under the accession number GSE44029. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the LIMMA method, and then protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed to screen crucial genes associated with Gankyrin. GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed to investigate the underlying functions of DEGs using DAVID tool.
RESULTS: A total of 712 genes were identified as DEGs, including 15 upregulated genes and 697 downregulated genes. Go enrichment analysis indicated that Gankyrin was involved in tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway. A PPI network including 586 nodes and 654 edges was constructed, in which BIRC3 and PSMB9 were demonstrated to be the hub genes associated with Gankyrin.
CONCLUSION: Our present study preliminarily revealed that the pro-malignant effects of Gankyrin in CRC cells may be mediated by affecting TNF signaling pathway via changing the expression of the crucial enriched genes (BIRC3 and PSMB9).

Rada M, Nallanthighal S, Cha J, et al.
Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) mediate collagen type XI alpha 1-driven cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(35):4809-4820 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although, cisplatin resistance is a major challenge in the treatment of ovarian cancer, the precise mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance are not fully understood. Collagen type XI alpha 1 (COL11A1), a gene encoding a minor fibrillar collagen of the extracellular matrix, is identified as one of the most upregulated genes in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer and recurrent ovarian cancer. However, the exact functions of COL11A1 in cisplatin resistance are unknown. Here we demonstrate that COL11A1 binds to integrin α1β1 and discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) and activates downstream signaling pathways to inhibit cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Mechanistically, we show that COL11A1 activates Src-PI3K/Akt-NF-kB signaling to induce the expression of three inhibitor apoptosis proteins (IAPs), including XIAP, BIRC2, and BIRC3. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of XIAP, BIRC2, and BIRC3 is sufficient to restore cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells in the presence of COL11A1 in ovarian cancer cells and xenograft mouse models, respectively. We also show that the components of COL11A1- integrin α1β1/DDR2- Src-PI3K/Akt-NF-kB-IAP signaling pathway serve as poor prognosis markers in ovarian cancer patients. Taken together, our results suggest novel mechanisms by which COL11A1 confers cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer. Our study also uncovers IAPs as promising therapeutic targets to reduce cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer, particularly in recurrent ovarian cancer expressing high levels of COL11A1.

Liu YD, Ji CB, Li SB, et al.
Toll-like receptor 2 stimulation promotes colorectal cancer cell growth via PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2018; 59:375-383 [PubMed] Related Publications
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 is a key regulator of innate immune responses and has been shown to play an important role in inflammation-associated cancers. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of TLR2 in colorectal cancer (CRC). We demonstrated that TLR2 mRNA and protein expression was significantly upregulated in tumors from CRC patients and indicated poor prognosis. Using the TLR2 agonist Pam3Cys (P3C) to activate TLR2 signaling in human CRC cell lines, we showed that TLR2 drives cellular proliferation, which was dependent upon PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways and was associated with the upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes BCL2A1, WISP1 and BIRC3. Likewise, pharmacological blockade of PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways mitigated the CRC pro-survival effects of TLR2 stimulation. Furthermore, genetic ablation of TLR2 using CRISPR/Cas9 suppressed CRC cell proliferation, invasion and migration. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that TLR2 plays an important role in colorectal tumorigenesis and may represent a promising therapeutic target in CRC.

Pan W, Luo Q, Yan X, et al.
A novel SMAC mimetic APG-1387 exhibits dual antitumor effect on HBV-positive hepatocellular carcinoma with high expression of cIAP2 by inducing apoptosis and enhancing innate anti-tumor immunity.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2018; 154:127-135 [PubMed] Related Publications
Check point inhibitor anti-PD1 antibody produced some efficacy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) patients previously treated with sorafenib. Unfortunately, HCC patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection did not respond as well as uninfected patients. Previously, Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC) mimetics-the antagonist for inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) can rapidly reduce serum hepatitis B virus DNA in animal model. APG-1387 is a novel SMAC-mimetic, small molecule inhibitor targeting inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). In our study, firstly, we found that HCC patients with copy number alteration of cIAP1, cIAP2, and XIAP had a dismal prognosis. Then, we discovered that APG-1387 alone could induce apoptosis of PLC/PRF/5 which was HBV positive both in-vitro and in-vivo. Furthermore, we found that APG-1387 significantly up-regulated the expression of calreticulin and HLA-DR in PLC/PRF/5 via activating non-classic NF-κB pathway. Also, compared to vehicle group, APG-1387 increased NK cell counts by 5 folds in PLC/PRF/5 xenograft model. In-vitro, APG-1387 positively regulated T cells by reducing Treg differentiation and down-regulating PD1 expression in CD4 T cell. Moreover, APG-1387 had no impact on memory T cells. Consequently, our results suggest that APG1387 could be a good candidate to combine with anti-PD1 antibody treatment to overcome low responds of check point inhibitors in HBV positive HCC.

Boddu P, Ferrajoli A
Prognostic Factors in the Era of Targeted Therapies in CLL.
Curr Hematol Malig Rep. 2018; 13(2):78-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is heterogeneous disease characterized by a variable clinical course that is greatly influenced by various patient and disease characteristics. Over the last two decades, advent of new diagnostic methodologies has led to the identification of several factors of prognostic and predictive relevance. Furthermore, recent advances in next-generation sequencing techniques has identified recurrent novel mutations in NOTCH1, SF3B1, BIRC3, and ATM genes whose role as prognostic and predictive markers is currently being investigated. These biologic markers carry new prognostic information and their incorporation into prognostic scoring systems will likely lead to refined multi-parameter risk models.
RECENT FINDINGS: While the prognostic impact of many of the most commonly used markers on clinical outcomes in patients treated with chemo-immunotherapy is well documented, it is important to review their predictive and prognostic role in the era of novel targeted therapies. This article will discuss the currently available information on the clinical relevance of prognostic markers in patients treated with novel targeted therapies.

Albano F, Chiurazzi F, Mimmi S, et al.
The expression of inhibitor of bruton's tyrosine kinase gene is progressively up regulated in the clinical course of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia conferring resistance to apoptosis.
Cell Death Dis. 2018; 9(1):13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most common B-cell malignancy with a variable clinical outcome. Biomarkers of CLL progression are required for optimising prognosis and therapy. The Inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase-isoform α (IBTKα) gene encodes a substrate receptor of Cullin 3-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase, and promotes cell survival in response to the reticulum stress. Searching for novel markers of CLL progression, we analysed the expression of IBTKα in the peripheral blood B-cells of CLL patients, before and after first line therapy causing remission. The expression of IBTKα was significantly increased in disease progression, and decreased in remission after chemotherapy. Consistently with a pro-survival action, RNA interference of IBTKα increased the spontaneous and Fludarabine-induced apoptosis of MEC-1 CLL cells, and impaired the cell cycle of DeFew B-lymphoma cells by promoting the arrest in G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. Consistently, RNA interference of IBTKα up regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic genes, including TNF, CRADD, CASP7, BNIP3 and BIRC3. Our results indicate that IBTKα is a novel marker of CLL progression promoting cell growth and resistance to apoptosis. In this view, IBTKα may represent an attractive cancer drug target for counteracting the therapy-resistance of tumour cells.

Nguyen L, Masouminia M, Mendoza A, et al.
Alcoholic hepatitis versus non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Levels of expression of some proteins involved in tumorigenesis.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2018; 104(1):45-49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is commonly associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and/or hypertriglyceridemia, while alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) is associated with alcohol abuse. Both NASH and ASH patients can develop cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) if left untreated. However, the rate of tumorigenesis in NASH and ASH appears to be different. Individuals with NASH progress to HCC at a rate of 0.5% annually (Lindenmeyer and McCullough, 2018), when individuals with ASH progress to HCC at a rate of 3-10% annually (Schwartz and Reinus, 2012). Thus, the objective of our study is to determine if there are differences in NASH versus ASH in the levels of different proteins expressed involved in cancer development. The method used was measuring the proteins expressed in liver biopsied sections from NASH and ASH patients using immunohistochemical staining with fluorescent antibodies and then quantitating the fluorescence intensity morphometrically. The 20 proteins tested are parts of the Ingenuity Canonical Pathway of Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer and include: RAP2B, NAIP, FYN, PAK6, SUV39H1, GNAI1, BAX, E2F3, CKDN2B, BAK1, BCL2, DIABLO, RASGRF2, GNA15, PIK3CB, BRCA1, MAP2K1, BIRC3, CDK2, and ATM. In ASH, the proteins that showed upregulated levels of expression were SUV39H1, E2F3, BCL2, BAK1, BIRC3, and GNAI1. In NASH, the proteins that showed upregulated levels of expression were BAK1 and GNAI1 and the protein that showed downregulated level of expression was BCL2. Additionally, levels of expression for SUV39H1, E2F3, BCL2, BAK1, BIRC3, and GNAI1 were significant upregulated in ASH compared to NASH. These results showed significant differences in ASH compared to normal liver, and significant differences in ASH compared to NASH. Thus, we conclude that there are more proteins involved in tumorigenesis in ASH compared to NASH and in ASH compared to normal liver, which is consistent with the known tumor development rate in ASH and NASH.

Wang L, Wei Y, Yan Y, et al.
CircDOCK1 suppresses cell apoptosis via inhibition of miR‑196a‑5p by targeting BIRC3 in OSCC.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(3):951-966 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most frequent oral cancer in the world, accounting for more than 90% of all oral cancer diagnosis. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are large types of non-coding RNAs, demonstrating a great capacity of regulating the expression of genes. However, most of the functions of circRNAs are still unknown. Recent research revealed that circRNAs could serve as a miRNA-sponge, consequently regulating the expression of target genes indirectly, including oncogenes. In this study, we built an apoptotic model with TNF-α, and then we confirmed a circRNA associated with the apoptosis of OSCC cells, circDOCK1 by comparing the expression profile of circRNAs in an apoptotic model with that in untreated OSCC cells. We ascertained the presence of circDOCK1 with qRT‑PCR and circRNA sequencing. The knockdown of the expression of circDOCK1 led to the increase of apoptosis. Utilizing multiple bioinformatics methods, we predicted the interactions among circRNAs, miRNAs and genes, and built the circDOCK1/miR‑196a‑5p/BIRC3 axis. Both the silencing of circDOCK1 with small interfering RNA and the upregulation of the expression of miR‑196a‑5p with mimics led OSCC cells to increase apoptosis and decrease BIRC3 formation. We further confirmed this outcome by comparing the expression of circDOCK1, miR‑196a‑5p and BIRC3 in oral squamous carcinoma tissue with those in para‑carcinoma tissue, and examining the expression profile of circRNAs in oral squamous carcinoma tissue and para‑carcinoma tissue with microarray. Our results demonstrated that circDOCK1 regulated BIRC3 expression by functioning as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) and participated in the process of OSCC apoptosis. Thus, we propose that circDOCK1 could represent a novel potential biomarker and therapeutic target of OSCC.

Handschuh L, Kaźmierczak M, Milewski MC, et al.
Gene expression profiling of acute myeloid leukemia samples from adult patients with AML-M1 and -M2 through boutique microarrays, real-time PCR and droplet digital PCR.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 52(3):656-678 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common and severe form of acute leukemia diagnosed in adults. Owing to its heterogeneity, AML is divided into classes associated with different treatment outcomes and specific gene expression profiles. Based on previous studies on AML, in this study, we designed and generated an AML-array containing 900 oligonucleotide probes complementary to human genes implicated in hematopoietic cell differentiation and maturation, proliferation, apoptosis and leukemic transformation. The AML-array was used to hybridize 118 samples from 33 patients with AML of the M1 and M2 subtypes of the French-American‑British (FAB) classification and 15 healthy volunteers (HV). Rigorous analysis of the microarray data revealed that 83 genes were differentially expressed between the patients with AML and the HV, including genes not yet discussed in the context of AML pathogenesis. The most overexpressed genes in AML were STMN1, KITLG, CDK6, MCM5, KRAS, CEBPA, MYC, ANGPT1, SRGN, RPLP0, ENO1 and SET, whereas the most underexpressed genes were IFITM1, LTB, FCN1, BIRC3, LYZ, ADD3, S100A9, FCER1G, PTRPE, CD74 and TMSB4X. The overexpression of the CPA3 gene was specific for AML with mutated NPM1 and FLT3. Although the microarray-based method was insufficient to differentiate between any other AML subgroups, quantitative PCR approaches enabled us to identify 3 genes (ANXA3, S100A9 and WT1) whose expression can be used to discriminate between the 2 studied AML FAB subtypes. The expression levels of the ANXA3 and S100A9 genes were increased, whereas those of WT1 were decreased in the AML-M2 compared to the AML-M1 group. We also examined the association between the STMN1, CAT and ABL1 genes, and the FLT3 and NPM1 mutation status. FLT3+/NPM1- AML was associated with the highest expression of STMN1, and ABL1 was upregulated in FLT3+ AML and CAT in FLT3- AML, irrespectively of the NPM1 mutation status. Moreover, our results indicated that CAT and WT1 gene expression levels correlated with the response to therapy. CAT expression was highest in patients who remained longer under complete remission, whereas WT1 expression increased with treatment resistance. On the whole, this study demonstrates that the AML-array can potentially serve as a first-line screening tool, and may be helpful for the diagnosis of AML, whereas the differentiation between AML subgroups can be more successfully performed with PCR-based analysis of a few marker genes.

Jiang Z, Jiang J, Zhao B, et al.
CPNE1 silencing inhibits the proliferation, invasion and migration of human osteosarcoma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(2):643-650 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of the bone affecting children and adolescents. Copine 1 (CPNE1) is a highly conserved calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein and may function in regulating signal transduction and membrane trafficking. In the present study, we investigated CPNE1 expression in osteosarcoma tissues and cells, and studied the effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-targeting CPNE1 on proliferation, metastasis and chemosensitivity of the osteosarcoma cells. The results demonstrated that CPNE1 was highly expressed in the osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. Moreover, functional investigations confirmed that CPNE1 knockdown significantly inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion and metastasis in Saos-2 and HOS cells. Western blot analysis indicated that CPNE1 silencing downregulated the expression of many proteins associated with tumorigenesis and development, including Ras, MEK-1/2, WNT1, β-catenin, cyclin A1, IRAK2 and cIAP2. In addition, CPNE1 downregulation enhanced the sensitivity of Saos-2 cells towards cisplatin and adriamycin. The present study provides deep insight into the clinical use of lentiviral-mediated CPNE1 silencing for osteosarcoma therapy.

Wang W, Zhao Z, Wu F, et al.
Bioinformatic analysis of gene expression and methylation regulation in glioblastoma.
J Neurooncol. 2018; 136(3):495-503 [PubMed] Related Publications
Different gene expression and methylation profiles are identified in glioblastoma (GBM). To screen the differentially expressed genes affected by DNA methylation modification and further investigate their prognostic values for GBMs. We included The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA sequencing (676) and DNA methylation (Illumina Human Methylation 450K; 657) databases to detect the gene expression and methylation profiles. Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) RNA sequencing database and TCGA DNA methylation (Illumina Human Methylation 27K; 283) was included for validation. Gene expression and DNA methylation statues were identified using principal components analysis (PCA). A total of 3365 differentially expressed genes were identified. Among them, 2940 genes showed low methylation and high expression, while 425 genes showed high methylation and low expression in GBMs. An eight-gene (C9orf64, OSMR, MDK, MARVELD1, PTRF, MYD88, BIRC3, RPP25) signature was established to divide GBM patients into two groups based on the cut-off point (27.24). The high risk group had shorter overall survival (OS) than low risk group (median OS 15.77 vs. 10.61 months; P = 0.0002). Moreover, the different clinical and molecular features were shown between two groups. These findings could be validated in additional datasets. The differentially expressed genes affected by DNA methylation modification were detected. Our results showed that the eight-gene signature has independently prognostic value for GBM patients.

Bhosale PG, Pandey M, Cristea S, et al.
Recurring Amplification at 11q22.1-q22.2 Locus Plays an Important Role in Lymph Node Metastasis and Radioresistance in OSCC.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):16051 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A key feature in the pathogenesis of OSCC is genetic instability, which results in altered expression of genes located in amplified/deleted chromosomal regions. In a previous study we have shown that the amplification of the 11q22.1-q22.2 region, encoding cIAP1 and cIAP2, is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor clinical outcome in OSCC. Here, we validate the aCGH results by nuc ish and detect a weak amplification at the 11q22.1-q22.2 locus in 37% of the 182 samples tested. We find positive correlation of 11q22.1-q22.2 amplification with lymph node metastasis, reduced survival, and increased cancer recurrence, and we observe that patients with 11q22.1-q22.2 amplification fail to respond to radiotherapy. We confirm the concurrent overexpression of cIAP1 and cIAP2 and observe differential subcellular localization of the two proteins in OSCC. To ascertain the roles of cIAP1/cIAP2 in lymph node metastasis and radioresistance, we use an in vitro pre-clinical model and confirm the role of cIAP1 in invasion and the role of cIAP2 in invasion and migration. Studies of other tumor types in which cIAP1 is overexpressed suggest that multi-regimen treatments including SMAC mimetics may be effective. Thus, the evaluation of 11q22.1-q22.2 amplifications in OSCC patients may help choose the most effective treatment.

Li Z, Li X, Xu L, et al.
Inhibition of neuroblastoma proliferation by PF-3758309, a small-molecule inhibitor that targets p21-activated kinase 4.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(5):2705-2716 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid childhood tumor. Despite the availability of advanced multimodal therapy, high-risk patients still have low survival rates. p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) has been shown to regulate many cellular processes in cancer cells, including migration, polarization and proliferation. However, the role of PAK4 in neuroblastoma remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that PAK4 was overexpressed in neuroblastoma tissues and was correlated with tumor malignance and prognosis. To investigate the function of PAK4 in neuroblastoma, we used a small-molecule inhibitor that targets PAK4, that is, PF-3758309. Our results showed that PF-3758309 significantly induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and apoptosis in neuroblastoma cell lines. Meanwhile, the inhibition of PAK4 by PF-3758309 increased the expression of CDKN1A, BAD and BAK1 and decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax. In addition, we screened the target genes of PAK4 by PCR array and found that 23 genes were upregulated (including TP53I3, TBX3, EEF1A2, CDKN1A, IFNB1 and MAPK8IP2) and 20 genes were downregulated (including TNFSF8, Bcl2-A1, Bcl2L1, SOCS3, BIRC3 and NFKB1) after PAK4 inhibition by PF-3758309. Moreover, PAK4 was found to regulate the cell cycle and apoptosis via the ERK signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated, for the first time, the expression and function of PAK4 in neuroblastomas and the inhibitory effect of PF-3758309, which deserves further investigation as an alternative strategy for neuroblastoma treatment.

Zakrzewska E, Pirog M, Purkot J, Giannopoulos K
Novel prognostic molecular factors: a quantum leap in the field of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2017; 55(3):95-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytogenetic lesions do not completely explain clinical heterogeneity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification 2008 indicated that molecular lesions of TP53, NOTCH1, SF3B1 and BIRC3 have potential clinical relevance and could be integrated into an updated risk profile. The negative clinical implications of TP53 disruptions are well constituted and patients with these mutations should be considered for novel, small molecule signal transduction inhibitors therapies. Mutations of NOTCH1, SF3B1 and BIRC3 are associated with poor prognosis. Patients with mutated SF3B1 or NOTCH1 genes present shorter time to first treatment compared to unmutated group. NOTCH1 mutations are related to a high risk of Richter's syndrome transformation, especially in case of TP53 disruptions' coexistence. Large studies on MYD88 mutations in CLL have not explained clearly their clinical importance.The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review on novel molecular aberrations identified in CLL.

Iwamuro M, Takenaka R, Nakagawa M, et al.
Management of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in patients with extra copies of the
World J Gastroenterol. 2017; 23(33):6155-6163 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To identify the clinical features of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with extra copies of MALT1.
METHODS: This is a multi-centered, retrospective study. We reviewed 146 patients with MALT lymphoma in the stomach who underwent fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for t(11;18) translocation. Patients were subdivided into patients without t(11;18) translocation or extra copies of MALT1 (Group A, n = 88), patients with t(11;18) translocation (Group B, n = 27), and patients with extra copies of MALT1 (Group C, n = 31). The clinical background, treatment, and outcomes of each group were investigated.
RESULTS: Groups A and C showed slight female predominance, whereas Group B showed slight male predominance. Mean ages and clinical stages at lymphoma diagnosis were not different between groups. Complete response was obtained in 61 patients in Group A (69.3%), 22 in Group B (81.5%), and 21 in Group C (67.7%). Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication alone resulted in complete remission in 44 patients in Group A and 13 in Group C. In Group B, 14 patients underwent radiotherapy alone, which resulted in lymphoma disappearance. Although the difference was not statistically significant, event-free survival in Group C tended to be inferior to that in Group A (P = 0.10).
CONCLUSION: Patients with t(11;18) translocation should be treated differently from others. Patients with extra copies of MALT1 could be initially treated with H. pylori eradication, similar to patients without t(11;18) translocation or extra copies of MALT1.

Wang D, Berglund AE, Kenchappa RS, et al.
BIRC3 is a biomarker of mesenchymal habitat of glioblastoma, and a mediator of survival adaptation in hypoxia-driven glioblastoma habitats.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):9350 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor hypoxia is an established facilitator of survival adaptation and mesenchymal transformation in glioblastoma (GBM). The underlying mechanisms that direct hypoxia-mediated survival in GBM habitats are unclear. We previously identified BIRC3 as a mediator of therapeutic resistance in GBM to standard temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT). Here we report that BIRC3 is a biomarker of the hypoxia-mediated adaptive mesenchymal phenotype of GBM. Specifically, in the TCGA dataset elevated BIRC3 gene expression was identified as a superior and selective biomarker of mesenchymal GBM versus neural, proneural and classical subtypes. Further, BIRC3 protein was highly expressed in the tumor cell niches compared to the perivascular niche across multiple regions in GBM patient tissue microarrays. Tumor hypoxia was found to mechanistically induce BIRC3 expression through HIF1-alpha signaling in GBM cells. Moreover, in human GBM xenografts robust BIRC3 expression was noted within hypoxic regions of the tumor. Importantly, selective inhibition of BIRC3 reversed therapeutic resistance of GBM cells to RT in hypoxic microenvironments through enhanced activation of caspases. Collectively, we have uncovered a novel role for BIRC3 as a targetable biomarker and mediator of hypoxia-driven habitats in GBM.

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