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Mutated Genes and Abnormal Protein Expression (16)
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|CD40 ||20q12-q13.2 ||p50, Bp50, CDW40, TNFRSF5 || ||-CD40 and Kaposi's Sarcoma || 8|
|FGF3 ||11q13 ||INT2, HBGF-3 || ||-FGF3 and Kaposi Sarcoma || 3|
|CCR5 ||3p21.31 ||CKR5, CCR-5, CD195, CKR-5, CCCKR5, CMKBR5, IDDM22, CC-CKR-5 || ||-CCR5 and Kaposi Sarcoma || 3|
|IKBKB ||8p11.2 ||IKK2, IKKB, IMD15, NFKBIKB, IKK-beta || ||-IKBKB and Kaposi Sarcoma || 3|
|IL4 ||5q31.1 ||BSF1, IL-4, BCGF1, BSF-1, BCGF-1 || ||-IL4 and Kaposi Sarcoma || 2|
|HLA-DQA1 ||6p21.3 ||CD, GSE, DQ-A1, CELIAC1, HLA-DQA || ||-HLA-DQA1 and Kaposi Sarcoma || 2|
|HLA-DRA ||6p21.3 ||MLRW, HLA-DRA1 || ||-HLA-DRA and Kaposi Sarcoma || 1|
|IL1B ||2q14 ||IL-1, IL1F2, IL1-BETA || ||-IL1B and Kaposi Sarcoma || 1|
|IL1A ||2q14 ||IL1, IL-1A, IL1F1, IL1-ALPHA || ||-IL1A and Kaposi Sarcoma || 1|
|FGF4 ||11q13.3 ||HST, KFGF, HST-1, HSTF1, K-FGF, HBGF-4 || ||-FGF4 and Kaposi Sarcoma || 1|
|IL12A ||3q25.33 ||P35, CLMF, NFSK, NKSF1, IL-12A || ||-IL12A and Kaposi Sarcoma || 1|
|IL13 ||5q31 ||P600, IL-13 || ||-IL13 and Kaposi Sarcoma || 1|
|FCGR3A ||1q23 ||CD16, FCG3, CD16A, FCGR3, IGFR3, IMD20, FCR-10, FCRIII, FCGRIII, FCRIIIA || ||-FCGR3A and Kaposi Sarcoma || 1|
|HLA-DQB1 ||6p21.3 ||IDDM1, CELIAC1, HLA-DQB || ||-HLA-DQB1 and Kaposi Sarcoma || 1|
|APOE ||19q13.2 ||AD2, LPG, APO-E, LDLCQ5 || ||-APOE and Kaposi Sarcoma || 1|
|MLANA ||9p24.1 ||MART1, MART-1 || ||-MLANA and Kaposi Sarcoma || 1|
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
Tudor S, Giza DE, Lin HY, et al.Cellular and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus microRNAs in sepsis and surgical trauma.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1559 [PubMed
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Once a patient is in septic shock, survival rates drop by 7.6% for every hour of delay in antibiotic therapy. Biomarkers based on the molecular mechanism of sepsis are important for timely diagnosis and triage. Here, we study the potential roles of a panel of cellular and viral miRNAs as sepsis biomarkers. We performed genome-wide microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling in leukocytes from septic patients and nonseptic controls, combined with quantitative RT-PCR in plasmas from two cohorts of septic patients, two cohorts of nonseptic surgical patients and healthy volunteers. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, miRNA transfection and chromatin immunoprecipitation were used to study the effects of Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV) miRNAs on interleukin's secretion. Differences related to sepsis etiology were noted for plasma levels of 10 cellular and 2 KSHV miRNAs (miR-K-10b and miR-K-12-12*) between septic and nonseptic patients. All the sepsis groups had high KSHV miRNAs levels compared with controls; Afro-American patients had higher levels of KSHV-miR-K12-12* than non-Afro-American patients. Both KSHV miRNAs were increased on postoperative day 1, but returned to baseline on day 7; they acted as direct agonists of Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8), which might explain the increased secretion of the IL-6 and IL-10. Cellular and KSHV miRNAs are differentially expressed in sepsis and early postsurgical patients and may be exploited for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Increased miR-K-10b and miR-K12-12* are functionally involved in sepsis as agonists of TLR8, forming a positive feedback that may lead to cytokine dysregulation.
Zhang J, Wang S, Lu L, Wei GMiR99a modulates MMP7 and MMP13 to regulate invasiveness of Kaposi's sarcoma.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(12):12567-73 [PubMed
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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) tumorigenesis. To date, the molecular basis underlying crosstalk of MMPs and miRNAs in KS remains unexplored. From the resected KS samples, we detected significant correlation of miRNA99a (miR99a), with MMP7 and MMP13, but not with MMP9. To define whether a causal link exists, we used a human KS line, SLK, to study the molecular basis of miR99a and activation of MMP7, MMP9, and MMP13. We found that overexpression of miR99a in SLK cells decreased MMP7 and MMP13, but not MMP9. Similarly, MiR99a inhibition in SLK cells activated MMP7 and MMP13, but did not affect expression of MMP9. These data suggest that MMP7 and MMP13 seem to be regulated by miR99a, while MMP9 seems to be regulated in a miR99a-independent manner. Inhibition of PI3k/Akt signaling pathway significantly abolished the effect of miR99a-knockdown on MMP7, but not MMP13 activation, while inhibition of ERK/MAPK signaling pathway significantly abolished the effect of miR99a-knockdown on MMP13, but not MMP7 activation. Taken together, our data suggest that miR99a inhibits MMP7 and MMP13 through PI3k/Akt and ERK/MAPK signaling pathway, respectively, in KS. Thus, miR99a, MMP7, and MMP13 appear to be promising therapeutic targets for preventing the metastasis of KS.
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on chromosome 6p21.3 is suspected to host susceptibility loci for HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma (HIV-KS). A nested case-control study in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study was designed to conduct fine genetic association mapping across central MHC. Individuals co-infected with HIV-1 and human herpes virus-8 who later developed KS were defined as cases (n=354) and were matched 1:1 with co-infected KS-free controls. We report data for new independent MHC class II and III susceptibility loci. In particular, class II HLA-DMB emerged as a strong candidate, with the intronic variant rs6902982 A>G associated with a fourfold increase of risk (odds ratio (OR)=4.09; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.90-8.80; P=0.0003). A striking multiplicative effect on the estimated risk was associated with further carriage of two non-synonymous variants, rs1800453 A>G (Asp697Gly) and rs4148880 A>G (Ile393Val), in the linked TAP1 gene (OR=10.5; 95% CI=2.54-43.6; P=0.0012). The class III susceptibility variant is moderately associated with HIV-KS and lies within a 120-kb-long haplotype (OR=1.52; 95% CI=1.01-2.28; P=0.047) formed by rs7029 A>G (GPANK1 3' untranslated region), rs1065356 G>A (LY6G6C), rs3749953 A>G (MSH5-SAPCD1 read through) and rs707926 G>A (VARS). Our data suggest that antigen processing by MHC class II molecules is a target pathway in the pathogenesis of HIV-KS.
Tan X, Li D, Wang X, et al.Claudin-2 downregulation by KSHV infection is involved in the regulation of endothelial barrier function.
J Cutan Pathol. 2014; 41(8):630-9 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Kaposi sarcoma (KS), caused by the infection of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is a disease manifested mainly by dark purple skin and mouth nodules. Cancer care studies showed that co-infection of KSHV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was able to increase the patients' survival, but the underlying mechanisms are still elusive.
METHODS: To understand the mechanism underlying the prolonged survival in KSHV-HIV co-infected patients, we performed microarray analysis on RNA extracted from biopsies from KS tumors and adjacent healthy tissues in four KS patients. Subsequently, we performed hierarchical clustering, gene ontology (GO) and ingenuity pathway analysis. We then characterized the roles of tight junction protein claudin-2 in the endothelial barrier function.
RESULTS: Three hundred and forty-three differentially expressed genes were identified, of which 246 genes exhibited significantly increased expression in the tumor compared to the adjacent healthy tissue and 97 genes showed downregulated expression, including claudin-2. Knockdown of claudin-2 in cultured endothelial cells enhances barrier function by altering the charge selectivity, but not the size selectivity.
CONCLUSION: Claudin-2 expression is decreased in KS tumors from patients co-infected with KSHV and HIV. Decreased claudin-2 enhances endothelial barrier function and may play a role in the prolonged survival of patients with KSHV and HIV co-infection.
Chudasama P, Konrad A, Jochmann R, et al.Structural proteins of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus antagonize p53-mediated apoptosis.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(5):639-49 [PubMed
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The tumor suppressor p53 is a central regulatory molecule of apoptosis and is commonly mutated in tumors. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-related malignancies express wild-type p53. Accordingly, KSHV encodes proteins that counteract the cell death-inducing effects of p53. Here, the effects of all KSHV genes on the p53 signaling pathway were systematically analyzed using the reversely transfected cell microarray technology. With this approach we detected eight KSHV-encoded genes with potent p53 inhibiting activity in addition to the previously described inhibitory effects of KSHV genes ORF50, K10 and K10.5. Interestingly, the three most potent newly identified inhibitors were KSHV structural proteins, namely ORF22 (glycoprotein H), ORF25 (major capsid protein) and ORF64 (tegument protein). Validation of these results with a classical transfection approach showed that these proteins inhibited p53 signaling in a dose-dependent manner and that this effect could be reversed by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of the respective viral gene. All three genes inhibited p53-mediated apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3 treatment in non-infected and KSHV-infected cells. Addressing putative mechanisms, we could show that these proteins could also inhibit the transactivation of the promoters of apoptotic mediators of p53 such as BAX and PIG3. Altogether, we demonstrate for the first time that structural proteins of KSHV can counteract p53-induced apoptosis. These proteins are expressed in the late lytic phase of the viral life cycle and are incorporated into the KSHV virion. Accordingly, these genes may inhibit cell death in the productive and in the early entrance phase of KSHV infection.
Catrina Ene AM, Borze I, Guled M, et al.MicroRNA expression profiles in Kaposi's sarcoma.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2014; 20(1):153-9 [PubMed
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Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a mesenchymal tumor, caused by Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) with molecular and cytogenetic changes poorly understood. To gain further insight on the underlying molecular changes in KS, we performed microRNA (miRNA) microarray analysis of 17 Kaposi's sarcoma specimens. Three normal skin specimens were used as controls. The most significant differentially expressed miRNA were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We detected in KS versus normal skin 185 differentially expressed miRNAs, 76 were upregulated and 109 were downregulated. The most significantly downregulated miRNAs were miR-99a, miR-200 family, miR-199b-5p, miR-100 and miR-335, whereas kshv-miR-K12-4-3p, kshv-miR-K12-1, kshv-miR-K12-2, kshv-miR-K12-4-5p and kshv-miR-K12-8 were significantly upregulated. High expression levels of kshv-miR-K12-1 (p = 0.004) and kshv-miR-K12-4-3p (p = 0.001) was confirmed by RT-PCR. The predicted target genes for differentially expressed miRNAs included genes which are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as angiogenesis (i.e. THBS1) and apoptosis (i.e. CASP3, MCL1), suggesting a role for these miRNAs in Kaposi's sarcoma pathogenesis.
Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8; also called KSHV)-induced endothelial tumor, develops only in a small fraction of individuals infected with HHV-8. We hypothesized that inborn errors of immunity to HHV-8 might underlie the exceedingly rare development of classic KS in childhood. We report here autosomal recessive OX40 deficiency in an otherwise healthy adult with childhood-onset classic KS. OX40 is a co-stimulatory receptor expressed on activated T cells. Its ligand, OX40L, is expressed on various cell types, including endothelial cells. We found OX40L was abundantly expressed in KS lesions. The mutant OX40 protein was poorly expressed on the cell surface and failed to bind OX40L, resulting in complete functional OX40 deficiency. The patient had a low proportion of effector memory CD4(+) T cells in the peripheral blood, consistent with impaired CD4(+) T cell responses to recall antigens in vitro. The proportion of effector memory CD8(+) T cells was less diminished. The proportion of circulating memory B cells was low, but the antibody response in vivo was intact, including the response to a vaccine boost. Together, these findings suggest that human OX40 is necessary for robust CD4(+) T cell memory and confers apparently selective protective immunity against HHV-8 infection in endothelial cells.
Feller K, Yang S, Tung N, et al.c-myc in Kaposi's sarcoma: analyses by fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2014; 28(1):120-4 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The c-myc proto-oncogene plays a central role in the regulation of cellular transcription, differentiation, and apoptosis, and has been shown to be deregulated in many types of human cancer. Recent findings have demonstrated its amplification in select vascular neoplasms, such as secondary angiosarcomas, suggesting a role in angiogenesis as well. In vitro studies have shown that the c-Myc protein is an important regulatory molecule of spindle cell proliferation and migration in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
OBJECTIVES: In light of these findings, our primary aim was to ascertain whether c-myc, by promoting proliferation and angiogenesis, is an essential co-factor in the aetiopathogenesis of KS. We also attempted to determine a correlation between immunohistochemical expression of the c-Myc protein and c-myc gene copy amplification using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).
METHODS: Samples analyzed included archival tissue of KS (n = 24). PCR for detection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus DNA was performed on all samples of KS. For FISH analyses, a dual-labelled technique was employed and probes for the c-myc gene and chromosome 8 were used. The monoclonal anti-c-myc antibody, 9E10, was used for immunohistochemical analyses.
RESULTS: While FISH analyses revealed no amplification of c-myc in any of the cases of KS, immunohistochemical analyses revealed positive staining for c-Myc in 13/24 cases (54%).
CONCLUSIONS: Amplification of the c-myc gene was not witnessed in this preliminary study of 24 cases and thus cannot be correlated with the expression of the c-Myc protein.
EZH2 is a component of the epigenetic regulator PRC2 that suppresses gene expression. Elevated expression of EZH2 is common in human cancers and is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis. In this study, we show that EZH2 elevation is associated with epigenetic modifications of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), an oncogenic virus that promotes the development of Kaposi sarcoma and other malignancies that occur in patients with chronic HIV infections. KSHV induction of EZH2 expression was essential for KSHV-induced angiogenesis. High expression of EZH2 was observed in Kaposi sarcoma tumors. In cell culture, latent KSHV infection upregulated the expression of EZH2 in human endothelial cells through the expression of vFLIP and LANA, two KSHV-latent genes that activate the NF-κB pathway. KSHV-mediated upregulation of EZH2 was required for the induction of Ephrin-B2, an essential proangiogenic factor that drives endothelial cell tubule formation. Taken together, our findings indicate that KSHV regulates the host epigenetic modifier EZH2 to promote angiogenesis.
LANA is essential for tethering the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) genome to metaphase chromosomes and for modulating host-cell gene expression, but the binding sites in the host-chromosome remain unknown. Here, we use LANA-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to identify LANA binding sites in the viral and host-cell genomes of a latently infected pleural effusion lymphoma cell line BCBL1. LANA bound with high occupancy to the KSHV genome terminal repeats (TR) and to a few minor binding sites in the KSHV genome, including the LANA promoter region. We identified 256 putative LANA binding site peaks with P < 0.01 and overlap in two independent ChIP-Seq experiments. We validated several of the high-occupancy binding sites by conventional ChIP assays and quantitative PCR. Candidate cellular LANA binding motifs were identified and assayed for binding to purified recombinant LANA protein in vitro but bound with low affinity compared to the viral TR binding site. More than half of the LANA binding sites (170/256) could be mapped to within 2.5 kb of a cellular gene transcript. Pathways and Gene Ontogeny (GO) analysis revealed that LANA binds to genes within the p53 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) regulatory network. Further analysis revealed partial overlap of LANA and STAT1 binding sites in several gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-regulated genes. We show that ectopic expression of LANA can downmodulate IFN-γ-mediated activation of a subset of genes, including the TAP1 peptide transporter and proteasome subunit beta type 9 (PSMB9), both of which are required for class I antigen presentation. Our data provide a potential mechanism through which LANA may regulate several host cell pathways by direct binding to gene regulatory elements.
Gregory SM, Wang L, West JA, et al.Latent Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection of monocytes downregulates expression of adaptive immune response costimulatory receptors and proinflammatory cytokines.
J Virol. 2012; 86(7):3916-23 [PubMed
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Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection is associated with the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. We report the establishment of a monocytic cell line latently infected with KSHV (KSHV-THP-1). We profiled viral and cytokine gene expression in the KSHV-THP-1 cells compared to that in uninfected THP-1 cells and found that several genes involved in the host immune response were downregulated during latent infection, including genes for CD80, CD86, and the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Thus, KSHV minimizes its immunological signature by suppressing key immune response factors, enabling persistent infection and evasion from host detection.
Speeckaert R, Colebunders B, Boelaert JR, et al.Association of haptoglobin phenotypes with the development of Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV patients.
Arch Dermatol Res. 2011; 303(10):763-9 [PubMed
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Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a rare cutaneous tumor caused by human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) infection that preferentially develops in case of severe immunosuppression, such as in HIV/AIDS disease. Haptoglobin (Hp), a polymorphic multifunctional plasma protein, exerts several immunomodulatory effects and is characterized by a genetic polymorphism leading to three major phenotypes (Hp 1-1, Hp 2-1 and Hp 2-2). This study investigated the influence of Hp genetic polymorphism on the development of KS in HIV-positive patients. 661 HIV patients were enrolled in the study with a median age of 35 years and a median follow-up time of 57 months. Hp phenotyping was performed using hemoglobin-supplemented starch gel electrophoresis. In case of low Hp concentration high pressure gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) was used. The Hp 1-1 phenotype was associated with a significant higher risk of KS compared to the combined group of Hp 2-1 and Hp 2-2 patients (p < 0.0005) which remained significant after adjustment for possible confounding variables (age, gender and AIDS status) (p < 0.001). In contrast, the Hp 2-1 phenotype carried the lowest risk. These findings point to the involvement of Hp phenotypes in the pathogenesis of KS, which may be due to a difference in skin immunosurveillance between the Hp phenotypes.
Wu YH, Hu TF, Chen YC, et al.The manipulation of miRNA-gene regulatory networks by KSHV induces endothelial cell motility.
Blood. 2011; 118(10):2896-905 [PubMed
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miRNAs have emerged as master regulators of cancer-related events. miRNA dysregulation also occurs in Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Exploring the roles of KS-associated miRNAs should help to identify novel angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis pathways. In the present study, we show that Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the etiological agent of KS, induces global miRNA changes in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). Specifically, the miR-221/miR-222 cluster is down-regulated, whereas miR-31 is up-regulated. Both latent nuclear antigen (LANA) and Kaposin B repress the expression of the miR-221/miR-222 cluster, which results in an increase of endothelial cell (EC) migration. In contrast, miR-31 stimulates EC migration, so depletion of miR-31 in KSHV-transformed ECs reduces cell motility. Analysis of the putative miRNA targets among KSHV-affected genes showed that ETS2 and ETS1 are the downstream targets of miR-221 and miR-222, respectively. FAT4 is one of the direct targets of miR-31. Overexpression of ETS1 or ETS2 alone is sufficient to induce EC migration, whereas a reduction in FAT4 enhances EC motility. Our results show that KSHV regulates multiple miRNA-mRNA networks to enhance EC motility, which eventually contributes to KS progression by promoting the spread of malignant KS progenitor cells. Targeting KSHV-regulated miRNAs or genes might allow the development of novel therapeutic strategies that induce angiogenesis or allow the treatment of pathogenic (lymph)angiogenesis.
Tornesello ML, Buonaguro L, Cristillo M, et al.MDM2 and CDKN1A gene polymorphisms and risk of Kaposi's sarcoma in African and Caucasian patients.
Biomarkers. 2011; 16(1):42-50 [PubMed
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A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the MDM2 promoter (SNP309; rs2279744) causes elevated transcription of this major negative regulator of p53 in several cancer types. We investigated MDM2 SNP309 and CDKN1A (p21/Waf1/Cip1) codon 31 (rs1801270) polymorphisms in 86 cases of cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) from African and Caucasian patients, and 210 healthy controls. A significant increase of the MDM2 SNP309 T/G genotype was observed among classic KS cases (odds ratio 2.38, 95% confidence interval 1.0-5.5). Frequencies of CDKN1A codon 31 genotypes were not significantly different between cases and controls. The results suggest that the MDM2 SNP309 G allele may act as a susceptibility gene for the development of classic KS in Caucasian patients.
Classic Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is exceedingly rare in children from the Mediterranean Basin, despite the high prevalence of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection in this region. We hypothesized that rare single-gene inborn errors of immunity to HHV-8 may underlie classic KS in childhood. We investigated a child with no other unusually severe infectious or tumoral phenotype who died from disseminated KS at two years of age. Whole-exome sequencing in the patient revealed a homozygous splice-site mutation in STIM1, the gene encoding stromal interaction molecule 1, which regulates store-operated Ca(2+) entry. STIM1 mRNA splicing, protein production, and Ca(2+) influx were completely abolished in EBV-transformed B cell lines from the patient, but were rescued by the expression of wild-type STIM1. Based on the previous discovery of STIM1 deficiency in a single family with a severe T cell immunodeficiency and the much higher risk of KS in individuals with acquired T cell deficiencies, we conclude that STIM1 T cell deficiency precipitated the development of lethal KS in this child upon infection with HHV-8. Our report provides the first evidence that isolated classic KS in childhood may result from single-gene defects and provides proof-of-principle that whole-exome sequencing in single patients can decipher the genetic basis of rare inborn errors.
Currently KS is the most predominant HIV/AIDS related malignancy in Southern Africa and hence the world. It is characterized as an angioproliferative tumor of vascular endothelial cells and produces rare B cell lymphoproliferative diseases in the form of pleural effusion lymphomas (PEL) and some forms of multicentric Castleman's disease. Only 1-5% of cells in KS lesions actively support lytic replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the etiological agent associated with KS, and it is clear that cellular factors must interact with viral factors in the process of oncogenesis and tumor progression. Identifying novel host-factor determinants which contribute to KS pathology is essential for developing prognostic markers for tumor progression and metastasis as well as for developing novel therapeutics for the treatment of KS. The accompanying video details the methods we use to identify host cell gene expression programs altered in dermal microvascular endothelial cells (DMVEC) after KSHV infection and in KS tumor tissue. Once dysregulated genes are identified by microarray analysis, changes in protein expression are confirmed by immunoblot and dual labeled immunofluorescence. Changes in transcriptional expression of dysregulated genes are confirmed in vitro by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Validation of in vitro findings using archival KS tumor tissue is also performed by dual labeled immunochemistry and tissue microarrays. Our approach to identifying dysregulated genes in the KS tumor tissue microenvironment will allow the development of in vitro and subsequently in vivo model systems for discovery and evaluation of potential novel therapeutic for the treatment of KS.
Dyson OF, Traylen CM, Akula SMCell membrane-bound Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded glycoprotein B promotes virus latency by regulating expression of cellular Egr-1.
J Biol Chem. 2010; 285(48):37491-502 [PubMed
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One of the important questions in the field of virus research is about the balance between latent and lytic cycles of replication. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) remains predominantly in a latent state, with only 1-3% of cells supporting a lytic replication at any time. KSHV glycoprotein B (gB) is expressed not only on the virus envelope but also on the surfaces of the few cells supporting lytic replication. Using co-culture experiments, we determined that expression of KSHV gB on as few as 1-2% of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells resulted in a 10-fold inhibition of expression of ORF50, a viral gene critical for the onset of lytic replication. Also, we demonstrate that such a profound inhibitory effect of gB on the lytic cycle of virus replication is by repressing the ability of Egr-1 (early growth response-1) to bind and activate the ORF50 promoter. In general, virus-encoded late stage structural proteins, such as gB, are said to play major roles in virus entry and egress. The present report provides initial evidence supporting a role for membrane-associated gB expressed in a minimal number of cells to promote virus latency. These findings may have ramifications leading to a better understanding of the role of virus-encoded structural proteins not only in KSHV-related diseases but also in other viruses causing latent infections.
Infection by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in childhood is common in the Mediterranean basin; however, classic Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is exceedingly rare in children not infected with HIV and not receiving immunosuppression, with only 30 cases having been reported since 1960. We recently reported 2 children with autosomal and X-linked recessive primary immunodeficiencies underlying KS in a context of multiple clinical manifestations. These reports suggested that classic KS in otherwise healthy children might also result from inborn errors of immunity more specific to HHV-8. In this article, we describe 3 unrelated Turkish children with classic KS born to first-cousin parents. The first patient, a girl, developed KS at 2 years of age with disseminated cutaneous and mucosal lesions. The clinical course progressed rapidly, and the patient died within 3 months despite treatment with vincristine. The other 2 children developed a milder form of KS at the age of 9 years, with multiple cutaneous lesions. A boy treated with interferon alpha therapy for 12 months is now in full remission at the age of 14, 2 years after treatment. The second girl is currently stabilized with etoposide, which was begun 4 months ago. None of the 3 children had any relevant familial history or other clinical features. The occurrence of classic KS in 3 unrelated Turkish children, each born to consanguineous parents, strongly suggests that autosomal recessive predisposition may drive the rare occurrence of HHV-8-associated classic KS in children.
Punj V, Matta H, Schamus S, et al.Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded viral FLICE inhibitory protein (vFLIP) K13 suppresses CXCR4 expression by upregulating miR-146a.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(12):1835-44 [PubMed
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Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded viral FLICE inhibitory protein (vFLIP) K13 is a potent activator of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway. In this study, we show that infection with KHSV and ectopic expression of K13, but not its NF-kappaB-defective mutant, suppressed the expression of CXCR4. Suppression of CXCR4 by KSHV and K13 was associated with upregulated expression of miR-146a, a microRNA that is known to bind to the 3'-untranslated region of CXCR4 mRNA. Reporter studies identified two NF-kappaB sites in the promoter of miR-146a that were essential for its activation by K13. Accordingly, ectopic expression of K13, but not its NF-kappaB-defective mutant or other vFLIPs, strongly stimulated the miR-146a promoter activity, which could be blocked by specific genetic and pharmacological inhibitors of the NF-kappaB pathway. Finally, expression of CXCR4 was downregulated in clinical samples of KS and this was accompanied by an increased expression of miR-146a. Our results show that K13-induced NF-kappaB activity suppresses CXCR4 through upregulation of miR-146a. Downregulation of CXCR4 expression by K13 may contribute to KS development by promoting premature release of KSHV-infected endothelial progenitors into the circulation.
Tornesello ML, Biryahwaho B, Downing R, et al.TP53 codon 72 polymorphism in classic, endemic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma in African and Caucasian patients.
Oncology. 2009; 77(5):328-34 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVES: Several studies have examined the association of codon 72 polymorphism of the TP53 gene, encoding either arginine or proline, in several tumor types but none have investigated its role in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) development.
METHODS: In this prevalent case-control study, 67 cutaneous lesions of classic, iatrogenic, endemic as well as epidemic KS from African (n = 22) and Caucasian (n = 45) patients, and blood samples from 150 healthy controls (n = 57 African, n = 93 Caucasian) have been analyzed for arginine and proline allele distribution.
RESULTS: Among African cases the proline homozygous, heterozygous and arginine homozygous genotype frequencies were 50.0, 31.8 and 18.2%, respectively, and among controls 54.4, 40.3, and 5.3%, respectively (p = 0.1872). Conversely, among Caucasian cases genotype distributions were 6.7, 55.6, and 37.8%, and among controls 7.5, 34.4, and 58.1%, respectively (p = 0.0567). No significant differences in arginine and proline allele distribution were observed when the cases were stratified by HIV status/tumor type.
CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in this study suggest that p53 polymorphism at codon 72 does not represent a risk factor for the development of all forms of KS, either among African or among Caucasian populations.
Upon viral infection, the major defensive strategy employed by the host immune system is the activation of the interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral pathway, which is overseen by IFN regulatory factors (IRFs). In order to complete their life cycles, viruses must find a way to modulate the host IFN-mediated immune response. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a human tumor-inducing herpesvirus, has developed a unique mechanism for antagonizing cellular IFN-mediated antiviral activity by incorporating viral homolog of the cellular IRFs, called vIRFs, into its genome. Here, we summarize the novel evasion mechanisms by which KSHV, through its vIRFs, circumvents IFN-mediated innate immune responses and deregulates the cell growth control mechanism.
MicroRNAs (miRNA) have emerged as key regulators of cell lineage differentiation and cancer. We used precursor miRNA profiling by a novel real-time QPCR method (i) to define progressive stages of endothelial cell transformation cumulating in Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and (ii) to identify specific miRNAs that serve as biomarkers for tumor progression. We were able to compare primary patient biopsies to well-established culture and mouse tumor models. Loss of mir-221 and gain of mir-15 expression demarked the transition from merely immortalized to fully tumorigenic endothelial cells. Mir-140 and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral miRNAs increased linearly with the degree of transformation. Mir-24 emerged as a biomarker specific for KS.
de Sanjose S, Mbisa G, Perez-Alvarez S, et al.Geographic variation in the prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and risk factors for transmission.
J Infect Dis. 2009; 199(10):1449-56 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in the female general population, to define geographic variation in and heterosexual transmission of the virus.
METHODS: The study included 10,963 women from 9 countries for whom information on sociodemographic characteristics and reproductive, sexual, and smoking behaviors were available. Antibodies against KSHV that encoded lytic antigen K8.1 and latent antigen ORF73 were determined.
RESULTS: The range of prevalence of KSHV (defined as detection of any antigen) was 3.81%-46.02%, with significant geographic variation noted. In Nigeria, the prevalence was 46.02%; in Colombia, 13.32%; in Costa Rica, 9.81%; in Argentina, 6.40%; in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 15.50%; in Hanoi, Vietnam, 11.26%; in Songkla, Thailand, 10%; in Lampang, Thailand, 8.63%; in Korea, 4.93%; and in Spain, 3.65%. The prevalence of KSHV slightly increased with increasing age among subjects in geographic areas where the prevalence of KSHV was high, such as Nigeria and Colombia, and it significantly decreased with increases in the educational level attained by subjects in those areas. KSHV was not statistically associated with age at first sexual intercourse, number of sex partners, number of children, patterns of oral contraceptive use, presence of cervical human papillomavirus DNA, or smoking status.
CONCLUSIONS: The study provides comparable estimates of KSHV prevalence in diverse cultural settings across 4 continents and provides evidence that sexual transmission of KSHV is not a major source of infection in the general population.
Sakakibara S, Pise-Masison CA, Brady JN, Tosato GGene regulation and functional alterations induced by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded ORFK13/vFLIP in endothelial cells.
J Virol. 2009; 83(5):2140-53 [PubMed
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Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an angioproliferative inflammatory disorder induced by endothelial cell infection with the KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). ORFK13/vFLIP, one of the KSHV genes expressed in KS, encodes a 188-amino-acid protein which binds to the Ikappab kinase (IKK) complex to activate NF-kappaB. We examined ORFK13/vFLIP contribution to KS phenotype and potential for therapeutic targeting. Retroviral transduction of ORFK13/vFLIP into primary human endothelial cells induces the spindle morphology distinctive of KS cells and promotes the formation of abnormal vascular networks typical of KS vasculature; upregulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and interferon-responsive genes; and stimulates the adhesion of inflammatory cells characteristic of KS lesions. Thymidine phosphorylase, a cellular enzyme markedly induced by ORFK13/vFLIP, can metabolize the prodrug 5-fluoro-5-deoxyuridine (5-dFUrd) to 5-fluouridine (5-FU), a potent thymidine synthase inhibitor, which blocks DNA and RNA synthesis. When tested for cytotoxicity, 5-dFUrd (0.1 to 1 microM) selectively killed ORFK13/vFLIP-expressing endothelial cells while sparing control cells. These results demonstrate that ORFK13/vFLIP directly and indirectly contributes to the inflammatory and vascular phenotype of KS and identify 5-dFUrd as a potential new drug that targets KSHV latency for the treatment of KS and other KSHV-associated malignancies.
Dadras SS, Skrzypek A, Nguyen L, et al.Prox-1 promotes invasion of kaposiform hemangioendotheliomas.
J Invest Dermatol. 2008; 128(12):2798-806 [PubMed
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Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequently occurring malignant tumor in patients infected with HIV. Recent studies have revealed that infection of vascular endothelial cells with KS-associated herpes virus in vitro results in a lymphatic reprogramming of these cells, with potent induction of the lymphatic marker genes podoplanin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3, which is mediated by upregulation of the transcription factor Prox1. However, the potential effects of Prox1 expression on the biology of KS and, in particular, on the aggressive and invasive behavior of KS tumors in vivo have remained unknown. We stably expressed Prox1 cDNA in the two mouse hemangioendothelioma cell lines EOMA and Py-4-1, well-established murine models for kaposiform hemangioendothelioma. Surprisingly, we found that expression of Prox1 was sufficient to induce a more aggressive behavior of tumors growing in syngenic mice, leading to enhanced local invasion into the muscular layer and to cellular anaplasia in vivo, and increased migration rate in vitro. This enhanced malignant phenotype was associated with upregulation of several genes involved in proteolysis, cell adhesion, and migration. Together, these results indicate that Prox1 plays an important, previously unanticipated role in mediating the aggressive behavior of vascular neoplasms such as KS.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 19 to 23 nucleotide-long RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Human cells express several hundred miRNAs which regulate important biological pathways such as development, proliferation, and apoptosis. Recently, 12 miRNA genes have been identified within the genome of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; however, their functions are still unknown. To identify host cellular genes that may be targeted by these novel viral regulators, we performed gene expression profiling in cells stably expressing KSHV-encoded miRNAs. Data analysis revealed a set of 81 genes whose expression was significantly changed in the presence of miRNAs. While the majority of changes were below 2-fold, eight genes were down-regulated between 4- and 20-fold. We confirmed miRNA-dependent regulation for three of these genes and found that protein levels of thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) were decreased >10-fold. THBS1 has previously been reported to be down-regulated in Kaposi sarcoma lesions and has known activity as a strong tumor suppressor and anti-angiogenic factor, exerting its anti-angiogenic effect in part by activating the latent form of TGF-beta. We show that reduced THBS1 expression in the presence of viral miRNAs translates into decreased TGF-beta activity. These data suggest that KSHV-encoded miRNAs may contribute directly to pathogenesis by down-regulation of THBS1, a major regulator of cell adhesion, migration, and angiogenesis.
Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent for primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), a non-Hodgkin type lymphoma manifesting as an effusion malignancy in the affected individual. Although KSHV has been recognized as a tumor virus for over a decade, the pathways for its tumorigenic conversion are incompletely understood, which has greatly hampered the development of efficient therapies for KSHV-induced malignancies like PEL and Kaposi's sarcoma. There are no current therapies effective against the aggressive, KSHV-induced PEL. Here we demonstrate that activation of the p53 pathway using murine double minute 2 (MDM2) inhibitor Nutlin-3a conveyed specific and highly potent activation of PEL cell killing. Our results demonstrated that the KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) bound to both p53 and MDM2 and that the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a disrupted the p53-MDM2-LANA complex and selectively induced massive apoptosis in PEL cells. Together with our results indicating that KSHV-infection activated DNA damage signaling, these findings contribute to the specificity of the cytotoxic effects of Nutlin-3a in KSHV-infected cells. Moreover, we showed that Nutlin-3a had striking antitumor activity in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. Our results therefore present new options for exploiting reactivation of p53 as what we believe to be a novel and highly selective treatment modality for this virally induced lymphoma.
Alkharsah KR, Dedicoat M, Blasczyk R, et al.Influence of HLA alleles on shedding of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in saliva in an African population.
J Infect Dis. 2007; 195(6):809-16 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Infection in childhood involves mother-to-child transmission and transmission between siblings or other close contacts. Large amounts of viral DNA in saliva have been linked to transmission from mother to child. To investigate factors contributing to the shedding of KSHV in the saliva of mothers in rural South Africa, we sequenced the HLA-A alleles of 448 mothers and the HLA-DRB1 alleles of 363 mothers and compared their HLA types with viral loads in saliva.
METHODS: Viral load was quantified with real-time polymerase chain reaction on DNA extracted from saliva. HLA-A and HLA-DRB1 allele groups were determined by sequencing-based typing.
RESULTS: We found that 2 HLA-A alleles, A*6801 and A*4301, and 1 HLA-DRB1 allele group, DRB1*04, were associated with shedding of KSHV in saliva. KSHV could be detected more frequently in mothers carrying at least 1 copy of HLA-A*6801 or HLA-A*4301, and higher viral loads were found in HLA-A*68- and HLA-DRB1*04-carrying mothers.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings could suggest that 2 HLA-A alleles, A*6801 and A*4301, and 1 HLA-DRB1 allele group, DRB1*04, that are more frequent in African populations might be associated with an impaired control of KSHV and, hence, increased shedding in saliva.
Dezube BJ, Sullivan R, Koon HBEmerging targets and novel strategies in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: bidirectional translational science.
J Cell Physiol. 2006; 209(3):659-62 [PubMed
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Through the mentorship process, Dr. Arthur Pardee emphasized the critical importance of bidirectional translational research-not only advancing drug development from bench to bedside, but also bringing back precious clinical material to the laboratory to assess the biologic effects of therapeutic agents on their targets. This mini-review focuses on the signal transduction pathways of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and on how the knowledge of such pathways has led to the rational development of molecularly targeted pathogenesis-driven therapies. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) related-KS results from co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and KS herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV8), which leads to the development of an angiogenic-inflammatory state that is critical in the pathogenesis of KS. KS is driven by KSHV/HHV8-specific pathways, which include viral G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR), viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6), and viral chemokine homologues. In addition, cellular growth/angiogenic pathways, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), angiopoietin and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are "pirated" by KSHV/HHV8. As a very tangible example of how translational research has led to a marked improvement in patient outcome, the signal transduction inhibitor imatinib (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of c-kit and PDGF) was administered to patients with KS whose tumors were serially biopsied. Not only did the patients' tumors regress, but also the regression was correlated with the inhibition of PDGF receptor (PDGFR) in the biopsy samples. Recent and future clinical trials of molecularly targeted therapy for the treatment of KS are a prelude to a shift in the paradigm of how KS is managed.
Rose PP, Carroll JM, Carroll PA, et al.The insulin receptor is essential for virus-induced tumorigenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma.
Oncogene. 2007; 26(14):1995-2005 [PubMed
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Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a multifocal neoplasm of the skin that can spread to visceral organs, is the most prevalent malignant tumor in acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or HHV8) is considered the primary etiological factor of this malignancy, as well as of primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. KS lesions are characterized by proliferating spindle cells of endothelial cell (EC) origin. The action of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has been implicated in many malignancies, and recent data have demonstrated that the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) is required for in vitro growth of the KS-derived KSIMM cell line. To examine whether the IGF pathway is also involved in KSHV-mediated transformation of ECs, we examined the expression and function of the IGF system in KSHV-infected, immortalized dermal microvascular EC (E-DMVEC). The expression of the insulin receptor (IR) was strongly induced in latently infected E-DMVEC, whereas the expression levels of the IGF-IR remained unchanged. Gene knockdown of IR, but not IGF-IR, prevented the characteristic focus formation seen in KSHV-infected E-DMVEC. Similarly, treatment with the IR-specific small-molecule inhibitor HNMPA-(AM(3)) inhibited postconfluent growth. These data suggest a role for the IR, but not the IGF-IR, in KSHV-induced transformation of vascular ECs.