Research IndicatorsGraph generated 26 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 26 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (1)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: ARID4A (cancer-related)
Conway K, Edmiston SN, May R, et al.DNA methylation profiling in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study defines cancer subclasses differing in clinicopathologic characteristics and survival.
Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16(5):450 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with several intrinsic subtypes differing by hormone receptor (HR) status, molecular profiles, and prognosis. However, the role of DNA methylation in breast cancer development and progression and its relationship with the intrinsic tumor subtypes are not fully understood.
METHODS: A microarray targeting promoters of cancer-related genes was used to evaluate DNA methylation at 935 CpG sites in 517 breast tumors from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based study of invasive breast cancer.
RESULTS: Consensus clustering using methylation (β) values for the 167 most variant CpG loci defined four clusters differing most distinctly in HR status, intrinsic subtype (luminal versus basal-like), and p53 mutation status. Supervised analyses for HR status, subtype, and p53 status identified 266 differentially methylated CpG loci with considerable overlap. Genes relatively hypermethylated in HR+, luminal A, or p53 wild-type breast cancers included FABP3, FGF2, FZD9, GAS7, HDAC9, HOXA11, MME, PAX6, POMC, PTGS2, RASSF1, RBP1, and SCGB3A1, whereas those more highly methylated in HR-, basal-like, or p53 mutant tumors included BCR, C4B, DAB2IP, MEST, RARA, SEPT5, TFF1, THY1, and SERPINA5. Clustering also defined a hypermethylated luminal-enriched tumor cluster 3 that gene ontology analysis revealed to be enriched for homeobox and other developmental genes (ASCL2, DLK1, EYA4, GAS7, HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXB13, IHH, IPF1, ISL1, PAX6, TBX1, SOX1, and SOX17). Although basal-enriched cluster 2 showed worse short-term survival, the luminal-enriched cluster 3 showed worse long-term survival but was not independently prognostic in multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, likely due to the mostly early stage cases in this dataset.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that epigenetic patterns are strongly associated with HR status, subtype, and p53 mutation status and may show heterogeneity within tumor subclass. Among HR+ breast tumors, a subset exhibiting a gene signature characterized by hypermethylation of developmental genes and poorer clinicopathologic features may have prognostic value and requires further study. Genes differentially methylated between clinically important tumor subsets have roles in differentiation, development, and tumor growth and may be critical to establishing and maintaining tumor phenotypes and clinical outcomes.
Lehalle D, Sanlaville D, Guimier A, et al.Multiple congenital anomalies-intellectual disability (MCA-ID) and neuroblastoma in a patient harboring a de novo 14q23.1q23.3 deletion.
Am J Med Genet A. 2014; 164A(5):1310-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is the most frequent extra cranial solid tumor in infants and children. Genetic predisposition to neuroblastoma has been suspected previously due to familial cases of sporadic NB and predisposition to NB in several syndromes. Here, we report on a de novo 14q23.1-q23.3 microdeletion in a male presenting with a neuroblastoma diagnosed at 9 months, and spherocytosis, congenital heart defect, cryptorchidism, hypoplasia of corpus callosum, epilepsy, and developmental delay. Myc-associated-factor X (MAX) haploinsufficiency could be regarded as the predisposing factor to NB. Indeed 14q deletion is a recurrent somatic rearrangement in NB and MAX somatic and germline loss of function mutation have recently been described in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. However, MAX was expressed in the tumor of the patient we report on and, accordingly, loss of heterozygosity, mutation, or promoter methylation were excluded. In addition, we discuss the potential involvement in the clinical spectrum presented by the patient of five of the deleted genes, namely DAAM1, PLEKHG3, SPTB, AKAP5, and ARID4A.
Cajuso T, Hänninen UA, Kondelin J, et al.Exome sequencing reveals frequent inactivating mutations in ARID1A, ARID1B, ARID2 and ARID4A in microsatellite unstable colorectal cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(3):611-23 [PubMed
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ARID1A has been identified as a novel tumor suppressor gene in ovarian cancer and subsequently in various other tumor types. ARID1A belongs to the ARID domain containing gene family, which comprises of 15 genes involved, for example, in transcriptional regulation, proliferation and chromatin remodeling. In this study, we used exome sequencing data to analyze the mutation frequency of all the ARID domain containing genes in 25 microsatellite unstable (MSI) colorectal cancers (CRCs) as a first systematic effort to characterize the mutation pattern of the whole ARID gene family. Genes which fulfilled the selection criteria in this discovery set (mutations in at least 4/25 [16%] samples, including at least one nonsense or splice site mutation) were chosen for further analysis in an independent validation set of 21 MSI CRCs. We found that in addition to ARID1A, which was mutated in 39% of the tumors (18/46), also ARID1B (13%, 6/46), ARID2 (13%, 6/46) and ARID4A (20%, 9/46) were frequently mutated. In all these genes, the mutations were distributed along the entire length of the gene, thus distinguishing them from typical MSI target genes previously described. Our results indicate that in addition to ARID1A, other members of the ARID gene family may play a role in MSI CRC.
AIMS: Cervical Cancer (CC) is one of the most important health problems in women. It frequently presents genetic changes at chromosome region 3q21. This region contains the Cellular Retinol Binding Protein 1 gene (CRBP1) which has been implicated as an important element in the development of other types of cancer. The main goal of the present work was to determine the molecular alterations of CRBP1 and its relationship to CC.
METHODS: To determine the molecular alterations of CRBP1 gene in CC; twenty-six CC and twenty-six healthy cervix samples were evaluated for: 1) Copy number gain by real-time PCR analysis, 2) expression levels by an immunohistochemistry assay on tissue microarray, and 3) the methylation status of the CRBP1 promoter region.
RESULTS: The increase in CRBP1 copy number was observed in 10 out of the 26 CC samples analyzed, while healthy cervices samples showed no changes in the copy number. In addition, there was a lack of expression of the CRBP1 gene in an important number of the CC samples (17/26), and the CRBP1 gene promoter was methylated in 15/26 of the CC samples. Interestingly, there was a significant association between the lack of expression of the CRBP1 gene and its methylation status.
CONCLUSIONS: The data indicates that, both activating and inactivating changes in the CRBP1 gene could be significant events in the development and progression of CC, and the lack of expression of the CRBP1 protein could be related with to the development of CC. We believe that there is enough evidence to consider to CRBP1 gene as a tumor suppressor gene for CC.
Kim SJ, Sohn I, Do IG, et al.Gene expression profiles for the prediction of progression-free survival in diffuse large B cell lymphoma: results of a DASL assay.
Ann Hematol. 2014; 93(3):437-47 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We performed the whole genome cDNA-mediated annealing, selection and ligation assay with 164 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples to develop robust prognostic gene expression profiles in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The prognostic gene expression profiles were developed and validated by a gradient lasso and leave-one-out cross-validation process. We identified a set of genes whose expression provided prognostic indicators from whole data set (PRKCDBP, CASP10, FAM3C, KCNK12, MAN1A2, PRND, RAB1A, TMEM39B, SLC6A6, MMP12, FEM1B, C3orh37, RBP1, HK1, LOC400464, KIAA0746, and SLC25A23). This gene expression profile-based risk model could classify patients into two cross-validated risk groups with a significant difference in 5-year progression-free survival rates (71.1 vs. 45.5 %) and with a hazard ratio for recurrence of 2.45 (95 % CI, 1.44-4.16, P = 0.001). This model provided prognostic information independent of the International Prognostic Index (IPI), and discriminated high-risk group from patients belong to high/high-intermediate risk of IPI and activated B cell-like type. Thus, gene expression profiling from FFPE could provide additional prognostic information for diffuse large B cell lymphoma and our data underscore the need for development of risk-adapted treatment strategies based on gene expression profiles.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Decades of investigations and the recent effort of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project have mapped many molecular alterations in GBM cells. Alterations on DNAs may dysregulate gene expressions and drive malignancy of tumors. It is thus important to uncover causal and statistical dependency between 'effector' molecular aberrations and 'target' gene expressions in GBMs. A rich collection of prior studies attempted to combine copy number variation (CNV) and mRNA expression data. However, systematic methods to integrate multiple types of cancer genomic data-gene mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms, CNVs, DNA methylations, mRNA and microRNA expressions and clinical information-are relatively scarce. We proposed an algorithm to build 'association modules' linking effector molecular aberrations and target gene expressions and applied the module-finding algorithm to the integrated TCGA GBM data sets. The inferred association modules were validated by six tests using external information and datasets of central nervous system tumors: (i) indication of prognostic effects among patients; (ii) coherence of target gene expressions; (iii) retention of effector-target associations in external data sets; (iv) recurrence of effector molecular aberrations in GBM; (v) functional enrichment of target genes; and (vi) co-citations between effectors and targets. Modules associated with well-known molecular aberrations of GBM-such as chromosome 7 amplifications, chromosome 10 deletions, EGFR and NF1 mutations-passed the majority of the validation tests. Furthermore, several modules associated with less well-reported molecular aberrations-such as chromosome 11 CNVs, CD40, PLXNB1 and GSTM1 methylations, and mir-21 expressions-were also validated by external information. In particular, modules constituting trans-acting effects with chromosome 11 CNVs and cis-acting effects with chromosome 10 CNVs manifested strong negative and positive associations with survival times in brain tumors. By aligning the information of association modules with the established GBM subclasses based on transcription or methylation levels, we found each subclass possessed multiple concurrent molecular aberrations. Furthermore, the joint molecular characteristics derived from 16 association modules had prognostic power not explained away by the strong biomarker of CpG island methylator phenotypes. Functional and survival analyses indicated that immune/inflammatory responses and epithelial-mesenchymal transitions were among the most important determining processes of prognosis. Finally, we demonstrated that certain molecular aberrations uniquely recurred in GBM but were relatively rare in non-GBM glioma cells. These results justify the utility of an integrative analysis on cancer genomes and provide testable characterizations of driver aberration events in GBM.
Outcome in multiple myeloma is highly variable and a better understanding of the factors that influence disease biology is essential to understand and predict behavior in individual patients. In the present study, we analyzed combined genomewide DNA methylation and gene expression data of patients treated in the Medical Research Council Myeloma IX trial. We used these data to identify epigenetically repressed tumor suppressor genes with prognostic relevance in myeloma. We identified 195 genes with changes in methylation status that were significantly associated with prognosis. Combining DNA methylation and gene expression data led to the identification of the epigenetically regulated tumor modulating genes GPX3, RBP1, SPARC, and TGFBI. Hypermethylation of these genes was associated with significantly shorter overall survival, independent of age, International Staging System score, and adverse cytogenetics. The 4 differentially methylated and expressed genes are known to mediate important tumor suppressive functions including response to chemotherapy (TGFBI), interaction with the microenvironment (SPARC), retinoic acid signaling (RBP1), and the response to oxidative stress (GPX3), which could explain the prognostic impact of their differential methylation. Assessment of the DNA methylation status of the identified genes could contribute to the molecular characterization of myeloma, which is prerequisite for an individualized treatment approach.
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field.
Honda M, Yamashita T, Yamashita T, et al.Peretinoin, an acyclic retinoid, improves the hepatic gene signature of chronic hepatitis C following curative therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:191 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The acyclic retinoid, peretinoin, has been shown to be effective for suppressing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence after definitive treatment in a small-scale randomized clinical trial. However, little has been documented about the mechanism by which peretinoin exerts its inhibitory effects against recurrent HCC in humans in vivo.
METHODS: Twelve hepatitis C virus-positive patients whose HCC had been eradicated through curative resection or ablation underwent liver biopsy at baseline and week 8 of treatment with either a daily dose of 300 or 600 mg peretinoin. RNA isolated from biopsy samples was subjected to gene expression profile analysis.
RESULTS: Peretinoin treatment elevated the expression levels of IGFBP6, RBP1, PRB4, CEBPA, G0S2, TGM2, GPRC5A, CYP26B1, and many other retinoid target genes. Elevated expression was also observed for interferon-, Wnt-, and tumor suppressor-related genes. By contrast, decreased expression levels were found for mTOR- and tumor progression-related genes. Interestingly, gene expression profiles for week 8 of peretinoin treatment could be classified into two groups of recurrence and non-recurrence with a prediction accuracy rate of 79.6% (P<0.05). In the liver of patients with non-recurrence, expression of PDGFC and other angiogenesis genes, cancer stem cell marker genes, and genes related to tumor progression was down-regulated, while expression of genes related to hepatocyte differentiation, tumor suppression genes, and other genes related to apoptosis induction was up-regulated.
CONCLUSIONS: Gene expression profiling at week 8 of peretinoin treatment could successfully predict HCC recurrence within 2 years. This study is the first to show the effect of peretinoin in suppressing HCC recurrence in vivo based on gene expression profiles and provides a molecular basis for understanding the efficacy of peretinoin.
BACKGROUND: Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and associated CpG island hypermethylation represent early events in the development of low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas. To identify candidate tumor suppressor genes whose promoter methylation may contribute to gliomagenesis, we compared methylation profiles of IDH1 mutant (MUT) and IDH1 wild-type (WT) tumors using massively parallel reduced representation bisulfite sequencing.
METHODS: Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing was performed on ten pathologically matched WT and MUT glioma samples and compared with data from a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme technique and data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Methylation in the gene retinol-binding protein 1 (RBP1) was identified in IDH1 mutant tumors and further analyzed with primer-based bisulfite sequencing. Correlation between IDH1/IDH2 mutation status and RBP1 methylation was evaluated with Spearman correlation. Survival data were collected retrospectively and analyzed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Methylome analysis identified coordinated CpG island hypermethylation in IDH1 MUT gliomas, consistent with previous reports. RBP1, important in retinoic acid metabolism, was found to be hypermethylated in 76 of 79 IDH1 MUT, 3 of 3 IDH2 MUT, and 0 of 116 IDH1/IDH2 WT tumors. IDH1/IDH2 mutation was highly correlated with RBP1 hypermethylation (n = 198; Spearman R = 0.94, 95% confidence interval = 0.92 to 0.95, P < .001). The Cancer Genome Atlas showed IDH1 MUT tumors (n = 23) to be RBP1-hypermethylated with decreased RBP1 expression compared with WT tumors (n = 124). Among patients with primary glioblastoma, patients with RBP1-unmethylated tumors (n = 102) had decreased median overall survival compared with patients with RBP1-methylated tumors (n = 22) (20.3 months vs 36.8 months, respectively; hazard ratio of death = 2.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.30 to 4.75, P = .006).
CONCLUSION: RBP1 promoter hypermethylation is found in nearly all IDH1 and IDH2 mutant gliomas and is associated with improved patient survival. Because RBP1 is involved in retinoic acid synthesis, our results suggest that dysregulation of retinoic acid metabolism may contribute to glioma formation along the IDH1/IDH2-mutant pathway.
Manzo SG, Zhou ZL, Wang YQ, et al.Natural product triptolide mediates cancer cell death by triggering CDK7-dependent degradation of RNA polymerase II.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(20):5363-73 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Triptolide is a bioactive ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine that exhibits diverse biologic properties, including anticancer properties. Among its many putative targets, this compound has been reported to bind to XPB, the largest subunit of general transcription factor TFIIH, and to cause degradation of the largest subunit Rpb1 of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). In this study, we clarify multiple important questions concerning the significance and basis for triptolide action at this core target. Triptolide decreased Rpb1 levels in cancer cells in a manner that was correlated tightly with its cytotoxic activity. Compound exposure blocked RNAPII at promoters and decreased chromatin-bound RNAPII, both upstream and within all genes that were examined, also leading to Ser-5 hyperphosphorylation and increased ubiqutination within the Rbp1 carboxy-terminal domain. Notably, cotreatment with inhibitors of the proteasome or the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK7 inhibitors abolished the ability of triptolide to ablate Rpb1. Together, our results show that triptolide triggers a CDK7-mediated degradation of RNAPII that may offer an explanation to many of its therapeutic properties, including its robust and promising anticancer properties.
Zhang X, Li HM, Liu Z, et al.Loss of heterozygosity and methylation of multiple tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 3 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Gastroenterol. 2013; 48(1):132-43 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic and epigenetic alterations are the two key mechanisms in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, how they contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis and the correlation between them has not been fully elucidated.
METHODS: A total of 48 paired HCCs and noncancerous tissues were used to detect loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and the methylation profiles of five tumor suppressor genes (RASSF1A, BLU, FHIT, CRBP1, and HLTF) on chromosome 3 by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and methylation-specific PCR. Gene expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR.
RESULTS: Sixteen of 48 (33.3 %) HCCs had LOH on at least one locus on chromosome 3, and two smallest common deleted regions (3p22.3-24.3 and 3p12.3-14.2) were identified. RASSF1A, BLU, and FHIT showed very high frequencies of methylation in HCCs (100, 81.3, and 64.6 %, respectively) and noncancerous tissues, but not in liver tissues from control patients. Well-differentiated HCCs showed high methylation frequencies of these genes but very low frequencies of LOH. Furthermore, BLU methylation was associated with an increased level of alpha-fetoprotein, and FHIT methylation was inversely correlated with HCC recurrence. In comparison, CRBP1 showed moderate frequencies of methylation, while HLTF showed low frequencies of methylation, and CRBP1 methylation occurred mainly in elderly patients. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine demethylated at least one of these genes and restored their expression in a DNA methylation-dependent or -independent manner.
CONCLUSIONS: Hypermethylation of RASSF1A, BLU, and FHIT is a common and very early event in hepatocarcinogenesis; CRBP1 methylation may also be involved in the later stage. Although LOH was not too frequent on chromosome 3, it may play a role as another mechanism in hepatocarcinogenesis.
Sun W, Guo C, Meng X, et al.Differential expression of PAI-RBP1, C1orf142, and COTL1 in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines with different tumor metastatic potential.
J Investig Med. 2012; 60(4):689-94 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most common malignancies in the modern world. Its recurrence is mainly due to its ability to invade and metastasize. However, the precise mechanism for tumor development and metastasis is still not fully understood. To shed light on the development of lung cancer, the human giant cell lung carcinoma cell lines 95D with high metastatic potential and 95C with low metastatic potential were selected in this study. The 2 cell lines originated from the same parental cell and share a similar genetic background. In the current study, we identified 3 differentially expressed proteins in 95C and 95D cell lines, namely, PAI-RBP1, C1orf142, and COTL1, by using 2-dimensional electrophoresis proteomics analysis. We found that PAI-RBP1 and C1orf142 expression levels were higher in 95D than in 95C cells, whereas COTL1 expression level was lower in 95D when compared to 95C cells. We also confirmed these results by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses. The messenger RNA and protein levels of PAI-RBP1 and C1orf142 were much higher in 95D than in 95C cells, and COTL1 expression level was lower in 95D than in 95C cells. The PAI-RBP1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 70 NSCLC and 7 normal lung tissue samples from patients. PAI-RBP1 expression level was higher in tumor tissues (positive staining in 87.1% of cases [61/70]) than in normal tissues (positive staining in 14.3% of cases [1/7]). In conclusion, by studying protein expression in NSCLC cell lines with high and low metastasis as well as in human lung cancer tissues, we have identified 3 proteins, namely, PAI-RBP1, C1orf142, and COTL1, which were differentially expressed in NSCLC cell lines with different metastatic potential. In addition, we also found that PAI-RBP1 might contribute to NSCLC development.
Castillo SD, Matheu A, Mariani N, et al.Novel transcriptional targets of the SRY-HMG box transcription factor SOX4 link its expression to the development of small cell lung cancer.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(1):176-86 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The HMG box transcription factor SOX4 involved in neuronal development is amplified and overexpressed in a subset of lung cancers, suggesting that it may be a driver oncogene. In this study, we sought to develop this hypothesis including by defining targets of SOX4 that may mediate its involvement in lung cancer. Ablating SOX4 expression in SOX4-amplified lung cancer cells revealed a gene expression signature that included genes involved in neuronal development such as PCDHB, MYB, RBP1, and TEAD2. Direct recruitment of SOX4 to gene promoters was associated with their upregulation upon ectopic overexpression of SOX4. We confirmed upregulation of the SOX4 expression signature in a panel of primary lung tumors, validating their specific response by a comparison using embryonic fibroblasts from Sox4-deficient mice. Interestingly, we found that small cell lung cancer (SCLC), a subtype of lung cancer with neuroendocrine characteristics, was generally characterized by high levels of SOX2, SOX4, and SOX11 along with the SOX4-specific gene expression signature identified. Taken together, our findings identify a functional role for SOX genes in SCLC, particularly for SOX4 and several novel targets defined in this study.
Peralta R, Valdivia A, Alvarado-Cabrero I, et al.Correlation between expression of cellular retinol-binding protein 1 and its methylation status in larynx cancer.
J Clin Pathol. 2012; 65(1):46-50 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIMS: The authors have previously reported that cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (CRBP1) gene gain and its expression correlated significantly with survival in laryngeal carcinoma patients. The authors hypothesised that inactivation of the CRBP1 gene through CpG methylation is associated with patient status and gene expression. In this work, the authors determine the expression and methylation status of the CRBP1 gene and its correlation with clinical variables of laryngeal carcinoma patients.
METHODS: The CRBP1 gene methylation promoter was assessed by methylation specific PCR analysis in tissue samples from larynx cancer specimens and its expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on paraffin embedded tissue using tissue microarray. The results were then compared with the clinical pathological variables and outcome measures. The study included 46 samples from patients with non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx without any previous oncological treatments.
RESULTS: Lack of CRBP1 expression was seen in 17 of the 46 laryngeal carcinoma samples, while the remaining 29 samples showed increased expression. Significant associations were found between CRBP1 expression and methylation and patient status. There was a tendency for association in all clinical stages of the disease. CRBP1 gene expression and its unmethylated promoter correlated significantly with survival (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: An early event of larynx cancer could be CRBP1 expression related to unmethylation of the promoter region. These features could also be associated with good response and survival. The authors hypothesised that increased expression and unmethylated promoter of the CRBP1 gene could be considered as markers for larynx cancer.
Mougeot JL, Bahrani-Mougeot FK, Lockhart PB, Brennan MTMicroarray analyses of oral punch biopsies from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients treated with chemotherapy.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011; 112(4):446-52 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: Understanding the pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (CIOM) is vital to develop therapies for this common, dose-limiting side effect of cancer treatment. We investigated molecular events in CIOM from buccal mucosa tissue collected before and 2 days after chemotherapy from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and healthy controls by microarray analysis.
METHODS: Microarray analysis was performed using Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array on buccal mucosa punch biopsies from patients with AML before (n = 4) or after chemotherapy (n = 4), and from healthy controls (n = 3). Following Robust Multichip Average (RMA) normalization, we applied Linear Models for Microarray data (LIMMA) and Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) for data analysis using the TM4/TMeV v4.5.1 program.
RESULTS: LIMMA and SAM identified genes potentially affected by the presence of AML, including homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 1 (HIPK1), mex-3 homolog D (MEX3D), and genes potentially affected by chemotherapy, including argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1), notch homolog 1 (NOTCH1), zinc transporter ZIP6 (SLC39A6), and TP53-regulated inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (TRIAP1). The expression of 2 genes with potential biological significance in oral mucositis, ASS1 and SLC39A6 (alias LIV-1), was confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that AML-specific deregulated immune responses and inflammatory tissue damage to the oral mucosa caused by chemotherapy may not be overcome by the natural cellular repair processes and therefore contribute to CIOM.
Promoter methylation analysis of genes frequently silenced in breast cancer is a promising indicator of breast cancer risk, as these methylation events are thought to occur long before presentation of disease. The numerous exfoliated epithelial cells present in breast milk may provide the breast epithelial DNA needed for detailed methylation analysis and assessment of breast cancer risk. Fresh breast milk samples and health, lifestyle, and reproductive history questionnaires were collected from 111 women. Pyrosequencing analysis was conducted on DNA isolated from the exfoliated epithelial cells immunomagnetically separated from the total cell population in the breast milk of 102 women. A total of 65 CpG sites were examined in six tumor suppressor genes: PYCARD (also known as ASC or TMS1), CDH1, GSTP1, RBP1 (also known as CRBP1), SFRP1, and RASSF1. A sufficient quantity of DNA was obtained for meaningful analysis of promoter methylation; women donated an average of 86 ml of milk with a mean yield of 32,700 epithelial cells per ml. Methylation scores were in general low as expected of benign tissue, but analysis of outlier methylation scores revealed a significant relationship between breast cancer risk, as indicated by previous biopsy, and methylation score for several CpG sites in CDH1, GSTP1, SFRP1, and RBP1. Methylation of RASSF1 was positively correlated with women's age irrespective of her reproductive history. Promoter methylation patterns in DNA from breast milk epithelial cells can likely be used to assess breast cancer risk. Additional studies of women at high breast cancer risk are warranted.
BACKGROUND: The development and progression of cancer depend on its genetic characteristics as well as on the interactions with its microenvironment. Understanding these interactions may contribute to diagnostic and prognostic evaluations and to the development of new cancer therapies. Aiming to investigate potential mechanisms by which the tumor microenvironment might contribute to a cancer phenotype, we evaluated soluble paracrine factors produced by stromal and neoplastic cells which may influence proliferation and gene and protein expression.
METHODS: The study was carried out on the epithelial cancer cell line (Hep-2) and fibroblasts isolated from a primary oral cancer. We combined a conditioned-medium technique with subtraction hybridization approach, quantitative PCR and proteomics, in order to evaluate gene and protein expression influenced by soluble paracrine factors produced by stromal and neoplastic cells.
RESULTS: We observed that conditioned medium from fibroblast cultures (FCM) inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in Hep-2 cells. In neoplastic cells, 41 genes and 5 proteins exhibited changes in expression levels in response to FCM and, in fibroblasts, 17 genes and 2 proteins showed down-regulation in response to conditioned medium from Hep-2 cells (HCM). Nine genes were selected and the expression results of 6 down-regulated genes (ARID4A, CALR, GNB2L1, RNF10, SQSTM1, USP9X) were validated by real time PCR.
CONCLUSIONS: A significant and common denominator in the results was the potential induction of signaling changes associated with immune or inflammatory response in the absence of a specific protein.
Ovarian/primary peritoneal carcinoma and breast carcinoma are the gynaecological cancers that most frequently involve the serosal cavities.With the objective of improving on the limited diagnostic panel currently available for the differential diagnosis of these two malignancies,as well as to define tumour-specific biological targets, we compared their global gene expression patterns. Gene expression profiles of 10 serous ovarian/peritoneal and eight ductal breast carcinoma effusions were analysed using the HumanRef-8 BeadChip from Illumina.Differentially expressed candidate genes were validated using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using all 54,675 genes in the array separated ovarian from breast carcinoma samples. We identified 288 unique probes that were significantly differentially expressed in the two cancers by greater than 3.5-fold, of which 81 and 207 were overexpressed in breast and ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma, respectively. SAM analysis identified 1078 differentially expressed probes with false discovery rate less than 0.05. Genes overexpressed in breast carcinoma included TFF1, TFF3, FOXA1, CA12, GATA3, SDC1, PITX1, TH, EHFD1, EFEMP1, TOB1 and KLF2. Genes overexpressed in ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma included SPON1, RBP1, MFGE8, TM4SF12, MMP7, KLK5/6/7, FOLR1/3,PAX8, APOL2 and NRCAM. The differential expression of 14 genes was validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and differences in 5 gene products were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Expression profiling distinguishes ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma from breast carcinoma and identifies genes that are differentially expressed in these two tumour types. The molecular signatures unique to these cancers may facilitate their differential diagnosis and may provide a molecular basis for therapeutic target discovery.
Tsunoda S, Smith E, De Young NJ, et al.Methylation of CLDN6, FBN2, RBP1, RBP4, TFPI2, and TMEFF2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2009; 21(4):1067-73 [PubMed
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In the development and progression of cancer, tumor suppressor genes may be silenced by mechanisms such as methylation. Thus the discovery of new genes silenced by methylation may uncover new tumor suppressor genes, and improve our understanding of cancer biology. In this study we investigated the methylation of 19 genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methylation was measured in 10 of these genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines: CDH13, CLDN6, C16orf62, FBN2, FNBP1, ID4, RBP1, RBP4, TFPI2 and TMEFF2. To determine if there was a correlation between DNA methylation and gene silencing, each cell line was cultured with or without the demethylating drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (aza-dC). For 6 genes (CLDN6, FBN2, RBP1, RBP4, TFPI2 and TMEFF2) there was an association between reduction of methylation and increase in mRNA expression in the demethylated cell lines. The frequency of the methylation of these 6 genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma resection specimens was also investigated. All 6 genes showed more frequent methylation in the tumor than the matched proximal resection margin of uninvolved esophagus. There was a significant difference in the frequency of methylation and in the extent of the methylation between the cancer and the margin tissues for CLDN6, FBN2, TFPI2 and TMEFF2 (P=0.0007, P=0.0048 P=0.0002 and P<0.0001, respectively). This is the first report of gene silencing by methylation of CLDN6, FBN2, RBP4, TFPI2 and TMEFF2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the metaplastic replacement of squamous with columnar epithelium in the esophagus, as a result of reflux. It is the major risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Methylation of CpG dinucleotides of normally unmethylated genes is associated with silencing of their expression, and is common in EAC. This study was designed to determine at what stage, in the progression from BE to EAC, methylation of key genes occurs.
RESULTS: We examined nine genes (APC, CDKN2A, ID4, MGMT, RBP1, RUNX3, SFRP1, TIMP3, and TMEFF2), frequently methylated in multiple cancer types, in a panel of squamous (19 biopsies from patients without BE or EAC, 16 from patients with BE, 21 from patients with EAC), BE (40 metaplastic, seven high grade dysplastic) and 37 EAC tissues. The methylation frequency, the percentage of samples that had any extent of methylation, for each of the nine genes in the EAC (95%, 59%, 76%, 57%, 70%, 73%, 95%, 74% and 83% respectively) was significantly higher than in any of the squamous groups. The methylation frequency for each of the nine genes in the metaplastic BE (95%, 28%, 78%, 48%, 58%, 48%, 93%, 88% and 75% respectively) was significantly higher than in the squamous samples except for CDKN2A and RBP1. The methylation frequency did not differ between BE and EAC samples, except for CDKN2A and RUNX3 which were significantly higher in EAC. The methylation extent was an estimate of both the number of methylated alleles and the density of methylation on these alleles. This was significantly greater in EAC than in metaplastic BE for all genes except APC, MGMT and TIMP3. There was no significant difference in methylation extent for any gene between high grade dysplastic BE and EAC.
CONCLUSION: We found significant methylation in metaplastic BE, which for seven of the nine genes studied did not differ in frequency from that found in EAC. This is also the first report of gene silencing by methylation of ID4 in BE or EAC. This study suggests that metaplastic BE is a highly abnormal tissue, more similar to cancer tissue than to normal epithelium.
In an initial epigenetic characterization of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), we evaluated the DNA methylation levels of over 500 CpG islands. Twelve CpG islands (AR, CDKN1C, DLC1, DRD2, GATA4, GDNF, GRIN2B, MTHFR, MYOD1, NEUROD1, ONECUT2 and TFAP2A) showed significant methylation in over 85% of tumors. Interestingly, the methylation levels of a CpG island proximal to FLJ21062 differed between the activated B-cell-like (ABC-DLBCL) and germinal center B-cell-like (GCB-DLBCL) subtypes. In addition, we compared the methylation and expression status of 67 genes proximal (within 500 bp) to the methylation assays. We frequently observed that hypermethylated CpG islands are proximal to genes that are expressed at low or undetectable levels in tumors. However, many of these same genes were also poorly expressed in DLBCL tumors where their cognate CpG islands were hypomethylated. Nevertheless, the proportional reductions in BNIP3, MGMT, RBP1, GATA4, IGSF4, CRABP1 and FLJ21062 expression with increasing methylation suggest that epigenetic processes strongly influence these genes. Lastly, the moderate expression of several genes proximal to hypermethylated CpG tracts suggests that DNA methylation assays are not always accurate predictors of gene silencing. Overall, further investigation of the highlighted CpG islands as potential clinical biomarkers is warranted.
Song JY, Lee JK, Lee NW, et al.Microarray analysis of normal cervix, carcinoma in situ, and invasive cervical cancer: identification of candidate genes in pathogenesis of invasion in cervical cancer.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2008 Sep-Oct; 18(5):1051-9 [PubMed
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The objective of this study was to identify genes that are related to pathogenesis of carcinoma in situ (CIS) to invasive cervical cancer with the use of oligonucleotide microarray and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Each two cases of normal cervix, CIS, and invasive cervical cancer were investigated with DNA microarray technology. Differential gene expression profiles among them were analyzed. Expression levels of selected genes from the microarray results were confirmed by RT-PCR. The expressions of 15,286 genes were compared and 458 genes were upregulated or downregulated by twofold or more compared with each other group. Among 458 genes, 22 genes were upregulated and 40 genes were downregulated by twofold or more in invasive cervical cancer group compared with CIS group. RT-PCR analysis confirmed upregulation of 18 genes and downregulation of 5 genes in invasive cervical cancer group. RBP1, TFRC, SPP1, SAA1, ARHGAP8, and NDRG1, which were upregulated, and GATA3, PLAGL1, APOD, DUSP1, and CYR61, which were downregulated, were considered as candidate genes associated with invasion of cervical cancer.
The BRMS1 metastasis suppressor interacts with the protein AT-rich interactive domain 4A (ARID4A, RBBP1) as part of SIN3.histone deacetylase chromatin remodeling complexes. These transcriptional co-repressors regulate diverse cell phenotypes depending upon complex composition. To define BRMS1 complexes and their roles in metastasis suppression, we generated BRMS1 mutants (BRMS1(mut)) and mapped ARID4A interactions. BRMS1(L174D) disrupted direct interaction with ARID4A in yeast two-hybrid genetic screens but retained an indirect association with ARID4A in MDA-MB-231 and -435 human breast cancer cell lines by co-immunoprecipitation. Deletion of the first coiled-coil domain (BRMS1(DeltaCC1)) did not disrupt direct interaction in yeast two-hybrid screens but did prevent association by co-immunoprecipitation. These results suggest altered complex composition with BRMS1(mut). Although basal transcription repression was impaired and the pro-metastatic protein osteopontin was differentially down-regulated by BRMS1(L174D) and BRMS1(DeltaCC1), both down-regulated the epidermal growth factor receptor and suppressed metastasis in MDA-MB-231 and -435 breast cancer xenograft models. We conclude that BRMS1(mut), which modifies the composition of a SIN3.histone deacetylase chromatin remodeling complex, leads to altered gene expression profiles. Because metastasis requires the coordinate expression of multiple genes, down-regulation of at least one important gene, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor, had the ability to suppress metastasis. Understanding which interactions are necessary for particular biochemical/cellular functions may prove important for future strategies targeting metastasis.
Morrissey C, True LD, Roudier MP, et al.Differential expression of angiogenesis associated genes in prostate cancer bone, liver and lymph node metastases.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2008; 25(4):377-88 [PubMed
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Our objective was to elucidate phenotypic differences between prostate cancer (PCa) liver, lymph node, and bone metastases. PCa metastases were obtained through a rapid tissue acquisition necropsy protocol. We grossly dissected metastatic foci from frozen samples and performed expression analyses using cDNA microarrays. Immunohistochemical analyses using a tissue microarray from thirty individuals with PCa metastases to lymph nodes, liver, and bone was used to confirm the gene expression changes associated with each metastatic site. Transcript alterations statistically-associated with bone metastases included increased expression of IBSP (Bone sialoprotein), F13A1 (factor XIII), and decreased expression of EFNA1 (ephrin-A1) and ANGPT2 (angiopoietin-2) when compared to liver and lymph node metastases. The metastasis-associated changes in proteins involved in coagulation and angiogenesis prompted further analysis of additional factors known to participate in the clotting cascade and blood vessel formation (angiopoitein-1, PAI-1, uPA, PAI-RBP-1 and hepsin). We also assessed tumor-associated microvessel density and distribution in liver, lymph node, and bone metastasis. Intense fibrin(ogen) and fibulin-1 staining was localized to epithelial cells at the periphery of metastatic tumors possibly to facilitate angiogenesis. The expression of hepsin, uPA, PAI-RBP1, PAI-1, and factor XIII may influence fibrinolysis and are regulated by the tumor microenvironment. The expression of angiopoietin-2 and apparent silencing of angiopoietin-1 in PCa bone, liver, and lymph node metastases may be critical for angiogenesis in this tumor type. In addition, the resulting tumor-associated microvessel density and distribution was significantly different between liver and bone metastasis possibly in response to the protein expression changes detailed above.
Koensgen D, Mustea A, Klaman I, et al.Expression analysis and RNA localization of PAI-RBP1 (SERBP1) in epithelial ovarian cancer: association with tumor progression.
Gynecol Oncol. 2007; 107(2):266-73 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: The plasminogen activator system (PA) plays an important role in invasion and metastasis of solid tumors. The PA Inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is the main physiologic regulator of plasminogen activation. A recently characterized protein, PAI-RBP1 (PAI-1 mRNA Binding Protein 1), appears to regulate the stability of PAI-1 mRNA. Expression of PAI-RBP1 (the new, approved gene symbol is SERBP1) has not been previously analyzed in human tumors. We present herein for the first time expression analysis of PAI-RBP1 in epithelial ovarian cancer.
METHODS: PAI-RBP1 was identified as gene overexpressed in ovarian cancer by an in silico approach using EST database mining. A thorough expression analysis of PAI-RBP1 and PAI-1 was performed in normal ovary (n=4), benign (n=6) and malignant (n=42) ovarian lesions using non-radioactive RNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
RESULTS: PAI-RBP1 mRNA and PAI-1 were significantly overexpressed in tumor epithelial cells as compared to benign and normal ovarian tissue. A significant correlation between PAI-RBP1 expression and advanced disease stage (FIGO) was found (p=0.042).
CONCLUSION: In ovarian cancer, PAI-RBP1 is significantly overexpressed in tumor epithelial cells, suggesting a biological role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Its expression is higher in advanced disease, thus the prognostic significance of PAI-RBP1 in ovarian cancer remains to be evaluated in further studies.
Goodier JL, Zhang L, Vetter MR, Kazazian HHLINE-1 ORF1 protein localizes in stress granules with other RNA-binding proteins, including components of RNA interference RNA-induced silencing complex.
Mol Cell Biol. 2007; 27(18):6469-83 [PubMed
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LINE-1 retrotransposons constitute one-fifth of human DNA and have helped shape our genome. A full-length L1 encodes a 40-kDa RNA-binding protein (ORF1p) and a 150-kDa protein (ORF2p) with endonuclease and reverse transcriptase activities. ORF1p is distinctive in forming large cytoplasmic foci, which we identified as cytoplasmic stress granules. A phylogenetically conserved central region of the protein is critical for wild-type localization and retrotransposition. Yeast two-hybrid screens revealed several RNA-binding proteins that coimmunoprecipitate with ORF1p and colocalize with ORF1p in foci. Two of these proteins, YB-1 and hnRNPA1, were previously reported in stress granules. We identified additional proteins associated with stress granules, including DNA-binding protein A, 9G8, and plasminogen activator inhibitor RNA-binding protein 1 (PAI-RBP1). PAI-RBP1 is a homolog of VIG, a part of the Drosophila melanogaster RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Other RISC components, including Ago2 and FMRP, also colocalize with PAI-RBP1 and ORF1p. We suggest that targeting ORF1p, and possibly the L1 RNP, to stress granules is a mechanism for controlling retrotransposition and its associated genetic and cellular damage.
Zaitseva M, Vollenhoven BJ, Rogers PARetinoic acid pathway genes show significantly altered expression in uterine fibroids when compared with normal myometrium.
Mol Hum Reprod. 2007; 13(8):577-85 [PubMed
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Fibroids are benign neoplasms of myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMC). Despite being the most common tumor in humans, their etiology is poorly understood. Recent microarray studies have demonstrated that multiple members of the retinoid pathway are differentially expressed between myometrium and fibroids. The aim of this present study was to investigate gene expression of members of the retinoid pathway in matched myometrium and fibroids. We have demonstrated differential gene expression of two binding proteins [cellular retinol-binding proteins (CRBP) 1 and 2], three enzymes [alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (ADH1), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1) and retinol dehydrogenase (RODH)] and two receptors [retinoid X receptors (RXR) alpha and gamma] involved in the retinoid pathway by real-time PCR. There were no differences in gene expression for retinoid receptors RARalpha, beta, gamma and RXRbeta, and for the metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450, family 26 subfamily A. We confirmed results for ADH1, ALDH1, CRBP1 and CRABP2 at the protein level by western blot. Using immunohistochemistry these proteins were mostly localized to myometrial and fibroid SMC. An exception to this was ALDH1 protein, which displayed strong staining localized to cells of the connective tissue, presumably fibroblasts, with a striking differential expression pattern between myometrium and fibroids. These results demonstrate that the retinoid pathway is altered in fibroids when compared with normal myometrium and specifically identify ALDH1 in fibroid fibroblasts. These alterations can lead to aberrant retinoic acid (RA) production and signaling, and alter the expression of RA target genes, which may be an important step in fibroid development.
Kim BH, Cho NY, Choi M, et al.Methylation profiles of multiple CpG island loci in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma versus those of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007; 131(6):923-30 [PubMed
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CONTEXT: CpG island hypermethylation is attracting attention because of its importance as a tumor marker and its potential mechanism for the development of human cancers. Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma has been poorly investigated with respect to CpG island hypermethylation, and the number of genes known to be methylated in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas is fewer than 20.
OBJECTIVE: To generate methylation profiles of 24 CpG island loci in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, to correlate methylation findings with clinicopathologic findings, and to compare these findings with those of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas.
DESIGN: Sixty-three extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas and 48 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas were investigated for hypermethylation in 24 CpG island loci by using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: A total of 61 (96.8%) of 63 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas showed hypermethylation in at least one of the examined loci, and a high methylation frequency was seen in HOXA1 (95.2%), HPP1 (69.8%), and NEUROG1 (61.9%). The number of methylated CpG island loci was greater in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas with nodal metastasis than in those without nodal metastasis (P = .047), and hypermethylation of TIG1 was closely associated with nodal metastasis of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (P = .007). CDH1 and NEUROG1 were more frequently methylated in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma than in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, whereas CHFR, GSTP1, IGF2, MGMT, MINT31, p14, and RBP1 were more frequently methylated in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: the differences was statistically significant (P < .05).
CONCLUSIONS: A close relationship exists between CpG island hypermethylation and nodal metastasis of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. Methylation profiles of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas are somewhat similar to but distinct from those of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas.
Cho NY, Kim BH, Choi M, et al.Hypermethylation of CpG island loci and hypomethylation of LINE-1 and Alu repeats in prostate adenocarcinoma and their relationship to clinicopathological features.
J Pathol. 2007; 211(3):269-77 [PubMed
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Promoter CpG island hypermethylation is an important carcinogenic event in prostate adenocarcinoma. Regardless of tissue type, human cancers have in common both focal CpG island hypermethylation and global genomic hypomethylation. The present study evaluated CpG island loci hypermethylation and LINE-1 and Alu repeat hypomethylation in prostate adenocarcinoma, analysed the relationship between them, and correlated these findings with clinicopathological features. We examined 179 cases of prostate adenocarcinoma and 30 cases of benign prostate hypertrophy for the methylation status of 22 CpG island loci and the methylation levels of LINE-1 and Alu repeats using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and combined bisulphite restriction analysis, respectively. The following 16 CpG island loci were found to display cancer-related hypermethylation: RASSF1A, GSTP1, RARB, TNFRSF10C, APC, BCL2, MDR1, ASC, TIG1, RBP1, COX2, THBS1, TNFRSF10D, CD44, p16, and RUNX3. Except for the last four CpG island loci, hypermethylation of each of the remaining 12 CpG island loci displayed a close association with one or more of the prognostic parameters (ie preoperative serum prostate specific antigen level, Gleason score sum, and clinical stage). Prostate adenocarcinoma with hypermethylation of each of ASC, COX2, RARB, TNFRSF10C, MDR1, TIG1, RBP1, NEUROG1, RASSF1A, and GSTP1 showed a significantly lower methylation level of Alu or LINE-1 than prostate adenocarcinoma without hypermethylation. In addition, hypomethylation of Alu or LINE-1 was closely associated with one or more of the above prognostic parameters. These data suggest that in tumour progression a close relationship exists between CpG island hypermethylation and the hypomethylation of repetitive elements, and that CpG island hypermethylation and DNA hypomethylation contribute to cancer progression.