Gene Summary

Gene:BNIP3; BCL2 interacting protein 3
Aliases: NIP3
Summary:This gene is encodes a mitochondrial protein that contains a BH3 domain and acts as a pro-apoptotic factor. The encoded protein interacts with anti-apoptotic proteins, including the E1B 19 kDa protein and Bcl2. This gene is silenced in tumors by DNA methylation. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (43)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cell Survival
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Cell Death
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Apoptosis
  • RNA Interference
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Epigenetics
  • Drug Resistance
  • Staging
  • Down-Regulation
  • siRNA
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Mitochondria
  • Vorinostat
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins
  • Gene Silencing
  • Disease Progression
  • Breast Cancer
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Autophagy
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • DNA Methylation
  • Promoter Regions
  • Signal Transduction
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • HIF1A
  • BNIP3
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Transcription Factors
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cell Hypoxia
  • Chromosome 10
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BNIP3 (cancer-related)

Campbell EJ, Dachs GU, Morrin HR, et al.
Activation of the hypoxia pathway in breast cancer tissue and patient survival are inversely associated with tumor ascorbate levels.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):307 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) -1 drives tumor growth and metastasis and is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Ascorbate can moderate HIF-1 activity in vitro and is associated with HIF pathway activation in a number of cancer types, but whether tissue ascorbate levels influence the HIF pathway in breast cancer is unknown. In this study we investigated the association between tumor ascorbate levels and HIF-1 activation and patient survival in human breast cancer.
METHODS: In a retrospective analysis of human breast cancer tissue, we analysed primary tumor and adjacent uninvolved tissue from 52 women with invasive ductal carcinoma. We measured HIF-1α, HIF-1 gene targets CAIX, BNIP-3 and VEGF, and ascorbate content. Patient clinical outcomes were evaluated against these parameters.
RESULTS: HIF-1 pathway proteins were upregulated in tumor tissue and increased HIF-1 activation was associated with higher tumor grade and stage, with increased vascular invasion and necrosis, and with decreased disease-free and disease-specific survival. Grade 1 tumors had higher ascorbate levels than did grade 2 or 3 tumors. Higher ascorbate levels were associated with less tumor necrosis, with lower HIF-1 pathway activity and with increased disease-free and disease-specific survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that there is a direct correlation between intracellular ascorbate levels, activation of the HIF-1 pathway and patient survival in breast cancer. This is consistent with the known capacity of ascorbate to stimulate the activity of the regulatory HIF hydroxylases and suggests that optimisation of tumor ascorbate could have clinical benefit via modulation of the hypoxic response.

Niu Y, Lin Z, Wan A, et al.
RNA N6-methyladenosine demethylase FTO promotes breast tumor progression through inhibiting BNIP3.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification is the most pervasive modification in mRNA, and has been considered as a new layer of epigenetic regulation on mRNA processing, stability and translation. Despite its functional significance in various physiological processes, the role of the m6A modification involved in breast cancer is yet fully understood.
METHODS: We used the m6A-RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing to identify the potential targets in breast cancer. To determine the underlying mechanism for the axis of FTO-BNIP3, we performed a series of in vitro and in vivo assays in 3 breast cancer cell lines and 36 primary breast tumor tissues and 12 adjunct tissues.
RESULTS: We showed that FTO, a key m6A demethylase, was up-regulated in human breast cancer. High level of FTO was significantly associated with lower survival rates in patients with breast cancer. FTO promoted breast cancer cell proliferation, colony formation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. We identified BNIP3, a pro-apoptosis gene, as a downstream target of FTO-mediated m6A modification. Epigenetically, FTO mediated m6A demethylation in the 3'UTR of BNIP3 mRNA and induced its degradation via an YTHDF2 independent mechanism. BNIP3 acts as a tumor suppressor and is negatively correlated with FTO expression in clinical breast cancer patients. BNIP3 dramatically alleviated FTO-dependent tumor growth retardation and metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the functional significance of the m6A modification in breast cancer, and suggest that FTO may serve as a novel potential therapeutic target for breast cancer.

Alvarez MC, Maso V, Torello CO, et al.
The polyphenol quercetin induces cell death in leukemia by targeting epigenetic regulators of pro-apoptotic genes.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10(1):139 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the pro-apoptotic effects of quercetin (Qu) by evaluating the effect of Qu treatment on DNA methylation and posttranslational histone modifications of genes related to the apoptosis pathway. This study was performed in vivo in two human xenograft acute myeloid leukemia (AML) models and in vitro using HL60 and U937 cell lines.
RESULTS: Qu treatment almost eliminates DNMT1 and DNMT3a expression, and this regulation was in part STAT-3 dependent. The treatment also downregulated class I HDACs. Furthermore, treatment of the cell lines with the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, together with Qu prevented degradation of class I HDACs compared to cells treated with Qu alone, indicating increased proteasome degradation of class I HDACS by Qu. Qu induced demethylation of the pro-apoptotic BCL2L11, DAPK1 genes, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, Qu (50 μmol/L) treatment of cell lines for 48 h caused accumulation of acetylated histone 3 and histone 4, resulting in three- to ten fold increases in the promoter region of DAPK1, BCL2L11, BAX, APAF1, BNIP3, and BNIP3L. In addition, Qu treatment significantly increased the mRNA levels of all these genes, when compared to cells treated with vehicle only (control cells) (*p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our results showed that enhanced apoptosis, induced by Qu, might be caused in part by its DNA demethylating activity, by HDAC inhibition, and by the enrichment of H3ac and H4ac in the promoter regions of genes involved in the apoptosis pathway, leading to their transcription activation.

Shao Y, Liu Z, Liu J, et al.
Expression and epigenetic regulatory mechanism of BNIP3 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(1):348-360 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The majority of clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) are caused by an accumulation of hypoxia‑inducible factor (HIF) and the overexpression of downstream genes in response to the von Hippel‑Lindau (VHL) gene becoming inactivated. In the present study, our hypothesis was that BNIP3, a gene positioned downstream of HIF, would be expressed at a higher level in ccRCC; however, instead, lower levels of BNIP3 expression were identified in RCC tumor tissues compared with adjacent non‑tumor tissues. These changes were associated with lower levels of VHL, and higher levels of HIF and vascular endothelial growth factor. BNIP3 was also undetectable in three investigated RCC cell lines (786‑O, ACHN, A498) and GRC‑1‑1 cells. Methylation of the BNIP3 promoter was not detected, and neither did treatment with a methylation inhibitor cause cell proliferation. However, treatment with a histone deacetylation inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), inhibited cultured RCC cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis and restored BNIP3 expression. Furthermore, histone deacetylation of the BNIP3 promoter was identified in ACHN and 786‑O cells, and the acetylation status was restored following TSA treatment. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that histone deacetylation, but not methylation, is most likely to cause BNIP3 inactivation in RCC. The data also indicated that restoration of BNIP3 expression by a histone deacetylation inhibitor led to growth inhibition and apoptotic promotion in RCC.

Singh A, Azad M, Shymko MD, et al.
The BH3 only Bcl-2 family member BNIP3 regulates cellular proliferation.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(10):e0204792 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The BH3-only family member BNIP3 has been described as either promoting cell survival or cell death. This depends upon the level of BNIP3 expression and its cellular localization. Increased BNIP3 expression under hypoxia contributes to cell death through increased mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, mice lacking BNIP3 show inhibition of ischemic cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In contrast, nuclear localization of BNIP3 contributes to blockage of apoptosis in glioma cells through repression of pro-apoptotic genes. We have discovered that mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking BNIP3 expression show increased proliferation and cell number compared to wild-type cells. Furthermore, the cells lacking BNIP3 showed increased MAPK activation. Increased proliferation was not due to decreased cell death as oxidative stress induced cell death in BNIP3 null MEFs. In addition, we isolated astrocytes from wild-type or embryonic mice lacking expression of BNIP3. There was increased density and cell number in the astrocytes lacking BNIP3 expression. To confirm these results in human cells, we inducibly expressed BNIP3 in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and found that induced BNIP3 reduced cell proliferation and failed to change background cell death levels. Transient over-expression of BNIP3 in the nucleus of HEK293 cells also reduced DNA synthesis. Finally, to determine whether this increased proliferation occurs in mice lacking BNIP3, we isolated brains from wild-type mice or those lacking BNIP3 expression. The mice lacking BNIP3 had increased cellularity in the brain of embryonic and adult mice. Taken together, our study describes a new function for BNIP3 in the regulation of cellular proliferation.

Yang X, Yin H, Zhang Y, et al.
Hypoxia-induced autophagy promotes gemcitabine resistance in human bladder cancer cells through hypoxia-inducible factor 1α activation.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(1):215-224 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overcoming the chemoresistance of bladder cancer is a pivotal obstacle in clinical treatments. Hypoxia widely exists in solid tumors and has been demonstrated to contribute to chemoresistance through hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF‑1α)-mediated autophagy in several types of cancer. However, it is unclear whether HIF‑1α-mediated autophagy and chemoresistance occur in bladder cancer. The present study demonstrated that HIF‑1α was overexpressed in 20 bladder cancer tissues compared with matched paracarcinoma tissues. Gemcitabine-induced apoptosis during hypoxia was significantly reduced compared with that observed under normoxic conditions. In addition, hypoxia activated autophagy and enhanced gemcitabine-induced autophagy. Combined treatment using gemcitabine and an autophagy inhibitor (3-methyladenine) under hypoxia significantly increased gemcitabine cytotoxicity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that hypoxia-activated autophagy depended on the HIF‑1α/BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3)/Beclin1 signaling pathway. Suppressing HIF‑1α inhibited autophagy, BNIP3 and Beclin1, as well as enhanced gemcitabine-induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells under hypoxic conditions. Consequently, the results of the present study demonstrated that hypoxia-induced cytoprotective autophagy counteracted gemcitabine-induced apoptosis through increasing HIF‑1α expression. Therefore, targeting HIF‑1α-associated pathways or autophagy in bladder cancer may be a successful strategy to enhance the sensitivity of bladder cancer chemotherapy.

Filippi I, Saltarella I, Aldinucci C, et al.
Different Adaptive Responses to Hypoxia in Normal and Multiple Myeloma Endothelial Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 46(1):203-212 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hypoxia is a powerful stimulator of angiogenesis under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Normal endothelial cells (EC), such as human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC), are relatively affected by hypoxic insult in terms of cell survival. In contrast, EC from tumors are particularly resistant to hypoxia-induced cell death. Previous reports have shown that EC in bone marrow from multiple myeloma (MM) patients had a hypoxic phenotype, even under normoxic conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether HUVEC and MMEC adapt differently to hypoxia.
METHODS: Cell proliferation was assessed by the CyQUANT assay. Cdc25A, p21, Bax, Bcl-xl, BNIP3, glucose transporter (GLUT)-1, monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-4 and carbonic anhydrase (CA)IX mRNA expression was determined by qRT-PCR. HIF-1α, BNIP3, Beclin-1, LC3B, livin, Bax, Bcl-xl, p21, p62 and β-actin protein expression was analyzed by western blot. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay. Silencing of BNIP3 was achieved by stealth RNA system technology.
RESULTS: While HUVEC survival was reduced after prolonged hypoxic exposure, MMEC were completely unaffected. This difference was also significant in terms of livin, cdc25A and p21 expression. Hypoxia induced apoptosis and inhibited autophagy in HUVEC, but not in MMEC, where hypoxic treatment resulted in a more sustained adaptive response. In fact, MMEC showed a more significant increase in the expression of genes regulated transcriptionally by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Interestingly, they showed higher expression of BNIP3 than did HUVEC, indicating a more pronounced autophagic (and pro-survival) phenotype. The potential role of BNIP3 in EC survival was confirmed by BNIP3 siRNA experiments in HUVEC, where BNIP3 inhibition resulted in reduced cell survival and increased apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: These findings provide further information on how hypoxia may affect EC survival and could be important for a better understanding of EC physiology under normal and pathological conditions, such as in multiple myeloma.

He M, Li K, Yu C, et al.
In vitro study of FUZ as a novel potential therapeutic target in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Life Sci. 2018; 197:91-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
FUZ is regarded as a planar cell polarity effector that controls multiple cellular processes during vertebrate development. However, the role of FUZ in tumor biology remains poorly studied. Our purpose of this study is to discover the physiological effects and mechanism of FUZ in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in vitro. With the help of bioinformatics analysis, we noticed that the expression level of FUZ negatively correlates with prognosis of NSCLC patients. Exogenous FUZ expression markedly promoted cell proliferation of NSCLC cells. The phosphorylation of Erk1/2, STAT3 and related signaling molecules were induced activated after FUZ over-expression. FUZ also plays an important role in cell motility by regulating cell signaling pathways and inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). FUZ promotes EMT along with the up-regulation of N-cadherin, vimentin, Zeb1, Twist1 and decreased level of E-cadherin. Furthermore, we also carried out FUZ directed siRNA treatments to prove the above observations. Knockdown of FUZ resulted in delayed cell growth as well as impaired cell migration and reversed EMT phonotype. Importantly, we reported for the first time that FUZ is a BNIP3-interacting protein. Loss of FUZ resulted in decreased BNIP3 protein level, but no influence on BNIP3 mRNA level, suggesting weakened stability of BNIP3 protein. Overall, our results in vitro show that FUZ is responsible for NSCLC progression and metastasis, suggesting that FUZ can be a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC.

Koukourakis MI, Kakouratos C, Kalamida D, et al.
Comparison of the effect of the antiandrogen apalutamide (ARN-509) versus bicalutamide on the androgen receptor pathway in prostate cancer cell lines.
Anticancer Drugs. 2018; 29(4):323-333 [PubMed] Related Publications
Apalutamide (ARN-509) is an antiandrogen that binds selectively to androgen receptors (AR) and does not show antagonist-to-agonist switch like bicalutamide. We compared the activity of ARN versus bicalutamide on prostate cancer cell lines. The 22Rv1, PC3, and DU145 cell lines were used to study the effect of ARN and bicalutamide on the expression cytoplasmic/nuclear kinetics of AR, AR-V7 variant, phosphorylated AR, as well as the levels of the AR downstream proteins prostate-specific antigen and TMPRSS2, under exposure to testosterone and/or hypoxia. The effects on autophagic flux (LC3A, p62, TFEB, LAMP2a, cathepsin D) and cell metabolism-related enzymes (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α/2α, BNIP3, carbonic anhydrase 9, LDHA, PDH, PDH-kinase) were also studied. The 22Rv1 cell line responded to testosterone by increasing the nuclear entry of AR, AR-V7, and phosphorylated AR and by increasing the levels of prostate-specific antigen and TMPRSS2. This effect was strongly abrogated by ARN and to a clearly lower extent by bicalutamide at 10 μmol/l, both in normoxia and in hypoxia. ARN had a stronger antiproliferative effect than bicalutamide, which was prominent in the 22Rv1 hormone-responsive cell line, and completely repressed cell proliferation at a concentration of 100 μmol/l. No effect of testosterone or of antiandrogens on autophagy flux, hypoxia-related proteins, or metabolism enzyme levels was noted. The PC3 and DU145 cell lines showed poor expression of the proteins and were not responsive to testosterone. On the basis of in-vitro studies, evidence has been reported that ARN is more potent than bicalutamide in blocking the AR pathway in normoxia and in hypoxia. This reflects a more robust, dose-dependent, repressive effect on cell proliferation.

Almasi S, Kennedy BE, El-Aghil M, et al.
TRPM2 channel-mediated regulation of autophagy maintains mitochondrial function and promotes gastric cancer cell survival via the JNK-signaling pathway.
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(10):3637-3650 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A lack of effective treatment is one of the main factors contributing to gastric cancer-related death. Discovering effective targets and understanding their underlying anti-cancer mechanism are key to achieving the best response to treatment and to limiting side effects. Although recent studies have shown that the cation channel transient receptor potential melastatin-2 (TRPM2) is crucial for cancer cell survival, the exact mechanism remains unclear, limiting its therapeutic potential. Here, using molecular and functional assays, we investigated the role of TRPM2 in survival of gastric cancer cells. Our results indicated that TRPM2 knockdown in AGS and MKN-45 cells decreases cell proliferation and enhances apoptosis. We also observed that the TRPM2 knockdown impairs mitochondrial metabolism, indicated by a decrease in basal and maximal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates and ATP production. These mitochondrial defects coincided with a decrease in autophagy and mitophagy, indicated by reduced levels of autophagy- and mitophagy-associated proteins (

Albano F, Chiurazzi F, Mimmi S, et al.
The expression of inhibitor of bruton's tyrosine kinase gene is progressively up regulated in the clinical course of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia conferring resistance to apoptosis.
Cell Death Dis. 2018; 9(1):13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most common B-cell malignancy with a variable clinical outcome. Biomarkers of CLL progression are required for optimising prognosis and therapy. The Inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase-isoform α (IBTKα) gene encodes a substrate receptor of Cullin 3-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase, and promotes cell survival in response to the reticulum stress. Searching for novel markers of CLL progression, we analysed the expression of IBTKα in the peripheral blood B-cells of CLL patients, before and after first line therapy causing remission. The expression of IBTKα was significantly increased in disease progression, and decreased in remission after chemotherapy. Consistently with a pro-survival action, RNA interference of IBTKα increased the spontaneous and Fludarabine-induced apoptosis of MEC-1 CLL cells, and impaired the cell cycle of DeFew B-lymphoma cells by promoting the arrest in G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. Consistently, RNA interference of IBTKα up regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic genes, including TNF, CRADD, CASP7, BNIP3 and BIRC3. Our results indicate that IBTKα is a novel marker of CLL progression promoting cell growth and resistance to apoptosis. In this view, IBTKα may represent an attractive cancer drug target for counteracting the therapy-resistance of tumour cells.

Schulten HJ, Bangash M, Karim S, et al.
Comprehensive molecular biomarker identification in breast cancer brain metastases.
J Transl Med. 2017; 15(1):269 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) develop in about 20-30% of breast cancer (BC) patients. BCBM are associated with dismal prognosis not at least due to lack of valuable molecular therapeutic targets. The aim of the study was to identify new molecular biomarkers and targets in BCBM by using complementary state-of-the-art techniques.
METHODS: We compared array expression profiles of three BCBM with 16 non-brain metastatic BC and 16 primary brain tumors (prBT) using a false discovery rate (FDR) p < 0.05 and fold change (FC) > 2. Biofunctional analysis was conducted on the differentially expressed probe sets. High-density arrays were employed to detect copy number variations (CNVs) and whole exome sequencing (WES) with paired-end reads of 150 bp was utilized to detect gene mutations in the three BCBM.
RESULTS: The top 370 probe sets that were differentially expressed between BCBM and both BC and prBT were in the majority comparably overexpressed in BCBM and included, e.g. the coding genes BCL3, BNIP3, BNIP3P1, BRIP1, CASP14, CDC25A, DMBT1, IDH2, E2F1, MYCN, RAD51, RAD54L, and VDR. A number of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) were comparably overexpressed in BCBM and included SNORA1, SNORA2A, SNORA9, SNORA10, SNORA22, SNORA24, SNORA30, SNORA37, SNORA38, SNORA52, SNORA71A, SNORA71B, SNORA71C, SNORD13P2, SNORD15A, SNORD34, SNORD35A, SNORD41, SNORD53, and SCARNA22. The top canonical pathway was entitled, role of BRCA1 in DNA damage response. Network analysis revealed key nodes as Akt, ERK1/2, NFkB, and Ras in a predicted activation stage. Downregulated genes in a data set that was shared between BCBM and prBT comprised, e.g. BC cell line invasion markers JUN, MMP3, TFF1, and HAS2. Important cancer genes affected by CNVs included TP53, BRCA1, BRCA2, ERBB2, IDH1, and IDH2. WES detected numerous mutations, some of which affecting BC associated genes as CDH1, HEPACAM, and LOXHD1.
CONCLUSIONS: Using complementary molecular genetic techniques, this study identified shared and unshared molecular events in three highly aberrant BCBM emphasizing the challenge to detect new molecular biomarkers and targets with translational implications. Among new findings with the capacity to gain clinical relevance is the detection of overexpressed snoRNAs known to regulate some critical cellular functions as ribosome biogenesis.

Xu Q, Junttila S, Scherer A, et al.
Renal carcinoma/kidney progenitor cell chimera organoid as a novel tumorigenesis gene discovery model.
Dis Model Mech. 2017; 10(12):1503-1515 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Three-dimensional (3D) organoids provide a new way to model various diseases, including cancer. We made use of recently developed kidney-organ-primordia tissue-engineering technologies to create novel renal organoids for cancer gene discovery. We then tested whether our novel assays can be used to examine kidney cancer development. First, we identified the transcriptomic profiles of quiescent embryonic mouse metanephric mesenchyme (MM) and of MM in which the nephrogenesis program had been induced

Ma Z, Chen C, Tang P, et al.
BNIP3 induces apoptosis and protective autophagy under hypoxia in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines: BNIP3 regulates cell death.
Dis Esophagus. 2017; 30(9):1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein (BNIP3), a pro-apoptosis protein regulated by the methylation status of its promoter, has been implicated in inducing autophagy. However, the roles of BNIP3 and BNIP3-induced autophagy under hypoxia remain uncertain in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Two esophageal squamous cancer cell lines, CAES17 and KYSE140, were selected on the basis of the expression and methylation status of BNIP3 to investigate the features of BNIP3 under hypoxia. Hypoxia increased cell death and the expression of BNIP3, whose promoter status was lower methylation, in a time-dependent manner. BNIP3 knockdown by RNA interference downregulated cell death. These studies demonstrated that the exposure of ESCC cells to hypoxia increased the autophagic punctate distribution of MDC staining and GFP-LC3 and that autophagy rate could be inhibited by BNIP3-siRNA. In addition, under hypoxia, cells transfected with BNIP3-siRNA exhibited a lower apoptosis rate than the control, and the apoptosis induced by BNIP3 exhibited a caspase-independent manner. Furthermore, the administration of the autophagic inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) could augment BNIP3-induced cell apoptosis and death, suggesting that autophagy plays a protective role under hypoxia. Together, our studies indicated that BNIP3 exerts prodeath effects through the induction of caspase-independent apoptosis under hypoxia in ESCC, though BNIP3-induced autophagy acting as a survival mechanism.

Farhan M, Wang H, Gaur U, et al.
FOXO Signaling Pathways as Therapeutic Targets in Cancer.
Int J Biol Sci. 2017; 13(7):815-827 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Many transcription factors play a key role in cellular differentiation and the delineation of cell phenotype. Transcription factors are regulated by phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation/deacetylation and interactions between two or more proteins controlling multiple signaling pathways. These pathways regulate different physiological processes and pathological events, such as cancer and other diseases. The Forkhead box O (FOXO) is one subfamily of the fork head transcription factor family with important roles in cell fate decisions and this subfamily is also suggested to play a pivotal functional role as a tumor suppressor in a wide range of cancers. During apoptosis, FOXOs are involved in mitochondria-dependent and -independent processes triggering the expression of death receptor ligands like Fas ligand, TNF apoptosis ligand and Bcl‑X

Azizi M, Fard-Esfahani P, Mahmoodzadeh H, et al.
MiR-377 reverses cancerous phenotypes of pancreatic cells via suppressing DNMT1 and demethylating tumor suppressor genes.
Epigenomics. 2017; 9(8):1059-1075 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The aim was to investigate the effect of miR-377 on DNMT1 expression and cancer phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells.
MATERIALS & METHODS: Real-time PCR, luciferase assay, MTT and Annexin-PI staining were used.
RESULTS: Decreased miR-377 and increased DNMT1 (verified as a target for mir-377) levels in pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines in comparison with normal tissues was confirmed to be influenced by promoter methylation. Also hypermethylation of BNIP3, SPARC, TFPI2 and PENK promoters was observed in tumor samples but not in normal tissues which negatively correlated with their expression. Restoration of miR-377 resulted in a reduction of the expression of DNMT1 and reactivation of BNIP3 and SPARC genes via promoter demethylation. Furthermore, enhanced expression of miR-377 could significantly inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that miR-377 through targeting DNMT1 could reduce DNA methylation of some tumor suppressor genes and restore their expression in pancreatic cancer cells.

Liu Y, Jiang Y, Wang N, et al.
Invalidation of mitophagy by FBP1-mediated repression promotes apoptosis in breast cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(6):1010428317708779 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis, was recently shown to be a tumor suppressor. However, the functions of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 in the regulation of mitophagy and apoptosis remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 on mitophagy and apoptosis as well as their underlying mechanisms in breast cancer cells. In this work, the messenger RNA and protein expression of various molecules were determined by quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively. Gene-expression correlations were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas Breast Cancer database and analyzed using cBioPortal. The levels of cellular reactive oxygen species and apoptotic index were detected by flow cytometry. The mitochondrial membrane potentials were assessed with a JC-1 fluorescent sensor. Subcellular structures were observed under a transmission electron microscope. The intracellular distribution of translocase of outer membrane 20 was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Protein-protein interactions were analyzed by immunoprecipitation. Our results indicated that fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 expression was negatively correlated with autophagy level in breast cancer. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 restrained autophagy activity by increasing the level of p62 and decreasing the levels of LC3 and Beclin 1. Additionally, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 promoted cell apoptosis by upregulating the levels of intracellular ROS and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins such as cleaved PARP, cleaved Caspase 3, and Bax and downregulating the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins such as PARP, Caspase 3, and Bcl-2. Finally, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 limited the efficient removal of diseased mitochondria and reduced the messenger RNA and protein expressions of HIF-1α, BNIP3L/NIX, and BNIP3. More importantly, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 facilitated co-action between Bcl-2 and Beclin 1, which may be important in the mechanism of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1-mediated mitophagy inhibition. In summary, loss of mitophagy by fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1-mediated repression promotes apoptosis in breast cancer.

Sambuudash O, Kim HS, Cho MY
Lack of Aberrant Methylation in an Adjacent Area of Left-Sided Colorectal Cancer.
Yonsei Med J. 2017; 58(4):749-755 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: The molecular nature and the rate-limiting step of epigenetic field defects in the evolution of left-sided colorectal cancer (LCA) remain uncertain.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methylation status of 27 candidate field defect markers, six classic CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) markers, and LINE-1 were determined in LCA and adjacent normal mucosas (ADJs) from 33 LCA patients and in left normal colorectal mucosa (LNM) from 33 age- and sex-matched controls. Hotspot mutation analyses in KRAS codons 12 and 13 and BRAF V600E were performed by genomic PCR and pyrosequencing using DNA extracted from endoscopically biopsied tissues.
RESULTS: Among the 27 candidate genes tested, we confirmed 15 differentially methylated genes in cancer (15 DMGs; ER, SFRP1, MYOD1, MGMT, CD8a, SPOCK2, ABHD9, BNIP3, IGFBP3, WIF1, MAL, GDNF, ALX4, DOK5, and SLC16A12) in comparison to ADJ samples. We further compared the methylation status of 15 DMGs of ADJs to LNM and found only methylation levels of SLC16A12 in ADJs of LCA patients to be significantly higher than that in LNM (17.3% vs. 11.5%, p=0.002). Based on the CIMP, no significant differences in methylation levels of the 15 DMGs were found between ADJs in CIMP positive LCA cases and those without CIMP. In mutation analyses, no mutation was found in ADJs, while significant KRAS mutations (6/33, 18%) were noted in LCA samples.
CONCLUSION: Epigenetic field defect marked by aberrant methylation is uncommon in normal-appearing ADJs of LCA, indicating the critical rate-limiting change of methylation is likely to occur with morphological alterations in the evolution of LCA.

Huang HY, Wang WC, Lin PY, et al.
The roles of autophagy and hypoxia in human inflammatory periapical lesions.
Int Endod J. 2018; 51 Suppl 2:e125-e145 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To determine the expressions of hypoxia-related [hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF)-1α, BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) and phospho-adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (pAMPK)] and autophagy-related [microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), beclin-1 (BECN-1), autophagy-related gene (Atg)5-12, and p62] proteins in human inflammatory periapical lesions.
METHODOLOGY: Fifteen samples of radicular cysts (RCs) and 21 periapical granulomas (PGs), combined with 17 healthy dental pulp tissues, were examined. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect interleukin (IL)-1β cytokine; immunohistochemical (IHC) and Western blot (WB) analyses were employed to examine autophagy-related and hypoxia-related proteins. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to explore the ultrastructural morphology of autophagy in periapical lesions. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for statistical analyses.
RESULTS: ELISA revealed a significantly higher (P < 0.001) IL-1β expression in periapical lesions than in normal pulp tissue. Immunoscores of IHC expressions of pAMPK, HIF-1α, BNIP3, BECN-1 and Atg5-12 proteins in periapical lesions were significantly higher (P < 0.001) (except BECN-1) than those in normal pulp tissue. The results of IHC studies were largely compatible with those of WB analyses, where significantly higher (P < 0.05) expressions of hypoxia-related and autophagy-related proteins (except BECN-1, p62 and LC3II in WB analyses) in periapical lesions were noted as compared to normal pulp tissue. Upon TEM, ultrastructural double-membrane autophagosomes and autolysosomes were observed in PGs and RCs.
CONCLUSIONS: Autophagy associated with hypoxia may play a potential causative role in the development and maintenance of inflamed periapical lesions.

Manu KA, Chai TF, Teh JT, et al.
Inhibition of Isoprenylcysteine Carboxylmethyltransferase Induces Cell-Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis through p21 and p21-Regulated BNIP3 Induction in Pancreatic Cancer.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2017; 16(5):914-923 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most difficult to treat human cancers despite recent advances in targeted therapy. Inhibition of isoprenylcysteine carboxylmethyltransferase (ICMT), an enzyme that posttranslationally modifies a group of proteins including several small GTPases, suppresses proliferation of some human cancer cells. However, the efficacy of ICMT inhibition on human pancreatic cancer has not been evaluated. In this study, we have evaluated a panel of human pancreatic cancer cell lines and identified those that are sensitive to ICMT inhibition. In these cells, ICMT suppression inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. This responsiveness to ICMT inhibition was confirmed in

Hata T, Dal Molin M, Hong SM, et al.
Predicting the Grade of Dysplasia of Pancreatic Cystic Neoplasms Using Cyst Fluid DNA Methylation Markers.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(14):3935-3944 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Peng X, Xue H, Lü L, et al.
Accumulated promoter methylation as a potential biomarker for esophageal cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(1):679-691 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We performed a two-stage molecular epidemiological study to explore DNA methylation profiles for potential biomarkers of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a Chinese population. Infinium Methylation 450K BeadChip was used to identify genes with differentially methylated CpG sites. Sixteen candidate genes were validated by sequencing 1160 CpG sites in their promoter regions using the Illumina MiSeq platform. When excluding sites with negative changes, 10 genes (BNIP3, BRCA1, CCND1, CDKN2A, HTATIP2, ITGAV, NFKB1, PIK3R1, PRDM16 and PTX3) showed significantly different methylation levels among cancer lesions, remote normal-appearing tissues, and healthy controls. PRDM16 had the highest diagnostic value with the AUC (95% CI) of 0.988 (0.965-1.000), followed by PIK3R1, with the AUC (95% CI) of 0.969 (0.928-1.000). In addition, the methylation status was higher in patients with advanced cancer stages. These results indicate that aberrant DNA methylation may be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of ESCC.

Chen JL, David J, Cook-Spaeth D, et al.
Autophagy Induction Results in Enhanced Anoikis Resistance in Models of Peritoneal Disease.
Mol Cancer Res. 2017; 15(1):26-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peritoneal carcinomatosis and peritoneal sarcomatosis is a potential complication of nearly all solid tumors and results in profoundly increased morbidity and mortality. Despite the ubiquity of peritoneal carcinomatosis/peritoneal sarcomatosis, there are no clinically relevant targeted therapies for either its treatment or prevention. To identify potential therapies, we developed in vitro models of peritoneal carcinomatosis/peritoneal sarcomatosis using tumor cell lines and patient-derived spheroids (PDS) that recapitulate anoikis resistance and spheroid proliferation across multiple cancer types. Epithelial- and mesenchymal-derived cancer cell lines (YOU, PANC1, HEYA8, CHLA10, and TC71) were used to generate spheroids and establish growth characteristics. Differential gene expression analyses of these spheroids to matched adherent cells revealed a consensus spheroid signature. This spheroid signature discriminates primary tumor specimens from tumor cells found in ascites of ovarian cancer patients and in our PDS models. Key in this gene expression signature is BNIP3 and BNIP3L, known regulators of autophagy and apoptosis. Elevated BNIP3 mRNA expression is associated with poor survival in ovarian cancer patients and elevated BNIP3 protein, as measured by IHC, and is also associated with higher grade tumors and shorter survival. Pharmacologic induction of autophagy with rapamycin significantly increased spheroid formation and survival while decreasing the induction of apoptosis. In contrast, the autophagy inhibitor hydroxychloroquine abrogated spheroid formation with a clear increase in apoptosis. Modulation of BNIP3 and the critical autophagy gene Beclin-1 (BECN1) also caused a significant decrease in spheroid formation. Combined, these data demonstrate how modulation of BNIP3-related autophagy, in PDS and in vitro spheroid models, alters the survival and morphology of spheroids.
IMPLICATIONS: Development of BNIP3/BNIP3L-targeting agents or autophagy-targeting agents may reduce morbidity and mortality associated with peritoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis. Mol Cancer Res; 15(1); 26-34. ©2016 AACR.

Zou P, Liu L, Zheng LD, et al.
Coordinated Upregulation of Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Autophagy in Breast Cancer Cells: The Role of Dynamin Related Protein-1 and Implication for Breast Cancer Treatment.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016; 2016:4085727 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overactive mitochondrial fission was shown to promote cell transformation and tumor growth. It remains elusive how mitochondrial quality is regulated in such conditions. Here, we show that upregulation of mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin related protein-1 (Drp1), was accompanied with increased mitochondrial biogenesis markers (PGC1

Madan E, Dikshit B, Gowda SH, et al.
FAT1 is a novel upstream regulator of HIF1α and invasion of high grade glioma.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 139(11):2570-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The hypoxic microenvironment is an important contributor of glioblastoma (GBM) aggressiveness via HIF1α, while tumour inflammation is profoundly influenced by FAT Atypical Cadherin (FAT1). This study was designed to explore the functional interaction and significance of FAT1 and HIF1α under severe hypoxia-mimicking tumour microenvironment in primary human tumours. We first identified a positive correlation of FAT1 with HIF1α and its target genes in GBM tumour specimens, revealing the significance of the FAT1-HIF1α axis in glioma cells. We found that severe hypoxia leads to an increased expression of FAT1 and HIF1α in U87MG and U373MG cells. To reveal the relevance of FAT1 under hypoxic conditions, we depleted endogenous FAT1 under hypoxia and found a substantial reduction in the expression of HIF1α and its downstream target genes like CA9, GLUT1, VEGFA, MCT4, HK2, BNIP3 and REDD1, as well as a significant reduction in the invasiveness in GBM cells. At the molecular level, under hypoxia the FAT1 depletion-associated reduction in HIF1α was due to compromised EGFR-Akt signaling as well as increased VHL-dependent proteasomal degradation of HIF1α. In brief, for the first time, these results reveal an upstream master regulatory role of FAT1 in the expression and role of HIF1α under hypoxic conditions and that FAT1-HIF1α axis controls the invasiveness of GBM. Hence, FAT1 represents a novel potential therapeutic target for GBM.

Pedanou VE, Gobeil S, Tabariès S, et al.
The histone H3K9 demethylase KDM3A promotes anoikis by transcriptionally activating pro-apoptotic genes BNIP3 and BNIP3L.
Elife. 2016; 5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epithelial cells that lose attachment to the extracellular matrix undergo a specialized form of apoptosis called anoikis. Here, using large-scale RNA interference (RNAi) screening, we find that KDM3A, a histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) mono- and di-demethylase, plays a pivotal role in anoikis induction. In attached breast epithelial cells, KDM3A expression is maintained at low levels by integrin signaling. Following detachment, integrin signaling is decreased resulting in increased KDM3A expression. RNAi-mediated knockdown of KDM3A substantially reduces apoptosis following detachment and, conversely, ectopic expression of KDM3A induces cell death in attached cells. We find that KDM3A promotes anoikis through transcriptional activation of BNIP3 and BNIP3L, which encode pro-apoptotic proteins. Using mouse models of breast cancer metastasis we show that knockdown of Kdm3a enhances metastatic potential. Finally, we find defective KDM3A expression in human breast cancer cell lines and tumors. Collectively, our results reveal a novel transcriptional regulatory program that mediates anoikis.

Aversa Z, Pin F, Lucia S, et al.
Autophagy is induced in the skeletal muscle of cachectic cancer patients.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:30340 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Basal rates of autophagy can be markedly accelerated by environmental stresses. Recently, autophagy has been involved in cancer-induced muscle wasting. Aim of this study has been to evaluate if autophagy is induced in the skeletal muscle of cancer patients. The expression (mRNA and protein) of autophagic markers has been evaluated in intraoperative muscle biopsies. Beclin-1 protein levels were increased in cachectic cancer patients, suggesting autophagy induction. LC3B-I protein levels were not significantly modified. LC3B-II protein levels were significantly increased in cachectic cancer patients suggesting either increased autophagosome formation or reduced autophagosome turnover. Conversely, p62 protein levels were increased in cachectic and non-cachectic cancer patients, suggesting impaired autophagosome clearance. As for mitophagy, both Bnip3 and Nix/Bnip3L show a trend to increase in cachectic patients. In the same patients, Parkin levels significantly increased, while PINK1 was unchanged. At gene level, Beclin-1, p-62, BNIP3, NIX/BNIP3L and TFEB mRNAs were not significantly modulated, while LC3B and PINK1 mRNA levels were increased and decreased, respectively, in cachectic cancer patients. Autophagy is induced in the skeletal muscle of cachectic cancer patients, although autophagosome clearance appears to be impaired. Further studies should evaluate whether modulation of autophagy could represent a relevant therapeutic strategy in cancer cachexia.

Chiu HW, Yeh YL, Wang YC, et al.
Combination of the novel histone deacetylase inhibitor YCW1 and radiation induces autophagic cell death through the downregulation of BNIP3 in triple-negative breast cancer cells in vitro and in an orthotopic mouse model.
Mol Cancer. 2016; 15(1):46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive and invasive of the breast cancer subtypes. TNBC is a challenging disease that lacks targets for treatment. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are a group of targeted anticancer agents that enhance radiosensitivity. Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) is a member of the Bcl-2 subfamily. BNIP3 is not found in normal breast tissue but is up-regulated in breast cancer. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of a newly developed HDACi, YCW1, combined with ionizing radiation (IR) in TNBC in vitro and in an orthotopic mouse model. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between autophagy and BNIP3.
METHODS: Trypan blue exclusion was used to investigate the viability of 4 T1 (a mouse TNBC cell line) and MDA-MB-231 cells (a human TNBC cell line) following combined YCW1 and IR treatment. Flow cytometry was used to determine apoptosis and autophagy. The expression levels of BNIP3, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress- and autophagic-related proteins were measured using western blot analysis. An orthotopic mouse model was used to investigate the in vivo effects of YCW1 and IR alone and in combination. Tumor volumes were monitored using a bioluminescence-based IVIS Imaging System 200.
RESULTS: We found that YCW1 significantly enhanced toxicity in 4 T1 cells compared with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), which was the first HDACi approved by the Food and Drug Administration for clinical use in cancer patients. The combined treatment of YCW1 and IR enhanced cytotoxicity by inducing ER stress and increasing autophagy induction. Additionally, the combined treatment caused autophagic flux and autophagic cell death. Furthermore, the expression level of BNIP3 was significantly decreased in cells following combined treatment. The downregulation of BNIP3 led to a significant increase in autophagy and cytotoxicity. The combined anti-tumor effects of YCW1 and IR were also observed in an orthotopic mouse model; combination therapy resulted in a significant increase in autophagy and decreased tumor tissue expression of BNIP3 in the tumor tissue.
CONCLUSIONS: These data support the possibility of using a combination of HDACi and IR in the treatment of TNBC. Moreover, BNIP3 may be a potential target protein for TNBC treatment.

Fujimoto T, Ohtsuka T, Date K, et al.
Expression of Bcl-2 19-kDa interacting protein 3 predicts prognosis after ampullary carcinoma resection.
J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. 2016; 23(8):489-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: An adequate management strategy for ampullary carcinoma (AC), a rare neoplasm, has yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to identify specific molecular markers allowing for the adequate management of AC.
METHODS: The clinicopathological data of 41 patients who underwent curative resection of AC were reviewed retrospectively. The expression of thymidylate synthase (TS) and Bcl-2 19-kDa interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), two sensitive markers for S-1 and gemcitabine, respectively, was evaluated immunohistochemically. The relationship between the expression levels of these markers and the clinicopathological data were then investigated.
RESULTS: The 5-year overall survival rate in the study population was 62%. In univariate and multivariate analyses, lymph node metastasis, neural invasion, lymphatic invasion, and the high-level BNIP3 expression were significant predictive factors for a poor postoperative prognosis. Neither TS nor BNIP3 expression were able to predict survival or the disease recurrence rate in patients who received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for AC.
CONCLUSIONS: BNIP3 expression may serve as a prognostic marker for patients with AC, but neither TS nor BNIP3 contributes to the selection criteria for adjuvant chemotherapy for AC, at least with respect to current drug regimens.

Ornelles DA, Gooding LR, Dickherber ML, et al.
Limited but durable changes to cellular gene expression in a model of latent adenovirus infection are reflected in childhood leukemic cell lines.
Virology. 2016; 494:67-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mucosal lymphocytes support latent infections of species C adenoviruses. Because infected lymphocytes resist re-infection with adenovirus, we sought to identify changes in cellular gene expression that could inhibit the infectious process. The expression of over 30,000 genes was evaluated by microarray in persistently infected B-and T-lymphocytic cells. BBS9, BNIP3, BTG3, CXADR, SLFN11 and SPARCL1 were the only genes differentially expressed between mock and infected B cells. Most of these genes are associated with oncogenesis or cancer progression. Histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors released the repression of some of these genes. Cellular and viral gene expression was compared among leukemic cell lines following adenovirus infection. Childhood leukemic B-cell lines resist adenovirus infection and also show reduced expression of CXADR and SPARCL. Thus adenovirus induces limited changes to infected B-cell lines that are similar to changes observed in childhood leukemic cell lines.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. BNIP3, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999