Gene Summary

Gene:SFRP1; secreted frizzled related protein 1
Aliases: FRP, FRP1, FrzA, FRP-1, SARP2
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the SFRP family that contains a cysteine-rich domain homologous to the putative Wnt-binding site of Frizzled proteins. Members of this family act as soluble modulators of Wnt signaling; epigenetic silencing of SFRP genes leads to deregulated activation of the Wnt-pathway which is associated with cancer. This gene may also be involved in determining the polarity of photoreceptor cells in the retina. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:secreted frizzled-related protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SFRP1 (cancer-related)

Zhou X, Yan L, Bu XL, et al.
Arotinoid trometamol inhibits arsenic trioxide-stimulated keratinocyte proliferation via the Wnt, Shh, and bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2019 May-Jun; 33(3):731-743 [PubMed] Related Publications
Arsenic acts as a human carcinogen and contributes to skin cancer via mechanisms that remain largely unknown. Recent evidence implicates the perturbation of Wnt, Shh and BMP signals as a potential mechanism. We initiated studies to examine gene expression changes in these signaling pathways. Meanwhile, the antagonistic effect of retinoic acid was explored. In this study, HaCaT and NHEK cells were treated with arsenic trioxide (As2O3) alone or in combination with arotinoid trometamol (retinoic acid receptor agonist). Flow cytometric analysis, PCR array and Western blot were used to determine the potential mechanism and signaling pathways associated with arsenic carcinogenesis. The results showed that low concentration As2O3 could stimulate keratinocyte proliferation, and arotinoid trometamol inhibited the process via regulating the expression of about 20 genes. These genes included components of Wnt signaling (CSNK1A1L, CTNNB1, SFRP1, Wnt10B, Wnt11, Wnt16, Wnt5A, Wnt8A), Shh signaling (C6orf138, HHIP, PTCHD1) and BMP signaling pathway (BMP2, BMP7). The changes of some differentially expressed genes of these signaling pathways in As2O3 treatment group were counteracted by the subsequent arotinoid trometamol treatment. Our data suggest that dysregulation and cross-talk of Wnt, Shh and BMP signals play great roles in the process of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis, which could be antagonized by arotinoid trometamol.

Gu ZW, He YF, Wang WJ, et al.
MiR-1180 from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells induces glycolysis and chemoresistance in ovarian cancer cells by upregulating the Wnt signaling pathway.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2019 Mar.; 20(3):219-237 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) play an important role in cancer development and progression. However, the mechanism by which they enhance the chemoresistance of ovarian cancer is unknown.
METHODS: Conditioned media of BM-MSCs (BM-MSC-CM) were analyzed using a technique based on microRNA arrays. The most highly expressed microRNAs were selected for testing their effects on glycolysis and chemoresistance in SKOV3 and COC1 ovarian cancer cells. The targeted gene and related signaling pathway were investigated using in silico analysis and in vitro cancer cell models. Kaplan-Merier survival analysis was performed on a population of 59 patients enrolled to analyze the clinical significance of microRNA findings in the prognosis of ovarian cancer.
RESULTS: MiR-1180 was the most abundant microRNA detected in BM-MSC-CM, which simultaneously induces glycolysis and chemoresistance (against cisplatin) in ovarian cancer cells. The secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) gene was identified as a major target of miR-1180. The overexpression of miR-1180 led to the activation of Wnt signaling and its downstream components, namely Wnt5a, β-catenin, c-Myc, and CyclinD1, which are responsible for glycolysis-induced chemoresistance. The miR-1180 level was inversely correlated with SFRP1 mRNA expression in ovarian cancer tissue. The overexpressed miR-1180 was associated with a poor prognosis for the long-term (96-month) survival of ovarian cancer patients.
CONCLUSIONS: BM-MSCs enhance the chemoresistance of ovarian cancer by releasing miR-1180. The released miR-1180 activates the Wnt signaling pathway in cancer cells by targeting SFRP1. The enhanced Wnt signaling upregulates the glycolytic level (i.e. Warburg effect), which reinforces the chemoresistance property of ovarian cancer cells.

van Andel H, Kocemba KA, Spaargaren M, Pals ST
Aberrant Wnt signaling in multiple myeloma: molecular mechanisms and targeting options.
Leukemia. 2019; 33(5):1063-1075 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a central role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of malignancies and is typically caused by mutations in core Wnt pathway components driving constitutive, ligand-independent signaling. In multiple myelomas (MMs), however, these pathway intrinsic mutations are rare despite the fact that most tumors display aberrant Wnt pathway activity. Recent studies indicate that this activation is caused by genetic and epigenetic lesions of Wnt regulatory components, sensitizing MM cells to autocrine Wnt ligands and paracrine Wnts emanating from the bone marrow niche. These include deletion of the tumor suppressor CYLD, promotor methylation of the Wnt antagonists WIF1, DKK1, DKK3, and sFRP1, sFRP2, sFRP4, sFRP5, as well as overexpression of the co-transcriptional activator BCL9 and the R-spondin receptor LGR4. Furthermore, Wnt activity in MM is strongly promoted by interaction of both Wnts and R-spondins with syndecan-1 (CD138) on the MM cell-surface. Functionally, aberrant canonical Wnt signaling plays a dual role in the pathogenesis of MM: (I) it mediates proliferation, migration, and drug resistance of MM cells; (II) MM cells secrete Wnt antagonists that contribute to the development of osteolytic lesions by impairing osteoblast differentiation. As discussed in this review, these insights into the causes and consequences of aberrant Wnt signaling in MM will help to guide the development of targeting strategies. Importantly, since Wnt signaling in MM cells is largely ligand dependent, it can be targeted by drugs/antibodies that act upstream in the pathway, interfering with Wnt secretion, sequestering Wnts, or blocking Wnt (co)receptors.

Wang Z, Ye Y, Liu D, et al.
Hypermethylation of multiple Wnt antagonist genes in gastric neoplasia: Is H pylori infection blasting fuse?
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(52):e13734 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Wnt antagonist genes hypermethylation has been found in several tumors. Accordingly, the events that occur during the progression of adenoma to carcinoma have been characterized and include activation of the Wnt-pathway. Further, gastric adenoma (GA) is a premalignant lesion of gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). In this paper, we focused our interesting on Wnt signaling path function in the pathogenesis of GAC.We compared the differences between low grade adenoma (LGA), high grade adenoma (HGA), GACs and corresponding normal gastric tissue (NGT). Specific indexes include the pathological characteristics of gastric neoplasia, Helicobacter pylori infection, β-catenin mutation status, and methylation status of Wnt antagonist genes.There was significant difference of β-catenin expression in patient with NGT, LGA, HGA, and GAC, the results respectively were 4.2%, 41.7%, 83.3%, and 91.7%. Only 1 GACs was detected exon 3 of β-catenin mutation. Wnt antagonist genes mRNA expression levels, such as APC, sFRP-1, Wif-1, and Dkk-1, were significantly reduced in GAC. Promoter methylation levels of the 4 genes were significantly elevated in GAC and HGA compared to NGT and LGA. However, there was no significant difference between HGAs and GACs. The β-catenin abnormal expression was correlated with hypermethylation of these 4 genes. Multiple gene concurrent methylation phenomenon was increased from NGTs to GACs; the amount of methylation genes in GACs and HGAs was more than NGTs and LGAs. The more methylation of the above-mentioned genes, the more severity of local inflammation. The infection rate of H pylori was significantly higher in patient with HGA (66.7%, 16/24) and GAC (58.5%, 14/24) than in LGAs (16.7%,4/24) (PHGA-LGA = .024, PGAC-LGA = .032). In addition, the present of H pylori also correlated with the β-catenin abnormal expression and the hypermethylation status of Wnt antagonist genes (P < .001). But other parameters in adenoma cases had no significantly related with infection of H pylori.Hypermethylation of Wnt antagonist genes may have a tight relationship with gastric tumorigenesis. And these genes may increase the incidence of GAC. Additionally, H pylori may have promotion function in GA formation.

Mäki-Nevala S, Valo S, Ristimäki A, et al.
DNA methylation changes and somatic mutations as tumorigenic events in Lynch syndrome-associated adenomas retaining mismatch repair protein expression.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 39:280-291 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA mismatch repair (MMR) defects are a major factor in colorectal tumorigenesis in Lynch syndrome (LS) and 15% of sporadic cases. Some adenomas from carriers of inherited MMR gene mutations have intact MMR protein expression implying other mechanisms accelerating tumorigenesis. We determined roles of DNA methylation changes and somatic mutations in cancer-associated genes as tumorigenic events in LS-associated colorectal adenomas with intact MMR.
METHODS: We investigated 122 archival colorectal specimens of normal mucosae, adenomas and carcinomas from 57 LS patients. MMR-deficient (MMR-D, n = 49) and MMR-proficient (MMR-P, n = 18) adenomas were of particular interest and were interrogated by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and Ion Torrent sequencing.
FINDINGS: Promoter methylation of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-associated marker genes and selected colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) increased and LINE-1 methylation decreased from normal mucosa to MMR-P adenomas to MMR-D adenomas. Methylation differences were statistically significant when either adenoma group was compared with normal mucosa, but not between MMR-P and MMR-D adenomas. Significantly increased methylation was found in multiple CIMP marker genes (IGF2, NEUROG1, CRABP1, and CDKN2A) and TSGs (SFRP1 and SFRP2) in MMR-P adenomas already. Furthermore, certain CRC-associated somatic mutations, such as KRAS, were prevalent in MMR-P adenomas.
INTERPRETATION: We conclude that DNA methylation changes and somatic mutations of cancer-associated genes might serve as an alternative pathway accelerating LS-associated tumorigenesis in the presence of proficient MMR. FUND: Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation, Academy of Finland, Cancer Foundation Finland, Sigrid Juselius Foundation, and HiLIFE.

Strzelczyk JK, Krakowczyk Ł, Owczarek AJ
Methylation status of SFRP1, SFRP2, RASSF1A, RARβ and DAPK1 genes in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Arch Oral Biol. 2019; 98:265-272 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our study assessed the methylation status of the SFRP1, SFRP2, RASSF1A, RARβ and DAPK1 genes, which are associated with epigenetic silencing in cancers. In a group of 75 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, aberrant methylation was detected using methylation-specific PCR in tumours and matched margins. Our results showed significantly higher methylation frequency in tumours than in surgical margin of SFRP2 (26.6% vs 11.9%, p < 0.05) and DAPK1 (65.3% vs 41.3%, p < 0.01) genes. Moreover, methylation of the SFRP1 and DAPK1 genes was associated with older age. Advanced tumour stages were associated with lower rates of SFRP1 gene methylation. Decreased methylation levels of the SFRP2 and RASSF1A genes were associated with positive N stage. On the contrary, lymph node metastasis were associated with higher methylation rates of RARβ and DAPK1 genes. Patients with a familial history of cancer were associated with more frequently methylated SFRP1, SFRP2 and DAPK1 genes. Hypermethylation of DAPK1 was associated with decreased risk of death in patients. Our results are suggestive, although not conclusive, that some epigenetic changes, especially frequent hypermethylation of SFRP2 and DAPK1 genes, can be useful as potential diagnostic biomarkers of oral cavity cancer. Moreover, estimating the methylation status in surgical margins could become an additional strategy for more accurate treatment methods. Further efforts are needed to identify and validate this finding on a larger patient group and using new advanced methylation testing methods.

Kafka A, Karin-Kujundžić V, Šerman L, et al.
Hypermethylation of Secreted Frizzled Related Protein 1 gene promoter in different astrocytoma grades.
Croat Med J. 2018; 59(5):213-223 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To identify the involvement of Secreted Frizzled Related Protein 1 (SFRP1) promoter hypermethylation in different malignancy grades of astrocytoma and assess its association with beta-catenin, lymphoid-enhancer factor 1, and T-cell factor 1.
METHODS: Twenty-six astrocytoma samples were collected from 2008-2015. Promoter hypermethylation was evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase-chain-reaction and protein expression by immunohistochemistry and stereological analysis. The staining intensity was scored by comparing immunoreactivity with normal tissue and by using 10% and 50% cut-offs.
RESULTS: SFRP1 promoter methylation was found in 32% of astrocytomas. The number of hypermethylated samples increased in higher astrocytoma grades and was the highest in glioblastoma (P=0.042 compared to other astrocytoma grades). There was 45.8% of samples with the lack of or weak expression of SFRP1 protein and 29.2% with strong expression. Samples with methylated promoter expressed significantly less SFRP1 than samples with unmethylated promoter (P=0.031). Beta-catenin expression levels were elevated. Yet, glioblastomas with unmethylated SFRP1 promoter had significantly less beta-catenin (P=0.033). Strong expression of lymphoid-enhancer factor 1 was associated to higher astrocytoma grades (P=0.006).
CONCLUSION: SFRP1 gene was epigenetically silenced in glioblastomas when compared to low astrocytoma grades, which may suggest that the lack of its protein is involved in astrocytoma progression.

Hu H, Wang T, Pan R, et al.
Hypermethylated Promoters of Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein Genes are Associated with Colorectal Cancer.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2019; 25(2):567-575 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Aberrant DNA methylation has been recognized as one of the most common molecular alterations in CRC. The goal of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of SFRP1 and SFRP2 methylation for CRC. A total of 80 pairs of CRC patients were recruited to test the association of SFRP1 and SFRP2 promotor methylation with CRC. Methylation assay was performed using quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (qMSP) method. In this study, we found the methylation levels of SFRP1 and SFRP2 in CRC tumor tissues were significantly higher than those in the adjacent non-tumor tissues (SFRP1: P = 2E-5; SFRP2: P = 0.014). Further bioinformatics analysis of TCGA data confirmed the association of the two genes with CRC (SFRP1: P = 7E-21; SFRP2: P = 5E-24). Luciferase reporter gene assay showed that the recombinant plasmids with SFRP1 and SFRP2 fragments could significantly enhance promoter activity (SFRP1: P = 0.002; SFRP2: P = 0.004). In addition, SFRP1 and SFRP2 methylation were inversely correlated with the mRNA expression displayed by TCGA data mining (SFRP1: r = -0.432, P = 4E-11; SFRP2: r = -0.478, P = 1E-13). GEO data analysis indicated that SFRP1 and SFRP2 expression were increased in three CRC cell lines (COLO320, HCT116 and HT29) after 5'-AZA-deoxycytidine treatment, suggesting that DNA methylation played an important role in regulating gene expression of the two genes. Our results confirmed that promoter methylation of SFRP1 and SFRP2 contributed to the risk of CRC.

Yamashita K, Hosoda K, Nishizawa N, et al.
Epigenetic biomarkers of promoter DNA methylation in the new era of cancer treatment.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(12):3695-3706 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Promoter DNA methylation, which occurs on cytosine nucleotides across CpG islands, results in gene silencing and represents a major epigenetic alteration in human cancer. Methylation-specific PCR can amplify these modifications as markers in cancer cells. In the present work, we rigorously review the published literatures describing DNA methylation in the promoters of critical tumor suppressor genes; detection of promoter DNA methylation in various body fluids permits early detection of cancer cells during perioperative courses of clinical treatment. The latest whole-genome comprehensive explorations identified excellent epigenetic biomarkers that could be detected at high frequency with high specificity; these biomarkers, which are designated highly relevant methylation genes (HRMG), permit the discrimination of tumor tissues from the corresponding normal tissues; these markers are also associated with unique cancer phenotypes, including dismal prognosis. In humans, HRMG include the CDO1, GSHR, RASSF1 and SFRP1 genes, with these markers permitting discrimination depending on the organs tested. The combination of several HRMG increased the early detection of cancer and exhibited reliable surveillance potential in human body fluids. Cancer clinics using such epigenetic biomarkers are entering a new era of enhanced decision-making with the potential for improved cancer prognosis.

Kang PC, Leng KM, Liu YP, et al.
miR-191 Inhibition Induces Apoptosis Through Reactivating Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein-1 in Cholangiocarcinoma.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 49(5):1933-1942 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is one of the most common malignant tumors of the biliary tract originating from biliary epithelial cells. Although many therapeutic strategies have been developed to treat CCA, the survival rate for CCA patients is still quite low. Thus it is urgent to elucidate the pathogenesis of CCA and to explore novel therapeutic targets. miR-191 has been shown to be associated with many human solid cancers, but the function of miR-191 in CCA is still poorly understood.
METHODS: We first investigated the expression level of miR-191 in human CCA tissues and cell lines with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The effects of miR-191 on CCA cells were determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, colony formation assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. Finally, we utilized qRT-PCR, western blot and luciferase reporter assays to verify the miR-191 target gene.
RESULTS: We showed that miR-191 was up-regulated in CCA cell lines and patients. Knockdown of miR-191 by transfection of its inhibitor sequence blocked RBE cells viability and induced apoptosis of RBE cells. Both qRT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that the secreted frizzled-related protein-1 (sFRP1) level was negatively correlated with that of miR-191. Luciferase assay validated that sFRP1 was a direct target of miR-191. Moreover, knockdown of miR-191 led to suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation. Co-transfection of sFRP1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and miR-191 inhibitor re-activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway as detected by an increased level of β-catenin and phosphorylation of GSK-3β, and restored the expression of survivin and c-myc in RBE cells. Co-transfection of sFRP1 siRNA with miR-191 inhibitor restored the colony formation ability and viability of RBE cells.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel insight into miR-191 biological function in CCA. Our findings suggest that miR-191 is a potential therapeutic target of CCA treatment.

Lange CAK, Lehnert P, Boneva SK, et al.
Increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and its impact on transcriptional changes and prognosis in malignant tumours of the ocular adnexa.
Eye (Lond). 2018; 32(11):1772-1782 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the expression profile of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α) and its downstream targets in malignancies of the ocular adnexa and to determine its relevance as a prognostic factor for clinical outcome.
METHODS: We included 49 subjects with malignant tumours (25 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 15 non-Hodgkin lymphomas, 9 melanomas) and 30 patients with benign tumours of the ocular adnexa (13 papillomas, 7 reactive lymphoid hyperplasias (RLHs) and 10 nevi) as controls. We quantified HIF-1α protein expression by immunohistochemistry and assessed the association between HIF-1α and clinical outcome via Kaplan-Meier analysis. Furthermore, we assessed the expression of HIF-1α downstream factors by transcriptional sequencing using the MACE (massive analysis of cDNA ends) technology.
RESULTS: SCCs revealed a strong HIF-1α expression in 61% of tumour cells in comparison with only 22% in papillomas (p < 0.0001). In contrast, malignant melanomas and lymphomas revealed a similar HIF-1α expression compared with nevi and RLHs. Transcriptional sequencing and Gene Ontology Cluster analysis demonstrated 37 hypoxia-associated factors, including HIF-1α, VEGF, SFRP1 and LOXL2 that are significantly increased in SCC and may contribute to tumour proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Association analysis between HIF-1α immunoreactivity and clinical outcome revealed a trend towards an unfavourable prognosis in malignant tumours with increased HIF-1α expression.
CONCLUSIONS: HIF-1α protein is increased in malignant tumours of the ocular adnexa, which is associated with an increase in multiple HIF-1α-downstream factors and a trend towards an unfavourable clinical outcome.

Mojtabanezhad Shariatpanahi A, Yassi M, Nouraie M, et al.
The importance of stool DNA methylation in colorectal cancer diagnosis: A meta-analysis.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0200735 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A large number of tumor-related methylated genes have been suggested to be of diagnostic and prognostic values for CRC when analyzed in patients' stool samples; however, reported sensitivities and specificities have been inconsistent and widely varied. This meta-analysis was conducted to assess the detection accuracy of stool DNA methylation assay in CRC, early stages of CRC (advanced adenoma, non-advanced adenomas) and hyperplastic polyps, separately. We searched MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar databases until May 1, 2016. From 469 publications obtained in the initial literature search, 38 studies were included in the final analysis involving 4867 individuals. The true positive, false positive, true negative and false negative of a stool-based DNA methylation biomarker using all single-gene tests considering a certain gene; regardless of a specific gene were pooled and studied in different categories. The sensitivity of different genes in detecting different stages of CRC ranged from 0% to 100% and the specificities ranged from 73% to 100%. Our results elucidated that SFRP1 and SFRP2 methylation possessed promising accuracy for detection of not only CRC (DOR: 31.67; 95%CI, 12.31-81.49 and DOR: 35.36; 95%CI, 18.71-66.84, respectively) but also the early stages of cancer, adenoma (DOR: 19.72; 95%CI, 6.68-58.25 and DOR: 13.20; 95%CI, 6.01-28.00, respectively). Besides, NDRG4 could be also considered as a significant diagnostic marker gene in CRC (DOR: 24.37; 95%CI, 10.11-58.73) and VIM in adenoma (DOR: 15.21; 95%CI, 2.72-85.10). In conclusion, stool DNA hypermethylation assay based on the candidate genes SFRP1, SFRP2, NDRG4 and VIM could offer potential diagnostic value for CRC based on the findings of this meta-analysis.

Marimuthu M, Andiappan M, Wahab A, et al.
Canonical Wnt pathway gene expression and their clinical correlation in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Indian J Dent Res. 2018 May-Jun; 29(3):291-297 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aim: The aim of this study is to explore the prognostic significance and clinicopathological correlations of the Wnt pathway genes in a cohort of surgically treated patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients.
Settings and Design: A prospective genetic study on patients with OSCC was carried out during the period from July 2014 to January 2016. Informed consent from patients and institutional ethical approval for the study was obtained and the guidelines were strictly followed for collection of samples.
Subjects and Methods: Clinical data and mRNA expression analysis of ten genes in the canonical Wnt pathway were evaluated and their relationships with clinical and demographic variables were studied in 58 tissue samples. Wnt-3a, β-catenin, secreted frizzled-related proteins sFRP-1, sFRP-2, sFRP-4, sFRP-5, Wnt inhibitory factor 1, dickkopf-1, c-MYC, and cyclin-D1 from cancer (n = 29) and normal (n = 29) tissue samples were investigated using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the sample characteristics and clinical variables. If the data were normal, then parametric tests were used; otherwise, nonparametric alternatives were used. All the analyses were carried out using SPSS version 23.0 (IBM SPSS Inc., USA).
Results: Expression of sFRP-1, sFRP-2, and sFRP-5 in control samples and expression of c-MYC and cyclin D1 in cancer samples showed statistical significance. Significant expression of Wnt3A was observed among patients who had recurrence and were deceased.
Conclusion: Wnt3A, β-catenin, and cyclin D1 are recognized as key components of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. However, in this study, there was no significant expression of all the three genes in OSCC. The proto-oncogene c-MYC showed statistically significant upregulation in cancer tissue samples suggesting that the OSCC among South Indian population is primarily not mediated by the canonical Wnt signaling pathway.

Cui HB, Ge HE, Wang YS, Bai XY
MiR-208a enhances cell proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer by targeting SFRP1 and negatively regulating MEG3.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2018; 102:31-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present studies have identified that microRNAs function as regulators in different diseases including cancers. However, the expression patterns and underlying molecular mechanisms of miR-208a involved in gastric cancer (GC) remain little known. In the study, our results demonstrated that miR-208a expression was significantly increased in GC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues by performing qRT-PCR. Higher miR-208a expression was association with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage in GC patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis verified that patients with higher miR-208a expression were significantly associated with shorter overall survival (OS) time. Univariate and multivariate Cox analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis, TNM stage and higher miR-208a were independent risks factors of OS time. Ectopic expression of miR-208a by treatment with miR-208a mimic promoted cell proliferation and invasion abilities, but downregulation of miR-208a by treatment with miR-208a inhibitor had an opposite effects. Furthermore, we identified specific targeting sites for miR-208a in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the SFRP1 gene by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Upregulation of MiR-208a promoted cell proliferation and invasion by suppressing SFRP1 expression in GC cells. Moreover, dual-luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay and qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that miR-208a targeted MEG3 and negatively regulated MEG3 expression in GC cells. Thus, these data indicated that miR-208a promoted GC progression by targeting SFRP1 and negatively regulating MEG3, which may be a potential therapeutic target of GC.

Strzelczyk JK, Krakowczyk Ł, Gołąbek K, Owczarek AJ
Expression profiles of selected genes in tumors and matched surgical margins in oral cavity cancer: Do we have to pay attention to the molecular analysis of the surgical margins?
Adv Clin Exp Med. 2018; 27(6):833-840 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are associated with an interplay between genetics and the environment; they account for 3% of all diagnosed malignant tumors in men and 2% of those in women.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyze the significance of TIMP3, SFRP1, SFRP2, CDH1, RASSF1, RORA, and DAPK1 gene expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors, and in matching surgical margin samples. We also analyzed the association between clinical parameters and the expression of the selected genes.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Following surgical resection, 56 primary HNSCC tumors and matching surgical margin samples were collected from patients at the Clinic of Oncological and Reconstructive Surgery of Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and the Institute of Oncology in Gliwice, Poland. The gene expression levels were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR.
RESULTS: SFRP1 gene expression was statistically significantly lower in the tumor samples than in the surgical margins (0.30 ±0.36 vs 0.62 ±0.36; p < 0.01). No correlation was found between gene expression and clinical parameters, except DAPK1, where low expression correlated with alcohol abuse (0.85 ±1.19 vs 1.97 ±3.22; p = 0.074). Moreover, patients with G3 grade tumors, i.e., poorly differentiated tumors, had significantly higher values of DAPK1 gene expression than the G1 (well-differentiated tumors) and G2 (moderately differentiated) groups.
CONCLUSIONS: There are many different reasons and concepts for altered gene expression in tumors and surgical margin tissue. Tumor heterogeneity and its microenvironment are undoubtedly linked to the biology of HNSCC. In order to understand specific tumor behavior and the microenvironment, further studies are needed. To find markers connected with cancer development and to provide insight into the earliest stages of cancer development, attention should also be focused on molecular analysis of the surgical margins.

Uribe D, Cardona A, Esposti DD, et al.
Antiproliferative Effects of Epigenetic Modifier Drugs Through E-cadherin Up-regulation in Liver Cancer Cell Lines.
Ann Hepatol. 2018 May-June; 17(3):444-460 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Epigenetic alterations play an essential role in cancer onset and progression, thus studies of drugs targeting the epigenetic machinery are a principal concern for cancer treatment. Here, we evaluated the potential of the combination of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5aza-dC) and the pan-deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA), at low cytotoxic concentrations, to modulate the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway in liver cancer cells.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pyrosequencing was used for DNA methylation analyses of LINE-1 sequences and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway antagonist DKK3, SFRP1, WIF1 and CDH1. qRT-PCR was employed to verify the expression of the antagonist. Pathway regulation were evaluated looking at the expression of β-catenin and E-cadherin by confocal microscopy and the antitumoral effects of the drugs was studied by wound healing and clonogenic assays.
RESULTS: Our result suggest that 5aza-dC and TSA treatments were enough to induce a significant expression of the pathway antagonists, decrease of β-catenin protein levels, re-localization of the protein to the plasma membrane, and pathway transcriptional activity reduction. These important effects exerted an antitumoral outcome shown by the reduction of the migration and clonogenic capabilities of the cells.
CONCLUSION: We were able to demonstrate Wnt/ β-catenin pathway modulation through E-cadherin up-regulation induced by 5aza-dC and TSA treatments, under an activation-pathway background, like CTNNB1 and TP53 mutations. These findings provide evidences of the potential effect of epigenetic modifier drugs for liver cancer treatment. However, further research needs to be conducted, to determine the in vivo potential of this treatment regimen for the management of liver cancer.

Mo S, Su Z, Heng B, et al.
SFRP1 Promoter Methylation and Renal Carcinoma Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
J Nippon Med Sch. 2018; 85(2):78-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Epigenetic inactivation of tumor suppressor genes is an important molecular mechanism in the formation and development of human tumors. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the correlation between the methylation level of the secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) gene and the risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
METHODS: The relevant literature was searched in detail in several electronic databases. The methodological heterogeneity was analyzed by meta-regression and subgroup analyses. The odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to summarize the dichotomous outcomes of our meta-analysis.
RESULTS: The ten included articles contained 535 RCC samples and 475 normal controls. The results demonstrated that the methylation level of the SFRP1 promoter region was significantly correlated with an increased incidence of RCC (OR=13.72; 95% CI: 6.01-31.28; P=0.000). Furthermore, the eligible studies that had sufficient clinical data about the RCC cases were included in the analysis, and the results indicated that the frequency of SFRP1 promoter methylation was associated with a higher histological grade (P=0.000), tumor stage (P=0.033), tumor size (≥5 cm; P=0.029), and distant metastasis (P=0.047).
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the methylation level of the SFRP1 promoter region is increased in patients with RCC compared to normal controls and might be involved in the occurrence and development of RCC. Additional well-designed studies are needed to further verify our conclusions.

Jucá CEB, Colli LM, Martins CS, et al.
Impact of the Canonical Wnt Pathway Activation on the Pathogenesis and Prognosis of Adamantinomatous Craniopharyngiomas.
Horm Metab Res. 2018; 50(7):575-581 [PubMed] Related Publications

Gao L, Zhang LJ, Li SH, et al.
Role of miR-452-5p in the tumorigenesis of prostate cancer: A study based on the Cancer Genome Atl(TCGA), Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and bioinformatics analysis.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(5):732-749 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MiR-452-5p has been reported to be down-regulated in prostate cancer, affecting the development of this type of cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of miR-452-5p in prostate cancer remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the network of target genes of miR-452-5p in prostate cancer using bioinformatics analyses.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We first analyzed the expression profiles and prognostic value of miR-452-5p in prostate cancer tissues from a public database. Gene Ontology (GO), the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), PANTHER pathway analyses, and a disease ontology (DG) analysis were performed to find the molecular functions of the target genes from GSE datasets and miRWalk. Finally, we validated hub genes from the protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of the target genes in the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) database and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA). Narrowing down the optimal target genes was conducted by seeking the common parts of up-regulated genes from GEPIA, down-regulated genes from GSE datasets, and predicted genes in miRWalk.
RESULTS: Based on mining of GEO and ArrayExpress microarray chips and miRNA-Seq data in the TCGA database, which includes 1007 prostate cancer samples and 387 non-cancer samples, miR-452-5p is shown to be down-regulated in prostate cancer. GO, KEGG, and PANTHER pathway analyses suggested that the target genes might participate in important biological processes, such as transforming growth factor beta signaling and the positive regulation of brown fat cell differentiation and mesenchymal cell differentiation, as well as the Ras signaling pathway and pathways regulating the pluripotency of stem cells and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Nine genes-GABBR, PNISR, NTSR1, DOCK1, EREG, SFRP1, PTGS2, LEF1, and BMP2-were defined as hub genes in the PPI network. Three genes-FAM174B, SLC30A4, and SLIT1-were jointly shared by GEPIA, the GSE datasets, and miRWalk.
CONCLUSIONS: Down-regulated miR-452-5p might play an essential role in the tumorigenesis of prostate cancer.

Xiao B, Zhang W, Chen L, et al.
Analysis of the miRNA-mRNA-lncRNA network in human estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer based on TCGA data.
Gene. 2018; 658:28-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogen receptor-positive (ER

Beck A, Trippel F, Wagner A, et al.
Overexpression of
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10:27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common liver tumor of childhood and occurs predominantly within the first 3 years of life. In accordance to its early manifestation, HB has been described to display an extremely low mutation rate. As substitute, epigenetic modifiers seem to play an exceptional role in its tumorigenesis, which holds promise to develop targeted therapies and establish biomarkers for patient risk stratification.
Results: We examined the role of a newly described protein complex consisting of three epigenetic regulators, namely E3 ubiquitin-like containing PHD and RING finger domain 1 (UHRF1), ubiquitin-specific-processing protease 7 (USP7), and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), in HB. We found the complex to be located on the promoter regions of the pivotal HB-associated tumor suppressor genes (TSGs)
Conclusion: These findings suggest that UHRF1 is critical for aberrant TSG silencing and sustained growth signaling in HB and that

Shi B, Lin H, Zhang M, et al.
Gene Regulation and Targeted Therapy in Gastric Cancer Peritoneal Metastasis: Radiological Findings from Dual Energy CT and PET/CT.
J Vis Exp. 2018; (131) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/01/2020 Related Publications
Gastric cancer remains fourth in cancer incidence worldwide with a five-year survival of only 20%-30%. Peritoneal metastasis is the most frequent type of metastasis that accompanies unresectable gastric cancer and is a definitive determinant of prognosis. Preventing and controlling the development of peritoneal metastasis could play a role in helping to prolong the survival of gastric cancer patients. A non-invasive and efficient imaging technique will help us to identify the invasion and metastasis process of peritoneal metastasis and to monitor the changes in tumor nodules in response to treatments. This will enable us to obtain an accurate description of the development process and molecular mechanisms of gastric cancer. We have recently described experiment using dual energy CT (DECT) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) platforms for the detection and monitoring of gastric tumor metastasis in nude mice models. We have shown that weekly continuous monitoring with DECT and PET/CT can identify dynamic changes in peritoneal metastasis. The sFRP1-overexpression in gastric cancer mice models showed positive radiological performance, a higher FDG uptake and increasing enhancement, and the SUVmax (standardized uptake value) of nodules demonstrated an obvious alteration trend in response to targeted therapy of TGF-β1 inhibitor. In this article, we described the detailed non-invasive imaging procedures to conduct more complex research on gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis using animal models and provided representative imaging results. The use of non-invasive imaging techniques should enable us to better understand the mechanisms of tumorigenesis, monitor tumor growth, and evaluate the effect of therapeutic interventions for gastric cancer.

Cheng YY, Mok E, Tan S, et al.
Dis Markers. 2017; 2017:2536187 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/01/2020 Related Publications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is associated with asbestos exposure. Asbestos can induce chronic inflammation which in turn can lead to silencing of tumour suppressor genes. Wnt signaling pathway can be affected by chronic inflammation and is aberrantly activated in many cancers including colon and MPM.

Zhu QN, Renaud H, Guo Y
Bioinformatics-based identification of miR-542-5p as a predictive biomarker in breast cancer therapy.
Hereditas. 2018; 155:17 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/01/2020 Related Publications
Background: Tamoxifen is the first-line hormone therapy for estrogen receptor alpha positive (ERα+) breast cancer. However, about 40% of patients with ERα + breast cancer who receive tamoxifen therapy eventually develop resistance resulting in a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to mine available data sets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, including in vitro (cell lines) and in vivo (tissue samples), and to identify all miRNAs associated with tamoxifen resistance (TamR) in breast cancer. Secondly, this study aimed to predict the key gene regulatory networks of newly found TamR-related miRNAs and evaluate the potential role of the miRNAs and targets as potential prognosis biomarkers for breast cancer patients.
Result: Microarray data sets from two different studies were used from the GEO database: 1. GSE66607: miRNA of MCF-7 TamR cells; 2. GSE37405: TamR tissues. Differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) were identified in both data sets and 5 differentially expressed miRNAs were found to overlap between the two data sets. Profiles of GSE37405 and data from the Kaplan-Meier Plotter Database (KMPD) along with Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) were used to reveal the relationship between these 5 miRNAs and overall survival. The results showed that has-miR-542-5p was the only miRNA associated with overall survival of ERα + breast cancer patients who received adjuvant tamoxifen. Targets of has-miR-542-5p were predicted by miRanda and TargetScan, and the mRNA expression of the three 3 target gene, Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein Beta (YWHAB), Lymphocyte Antigen 9 (LY9), and Secreted Frizzled Related Protein 1 (SFRP1) were associated with overall survival in 2 different databases. Copy-number alterations (CNAs) of SFRP1 confer survival disadvantage to breast cancer patients and alter the mRNA expression of SFRP1 in cBioPortal database.
Conclusion: This study indicates that miRNA has-miR-542-5p is associated with TamR and can predict prognosis of breast cancer patients. Furthermore, has-miR-542-5p may be acting through a mechanism involving the target genes YWHAB, LY9, and SFRP1. Overall, has-miR-542-5p is a predictive biomarker and potential target for therapy of breast cancer patients.

Song XL, Huang B, Zhou BW, et al.
miR-1301-3p promotes prostate cancer stem cell expansion by targeting SFRP1 and GSK3β.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 99:369-374 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells promote tumor progression, drug-resistance, and relapse, and many microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the expansion of cancer stem cells. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-1301-3p in the expansion of prostate cancer stem cells; miR-1301-3p was significantly upregulated in prostate cancer cells and tissues compared with normal prostate cells and tissues. Sphere formation and side population assays suggested that miR-1301-3p promoted the expansion of prostate cancer stem cells, and increased the expression of prostate cancer stem cell-associated genes, such as OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, CD44, KLF4, c-MYC, and MMP2. MiR-1301-3p targeted Wnt pathway inhibitors, GSK3β and SFRP1, and inhibited their expression by directly binding to their 3' untranslated regions. TOP/FOP luciferase assays suggested that miR-1301-3p activated the Wnt pathway, which was confirmed by increased β-catenin expression in the nucleus. Furthermore, the miR-1301-3p level correlated negatively with GSK3β and SFRP1 in prostate cancer tissues. In summary, we found that miR-1301-3p promoted the expansion of prostate cancer stem cells by inhibiting GSK3β and SFRP1, and activating the Wnt pathway.

Um SW, Kim HK, Kim Y, et al.
Bronchial biopsy specimen as a surrogate for DNA methylation analysis in inoperable lung cancer.
Clin Epigenetics. 2017; 9:131 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/01/2020 Related Publications
Background: This study was aimed at understanding whether bronchial biopsy specimen can be used as a surrogate for DNA methylation analysis in surgically resected lung cancer.
Methods: A genome-wide methylation was analyzed in 42 surgically resected tumor tissues, 136 bronchial washing, 12 sputum, and 8 bronchial biopsy specimens using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, and models for prediction of lung cancer were evaluated using TCGA lung cancer data.
Results: Four thousand seven hundred and twenty-six CpGs (
Conclusions: The present study suggests that bronchial biopsy specimen may be used as a surrogate for DNA methylation analysis in patient with inoperable lung cancer.

Kardum V, Karin V, Glibo M, et al.
Methylation-associated silencing of SFRP1 gene in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2017; 31:45-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wnt is a highly conserved signaling pathway responsible for tissue regeneration, maintenance and differentiation of stem cells in adults. Its aberrant activation through reduced expression of Wnt signaling pathway inhibitors, such as proteins from the SFRP family, is commonly seen in many tumors. In the present study we explored SFRP1 protein expression using immunohistochemistry in 11 low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (LGSC), 42 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSC), and 5 normal ovarian tissues (controls). SFRP1 gene methylation was analyzed by methylation-specific PCR in 8 LGSCs, 13 HGSCs and control samples. SFRP1 gene was unmethylated and SFRP1 protein expression was strong in normal ovaries (n=5). Although SFRP1 gene was unmethylated in almost all of the LGSC cases (7/8, 88%), SFRP1 protein expression was significantly lower than in normal ovaries (p<0.05). Seven out of 13 HGSCs (54%) showed SFRP1 gene hypermethylation and protein expression level was also significantly lower than in normal ovaries (p<0.001). Our preliminary data show loss of SFRP1 protein expression caused by the SFRP1 promoter hypermethylation in a subset of HGSCs. SFRP1 protein expression was also lost in LGSCs but different regulatory mechanisms may be involved. Further studies should elucidate the clinical and therapeutic relevance of the observed molecular alterations.

Chiu YC, Wang LJ, Hsiao TH, et al.
Genome-wide identification of key modulators of gene-gene interaction networks in breast cancer.
BMC Genomics. 2017; 18(Suppl 6):679 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: With the advances in high-throughput gene profiling technologies, a large volume of gene interaction maps has been constructed. A higher-level layer of gene-gene interaction, namely modulate gene interaction, is composed of gene pairs of which interaction strengths are modulated by (i.e., dependent on) the expression level of a key modulator gene. Systematic investigations into the modulation by estrogen receptor (ER), the best-known modulator gene, have revealed the functional and prognostic significance in breast cancer. However, a genome-wide identification of key modulator genes that may further unveil the landscape of modulated gene interaction is still lacking.
RESULTS: We proposed a systematic workflow to screen for key modulators based on genome-wide gene expression profiles. We designed four modularity parameters to measure the ability of a putative modulator to perturb gene interaction networks. Applying the method to a dataset of 286 breast tumors, we comprehensively characterized the modularity parameters and identified a total of 973 key modulator genes. The modularity of these modulators was verified in three independent breast cancer datasets. ESR1, the encoding gene of ER, appeared in the list, and abundant novel modulators were illuminated. For instance, a prognostic predictor of breast cancer, SFRP1, was found the second modulator. Functional annotation analysis of the 973 modulators revealed involvements in ER-related cellular processes as well as immune- and tumor-associated functions.
CONCLUSIONS: Here we present, as far as we know, the first comprehensive analysis of key modulator genes on a genome-wide scale. The validity of filtering parameters as well as the conservativity of modulators among cohorts were corroborated. Our data bring new insights into the modulated layer of gene-gene interaction and provide candidates for further biological investigations.

Durand S, Trillet K, Uguen A, et al.
A transcriptome-based protein network that identifies new therapeutic targets in colorectal cancer.
BMC Genomics. 2017; 18(1):758 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colon cancer occurrence is increasing worldwide, making it the third most frequent cancer. Although many therapeutic options are available and quite efficient at the early stages, survival is strongly decreased when the disease has spread to other organs. The identification of molecular markers of colon cancer is likely to help understanding its course and, eventually, to uncover novel genes to be targeted by drugs. In this study, we compared gene expression in a set of 95 human colon cancer samples to that in 19 normal colon mucosae, focusing on 401 genes from 5 selected pathways (Apoptosis, Cancer, Cholesterol metabolism and lipoprotein signaling, Drug metabolism, Wnt/beta-catenin). Deregulation of mRNA levels largely matched that of proteins, leading us to build in silico protein networks, starting from mRNA levels, to identify key proteins central to network activity.
RESULTS: Among the analyzed genes, 10.5% (42) had no reported link with colon cancer, including the SFRP1, IGF1 and ADH1B (down), and MYC and IL8 (up), whose encoded proteins were most interacting with other proteins from the same or even distinct networks. Analyzing all pathways globally led us to uncover novel functional links between a priori unrelated or rather remotely connected pathways, such as the Drug metabolism and the Cancer pathways or, even more strikingly, between the Cholesterol metabolism and lipoprotein signaling and the Cancer pathways. In addition, we analyzed the responsiveness of some of the deregulated genes essential to network activities, to chemotherapeutic agents used alone or in presence of Lovastatin, a lipid-lowering drug. Some of these treatments could oppose the deregulations occurring in cancer samples, including those of the CHECK2, CYP51A1, HMGCS1, ITGA2, NME1 or VEGFA genes.
CONCLUSIONS: Our network-based approach allowed discovering genes not previously known to play regulatory roles in colon cancer. Our results also showed that selected drug treatments might revert the cancer-specific deregulation of genes playing prominent roles within the networks operating to maintain colon homeostasis. Among those genes, some could constitute novel testable targets to eliminate colon cancer cells, either directly or, potentially, through the use of lipid-lowering drugs such as statins, in association with selected anticancer drugs.

Alsofyani AA, Alsiary RA, Samkari A, et al.
Prognostic potential of KLOTHO and SFRP1 promoter methylation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
J Appl Genet. 2017; 58(4):459-465 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypermethylation in the CpG island promoter regions of tumor suppressors is known to play a significant role in the development of HNSCC and the detection of which can aid the classification and prognosis of HNSCC. This study aims to profile the methylation patterns in a panel of key genes including CDKN2A, CDKN2B, KLOTHO (KL), RASSF1A, RARB, SLIT2, and SFRP1, in a group of HNSCC samples from Saudi Arabia. The extent of methylation in these genes is determined using the MethyLight assay and correlated with known clinicopathological parameters in our samples of 156 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded HNSCC tissues. SLIT2 methylation had the highest frequency (64.6%), followed by RASSF1A (41.3%), RARB (40.7%), SFRP1 (34.9), KL (30.7%), CKDN2B (29.6%), and CKDN2A (29.1%). KL and SFRP1 methylation were more predominant in nasopharyngeal tumors (P = 0.001 and P = 0.031 respectively). Kaplan Meier analysis showed that patients with moderately differentiated tumors who display SFRP1 methylation have significantly worse overall survival in comparison with other samples. In contrast, better clinical outcomes were seen in patients with KL methylation. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the detection of frequent methylation in SFRP1 and KL genes' promoters could serve as prognostic biomarkers for HNSCC.

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