Gene Summary

Gene:ARID1A; AT-rich interaction domain 1A
Aliases: ELD, B120, CSS2, OSA1, P270, hELD, BM029, MRD14, hOSA1, BAF250, C1orf4, BAF250a, SMARCF1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the SWI/SNF family, whose members have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. It possesses at least two conserved domains that could be important for its function. First, it has a DNA-binding domain that can specifically bind an AT-rich DNA sequence known to be recognized by a SNF/SWI complex at the beta-globin locus. Second, the C-terminus of the protein can stimulate glucocorticoid receptor-dependent transcriptional activation. It is thought that the protein encoded by this gene confers specificity to the SNF/SWI complex and may recruit the complex to its targets through either protein-DNA or protein-protein interactions. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (22)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (2)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Genomics
  • Phylogeny
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • RNA Interference
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Mutation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Transcription Factors
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly
  • Staging
  • ARID1A
  • ras Proteins
  • Translocation
  • Transcription
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Transcriptome
  • Survival Rate
  • Liver Cancer
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Signal Transduction
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy
  • Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Oxygenases
  • Risk Factors
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • DNA Copy Number Variations
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Chromosome 1
  • Exome
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Uterine Cancer
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ARID1A (cancer-related)

Toumpeki C, Liberis A, Tsirkas I, et al.
The Role of ARID1A in Endometrial Cancer and the Molecular Pathways Associated With Pathogenesis and Cancer Progression.
In Vivo. 2019 May-Jun; 33(3):659-667 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AT-rich interaction domain 1A gene (ARID1A) encodes for a subunit of the switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) complex, a chromatin remodeling complex, and it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cancer types. In this review, we discuss how ARID1A is linked to endometrial cancer and what molecular pathways are affected by mutation or inhibition of ARID1A. We also discuss the potential use of ARID1A not only as a prognostic biomarker, but also as a target for therapeutic interventions.

Su YF, Tsai EM, Chen CC, et al.
Targeted sequencing of a specific gene panel detects a high frequency of ARID1A and PIK3CA mutations in ovarian clear cell carcinoma.
Clin Chim Acta. 2019; 494:1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the mutational profile in epithelial ovarian cancer using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens from a Taiwanese population by performing targeted sequencing of 9 cancer-associated genes.
METHODS: Targeted sequencing was performed on 32 formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens, consisting of matched samples from 16 epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Genetic alterations in the 9 cancer-associated genes were detected using a deep sequencing (>1000×) approach.
RESULTS: ARID1A and PIK3CA were the most frequently mutated genes. Specifically, ARID1A mutations and PIK3CA mutations were detected in 77.8% and 66.7% of ovarian clear cell carcinoma patients, respectively. Mutations in other genes, including MLH1 (6.3%) and CREBBP (6.3%), were detected in the Taiwanese population. We also identified coexisting ARID1A-PIK3CA mutations (43.8%) and ARID1A-KRAS mutations (12.5%) in tumors. It should also be noted that we identified the presence of three coexisting mutations, the ARID1A-KRAS-PIK3CA mutations and the ARID1A-CREBBP-PIK3CA mutations.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we identified novel genetic alterations in patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) in a Taiwanese populations. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of chromatin remodeling to examine the role of the PI3K/AKT pathway, to determine the critical roles of these mechanisms in tumor development and the progression of ovarian malignancy and to investigate new targeted therapies. Overall, our findings were reliable and are worthy of further study.

Bi C, Liu M, Rong W, et al.
High Beclin-1 and ARID1A expression corelates with poor survival and high recurrence in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: a histopathological retrospective study.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):213 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although surgical resection provides a cure for patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the risk of mortality and recurrence remains high. Several biomarkers are reported to be associated with the prognosis of ICC, including Beclin-1, ARID1A, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), but results are inconsistent. Therefore, a histopathological retrospective study was performed to simultaneously investigate the relationship of these four potential biomarkers with clinicopathological parameters and their prognostic values in patients with ICC.
METHODS: A total of 113 patients with ICC were enrolled from Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences between January 1999 and June 2015. The expression of Beclin-1, ARID1A, IDH1 and CA9 were determined by immunohistochemical staining. The prognostic values of the four biomarkers were analyzed by Cox regression and the Kaplan-Meier method.
RESULTS: Beclin-1, ARID1A, CA9 and IDH1 were highly expressed in ICC tumor tissues. Higher mortality was positively associated with Beclin-1 expression (HR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.09-5.24) and higher recurrence was positively associated with ARID1A expression (HR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.06-2.78). Neither CA9 nor IDH1 expression was significantly associated with mortality or disease recurrence. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that ICC patients with higher Beclin-1 and ARID1A expression had a lower survival rate and a worse recurrence rate than patients with low Beclin-1 and ARID1A expression (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: High Beclin-1 and ARIDIA expression are strongly associated with poor prognosis in ICC patients, and thus Beclin-1 and ARID1A should be simultaneously considered as potential prognostic biomarkers for ICC patients.

Varmus H
Of oncogenes and open science: an interview with Harold Varmus.
Dis Model Mech. 2019; 12(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Harold Varmus has made pioneering contributions to our understanding of cancer as a genetic disease. The discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes earned him and his long-term collaborator, Michael Bishop, the Lasker Prize for Basic Medical Sciences in 1982 and the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1989. Throughout his career, Varmus has held several leadership roles that shaped science policy in the US and worldwide, and he has been an outspoken advocate for open science. In this interview, he talks (among other things) about the factors that shaped his early career choices, the thrill of scientific discovery, and the importance of including diverse populations in genomic studies of cancer and other diseases.

Lee JH, Ahn BK, Baik SS, Lee KH
Comprehensive Analysis of Somatic Mutations in Colorectal Cancer With Peritoneal Metastasis.
In Vivo. 2019 Mar-Apr; 33(2):447-452 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To analyze for genetic mutations which may presage peritoneal metastasis by using targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary tumor specimens were obtained from 10 patients with small obstructing colorectal cancer and peritoneal metastasis (group A) and five with large non-obstructing colorectal cancer and no recurrence (group B). DNA was extracted for the sequencing of 409 cancer genes. The distribution of genetic mutations was compared between the two groups to find genetic mutations related to peritoneal metastasis.
RESULTS: When the samples were sorted based on similarity of gene expression by hierarchical clustering analysis, the samples were well divided between the two study groups. Mutations in AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A (ARID1A), polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (PKHD1), ubiquitin-protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 5 (UBR5), paired box 5 (PAX5), tumor protein p53 (TP53), additional sex combs like 1 (ASXL1) and androgen receptor (AR) genes were detected more frequently in group A.
CONCLUSION: A number of somatic mutations presumed to be relevant to colorectal cancer with peritoneal metastasis were identified in our study by NGS.

Zhou H, Tan S, Li H, Lin X
Expression and significance of EBV, ARID1A and PIK3CA in gastric carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(3):2125-2136 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AT‑rich interaction domain 1A (ARID1A) and phosphatidylinositol‑4,5‑bisphosphate 3‑kinase catalytic subunit α (PIK3CA) serve important roles in the formation and development of numerous malignancies including gastric cancer. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that Epstein‑Barr virus (EBV) is a pathogenic virus associated with gastric cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the association between EBV infection, and the expression levels of ARID1A and PIK3CA in gastric cancer. EBER in situ hybridization was performed to detect EBV infection. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the expression levels of ARID1A and PIK3CA in gastric cancer and adjacent normal tissues. A total of 58 gastric cancer and 10 adjacent normal tissues were tested for genetic mutations via single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays. Fluorescent polymerase chain reaction was used to detect EBV infection; 9.3% (28/300) of gastric cancer samples were positive for EBV, whereas, all adjacent normal tissues were negative. ARID1A and PIK3CA were negatively correlated in gastric cancer (r=‑0.167). The expression levels of ARID1A and PIK3CA in gastric cancer were significantly associated with the depth of invasion of gastric cancer. A total of 62.1% (36/58) of tumor samples exhibited mutations in ARID1A, whereas, 13.8% (8/58) presented mutations in PIK3CA. Notably, EBV‑associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC) samples with PIK3CA mutations additionally exhibited ARID1A mutations. Although in the present study it was identified that ARID1A and PIK3CA were negatively correlated in EBVaGC, further studies are required to investigate the association among ARID1A, PIK3CA and EBV in gastric cancer.

Cuevas D, Valls J, Gatius S, et al.
Targeted sequencing with a customized panel to assess histological typing in endometrial carcinoma.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 474(5):585-598 [PubMed] Related Publications
The two most frequent types of endometrial cancer (EC) are endometrioid (EEC) and serous carcinomas (SC). Differential diagnosis between them is not always easy. A subset of endometrial cancers shows misleading microscopical features, which cause problems in differential diagnosis, and may be a good scenario for next-generation sequencing. Previous studies have assessed the usefulness of targeted sequencing with panels of generic cancer-associated genes in EC histological typing. Based on the analysis of TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas), EEC and SC have different mutational profiles. In this proof of principle study, we have performed targeted sequencing analysis with a customized panel, based on the TCGA mutational profile of EEC and SC, in a series of 24 tumors (16 EEC and 8 SC). Our panel comprised coding and non-coding sequences of the following genes: ABCC9, ARID1A, ARID5B, ATR, BCOR, CCND1, CDH19, CHD4, COL11A1, CSDE1, CSMD3, CTCF, CTNNB1, EP300, ERBB2, FBXW7, FGFR2, FOXA2, KLLN, KMT2B, KRAS, MAP3K4, MKI67, NRAS, PGAP3, PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PPP2R1A, PRPF18, PTEN, RPL22, SCARNA11, SIN3A, SMARCA4, SPOP, TAF1, TP53, TSPYL2, USP36, and WRAP53. Targeted sequencing validation by Sanger sequencing and immunohistochemistry was performed in a group of genes. POLE mutation status was assessed by Sanger sequencing. The most mutated genes were PTEN (93.7%), ARID1A (68.7%), PIK3CA (50%), and KMT2B (43.7%) for EEC, and TP53 (87.5%), PIK3CA (50%), and PPP2R1A (25%) for SC. Our panel allowed correct classification of all tumors in the two categories (EEC, SC). Coexistence of mutations in PTEN, ARID1A, and KMT2B was diagnostic of EEC. On the other hand, absence of PTEN, ARID1A, and KMT2B mutations in the presence of TP53 mutation was diagnostic of SC. This proof of concept study demonstrates the suitability of targeted sequencing with a customized endometrial cancer gene panel as an additional tool for confirming histological typing.

Li S, Meng XY, Maman STD, et al.
Lenalidomide and Low Dose Dexamethasone Plus Elotuzumab or Carfilzomib for Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma: A Comparison of Progression-Free Survival with Reconstructed Individual Participant Data.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:9057823 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma (RRMM) remains a clinical challenge. We compared the progression-free survival (PFS) of RRMM patients treated with lenalidomide and low dose dexamethasone plus elotuzumab or carfilzomib (ELD vs. CLD), using reconstructed individual patient data (IPD) based on two published trials reports.
Methods: We extracted data of study-level characteristics from original trial reports. We evaluated the comparability between the two treatment groups in terms of baseline status. Digitization of PFS Kaplan-Meier curves, reconstruction of IPD data, and subsequent survival analysis were performed. Distribution of progression and death events over time was visualized as histograms and corresponding kernel density lines, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted. Hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated.
Results: Significant difference in race and disease stage distribution was found (P < 0.0001). Higher proportion of white patients and patients with advanced disease in the carfilzomib group was identified. Survival analysis revealed better PFS in the carfilzomib group (elotuzumab group vs. carfilzomib group: HR = 1.36, 95% CI = [1.11-1.67]).
Conclusion: The CLD regimen may result in better PFS as compared with the ELD regimen in RRMM patients.

Qiang H, Zhan X, Wang W, et al.
A Study on the Correlations of the miR-31 Expression with the Pathogenesis and Prognosis of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2019; 34(3):189-195 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlations of miR-31 expression with cell proliferation, invasion, and prognosis of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
METHODS: The expression of miR-31 in human laryngeal cancer TU686 cells, human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2 cells, and normal human oral keratinocyte (NHOK) epithelial cells was detected via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The effects of miR-31 on the proliferation and invasion of HNSCC cells were explored through transfecting miR-31 analogs (miR-31 mimics) and miR-31 inhibitors (anti-miR-31). qRT-PCR was applied to detect the expressions of miR-31 in 56 cases of HNSCC tumor tissues and tumor-adjacent normal tissues. The correlation of miR-31 expression with pathological parameters and survival prognosis of HNSCC patients was also analyzed.
RESULTS: The expressions of miR-31 in TU686 and CNE-2 cell lines were significantly higher than that in NHOK cells (p < 0.01). Compared with those in the negative control group, the proliferation and invasion abilities of cells transfected with miR-31 mimics were notably enhanced (p < 0.01), and those of cells transfected with anti-miR-31 were significantly reduced (p < 0.01). In addition, miR-31 mimics significantly reduced ARID1A expression (p < 0.01) and anti-miR-31 increased its expression (p < 0.05). The expression of miR-31 in tumor tissues of HNSCC patients was remarkably higher than that in tumor-adjacent normal tissues (p < 0.01). This, together with clinical data analysis, revealed that the expression of miR-31 was associated with tumor differentiation, metastasis, and staging of patients, and the survival period of patients with lowly expressed miR-31 was longer.
CONCLUSIONS: The highly expressed miR-31 can stimulate the proliferation and invasion of HNSCC cells, closely correlated with tumor differentiation, metastasis, and staging of patients. Patients with lowly expressed miR-31 have a longer survival period. Therefore, miR-31 expression can be taken as a crucial reference indicator for the prognosis of HNSCC patients.

Zhang L, Jiang Y, Lu X, et al.
Genomic characterization of cervical cancer based on human papillomavirus status.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 152(3):629-637 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: It is uncommon for cervical cancer patients to be diagnosed without a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. As prophylactic vaccines against high-risk HPV types are an ineffective preventive measure for these patients it is essential to identify differential biomarkers that may be associated with detection, prognosis and novel targeted therapies. The objective of this study was to compare the two entities, HPV+ and HPV- cervical cancers, based on TCGA public data.
METHODS: We collected and analyzed clinical information of 299 cervical cancer patients as the first step, then identified differential expressed genes and conducted downstream analyses to characterize this tumor based on HPV status, including functional annotation, pathway mapping, survival analysis and comparative somatic mutation landscapes. We further inferred the likelihood of responding to traditional treatment including radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
RESULTS: It was found that HPV- tumors were likely to occur at an older age and were often adenocarcinomas or adenosquamous carcinomas, and there was no significant overall survival difference between HPV+ vs. HPV- tumors. Gene expression profiles of HPV+ and HPV- tumors differed especially in ANKRD7, SERPINB3, EMX2, MEI1, RNF212, RP11-13 K12.5, RP11-325F22.2 and ZFR2 which were significantly relevant to cervical cancer prognosis. TP53, ARID5B, ARID1A, CTNNB1 and PTEN were significantly differentially mutated between HPV+ and HPV- tumors. Results of radiotherapy analyses demonstrated that CDO1, PCDHB2 and MYOD1 were different between the two subsets. In addition, RP11-299 L17.3, SLC14A2, FGF18 and OASL represented different drug-sensitivity to cisplatin between both.
CONCLUSIONS: These potential biomarkers may offer insights to further personalize therapeutic decision-making to improve survival in HPV- cervical cancer patients.

Xu J, Xiang C, Zhang C, et al.
Microbial biomarkers of common tongue coatings in patients with gastric cancer.
Microb Pathog. 2019; 127:97-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The study aims to explore the characteristic microorganisms of the common tongue coatings in patients with gastric cancer (GC).
METHODS: A total of 115 GC patients were assigned to four groups: White-thin coating (W-thin) group, White-thick coating (W-thick) group, Yellow-thin coating (Y-thin) group and Yellow-thick coating (Y-thick) group. Thirty-five healthy volunteers with White-thin coating were recruit as controls. High-throughput sequencing was used to describe the microbial community of the tongue coatings based on 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes. Multi-factors statistical analysis was carried out to present the microbial biomarkers of the tongue coating in GC patients.
RESULTS: At bacterial phylum level, Saccharibacteria had higher relative abundance in W-thick group than W-thin group, Proteobacteria was more abundant in W-thin group than Y-thick group and less abundant in Y-thick group than Y-thin group. At fungal genus level, Guehomyces and Aspergillus presented to be significantly different among the common tongue coatings. Forteen significantly increased taxa were sorted out as the microbial biomarkers of common tongue coatings by LEfSe and ROC analysis. At species level, bacterial Capnocytophaga leadbetteri and fungal Ampelomyces_sp_IRAN_1 may be the potential biomarkers of W-thin coating, four bacterial species (Megasphaera micronuciformis, Selenomonas sputigena ATCC 35185, Acinetobacter ursingii, Prevotella maculosa) may be the potential biomarkers of W-thick coating. In general, the white coatings held more complex commensal relationship than the yellow coatings.
CONCLUSION: The common tongue coating owned characteristic microorganisms and special commensal relationship in the GC patients.

Guo X, Tang Y, Zhu W
Distinct esophageal adenocarcinoma molecular subtype has subtype-specific gene expression and mutation patterns.
BMC Genomics. 2018; 19(1):769 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Esophageal carcinoma (EC), consists of two histological types, esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). EAC accounted for 10% of EC for centuries; however, the prevalence of EAC has alarmingly risen 6 times and increased to about 50% of EC in recent 30 years in the western countries, while treatment options for EAC patients are still limited. Stratification of molecular subtypes by gene expression profiling methods had offered opportunities for targeted therapies. However, the molecular subtype in EAC has not been defined. Hence, Identification of EAC molecular subtypes is needed and will provide important insights for future new therapies.
RESULTS: We performed meta-analysis of gene expression profiling data on three independent EAC cohorts and showed that there are two common molecular subtypes in EAC. Each of the two EAC molecular subtypes has subtype specific expression patterns and mutation signatures. Genes which were over-expressed in subtype I EACs rather than subtype II EAC cases, were enriched in biological processes including epithelial cell differentiation, keratinocyte differentiation, and KEGG pathways including basal cell carcinoma. TP53 and CDKN2A are significantly mutated in both EAC subtypes. 24 genes including SMAD4 were found to be only significantly mutated in subtype I EAC cases, while 30 genes including ARID1A are only significantly mutated in subtype II EACs.
CONCLUSION: Two EAC molecular subtypes were defined and validated. This finding may offer new opportunities for targeted therapies.

Torabi K, Erola P, Alvarez-Mora MI, et al.
Quantitative analysis of somatically acquired and constitutive uniparental disomy in gastrointestinal cancers.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(3):513-524 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Somatically acquired uniparental disomies (aUPDs) are frequent events in solid tumors and have been associated with cancer-related genes. Studies assessing their functional consequences across several cancer types are therefore necessary. Here, we aimed at integrating aUPD profiles with the mutational status of cancer-related genes in a tumor-type specific manner. Using TCGA datasets for 1,032 gastrointestinal cancers, including colon (COAD), rectum (READ), stomach (STAD), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we show a non-random distribution of aUPD, suggesting the existence of a cancer-specific landscape of aUPD events. Our analysis indicates that aUPD acts as a "second hit" in Knudson's model in order to achieve biallelic inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. In particular, APC, ARID1A and NOTCH1 were recurrently inactivated by the presence of homozygous mutation as a consequence of aUPD in COAD and READ, STAD and ESCC, respectively. Furthermore, while TP53 showed inactivation caused by aUPD at chromosome arm 17p across all tumor types, copy number losses at this genomic position were also frequent. By experimental and computationally inferring genome ploidy, we demonstrate that an increased number of aUPD events, both affecting the whole chromosome or segments of it, were present in highly aneuploid genomes compared to near-diploid tumors. Finally, the presence of mosaic UPD was detected at a higher frequency in DNA extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with colorectal cancer compared to healthy individuals. In summary, our study defines specific profiles of aUPD in gastrointestinal cancers and provides unequivocal evidence of their relevance in cancer.

Vošmik M, Vošmiková H, Sieglová K, et al.
HPV Status and Mutation Analysis Using Multiparallel Sequencing in Distal Oesophageal and Gastro-oesophageal Junction Adenocarcinomas.
Folia Biol (Praha). 2018; 64(2):41-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
The incidence of adenocarcinoma of oesophagus or gastro-oesophageal junction is increasing in Europe and other regions of the Western world. Research of possible causes has shifted to the molecular level. This study evaluated human papillomavirus (HPV) using real-time PCR and mutational status of selected genes using the multiparallel sequencing method (NGS) in DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tumour tissue of 56 patients with oesophageal or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. The genetic material was in sufficient quality for the analysis in 37 cases (66 %). No HPV-positive sample was found. NGS revealed higher frequency of mutations in TP53, ARID1A, PIK3CA, SMAD4, ERBB2, MSH6, BRCA2, and RET genes. Association between gene mutations and histological grade, subtype according to Lauren, or primary tumour site was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the study did not confirm any HPV-positive sample of oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. The study confirmed the usefulness of NGS analysis of paraffin-embedded tissue of these tumours, and it could be used in clinical studies to evaluate the prognostic and/or predictive value of the tested mutations. The association between gene mutations and histological features should be tested in larger patient cohorts.

Williams EA, Miller JJ, Tummala SS, et al.
TERT promoter wild-type glioblastomas show distinct clinical features and frequent PI3K pathway mutations.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2018; 6(1):106 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TERT promoter (TERTp) mutations are found in the majority of World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV adult IDH wild-type glioblastoma (IDH-wt GBM). Here, we characterized the subset of IDH-wt GBMs that do not have TERTp mutations. In a cohort of 121 adult grade IV gliomas, we identified 109 IDH-wt GBMs, after excluding 11 IDH-mutant cases and one H3F3A -mutant case. Within the IDH-wt cases, 16 cases (14.7%) were TERTp wild-type (TERTp-wt). None of the 16 had BRAF V600E or H3F3A G34 hotspot mutations. When compared to TERTp mutants, patients with TERTp-wt GBMs, were significantly younger at first diagnosis (53.2 years vs. 60.7 years, p = 0.0096), and were more frequently found to have cerebellar location (p = 0.0027). Notably, 9 of 16 (56%) of TERTp-wt GBMs contained a PIK3CA or PIK3R1 mutation, while only 16/93 (17%) of TERTp-mutant GBMs harbored these alterations (p = 0.0018). As expected, 8/16 (50%) of TERTp-wt GBMs harbored mutations in the BAF complex gene family (ATRX, SMARCA4, SMARCB1, and ARID1A), compared with only 8/93 (9%) of TERTp-mutant GBMs (p = 0.0003). Mutations in BAF complex and PI3K pathway genes co-occurred more frequently in TERTp-wt GBMs (p = 0.0002), an association that has been observed in other cancers, suggesting a functional interaction indicative of a distinct pathway of gliomagenesis. Overall, our finding highlights heterogeneity within WHO-defined IDH wild-type GBMs and enrichment of the TERTp-wt subset for BAF/PI3K-altered tumors, potentially comprising a distinct clinical subtype of gliomas.

Wang SC, Nassour I, Xiao S, et al.
SWI/SNF component
Gut. 2019; 68(7):1259-1270 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Wu S, Fatkhutdinov N, Fukumoto T, et al.
SWI/SNF catalytic subunits' switch drives resistance to EZH2 inhibitors in ARID1A-mutated cells.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):4116 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inactivation of the subunits of SWI/SNF complex such as ARID1A is synthetically lethal with inhibition of EZH2 activity. However, mechanisms of de novo resistance to EZH2 inhibitors in cancers with inactivating SWI/SNF mutations are unknown. Here we show that the switch of the SWI/SNF catalytic subunits from SMARCA4 to SMARCA2 drives resistance to EZH2 inhibitors in ARID1A-mutated cells. SMARCA4 loss upregulates anti-apoptotic genes in the EZH2 inhibitor-resistant cells. EZH2 inhibitor-resistant ARID1A-mutated cells are hypersensitive to BCL2 inhibitors such as ABT263. ABT263 is sufficient to overcome resistance to an EZH2 inhibitor. In addition, ABT263 synergizes with an EZH2 inhibitor in vivo in ARID1A-inactivated ovarian tumor mouse models. Together, these data establish that the switch of the SWI/SNF catalytic subunits from SMARCA4 to SMARCA2 underlies the acquired resistance to EZH2 inhibitors. They suggest BCL2 inhibition alone or in combination with EZH2 inhibition represents urgently needed therapeutic strategy for ARID1A-mutated cancers.

Kinali B, Senoglu M, Karadag FK, et al.
Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α and AT-Rich Interactive Domain-Containing Protein 1A Expression in Pituitary Adenomas: Association with Pathological, Clinical, and Radiological Features.
World Neurosurg. 2019; 121:e716-e722 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) plays a major role in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. In hypoxic conditions, HIF is upregulated and has been shown to activate multiple genes required for cells to adapt to hypoxia. AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A (ARID1A), a SWI/SNF (switch/sucrose nonfermentable) chromatin remodeling gene has context-dependent tumor-suppressive and oncogenic roles in cancer. We assessed the correlations between the expression and mutations of HIF1A and ARID1A in histopathologically confirmed pituitary adenomas.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 71 patients who had undergone surgery for pituitary adenoma. Patient demographic, radiological, and histopathological features were correlated with HIF1A and ARID1A expression.
RESULTS: Most cases were HIF1A positive (62%). No significant correlation was found between HIF1A expression and age, gender, tumor size, bone erosion, hemorrhage, or Ki-67 index. An inverse correlation was demonstrated between HIF1A and cavernous sinus invasion (P = 0.035). ARID1A loss was found in 28.2% of pituitary adenomas. No significant correlation was found between ARID1A and any of the assessed variables.
CONCLUSIONS: In our patient cohort, we found that most pituitary adenomas expressed HIF1A. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to assess the presence of ARID1A loss in pituitary adenomas, which occurred in 28.2% of cases. No individual demographic, imaging, or histopathological feature was predictive of ARID1A. Likewise, with the exception of an increased incidence of cavernous sinus invasion, no correlation was found with HIF1A. Given the prognostic value of these markers in other malignancies, their frequency in pituitary adenomas warrants further exploration of their potential role in pituitary adenoma treatment and outcome.

Markowska A, Szarszewska M, Żurawski J, et al.
Studies on selected molecular factors in endometrial cancers.
Adv Clin Exp Med. 2018; 27(10):1417-1424 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Endometrial carcinomas (EC) differ in etiology, clinical course and prognosis.
OBJECTIVES: This multi-center study aimed at a closer recognition of molecular factors linked to heterogeneity of EC by evaluating estrogen and progesterone receptors, proteins dependent on MMR genes, proteins linked to poor prognosis and metastases, and mutations in BRCA1.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using sections of paraffin-embedded preparations, in 115 patients with EC type I and 31 with EC type II, expression of ERα, ERβ1, PR, MLH1, and MSH2 proteins, as well as ARID1A, c-MET and BRCA1, was estimated by immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies.
RESULTS: Expression of ERβ1 was augmented in EC type II, in poorly differentiated cancers and with growing clinical advancement. An augmented expression of ERα was noted in well-differentiated EC and at lower clinical stage. An increased expression of PR and decreased of MLH1 were detected in type I EC. The expression of ARID1A and c-MET proteins showed no differences between the types of EC, stages of clinical advancement or grading. In 51.6% patients with type II EC, a loss of BRCA1 expression was disclosed; in this group of cancers a decreased expression of ERα was noted.
CONCLUSIONS: An augmented expression of ERβ1 was linked to type II EC. A higher expression of ERα in EC cancers was associated with a lower histopathological grade. A decreased expression of MLH1 protein was estimated in EC type I. Type II EC may be connected to BRCA1 mutation.

Harahap WA, Sudji IR, Nindrea RD
BRCA1 Promoter Methylation and Clinicopathological Characteristics in Sporadic Breast Cancer Patients in Indonesia
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(9):2643-2649 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the BRCA1 promoter methylation and clinicopathological characteristics in sporadic breast cancer patients in Indonesia. Methods: In this cohort study, we selected 90 patients with stage I-III who had definitive surgery at our institution in 2011-2014. Demographic and clinical data regarding pathological stage, breast cancer treatment, outcome etc. were collected from the medical records. Twelve patients had incomplete information on follow up and 18 samples had insufficient tissues for the experiment. Sixty patients with adequate cancer tissues and complete follow up record were analyzed, only 56 patients were analyzed because 4 samples mRNA expression could not be detected. The Mann–Whitney U tests for non-normally distributed groups were used to compare the levels expression of BRCA1 mRNA between methylated and non-methylated samples. Chi-square tests were used to compare methylation status, BRCA1 mRNA expression and clinicopathological characteristics. P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant correlation. Data analysis was held by using the GraphPad PRISM 7 (GraphPad Software Inc., USA). Results: DNA and RNA were isolated from primary tumor tissues of 56 breast cancer patients. BRCA1 promoter methylation was detected in 48 of 56 patients (85%). Level of BRCA1 mRNA expression was associated with decreased methylation level in the BRCA1 promoter regions suggesting the role of epigenetic silencing. However, there was no statistically significant association among methylation levels, BRCA1 mRNA transcript level with clinicopathological factors. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating methylation status and level of BRCA1 mRNA transcripts among breast cancer patients in Indonesia. We found that the prevalence of BRCA1 promoter methylation is higher than other studies from different populations. However, further investigation involving larger number of patients is required.

Bilgiç F, Gerçeker E, Boyacıoğlu SÖ, et al.
Potential role of chromatin remodeling factor genes in atrophic gastritis/gastric cancer risk.
Turk J Gastroenterol. 2018; 29(4):427-435 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), and Helicobacter pylori (HP) are the risk factors for the development of gastric cancer (GC). Chromatin remodeling is one of the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the carcinogenesis of GC. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression profiles of defined chromatin remodeling genes in gastric mucosal samples and their values as gastric carcinogenesis biomarkers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 95 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into 3 groups as: GC group (n=34), AG group (n=36), and control group (n=25). AG group was further divided into subgroups based on the presence of HP and IM in gastric mucosa. Chromatin remodeling gene expressions were analyzed using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) array in all groups. Data were evaluated using the RT-qPCR primer assay data analysis software.
RESULTS: EED, CBX3, and MTA1 were more overexpressed, whereas ARID1A, ING5, and CBX7 were more underexpressed in the AG and GC groups compared with the controls. No significant differences were observed between the AG and GC groups concerning the expression of these 6 genes, although the fold change levels of these genes in the GC group were well above than in the AG group. EED, CBX3, and MTA1 were significantly more overexpressed in HP- and IM-positive AG subgroup compared with the HP- or IM-negative AG subgroup.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our results provide an evidence of epigenetic alterations in AG. Expressions of EED, CBX3, MTA1, ARID1A, ING5, and CBX7 may be considered as promising markers to be used in GC screening for patients with AG.

Velcheti V, Schrump D, Saunthararajah Y
Ultimate Precision: Targeting Cancer but Not Normal Self-replication.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2018; 38:950-963 [PubMed] Related Publications
Self-replication is the engine that drives all biologic evolution, including neoplastic evolution. A key oncotherapy challenge is to target this, the heart of malignancy, while sparing the normal self-replication mandatory for health and life. Self-replication can be demystified: it is activation of replication, the most ancient of cell programs, uncoupled from activation of lineage-differentiation, metazoan programs more recent in origin. The uncoupling can be physiologic, as in normal tissue stem cells, or pathologic, as in cancer. Neoplastic evolution selects to disengage replication from forward-differentiation where intrinsic replication rates are the highest, in committed progenitors that have division times measured in hours versus weeks for tissue stem cells, via partial loss of function in master transcription factors that activate terminal-differentiation programs (e.g., GATA4) or in the coactivators they use for this purpose (e.g., ARID1A). These loss-of-function mutations bias master transcription factor circuits, which normally regulate corepressor versus coactivator recruitment, toward corepressors (e.g., DNMT1) that repress rather than activate terminal-differentiation genes. Pharmacologic inhibition of the corepressors rebalances to coactivator function, activating lineage-differentiation genes that dominantly antagonize MYC (the master transcription factor coordinator of replication) to terminate malignant self-replication. Physiologic self-replication continues, because the master transcription factors in tissue stem cells activate stem cell, not terminal-differentiation, programs. Druggable corepressor proteins are thus the barriers between self-replicating cancer cells and the terminal-differentiation fates intended by their master transcription factor content. This final common pathway to oncogenic self-replication, being separate and distinct from the normal, offers the favorable therapeutic indices needed for clinical progress.

Odero-Marah V, Hawsawi O, Henderson V, Sweeney J
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and Prostate Cancer.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018; 1095:101-110 [PubMed] Related Publications
Typically the normal epithelial cells are a single layer, held tightly by adherent proteins that prevent the mobilization of the cells from the monolayer sheet. During prostate cancer progression, the epithelial cells can undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition or EMT, characterized by morphological changes in their phenotype from cuboidal to spindle-shaped. This is associated with biochemical changes in which epithelial cell markers such as E-cadherin and occludins are down-regulated, which leads to loss of cell-cell adhesion, while mesenchymal markers such as vimentin and N-cadherin are up-regulated, thereby allowing the cells to migrate or metastasize to different organs. The EMT transition can be regulated directly and indirectly by multiple molecular mechanisms including growth factors and cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and signaling pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K). This signaling subsequently induces expression of various transcription factors like Snail, Twist, Zeb1/2, that are also known as master regulators of EMT. Various markers associated with EMT have been reported in prostate cancer patient tissue as well as a possible association with health disparities. There has been consideration to therapeutically target EMT in prostate cancer patients by targeting the EMT signaling pathways.

Coudray N, Ocampo PS, Sakellaropoulos T, et al.
Classification and mutation prediction from non-small cell lung cancer histopathology images using deep learning.
Nat Med. 2018; 24(10):1559-1567 [PubMed] Related Publications
Visual inspection of histopathology slides is one of the main methods used by pathologists to assess the stage, type and subtype of lung tumors. Adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) are the most prevalent subtypes of lung cancer, and their distinction requires visual inspection by an experienced pathologist. In this study, we trained a deep convolutional neural network (inception v3) on whole-slide images obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas to accurately and automatically classify them into LUAD, LUSC or normal lung tissue. The performance of our method is comparable to that of pathologists, with an average area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97. Our model was validated on independent datasets of frozen tissues, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and biopsies. Furthermore, we trained the network to predict the ten most commonly mutated genes in LUAD. We found that six of them-STK11, EGFR, FAT1, SETBP1, KRAS and TP53-can be predicted from pathology images, with AUCs from 0.733 to 0.856 as measured on a held-out population. These findings suggest that deep-learning models can assist pathologists in the detection of cancer subtype or gene mutations. Our approach can be applied to any cancer type, and the code is available at .

Oda K, Hamanishi J, Matsuo K, Hasegawa K
Genomics to immunotherapy of ovarian clear cell carcinoma: Unique opportunities for management.
Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 151(2):381-389 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is distinctive from other histological types of epithelial ovarian cancer, with genetic/epigenetic alterations, a specific immune-related molecular profile, and epidemiologic associations with ethnicity and endometriosis. These findings allow for the exploration of unique and specific treatments for OCCC. Two major mutated genes in OCCC are PIK3CA and ARID1A, which are frequently coexistent with each other. Other genes' alterations also contribute to activation of the PI3K (e.g. PIK3R1 and PTEN) and dysregulation of the chromatin remodeling complex (e.g. ARID1B, and SMARKA4). Although the number of focal copy number variations is small in OCCC, amplification is recurrently detected at chromosome 20q13.2 (including ZNF217), 8q, and 17q. Both expression and methylation profiling highlight the significance of adjustments to oxidative stress and inflammation. In particular, up-regulation of HNF-1β resulting from hypomethylation contributes to the switch from anaerobic to aerobic glucose metabolism. Additionally, up-regulation of HNF-1β activates STAT3 and NF-κB signaling, and leads to immune suppression via production of IL-6 and IL-8. Immune suppression may also be induced by the increased expression of PD-1, Tim-3 and LAG3. Mismatch repair deficient (microsatellite instable) tumors as found in Lynch syndrome also induce immune suppression in some OCCC. In a recent phase II clinical trial in heavily-treated platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, two out of twenty cases with a complete response to the anti-PD-1 antibody, nivolumab, were OCCC subtypes. Thus, the immune-suppressive state resulting from both genetic alterations and the unique tumor microenvironment may be associated with sensitivity to immune checkpoint inhibitors in OCCC. In this review, we highlight recent update and progress in OCCC from both the genomic and immunologic points of view, addressing the future candidate therapeutic options.

Garczyk S, Schneider U, Lurje I, et al.
ARID1A-deficiency in urothelial bladder cancer: No predictive biomarker for EZH2-inhibitor treatment response?
PLoS One. 2018; 13(8):e0202965 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bladder cancer therapy relies on aggressive treatments highlighting the need for new, targeted therapies with reduced side effects. SWI/SNF complexes are mutated in ~20% across human cancers and dependency of SWI/SNF-deficient tumors on EZH2 has been uncovered recently. To systematically dissect the frequency of genetic alterations in SWI/SNF complexes potentially contributing to their inactivation, mutations and copy number variations in 25 SWI/SNF subunit genes were analyzed making use of publicly available sequencing data for 408 muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma samples. ARID1A truncating mutations were identified as the by far most common alterations of SWI/SNF complexes in urothelial bladder cancer. As current ARID1A protein expression data in bladder cancer are inconsistent and incomplete we examined if the frequency of truncating ARID1A mutations translates into a similar frequency of cases showing ARID1A protein loss. We applied a validated ARID1A antibody conducting a comprehensive immunohistochemistry-based expression analysis in urothelial bladder cancer (n = 362) including carcinoma in situ (CIS) cases. While observing increased median ARID1A protein levels in all carcinoma subgroups compared to normal urothelial controls (n = 21), the percentage of cases showing ARID1A protein loss was positively correlated with increasing stage and grade culminating in a rate of 14.1% in muscle-invasive disease. ARID1A-depletion did neither increase EZH2 protein or trimethylated H3K27 levels in vitro nor did ARID1A expression correlate with EZH2 or H3K27me3 amounts in human bladder carcinomas. Importantly, ARID1A-deficiency was neither associated with enhanced sensitivity towards inhibition of EZH2 enzymatic activity nor depletion of EZH2 protein. In summary, ARID1A truncating mutations, potentially translating into ARID1A protein loss in a subset of high-grade bladder cancers, are the most common SWI/SNF genetic alterations in bladder cancer. Our data do not support ARID1A-deficiency as predictive biomarker for EZH2-inhibitor treatment response in bladder cancer underlining the need for future bladder cancer-specific, drug screens for successfull discovery of ARID1A-deficiency-based targeted drugs.

Zhang Y, Li C, Xue W, et al.
Frequent Mutations in Natural Killer/T Cell Lymphoma.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 49(1):1-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL-NT or NKTCL), with its aggressive nature and poor prognosis, has been widely studied to discover more effective treatment options. Various somatic gene alterations have been identified by traditional Sanger sequencing. However, recently, novel gene mutations in NKTCL have been revealed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, suggesting the potential for novel targeted therapies. This review discusses recurrent aberrations in NKTCL detected by NGS, which can be categorized into three main groups, specifically, tumor suppressors (TP53, DDX3X, and MGA), the JAK/STAT cascade, and epigenetic modifiers (KMT2D, BCOR, ARID1A, and EP300). Some epigenetic dysregulation and DDX3X mutation, which have been rarely identified by traditional sequencing technology, were recently uncovered with high frequencies by NGS. In this review, we summarize the mutational frequencies of various genes in NKTCL. In general, based on our analysis, BCOR is the most frequently mutated gene (16.9%), followed by TP53 (14.7%), and DDX3X (13.6%). The characterization of such genes provides new insight into the pathogenesis of this disease and indicates new biomarkers or therapeutic targets.

Yen TT, Miyamoto T, Asaka S, et al.
Loss of ARID1A expression in endometrial samplings is associated with the risk of endometrial carcinoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 150(3):426-431 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Inactivating somatic mutations of ARID1A, a chromatin remodeling gene, are common in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC) but rare in complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH). Our objectives were to determine the clinical significance of ARID1A loss during tumor progression from CAH to EEC and to assess its role as a predictive cancer biomarker.
METHODS: In cohort A, ARID1A immunoreactivity was evaluated in endometrial sampling (biopsy/curettage) specimens showing CAH to determine whether ARID1A expression correlates with the presence of EEC at subsequent hysterectomy. In cohort B, ARID1A immunoreactivity was evaluated in the hysterectomy specimens with concurrent CAH and EEC to assess for the concordance of ARID1A expression in both components.
RESULTS: In cohort A, loss of ARID1A immunoreactivity was identified in the endometrial sampling specimen of 31% of patients undergoing hysterectomy for a preoperative diagnosis of CAH. EEC was identified in the hysterectomy specimen of 94% of patients with loss of ARID1A in the endometrial sampling specimen while only 15% of patients with retained ARID1A expression (P < 0.0001). No association was observed between ARID1A expression and demographic characteristics. In cohort B, 14 (31%) of 45 patients with concurrent CAH/EEC in their hysterectomy specimens had complete loss of ARID1A expression in the EEC components. Among these 14 patients, 50% also had loss of ARID1A immunoreactivity in the CAH component.
CONCLUSIONS: ARID1A immunostaining may correlate with malignant transformation and the presence of concurrent EEC in patients with CAH identified at pre-hysterectomy endometrial sampling. Further investigation to determine the potential utility of ARID1A expression as a tissue biomarker is warranted.

Muller AWJ
Aging is an adaptation that selects in animals against disruption of homeostasis.
Med Hypotheses. 2018; 119:68-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
During evolution, Muller's ratchet permanently generates deleterious germline mutations that eventually must be defused by selection. It seems widely held that cancer and aging-related diseases (ARDs) cannot contribute to this germline gene selection because they tail reproduction and thus occur too late, at the end of the life cycle. Here we posit however that by lessening the offspring's survival by proxy through diminishing parental care, they can still contribute to the selection. The hypothesis in detail: The widespread occurrence of aging in animals suggests that it is an adaptation. But to what benefit? Aging seems to have only drawbacks. In humans, ARDs cause today almost all mortality; they include heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, kidney disease and cancer. Compensation seems unthinkable. For cancer, the author proposed in a previous study a benefit to the species: purifying selection against deleterious germline genes that when expressed enhance intracellular energy dissipation. This multicausal energy dissipation, posited as the universal origin of cancer initiation, relates to cellular heat generation, disrupted metabolism, and inflammation. The organism reproduces during cancer's dormancy, and when approaching its end of life, the onset of cancer is accelerated in proportion to the cancer-initiating signal. Through cancer, the organism, now a parent, implements the self-actuated programmed death of Skulachev's phenoptosis. This "first death" enhances by proxy the offspring's chance of "second death" (or "double death") through diminished parental care. Repetition over generations realizes a purifying selection against genes causing energy dissipation. The removal of the deleterious germline gene mutations permanently generated by Muller's ratchet gives a benefit. We generalize, motivated by the parallels between cancer and aging, the purifying selection posited for cancer to aging. An ARD would be initiated in the organ by multicausal disruption of homeostasis, and be followed by dormancy and senescence until its onset near the end of the life cycle. Just as for cancer, the ARD eventually enhances double death, and the realized permanent selection gives a benefit to the species through the selection against germ line genes that disrupt homeostasis. Given their similarities, cancer and aging are combined in the posited Unified Cancer-Aging Adaptation (UCAA) model, which may be confirmed by next-generation sequencing data. Also because of the emerging important role of cellular senescence, the hypothesis may guide the development of therapies against both cancer and aging.

Wu C, Lyu J, Yang EJ, et al.
Targeting AURKA-CDC25C axis to induce synthetic lethality in ARID1A-deficient colorectal cancer cells.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):3212 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ARID1A, a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, is a tumor suppressor with a high frequency of inactivating mutations in many cancers. Therefore, ARID1A deficiency has been exploited therapeutically for treating cancer. Here we show that ARID1A has a synthetic lethal interaction with aurora kinase A (AURKA) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Pharmacological and genetic perturbations of AURKA selectively inhibit the growth of ARID1A-deficient CRC cells. Mechanistically, ARID1A occupies the AURKA gene promoter and negatively regulates its transcription. Cells lacking ARID1A show enhanced AURKA transcription, which leads to the persistent activation of CDC25C, a key protein for G2/M transition and mitotic entry. Inhibiting AURKA activity in ARID1A-deficient cells significantly increases G2/M arrest and induces cellular multinucleation and apoptosis. This study shows a novel synthetic lethality interaction between ARID1A and AURKA and indicates that pharmacologically inhibiting the AURKA-CDC25C axis represents a novel strategy for treating CRC with ARID1A loss-of-function mutations.

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