Gene Summary

Gene:BCOR; BCL6 corepressor
Aliases: MAA2, ANOP2, MCOPS2
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene was identified as an interacting corepressor of BCL6, a POZ/zinc finger transcription repressor that is required for germinal center formation and may influence apoptosis. This protein selectively interacts with the POZ domain of BCL6, but not with eight other POZ proteins. Specific class I and II histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been shown to interact with this protein, which suggests a possible link between the two classes of HDACs. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome Y.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:BCL-6 corepressor
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Latest Publications: BCOR (cancer-related)

Koelsche C, Kriegsmann M, Kommoss FKF, et al.
DNA methylation profiling distinguishes Ewing-like sarcoma with EWSR1-NFATc2 fusion from Ewing sarcoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(5):1273-1281 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Recent studies revealed divergent gene expression patterns in Ewing sarcoma (EwS) with canonical EWSR1-ETS gene fusions and undifferentiated round cell sarcomas (URCS) with EWSR1 rearrangements fused to the non-ETS gene NFATc2. Thus, the question arises whether the latter tumors really belong to EwS.
METHODS: We collected five cases matching the group of URCS with EWSR1-NFATc2 fusion and performed DNA methylation and copy number profiling. Results were compared to methylation data of 30 EwS with various EWSR1-ETS fusions and one EwS with FUS-ERG fusion, 16 URCS with CIC rearrangement and 10 URCS with BCOR alteration and a total of 81 EWSR1-associated soft tissue sarcomas including 7 angiomatoid fibrous histiocytomas, 7 clear cell sarcomas of the soft tissue, 28 desmoplastic small round cell tumors, 10 extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas and 29 myxoid liposarcomas.
RESULTS: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering and t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding analysis of DNA methylation data revealed a homogeneous methylation cluster for URCS with EWSR1-NFATc2 fusion, which clearly segregated from EwS and the other subtypes. Copy number profiles of EWSR1-NFATc2 cases showed recurrent losses on chromosome 9q and segmental gains on 20q13 and 22q12 involving the EWSR1 and NFATc2 loci, respectively.
CONCLUSION: In summary, URCS with EWSR1-NFATc2 fusion share a distinct DNA methylation signature and carry characteristic copy number alterations, which emphasizes that these sarcomas should be considered separately from EwS.

Cuevas D, Valls J, Gatius S, et al.
Targeted sequencing with a customized panel to assess histological typing in endometrial carcinoma.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 474(5):585-598 [PubMed] Related Publications
The two most frequent types of endometrial cancer (EC) are endometrioid (EEC) and serous carcinomas (SC). Differential diagnosis between them is not always easy. A subset of endometrial cancers shows misleading microscopical features, which cause problems in differential diagnosis, and may be a good scenario for next-generation sequencing. Previous studies have assessed the usefulness of targeted sequencing with panels of generic cancer-associated genes in EC histological typing. Based on the analysis of TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas), EEC and SC have different mutational profiles. In this proof of principle study, we have performed targeted sequencing analysis with a customized panel, based on the TCGA mutational profile of EEC and SC, in a series of 24 tumors (16 EEC and 8 SC). Our panel comprised coding and non-coding sequences of the following genes: ABCC9, ARID1A, ARID5B, ATR, BCOR, CCND1, CDH19, CHD4, COL11A1, CSDE1, CSMD3, CTCF, CTNNB1, EP300, ERBB2, FBXW7, FGFR2, FOXA2, KLLN, KMT2B, KRAS, MAP3K4, MKI67, NRAS, PGAP3, PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PPP2R1A, PRPF18, PTEN, RPL22, SCARNA11, SIN3A, SMARCA4, SPOP, TAF1, TP53, TSPYL2, USP36, and WRAP53. Targeted sequencing validation by Sanger sequencing and immunohistochemistry was performed in a group of genes. POLE mutation status was assessed by Sanger sequencing. The most mutated genes were PTEN (93.7%), ARID1A (68.7%), PIK3CA (50%), and KMT2B (43.7%) for EEC, and TP53 (87.5%), PIK3CA (50%), and PPP2R1A (25%) for SC. Our panel allowed correct classification of all tumors in the two categories (EEC, SC). Coexistence of mutations in PTEN, ARID1A, and KMT2B was diagnostic of EEC. On the other hand, absence of PTEN, ARID1A, and KMT2B mutations in the presence of TP53 mutation was diagnostic of SC. This proof of concept study demonstrates the suitability of targeted sequencing with a customized endometrial cancer gene panel as an additional tool for confirming histological typing.

Isshiki Y, Iwama A
Emerging role of noncanonical polycomb repressive complexes in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.
Exp Hematol. 2018; 68:10-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are the key epigenetic regulators of normal hematopoiesis and the dysregulation of their functions is closely involved in the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies. These proteins function in the multimeric complexes called polycomb repressive complex (PRC) 1 and 2. In addition to canonical PRC1, four noncanonical PRC1 complexes have been identified. In contrast to canonical PRC1, which is recruited to its target sites in a manner dependent on H3K27me3, noncanonical PRC1 complexes are recruited to their target sites independently of H3K27me3. Among them, PRC1.1, consisting of PCGF1, RING1A/B, KDM2B, and BCL6 corepressor (BCOR) or BCLRL1, regulates diverse biological processes, including pluripotency, reprogramming, and hematopoiesis. PRC1.1 has been implicated in myelopoiesis and lymphopoiesis and is targeted by somatic gene mutations in various hematological malignancies. These findings revealed the more complex regulation of epigenetic cellular memory by PcG proteins than we expected and propose PRC1.1 as a novel therapeutic target in hematological malignancies.

Fukuoka K, Kanemura Y, Shofuda T, et al.
Significance of molecular classification of ependymomas: C11orf95-RELA fusion-negative supratentorial ependymomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2018; 6(1):134 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Extensive molecular analyses of ependymal tumors have revealed that supratentorial and posterior fossa ependymomas have distinct molecular profiles and are likely to be different diseases. The presence of C11orf95-RELA fusion genes in a subset of supratentorial ependymomas (ST-EPN) indicated the existence of molecular subgroups. However, the pathogenesis of RELA fusion-negative ependymomas remains elusive. To investigate the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors and validate the molecular classification of ependymal tumors, we conducted thorough molecular analyses of 113 locally diagnosed ependymal tumors from 107 patients in the Japan Pediatric Molecular Neuro-Oncology Group. All tumors were histopathologically reviewed and 12 tumors were re-classified as non-ependymomas. A combination of RT-PCR, FISH, and RNA sequencing identified RELA fusion in 19 of 29 histologically verified ST-EPN cases, whereas another case was diagnosed as ependymoma RELA fusion-positive via the methylation classifier (68.9%). Among the 9 RELA fusion-negative ST-EPN cases, either the YAP1 fusion, BCOR tandem duplication, EP300-BCORL1 fusion, or FOXO1-STK24 fusion was detected in single cases. Methylation classification did not identify a consistent molecular class within this group. Genome-wide methylation profiling successfully sub-classified posterior fossa ependymoma (PF-EPN) into PF-EPN-A (PFA) and PF-EPN-B (PFB). A multivariate analysis using Cox regression confirmed that PFA was the sole molecular marker which was independently associated with patient survival. A clinically applicable pyrosequencing assay was developed to determine the PFB subgroup with 100% specificity using the methylation status of 3 genes, CRIP1, DRD4 and LBX2. Our results emphasized the significance of molecular classification in the diagnosis of ependymomas. RELA fusion-negative ST-EPN appear to be a heterogeneous group of tumors that do not fall into any of the existing molecular subgroups and are unlikely to form a single category.

Lim SZ, Ng CCY, Rajasegaran V, et al.
Genomic profile of breast sarcomas: a comparison with malignant phyllodes tumours.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 174(2):365-373 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the genomic profile of breast sarcomas (BS) and compare with that of malignant phyllodes tumours (MPT).
METHODS: DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens from 17 cases of BS diagnosed at Singapore General Hospital from January 1991 to December 2014. Targeted deep sequencing and copy number variation (CNV) analysis on 16 genes, which included recurrently mutated genes in phyllodes tumours and genes associated with breast cancer, were performed on these samples. Genetic alterations (GA) observed were summarised and analysed.
RESULTS: Nine cases met the quality control requirements for both targeted deep sequencing and CNV analysis. Three (33.33%) were angiosarcomas and 6 (66.67%) were non-angiosarcomas. In the non-angiosarcoma group, 83.33% (n = 5) of the patients had GA in the TERT gene. The other commonly mutated genes in this group of tumours were MED12 (n = 4, 66.67%), BCOR (n = 4, 66.67%), KMT2D (n = 3, 50%), FLNA (n = 3, 50%) and NF1 (n = 3, 50%). In contrast, none of the angiosarcomas had mutations or copy number alterations in TERT, MED12, BCOR, FLNA or NF1. Eighty percent of patients with GA in TERT (n = 5) had concurrent mutations in MED12. Sixty percent (n = 3) of these cases also demonstrated GA in NF1, PIK3CA or EGFR which are known cancer driver genes.
CONCLUSIONS: The non-angiosarcoma group of BS was found to share similar GA as those described for MPT, which may suggest a common origin and support their consideration as a similar group of tumours with regard to management and prognostication.

Díaz-Martín J, Biscuola M, Benoit J, et al.
What's in a name? Molecular subclassification of sarcomas creates fresh challenges.
J Pathol. 2019; 247(4):409-412 [PubMed] Related Publications
This commentary addresses the issue of the classification of sarcomas in the article written by Watson and colleagues published recently in this journal. The article delves into the molecular characterization and distinct phenotypes of some recently described entities (e.g. BCOR-rearranged sarcomas, CIC-fused sarcomas) and describes new groups with common characteristics. This commentary focuses on several questions raised in the article, such as what makes a group of sarcomas become a clinical entity, which should be the main driver of sarcoma classification, how the classification of small round cell sarcomas is expected to evolve and how high-throughput techniques could be applied to sarcoma diagnosis in the short term. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Anderson WJ, Hornick JL
Immunohistochemical correlates of recurrent genetic alterations in sarcomas.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2019; 58(2):111-123 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accurate diagnosis of sarcomas relies on the integration of clinical, histopathological and molecular features. Our understanding of the latter has increased dramatically in recent years with the application of high-throughput sequencing. Concomitantly, the role of immunohistochemistry has expanded as genomic alterations have been exploited by the development of diagnostic markers that serve as surrogates for their detection. Herein, we review selected immunohistochemical markers that can infer the presence of diverse molecular events. These include gene fusions in vascular neoplasms (FOSB, CAMTA1 and TFE3), round cell sarcomas (BCOR, DUX4 and WT1), and fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumors (STAT6, ALK and Pan-TRK); amplifications in well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas (MDM2 and CDK4); and deletions in several aggressive neoplasms (SMARCB1 and SMARCA4). Protein correlates of single nucleotide variants (beta-catenin in desmoid fibromatosis) and epigenetic alterations (histone H3K27me3 in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor) and markers discovered through gene expression profiling (NKX2.2 and MUC4) are also discussed.

Juckett LT, Lin DI, Madison R, et al.
A Pan-Cancer Landscape Analysis Reveals a Subset of Endometrial Stromal and Pediatric Tumors Defined by Internal Tandem Duplications of BCOR.
Oncology. 2019; 96(2):101-109 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) regulates epigenetic silencing and is manifestly linked to rare cancer types. The X-linked BCOR gene (BCL-6 Corepressor) is a member of the PRC1 complex and potentiates transcriptional repression through BCL6 binding of PRC1. Accumulating evidence suggests that internal tandem duplications (ITD) of BCOR are oncogenic drivers in a subset of pediatric sarcomas and rare adult tumors.
OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the genomic profiles of a large series of advanced cancer patients to determine the frequency and genomic spectrum of ITD of BCOR across cancer.
METHODS: Tissues from 140,411 unique advanced cancers were sequenced by hybrid-capture-NGS-based comprehensive genomic profiling of 186-315 genes plus introns from 14 to 28 genes commonly rearranged in cancer, as well as RNA for 265 genes for a portion of these cases.
RESULTS: BCOR-ITDs were present in 0.024% of all cases (33/140,411). Of this dataset, sarcoma cancer types were most frequent, 63.6% (21/33), either of uterine origin 52.4% (11/21), or pediatric (nonuterine) 42.8% (9/21). The identified BCOR-ITDs occurred most frequently in exon 15, near C-terminus, 69.7% (23/33), with a mean insertion length of 31.7 codons (range 30-38). Of uterine cases, an expert gynecologic pathology central review identified all these cases as having a similar high-grade morphology consistent with endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS), and 90% of cases having a round cell component. Of the uterine sarcoma cases harboring exon 15 BCOR-ITDs, none simultaneously carried gene fusions typically associated with ESS.
CONCLUSION: BCOR-ITDs define a rare subset of pediatric sarcomas and clinically aggressive endometrial stromal sarcoma cases, as defined by NGS for the first time. Our findings help delineate the pan-cancer landscape of this alteration and suggest the need for focused investigation to delineate the pro-oncogenic function of BCOR, along with any sensitivity to targeted therapies.

Tyner JW, Tognon CE, Bottomly D, et al.
Functional genomic landscape of acute myeloid leukaemia.
Nature. 2018; 562(7728):526-531 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The implementation of targeted therapies for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) has been challenging because of the complex mutational patterns within and across patients as well as a dearth of pharmacologic agents for most mutational events. Here we report initial findings from the Beat AML programme on a cohort of 672 tumour specimens collected from 562 patients. We assessed these specimens using whole-exome sequencing, RNA sequencing and analyses of ex vivo drug sensitivity. Our data reveal mutational events that have not previously been detected in AML. We show that the response to drugs is associated with mutational status, including instances of drug sensitivity that are specific to combinatorial mutational events. Integration with RNA sequencing also revealed gene expression signatures, which predict a role for specific gene networks in the drug response. Collectively, we have generated a dataset-accessible through the Beat AML data viewer (Vizome)-that can be leveraged to address clinical, genomic, transcriptomic and functional analyses of the biology of AML.

Dickson BC, Lum A, Swanson D, et al.
Novel EPC1 gene fusions in endometrial stromal sarcoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(11):598-603 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial stromal sarcoma encompasses a heterogeneous group of uterine mesenchymal neoplasms, which are currently divided into low-grade and high-grade subtypes. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma is morphologically bland; molecularly, these tumors frequently contain JAZF1-SUZ12, JAZF1-PHF1, and EPC1-PHF1 fusions. In contrast, high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma is characterized by morphologically undifferentiated neoplasms with high-grade nuclear features; these tumors likewise appear to be genetically diverse with YWHAE-NUTM2 and ZC3H7B-BCOR representing the most frequent gene fusions. Herein, we describe two novel EPC1 fusion genes in endometrial stromal sarcoma: EPC1-SUZ12 and EPC1-BCOR. Both tumors were characterized be an aggressive clinical course.

Zhang Y, Li C, Xue W, et al.
Frequent Mutations in Natural Killer/T Cell Lymphoma.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 49(1):1-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL-NT or NKTCL), with its aggressive nature and poor prognosis, has been widely studied to discover more effective treatment options. Various somatic gene alterations have been identified by traditional Sanger sequencing. However, recently, novel gene mutations in NKTCL have been revealed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, suggesting the potential for novel targeted therapies. This review discusses recurrent aberrations in NKTCL detected by NGS, which can be categorized into three main groups, specifically, tumor suppressors (TP53, DDX3X, and MGA), the JAK/STAT cascade, and epigenetic modifiers (KMT2D, BCOR, ARID1A, and EP300). Some epigenetic dysregulation and DDX3X mutation, which have been rarely identified by traditional sequencing technology, were recently uncovered with high frequencies by NGS. In this review, we summarize the mutational frequencies of various genes in NKTCL. In general, based on our analysis, BCOR is the most frequently mutated gene (16.9%), followed by TP53 (14.7%), and DDX3X (13.6%). The characterization of such genes provides new insight into the pathogenesis of this disease and indicates new biomarkers or therapeutic targets.

Ueno-Yokohata H, Okita H, Nakasato K, et al.
Preoperative diagnosis of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney by detection of BCOR internal tandem duplication in circulating tumor DNA.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(10):525-529 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) is the second most common renal malignancy in children. The prognosis is poorer in CCSK than in Wilms' tumor, and multimodal treatment including surgery, intensive chemotherapy, and radiation is required to improve the outcome for children with CCSK. Histological evaluation is required for the diagnosis. However, biopsies of tumors to obtain diagnostic specimens are not routinely performed because of the risk of spreading tumor cells during the procedure. Recently, internal tandem duplication (ITD) of BCOR has been recognized as a genetic hallmark of CCSK. We herein established a novel BCOR-ITD-specific polymerase chain reaction method with well-designed primers, and then performed a liquid biopsy for cell-free DNA (cfDNA) obtained from plasma of three children with nonmetastatic renal tumors (stage II) and from one control. BCOR-ITD was positively detected in the cfDNA of two cases, both of which were later diagnosed as CCSK based on histological feature of the resected tumor specimen, while it was not detected for a normal control and a patient diagnosed with Wilms' tumor. Our study is the first one of preoperative circulating tumor DNA assay in pediatric renal tumors. The liquid biopsy method enables less invasive, preoperative diagnosis of CCSK with no risk of tumor spillage, which can avoid iatrogenic upstaging.

Staňo Kozubík K, Radová L, Pešová M, et al.
C-terminal RUNX1 mutation in familial platelet disorder with predisposition to myeloid malignancies.
Int J Hematol. 2018; 108(6):652-657 [PubMed] Related Publications
Here we report a C-terminal RUNX1 mutation in a family with platelet disorder and predisposition to myeloid malignancies. We identified the mutation c.866delG:p.Gly289Aspfs*22 (NM_001754) (RUNX1 b-isoform NM_001001890; c.785delG:p.Gly262Aspfs*22) using exome sequencing of samples obtained from eight members of a single family. The mutation found in our pedigree is within exon eight and the transactivation domain of RUNX1. One of the affected individuals developed myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), which progressed to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). A search for the second hit which led to the development of MDS and later AML in this individual revealed the PHF6 gene variant (exon9:c.872G > A:p.G291E; NM_001015877), BCORL1 (exon3:c.1111A > C:p.T371P; NM_001184772) and BCOR gene variant (exon4:c.2076dupT:p.P693fs; NM_001123383), which appear to be very likely second hits participating in the progression to myeloid malignancy.

Krskova L, Kabickova E, Drahokoupilova E, et al.
An undifferentiated sarcoma with BCOR-CCNB3 fusion transcript - pathological and clinical retrospective study.
Neoplasma. 2018; 65(4):630-636 [PubMed] Related Publications
The BCOR-CCNB3 positive sarcoma is a recently identified sarcoma morphologically and clinically similar to Ewing sarcoma in adolescents and young adults. The BCOR-CCNB3 fusion transcript originates from a paracentric inversion on the X chromosome with an in-frame fusion between the last codon of BCOR and the exon 5 of CCNB3 gene. We report morphological and molecular genetic analysis of 8 undifferentiated sarcomas positive for the BCOR-CCNB3 fusion. Six of the eight BCOR-CCNB3 positive sarcoma patients were male. Five of the eight patients were in their second decade of life (median of all patients 14 years at diagnosis). The bone marrow involvement was demonstrated in 2 of 4 patients tested. Detection of the fusion transcripts BCOR-CCNB3 in the bone marrow suggests that patients with positive findings are at high risk of the tumor progression.

Phillips JJ, Gong H, Chen K, et al.
The genetic landscape of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma.
Brain Pathol. 2019; 29(1):85-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is an astrocytic neoplasm that is typically well circumscribed and can have a relatively favorable prognosis. Tumor progression to anaplastic PXA (WHO grade III), however, is associated with a more aggressive biologic behavior and worse prognosis. The factors that drive anaplastic progression are largely unknown. We performed comprehensive genomic profiling on a set of 23 PXAs from 19 patients, including 15 with anaplastic PXA. Four patients had tumor tissue from multiple recurrences, including two with anaplastic progression. We find that PXAs are genetically defined by the combination of CDKN2A biallelic inactivation and RAF alterations that were present in all 19 cases, most commonly as CDKN2A homozygous deletion and BRAF p.V600E mutation but also occasionally BRAF or RAF1 fusions or other rearrangements. The third most commonly altered gene in anaplastic PXA was TERT, with 47% (7/15) harboring TERT alterations, either gene amplification (n = 2) or promoter hotspot mutation (n = 5). In tumor pairs analyzed before and after anaplastic progression, two had increased copy number alterations and one had TERT promoter mutation at recurrence. Less commonly altered genes included TP53, BCOR, BCORL1, ARID1A, ATRX, PTEN, and BCL6. All PXA in this cohort were IDH and histone H3 wildtype, and did not contain alterations in EGFR. Genetic profiling performed on six regions from the same tumor identified intratumoral genomic heterogeneity, likely reflecting clonal evolution during tumor progression. Overall, anaplastic PXA is characterized by the combination of CDKN2A biallelic inactivation and oncogenic RAF kinase signaling as well as a relatively small number of additional genetic alterations, with the most common being TERT amplification or promoter mutation. These data define a distinct molecular profile for PXA and suggest additional genetic alterations, including TERT, may be associated with anaplastic progression.

Toki S, Wakai S, Sekimizu M, et al.
PAX7 immunohistochemical evaluation of Ewing sarcoma and other small round cell tumours.
Histopathology. 2018; 73(4):645-652 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Ewing sarcoma is a small round cell tumour that affects bone and soft tissues. Although the detection of the specific fusion gene is a robust method of its diagnosis, immunohistochemistry may serve as a practical surrogate. Recent tissue microarray studies suggested that PAX7 is a novel marker, because it was expressed consistently in Ewing sarcoma, in addition to rhabdomyosarcoma and synovial sarcoma. Here, we evaluated the utility of PAX7 immunohistochemistry in whole-tissue sections of an expanded array of round cell malignancies with adequate molecular characterisation.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We stained 30 molecularly confirmed Ewing sarcomas, one EWSR1-NFATC2 sarcoma and 141 non-Ewing round cell tumours by a monoclonal antibody against PAX7. Staining was considered positive if at least 5% of tumour cells were stained. PAX7 was expressed in 27 of 30 Ewing sarcomas (90%), mainly in a diffuse and strong manner. Although NKX2-2 showed similar sensitivity, PAX7 showed more extensive and strong reactivity. One EWSR1-NFATC2 sarcoma co-expressed PAX7 and NKX2-2. PAX7 was also expressed in 24 of 141 non-Ewing tumours, including alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (seven of 10), poorly differentiated synovial sarcomas (seven of 10), BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas (eight of 10), small-cell osteosarcoma (one of five) and desmoplastic small round cell tumour (one of 10), one-third of which showed diffuse strong reactivity.
CONCLUSIONS: Although we confirmed that PAX7 is a sensitive marker for Ewing sarcoma, anti-PAX7 antibody also stained several Ewing sarcoma mimics, whose spectrum was distinct from NKX2-2-positive non-Ewing entities. Further studies are required to determine how PAX7 could be integrated into practice to classify small round cell tumours efficiently.

Han Q, Lu J, Wang J, et al.
H2AFY is a novel fusion partner of MECOM in acute myeloid leukemia.
Cancer Genet. 2018; 222-223:9-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
The MECOM gene encoding a zinc finger protein that functions as a transcription factor, was located on chromosome 3q26, and rearrangements of MECOM often cause its overexpression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We identified H2AFY as a novel fusion gene partner of MECOM in an elderly male AML patient with cryptic 3q26 rearrangement using the whole transcriptome sequencing, who carried out abnormal karyotype of 46,XY,t(3;5)(q27;q31),add(14)(p11). We validated the existence of the unreported H2AFY-MECOM fusion gene by RT-PCR and Sanger DNA sequencing, and detected mutations of NRAS and BCOR in this patient. In addition, we found abnormally elevated expression of MECOM in this patient by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). Further research is needed to investigate functional characterizations of this novel fusion in the development of AML.

Terada K, Yamaguchi H, Ueki T, et al.
Usefulness of BCOR gene mutation as a prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia with intermediate cytogenetic prognosis.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(8):401-408 [PubMed] Related Publications
BCOR gene is a transcription regulatory factor that plays an essential role in normal hematopoiesis. The wider introduction of next-generation sequencing technology has led to reports in recent years of mutations in the BCOR gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but the related clinical characteristics and prognosis are not sufficiently understood. We investigated the clinical characteristics and prognosis of 377 de novo AML cases with BCOR or BCORL1 mutation. BCOR or BCORL1 gene mutations were found in 28 cases (7.4%). Among cases aged 65 years or below that were also FLT3-ITD-negative and in the intermediate cytogenetic prognosis group, BCOR or BCORL1 gene mutations were observed in 11% of cases (12 of 111 cases), and this group had significantly lower 5-year overall survival (OS) (13.6% vs. 55.0%, P = 0.0021) and relapse-free survival (RFS) (14.3% vs. 44.5%, P = 0.0168) compared to cases without BCOR or BCORL1 gene mutations. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that BCOR mutations were an independent unfavorable prognostic factor (P = 0.0038, P = 0.0463) for both OS and RFS. In cases of AML that are FLT3-ITD-negative, aged 65 years or below, and in the intermediate cytogenetic prognosis group, which are considered to have relatively favorable prognosis, BCOR gene mutations appear to be an important prognostic factor.

Machado I, Yoshida A, Morales MGN, et al.
Review with novel markers facilitates precise categorization of 41 cases of diagnostically challenging, "undifferentiated small round cell tumors". A clinicopathologic, immunophenotypic and molecular analysis.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2018; 34:1-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite extensive immunohistochemical (IHC) and molecular studies combined with morphologic findings, a group of round/ovoid cell tumors histologically similar to Ewing sarcomas (ES) but lacking EWSR1-rearrangements may remain unclassifiable.
DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed 41 Ewing-like tumors (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded) previously determined as negative or non-informative for EWSR1-rearrangements by FISH and/or RT-PCR. A new histopathology revision and additional IHC and molecular analyses were carried out in order to investigate whether additional IHC and/or molecular testing in combination with the morphological findings may help in reaching a definitive diagnosis.
RESULTS: Almost all the tumors (n=40) involved soft tissue and/or bone and half the patients died of disease. In the archival cases all diagnoses were Ewing sarcoma (ES), Ewing-like sarcoma (ELS), myoepithelial tumor and undifferentiated sarcoma (US). In the new review all the tumors were re-classified as, ES (n=16), Ewing-like tumor with EWSR1 rearrangement and amplification and possible EWSR1-NFATC2 gene fusion (n=1), CIC-rearranged sarcomas or undifferentiated sarcoma, most consistent with CIC-rearranged sarcoma (n=7), sarcoma with BCOR-alteration or undifferentiated sarcoma, consistent with BCOR-associated sarcoma (n=3), neuroblastoma (n=2), unclassifiable neoplasm with neuroblastic differentiation (n=1), malignant rhabdoid tumor (n=2), lymphoblastic lymphoma (n=1), clear cell sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract (n=1), small cell carcinoma (n=1), sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma (n=1), desmoplastic small round cell tumor (n=1), malignant peripheral sheath nerve tumor (n=1), poorly-differentiated synovial sarcoma (n=1), Possible gastrointestinal stromal tumor/GIST with predominant round cells (n=1) and possible SMARCA4-deficient-sarcoma (n=1). NKX2.2, ETV4 and BCOR immunoreactivity was observed in all ES, CIC-rearranged sarcomas and sarcomas with BCOR alteration, respectively. CIC-rearrangement by FISH was observed in many of the CIC-rearranged sarcomas.
CONCLUSION: Our analysis of 41 Ewing-like tumors confirms that there may be a significant pathological and IHC overlap among Ewing-like tumors, with prognostic and therapeutic impacts. Additional IHC (NKX2.2, ETV4 and BCOR) and molecular studies including FUS, CIC or BCOR analysis may support the final diagnosis when FISH or RT-PCR fail to detect EWSR1-rearrangements. Any molecular findings should always be interpreted in relation to the specific clinical and pathological context.

Chahal M, Pleasance E, Grewal J, et al.
Personalized oncogenomic analysis of metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma: using whole-genome sequencing to inform clinical decision-making.
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2018; 4(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastatic adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Because of their slow growth and relative rarity, there is limited evidence for systemic therapy regimens. Recently, molecular profiling studies have begun to reveal the genetic landscape of these poorly understood cancers, and new treatment possibilities are beginning to emerge. The objective is to use whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing and analysis to better understand the genetic alterations underlying the pathology of metastatic and rare ACCs and determine potentially actionable therapeutic targets. We report five cases of metastatic ACC, not originating in the salivary glands, in patients enrolled in the Personalized Oncogenomics (POG) Program at the BC Cancer Agency. Genomic workup included whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing, detailed analysis of tumor alterations, and integration with existing knowledge of drug-target combinations to identify potential therapeutic targets. Analysis reveals low mutational burden in these five ACC cases, and mutation signatures that are commonly observed in multiple cancer types. Notably, the only recurrent structural aberration identified was the well-described

Koelsche C, Hartmann W, Schrimpf D, et al.
Array-based DNA-methylation profiling in sarcomas with small blue round cell histology provides valuable diagnostic information.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(8):1246-1256 [PubMed] Related Publications
Undifferentiated solid tumors with small blue round cell histology and expression of CD99 mostly resemble Ewing sarcoma. However, they also may include other tumors such as mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, or small cell osteosarcoma. Definitive classification usually requires detection of entity-specific mutations. While this approach identifies the majority of Ewing sarcomas, a subset of lesions remains unclassified and, therefore, has been termed "Ewing-like sarcomas" or small blue round cell tumors not otherwise specified. We developed an approach for further characterization of small blue round cell tumors not otherwise specified using an array-based DNA-methylation profiling approach. Data were analyzed by unsupervised clustering and t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding analysis and compared with a reference methylation data set of 460 well-characterized prototypical sarcomas encompassing 18 subtypes. Verification was performed by additional FISH analyses, RNA sequencing from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material or immunohistochemical marker analyses. In a cohort of more than 1,000 tumors assumed to represent Ewing sarcomas, 30 failed to exhibit the typical EWS translocation. These tumors were subjected to methylation profiling and could be assigned to Ewing sarcoma in 14 (47%), to small blue round cell tumors with CIC alteration in 6 (20%), to small blue round cell tumors with BCOR alteration in 4 (13%), to synovial sarcoma and to malignant rhabdoid tumor in 2 cases each. One single case each was allotted to mesenchymal chondrosarcoma and adamantinoma. 12/14 tumors classified as Ewing sarcoma could be verified by demonstrating either a canonical EWS translocation evading initial testing, by identifying rare breakpoints or fusion partners. The methylation-based assignment of the remaining small blue round cell tumors not otherwise specified also could be verified by entity-specific molecular alterations in 13/16 cases. In conclusion, array-based DNA-methylation analysis of undifferentiated tumors with small blue round cell histology is a powerful tool for precisely classifying this diagnostically challenging tumor group.

Marrano P, Shago M, Somers GR, Thorner PS
Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization for TP53 in the Diagnosis of Pediatric Osteogenic Sarcoma.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(6):744-749 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteogenic sarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Despite advances in molecular genetic characterization of pediatric and adult tumors, the diagnosis of OS still depends almost entirely on light microscopy. The lack of consistent genetic changes in OS has greatly hindered the development of any diagnostic molecular test. Recently, whole-genome sequencing has shown that ~50% of cases of OS have a translocation involving the TP53 gene with breakpoints confined to the first intron. We developed a 2 color break-apart fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probe for intron 1 of TP53 and applied it to an archived series to assess its diagnostic utility. The study group included 37 cases of OS (including osteoblastic, chondroblastic, and fibroblastic), as well as 53 cases of non-OS pediatric sarcomas (including Ewing sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, undifferentiated small cell sarcoma, CCNB3-BCOR sarcoma, CIC-DUX sarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor) and 27 cases of benign bone lesions (including osteoblastoma, chondromyxoid fibroma, fibrous dysplasia, and fibro-osseous dysplasia). A rearranged signal was found in 20/37 cases (54%) of OS and in none of the other sarcomas or benign bone lesions, giving the FISH test 100% specificity for a diagnosis of OS. p53 immunostaining was generally not predictive of the results obtained by FISH and could not substitute for this test. This FISH probe offers a simple and specific genetic test to aid in the diagnosis of OS, despite the genetic complexity of this tumor.

Zerkalenkova E, Panfyorova A, Kazakova A, et al.
Molecular characteristic of acute leukemias with t(16;21)/FUS-ERG.
Ann Hematol. 2018; 97(6):977-988 [PubMed] Related Publications
T(16;21)(p11;q22)/FUS-ERG is a rare but recurrent translocation in acute leukemias and in some types of solid tumors. Due to multiple types of FUS-ERG transcripts, PCR-based minimal residual disease detection is impeded. In this study, we evaluated a cohort of pediatric patients with t(16;21)(p11;q22)/FUS-ERG and revealed fusion gene breakpoints. We implemented next-generation sequencing (NGS) on long PCR amplicons for the detection of fusion genes with unknown partners or DNA breakpoints. That allowed us to describe different fusion variants of FUS/ERG in different patients and to detect MRD on both RNA and DNA levels. We also found several accompanying mutations in epigenetic regulators (DNMT3A, ASXL1, BCOR) by targeted NGS approach in AML cases. These mutations preceded full transformation by t(16;21)(p11;q22)/FUS-ERG and allowed us to trace clonal evolution on all steps of therapy. As a casual observation, the ASXL1 mutation was found in the unrelated donor hematopoietic cells.

Kao YC, Owosho AA, Sung YS, et al.
BCOR-CCNB3 Fusion Positive Sarcomas: A Clinicopathologic and Molecular Analysis of 36 Cases With Comparison to Morphologic Spectrum and Clinical Behavior of Other Round Cell Sarcomas.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(5):604-615 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BCOR-CCNB3 sarcoma (BCS) is a recently defined genetic entity among undifferentiated round cell sarcomas, which was initially classified as and treated similarly to the Ewing sarcoma (ES) family of tumors. In contrast to ES, BCS shows consistent BCOR overexpression, and preliminary evidence suggests that these tumors share morphologic features with other tumors harboring BCOR genetic alterations, including BCOR internal tandem duplication (ITD) and BCOR-MAML3. To further investigate the pathologic features, clinical behavior, and their relationship to other round cell sarcomas, we collected 36 molecularly confirmed BCSs for a detailed histologic and immunohistochemical analysis. Four of the cases were also analyzed by RNA sequencing (RNAseq). An additional case with BCOR overexpression but negative CCNB3 abnormality showed a novel KMT2D-BCOR fusion by targeted RNAseq. The patients ranged in age from 2 to 44 years old (mean and median, 15), with striking male predominance (M:F=31:5). The tumor locations were slightly more common in bone (n=20) than soft tissue (n=14), with rare visceral (kidney, n=2) involvement. Histologically, BCS showed a spectrum of round to spindle cells with variable cellularity, monomorphic nuclei and fine chromatin pattern, delicate capillary network, and varying amounts of myxoid or collagenous stroma. The morphologic features and immunoprofile showed considerable overlap with other round cell sarcomas with BCOR oncogenic upregulation, that is, BCOR-MAML3 and BCOR ITD. Follow-up available in 22 patients showed a 5-year overall survival of 72%, which was relatively similar to ES (79%, P=0.738) and significantly better than CIC-DUX4 sarcomas (43%, P=0.005) control groups. Local recurrences occurred in 6 patients and distant metastases (lung, soft tissue/bone, pancreas) in 4. Seven of 9 cases treated with an ES chemotherapy regimen with evaluable histologic response showed >60% necrosis in posttherapy resections. Unsupervised clustering by RNAseq data revealed that tumors with BCOR genetic alterations, including BCOR-CCNB3, BCOR-MAML3, and BCOR ITD, formed a tight genomic group distinct from ES and CIC-rearranged sarcomas.

Hoang L, Chiang S, Lee CH
Endometrial stromal sarcomas and related neoplasms: new developments and diagnostic considerations.
Pathology. 2018; 50(2):162-177 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our understanding of endometrial stromal sarcomas has evolved dramatically since their earliest descriptions from over a century ago. Initial studies focused on establishing the relationship between histological appearances of endometrial stromal sarcomas and their clinical outcomes. Studies performed in the last decade have uncovered several recurrent cytogenetic aberrations occurring in low- and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas bear close histopathological resemblance to proliferative-type endometrial stroma, and approximately half harbour t(7;17)(p15;q21) resulting in JAZF1-SUZ12 gene fusion. Less common JAZF1-PHF1, EPC1-PHF1, MEAF6-PHF1, and MBTD1-CXorf67 fusions have also been reported. The term 'high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma' was recently re-introduced in the classification of endometrial stromal tumours after the discovery of t(10;17)(q22;p13) resulting in YWHAE-NUTM2A/B fusion and is associated with distinct morphological characteristics. This review highlights the evolution of endometrial stromal sarcoma classification schemes over time and describes the salient clinicopathological and molecular features of endometrial stromal nodule, low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma. It also describes the recent characterisation of endometrial stromal sarcoma with t(X;22)(p11;q13) resulting in ZC3H7B-BCOR fusion, a noteworthy entity due to its close histological resemblance to myxoid leiomyosarcoma. We also provide insights into common challenging scenarios encountered when assessing endometrial stromal lesions in daily surgical pathology practice.

Yoshida Y, Nobusawa S, Nakata S, et al.
CNS high-grade neuroepithelial tumor with BCOR internal tandem duplication: a comparison with its counterparts in the kidney and soft tissue.
Brain Pathol. 2018; 28(5):710-720 [PubMed] Related Publications
Central nervous system high-grade neuroepithelial tumors with BCOR alteration (CNS HGNET-BCOR) are a recently reported rare entity, identified as a small fraction of tumors previously institutionally diagnosed as so-called CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Their genetic characteristic is a somatic internal tandem duplication in the 3' end of BCOR (BCOR ITD), which has also been found in clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (CCSK) and soft tissue undifferentiated round cell sarcomas/primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumors of infancy (URCS/PMMTI), and these BCOR ITD-positive tumors have been reported to share similar pathological features. In this study, we performed a clinicopathological and molecular analysis of six cases of CNS HGNET-BCOR, and compared them with their counterparts in the kidney and soft tissue. Although these tumors had histologically similar structural patterns and characteristic monotonous nuclei with fine chromatin, CNS HGNET-BCOR exhibited glial cell morphology, ependymoma-like perivascular pseudorosettes and palisading necrosis, whereas these features were not evident in CCSK or URCS/PMMTI. Immunohistochemically, diffuse staining of Olig2 with a mixture of varying degrees of intensity, and only focal staining of GFAP, S-100 protein and synaptophysin were observed in CNS HGNET-BCOR, whereas these common neuroepithelial markers were negative in CCSK and URCS/PMMTI. Therefore, although CNS HGNET-BCOR, CCSK and URCS/PMMTI may constitute a group of BCOR ITD-positive tumors, only CNS HGNET-BCOR has histological features suggestive of glial differentiation. In conclusion, we think CNS HGNET-BCOR are a certain type of neuroepithelial tumor relatively close to glioma, not CCSK or URCS/PMMTI occurring in the CNS.

Mariño-Enriquez A, Lauria A, Przybyl J, et al.
BCOR Internal Tandem Duplication in High-grade Uterine Sarcomas.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(3):335-341 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs) are mesenchymal uterine tumors characterized by recurrent genetic events, most commonly chromosomal rearrangements, that create oncogenic gene fusions. High-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (HG-ESSs), as defined in the 2014 World Health Organization Classification, typically contain oncogenic YWHAE-NUTM2 fusions; however, although not well characterized, there are tumors morphologically overlapping with HG-ESS that do not contain the YWHAE-NUTM2 fusions. These fusions are also found in certain pediatric primitive sarcomas, including clear cell sarcoma of the kidney and soft tissue undifferentiated round cell sarcoma of infancy. A subset of these same pediatric sarcomas lack YWHAE-NUTM2 fusions and instead have internal tandem duplications (ITDs) involving exon 15 of BCOR (BCOR ITD). We investigated the presence of BCOR ITD by targeted sequencing in a series of 31 uterine sarcomas, comprising 5 low-grade ESS, 13 uterine sarcomas diagnosed as HG-ESS, and 13 undifferentiated uterine sarcomas. BCOR ITD were present in 1 uterine sarcoma diagnosed as HG-ESS and 2 undifferentiated sarcomas with uniform nuclear features, all of which lacked any of the recurrent chromosome translocations known to occur in ESS. These 3 high-grade sarcomas with BCOR ITD affected young patients (average age, 24) and morphologically were composed of nonpleomorphic spindle cells admixed with epithelioid and round cell areas. Focal myxoid stroma was present in 2 cases. Mitotic activity was brisk, necrosis was present, and there was lymphovascular involvement in all cases. The 3 uterine sarcomas with BCOR ITD exhibited diffuse cyclin D1 immunohistochemical expression and there was diffuse BCOR expression in the 2 cases tested. Long-term follow-up in 2 patients revealed 1 to be tumor-free after 22 years and the other to die of disease after 8 years. In conclusion, BCOR ITD is an oncogenic alternative to YWHAE-NUTM2 fusion in high-grade uterine sarcomas with uniform nuclear features. We propose that neoplasms with the morphology described and BCOR ITD be regarded as a unique subtype of high-grade uterine sarcoma, possibly within the family of endometrial stromal neoplasia.

Chang KTE, Goytain A, Tucker T, et al.
Development and Evaluation of a Pan-Sarcoma Fusion Gene Detection Assay Using the NanoString nCounter Platform.
J Mol Diagn. 2018; 20(1):63-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
The NanoString nCounter assay is a high-throughput hybridization technique using target-specific probes that can be customized to test for numerous fusion transcripts in a single assay using RNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material. We designed a NanoString assay targeting 174 unique fusion junctions in 25 sarcoma types. The study cohort comprised 212 cases, 96 of which showed fusion gene expression by the NanoString assay, including all 20 Ewing sarcomas, 11 synovial sarcomas, and 5 myxoid liposarcomas tested. Among these 96 cases, 15 showed fusion expression not identified by standard clinical assay, including EWSR1-FLI1, EWSR1-ERG, BCOR-CCNB3, ZC3H7B-BCOR, HEY1-NCOA2, CIC-DUX4, COL1A1-PDGFB, MYH9-USP6, YAP1-TFE3, and IRF2BP2-CDX1 fusions. There were no false-positive results; however, four cases were false negative when compared with clinically available fluorescence in situ hybridization or RT-PCR testing. When batched as six cases, the per-sample reagent cost was less than conventional techniques, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization, with technologist hands-on time of 1.2 hours per case and assay time of 36 hours. In summary, the NanoString nCounter Sarcoma Fusion CodeSet reliably and cost-effectively identifies fusion genes in sarcomas using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material, including many fusions missed by standard clinical assays, and can serve as a first-line clinical diagnostic test for sarcoma fusion gene identification, replacing multiple individual clinical assays.

Mackay A, Burford A, Carvalho D, et al.
Integrated Molecular Meta-Analysis of 1,000 Pediatric High-Grade and Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma.
Cancer Cell. 2017; 32(4):520-537.e5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We collated data from 157 unpublished cases of pediatric high-grade glioma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma and 20 publicly available datasets in an integrated analysis of >1,000 cases. We identified co-segregating mutations in histone-mutant subgroups including loss of FBXW7 in H3.3G34R/V, TOP3A rearrangements in H3.3K27M, and BCOR mutations in H3.1K27M. Histone wild-type subgroups are refined by the presence of key oncogenic events or methylation profiles more closely resembling lower-grade tumors. Genomic aberrations increase with age, highlighting the infant population as biologically and clinically distinct. Uncommon pathway dysregulation is seen in small subsets of tumors, further defining the molecular diversity of the disease, opening up avenues for biological study and providing a basis for functionally defined future treatment stratification.

Matsuyama A, Shiba E, Umekita Y, et al.
Clinicopathologic Diversity of Undifferentiated Sarcoma With BCOR-CCNB3 Fusion: Analysis of 11 Cases With a Reappraisal of the Utility of Immunohistochemistry for BCOR and CCNB3.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2017; 41(12):1713-1721 [PubMed] Related Publications
Undifferentiated sarcoma harboring the BCOR-CCNB3 fusion is characterized by its predilection to affect skeletons of adolescent males, cellular small round/spindle cell morphology, and CCNB3 immunoreactivity. We analyzed 11 cases of BCOR-CCNB3 sarcoma, 10 of which were identified in a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based screen of 85 patient samples recorded in our database as unclassified small round or spindle cell sarcomas. BCOR rearrangements were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 8 tumors. All patients were males aged between 6 and 31 years. In addition to 5 tumors in soft tissue and 4 in the axial or appendicular skeletons, which are typical locations, a tumor was located in the paranasal sinus and another in the lung. Microscopically, the tumors comprised proliferating atypical spindle and/or small round cells with diverse morphologic features such as small concentric whorls, myxoid stroma, a hemangiopericytomatous appearance, and/or hyalinized collagen resembling a solitary fibrous tumor, and angiomatous or slit-like spaces containing extravasated erythrocytes. Tumor cells were immunoreactive to CCNB3 (9/11), BCOR (10/10), TLE1 (6/10), bcl-2 (9/11), CD99 (8/10), CD56 (8/10), c-kit (4/10), and cyclin D1 (10/10). In an immunohistochemical analysis of an additional 412 small round or spindle cell tumors, CCNB3 was detected in 6 (1.5%) and BCOR in 18 (4.4%). Our analysis highlights the varying clinicopathologic features of this tumor, which partially overlap with other small round or spindle cell tumors, including solitary fibrous tumor and vascular tumors. Because CCNB3 and BCOR immunohistochemistry lacks adequate sensitivity and specificity, a molecular genetic approach remains essential for diagnosis.

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