Gene Summary

Gene:IL1B; interleukin 1 beta
Aliases: IL-1, IL1F2, IL1beta, IL1-BETA
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. This cytokine is produced by activated macrophages as a proprotein, which is proteolytically processed to its active form by caspase 1 (CASP1/ICE). This cytokine is an important mediator of the inflammatory response, and is involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2/COX2) by this cytokine in the central nervous system (CNS) is found to contribute to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:interleukin-1 beta
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IL1B (cancer-related)

Honda T, Inagawa H
Usefulness of Monocytes/macrophages Activated With Low-dose Lipopolysaccharide in Tumor Tissue and Adipose Tissue of Obesity.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4475-4478 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic inflammation is involved in the development of cancer, lifestyle-related diseases, and autoimmune diseases. It also influences the severity of these diseases. Macrophages that accumulate in tumor tissues and adipose tissues of obesity have been shown to increase expression of inflammatory cytokines, thereby inducing inflammatory changes in these tissues. The macrophage phenotype is believed to be important in mediating inflammatory changes in tissues. Recently, monocytes/macrophages activated with low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were demonstrated to suppress increased expression of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α). By suppressing the increased expression of chemotaxis-related and inflammation-related factors, monocytes/macrophages activated with low-dose LPS are considered to suppress the migration of macrophages into tissues and to regulate inflammatory changes in these tissues, respectively. The effects of macrophages activated with low-dose LPS were different from those of macrophages activated with high-dose LPS. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of monocytes/macrophages activation by low-dose LPS.

Xu F, Song Y, Guo A
Anti-Apoptotic Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid in IL-1β-Induced Human Chondrosarcoma Cell Death through Involvement of the MAPK Signaling Pathway.
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2019; 158(1):17-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease characterized by progressive articular cartilage destruction and joint marginal osteophyte formation with different degrees of synovitis. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an unsaturated fatty acid with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic functions. In this study, the human chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353 was cultured in vitro, and an OA cell model was constructed with inflammatory factor IL-1β stimulation. After cells were treated with DHA, cell apoptosis was measured. Western blot assay was used to detect protein expression of apoptosis-related factors (Bax, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway family members, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK. Our results show that IL-1β promotes the apoptosis of SW1353 cells, increases the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and activates the MAPK signaling pathway. In contrast, DHA inhibits the expression of IL-1β, inhibits IL-1β-induced cell apoptosis, and has a certain inhibitory effect on the activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. When the MAPK signaling pathway is inhibited by its inhibitors, the effects of DHA on SW1353 cells are weakened. Thus, DHA enhances the apoptosis of SW1353 cells through the MAPK signaling pathway.

Pradhan N, Parbin S, Kausar C, et al.
Paederia foetida induces anticancer activity by modulating chromatin modification enzymes and altering pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in human prostate cancer cells.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2019; 130:161-173 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant epigenetic modifications are responsible for tumor development and cancer progression; however, readily reversible. Bioactive molecules from diets are promising to cure cancer by modulating epigenetic marks and changing immune response. These compounds specifically target the activity of DNMTs and HDACs to cure various human cancers. In view of this, we investigated the anticancer and epigenetic regulatory activities of an edible-plant Paederia foetida. The efficacy of methanolic extract of P. foetida leaves (MEPL) was tested for the modulation of epigenetic factors in gene silencing, i.e. DNMT and HDAC and expression pattern of certain tumor-suppressor genes. After treatment of prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and DU-145) with MEPL, lupeol and β-sitosterol; induction of apoptosis, decrease in cellular-viability and inhibition of cellular-migration were noticed. Simultaneously there was inhibition of DNMT1, HDACs and pro-inflammatory, IL-6, IL1-β, TNF-α and anti-inflammatory, IL-10 genes in cancer and THP1 cell lines. The DNMT1 protein content, enzyme activity and Bcl2 expression decreased significantly; however, expression of E-cadherin (CDH1) and pro-apoptotic gene Bax increased significantly after the treatment of cells with drugs. We conclude plant-derived compounds can be considered to target epigenetic machineries involved with malignant transformation and can open new avenues for cancer therapeutics provoking immune response.

Forte M, Di Lorenzo M, Iachetta G, et al.
Nonylphenol acts on prostate adenocarcinoma cells via estrogen molecular pathways.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019; 180:412-419 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogens play a role in the patho-physiology of the prostate. In the present work we studied the effects of nonylphenol (NP), a xenoestrogen, on human adenocarcinoma prostate cells (LNCaP). In order to understand molecular and cellular involvement, we observed the effects on cell cycle and we investigated the expression and the cellular localization of estrogen receptors and gene expression of cyclin D1, ki-67, c-myc, IL-8, IL-1β. We performed the same experiments with 17β-estradiol (E2), the most abundant estrogen circulating in nonpregnant humans in order to compare these two different substances. We demonstrated the ability of 1 × 10

Cheng J, Li Y, Kong J
Ginkgetin inhibits proliferation of HeLa cells via activation of p38/NF-κB pathway.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2019; 65(4):79-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Effect of ginkgetin on proliferation of human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells and the underlying mechanism   were investigated. Human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells were cultured at 37 °C in 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplemented RPMI 1640 medium in a humidified incubator containing 5 % CO2. Cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay, while real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to determine the levels of expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8). The expressions of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF- κB) were determined using Western blotting. Treatment of HeLa cells with ginkgetin significantly and time- and dose-dependently inhibited their proliferation (p < 0.05). The invasion of the cells were also significantly and dose-dependently decreased, when compared with control cells (p < 0.05). The expressions of p-p38 and p-NF-κB were significantly and dose-dependently down-regulated, relative to control group (p < 0.05). However, the expressions of p38 and NF-κB in ginkgetin-treated cells were not significantly different from those of control group (p > 0.05). The results of qRT-PCR and ELISA showed that the levels of expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 mRNAs were significantly and dose-dependently reduced in HeLa cells after 48 h of treatment with ginkgetin, when compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The anti-proliferative effect of ginkgetin on HeLa cells is exerted via a mechanism involving the p38/NF-κB pathway.

Matte I, Garde-Granger P, Bessette P, Piché A
Ascites from ovarian cancer patients stimulates MUC16 mucin expression and secretion in human peritoneal mesothelial cells through an Akt-dependent pathway.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):406 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CA125 is a well-established ovarian cancer (OC) serum biomarker. The CA125 heavily glycosylated epitope is carried by the MUC16 mucin, a high molecular weight transmembrane mucin. Upon proteolytic cleavage, the extracellular domain of MUC16 is released from the cell surface into malignant ascites and blood vessels. Previous studies have shown that both tumor and surrounding mesothelial cells may express MUC16. Although little is known about the regulation of MUC16 expression in these cells, recent evidence suggest that inflammatory cytokines may stimulate MUC16 expression. Because malignant ascites is a pro-inflammatory environment, we investigated whether OC ascites stimulate the expression and release of MUC16 by human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs).
METHODS: HPMCs were isolated from peritoneal lavages of women operated for conditions other than cancer. MUC16 protein expression was determined by immunoblot, immunofluorescence or immunohistochemistry depending on the experiments. The release of MUC16 from the cell surface was measured using EIA and MUC16 mRNA expression by ddPCR.
RESULTS: We show that high-grade serous ascites from patients with OC (n = 5) enhance MUC16 expression in HPMCs. Malignant ascites, but not benign peritoneal fluids, stimulate the release of MUC16 in HPMCs in a dose-dependent manner, which is abrogated by heat inactivation. Moreover, we establish that ascites-induced MUC16 expression occurs at the post-transcriptional level and demonstrate that ascites-induced MUC16 expression is mediated, at least partially, through an Akt-dependent pathway. A cytokine array identified upregulation of several cytokines and chemokines in ascites that mediate MUC16 upregulation versus those that do not, including CCL7, CCL8, CCL16, CCL20, CXCL1, IL-6, IL-10, HGF and IL-1 R4. However, when individually tested, none of these factors affected MUC16 expression or secretion. Concentrations of CA125 in the serum of a given patient did not correlate with the ability of its corresponding ascites to stimulate MUC16 release in HPMCs.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data indicate that mesothelial cells are an important source of MUC16 in the context of ovarian cancer and malignant ascites is a strong modulator of MUC16 expression in HPMCs and uncover the Akt pathway as a driving factor for upregulation of MUC16. Factors in ascites associated with enhanced MUC16 expression and release remains to be identified.

Smith MA, Choudhary GS, Pellagatti A, et al.
U2AF1 mutations induce oncogenic IRAK4 isoforms and activate innate immune pathways in myeloid malignancies.
Nat Cell Biol. 2019; 21(5):640-650 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Spliceosome mutations are common in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), but the oncogenic changes due to these mutations have not been identified. Here a global analysis of exon usage in AML samples revealed distinct molecular subsets containing alternative spliced isoforms of inflammatory and immune genes. Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) was the dominant alternatively spliced isoform in MDS and AML and is characterized by a longer isoform that retains exon 4, which encodes IRAK4-long (IRAK4-L), a protein that assembles with the myddosome, results in maximal activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of B cells (NF-κB) and is essential for leukaemic cell function. Expression of IRAK4-L is mediated by mutant U2 small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 1 (U2AF1) and is associated with oncogenic signalling in MDS and AML. Inhibition of IRAK4-L abrogates leukaemic growth, particularly in AML cells with higher expression of the IRAK4-L isoform. Collectively, mutations in U2AF1 induce expression of therapeutically targetable 'active' IRAK4 isoforms and provide a genetic link to activation of chronic innate immune signalling in MDS and AML.

Münch NS, Fang HY, Ingermann J, et al.
High-Fat Diet Accelerates Carcinogenesis in a Mouse Model of Barrett's Esophagus via Interleukin 8 and Alterations to the Gut Microbiome.
Gastroenterology. 2019; 157(2):492-506.e2 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Progression from BE to cancer is associated with obesity, possibly due to increased abdominal pressure and gastroesophageal reflux disease, although this pathogenic mechanism has not been proven. We investigated whether environmental or dietary factors associated with obesity contribute to the progression of BE to EAC in mice.
METHODS: Tg(ED-L2-IL1RN/IL1B)#Tcw mice (a model of BE, called L2-IL1B mice) were fed a chow (control) or high-fat diet (HFD) or were crossbred with mice that express human interleukin (IL) 8 (L2-IL1B/IL8 mice). Esophageal tissues were collected and analyzed for gene expression profiles and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Organoids were established from BE tissue of mice and cultured with serum from lean or obese individuals or with neutrophils from L2-IL1B mice. Feces from mice were analyzed by 16s ribosomal RNA sequencing and compared to 16s sequencing data from patients with dysplasia or BE. L2-IL1B were mice raised in germ-free conditions.
RESULTS: L2-IL1B mice fed an HFD developed esophageal dysplasia and tumors more rapidly than mice fed the control diet; the speed of tumor development was independent of body weight. The acceleration of dysplasia by the HFD in the L2-IL1B mice was associated with a shift in the gut microbiota and an increased ratio of neutrophils to natural killer cells in esophageal tissues compared with mice fed a control diet. We observed similar differences in the microbiomes from patients with BE that progressed to EAC vs patients with BE that did not develop into cancer. Tissues from dysplasias of L2-IL1B mice fed the HFD contained increased levels of cytokines that are produced in response to CXCL1 (the functional mouse homolog of IL8, also called KC). Serum from obese patients caused organoids from L2-IL1B/IL8 mice to produce IL8. BE tissues from L2-IL1B mice fed the HFD and from L2-IL1B/IL8 mice contained increased numbers of myeloid cells and cells expressing Cxcr2 and Lgr5 messenger RNAs (epithelial progenitors) compared with mice fed control diets. BE tissues from L2-IL1B mice raised in germ-free housing had fewer progenitor cells and developed less dysplasia than in L2-IL1 mice raised under standard conditions; exposure of fecal microbiota from L2-IL1B mice fed the HFD to L2-IL1B mice fed the control diet accelerated tumor development.
CONCLUSIONS: In a mouse model of BE, we found that an HFD promoted dysplasia by altering the esophageal microenvironment and gut microbiome, thereby inducing inflammation and stem cell expansion, independent of obesity.

Wang T, Feng Y, Zhao Z, et al.
IL1RN Polymorphisms Are Associated with a Decreased Risk of Esophageal Cancer Susceptibility in a Chinese Population.
Chemotherapy. 2019; 64(1):28-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggested that IL1RN (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist) polymorphisms increased the susceptibility to cancers. The present study aimed to evaluate whether IL1RN was related to esophageal cancer susceptibility in a Northwest Han Chinese population.
METHODS: The case-control study was conducted on 384 esophageal cancer patients and 499 healthy controls. We successfully genotyped four SNPs distributed in IL1RN. The Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) database was used to observe the expression of IL1RN in esophageal cancer tissues and normal tissues. RegulomeDB and HaploReg v4.1 were used to calculate possible functional effects of the polymorphisms. We also used genetic models to detect any potential association between IL1RN variants and esophageal cancer risk.
RESULTS: In our study, rs3181052 was associated with a reduced risk of esophageal cancer in the codominant (odds ratio [OR] = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.52-0.93, p = 0.040), the dominant (OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.57-0.99, p = 0.041), and the overdominant (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.54-0.93, p = 0.012) model. The rs452204 was associated with a 0.76-fold (OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99; p = 0.043) decreased esophageal cancer risk under the overdominant model without adjustment. We also found that rs3181052 had a negative effect on esophageal cancer under the overdominant model (OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.53-0.97, p = 0.033) adjusted for age and gender. In stratified analyses by age >55 years, rs3181052 reduced the risk of esophageal cancer in the dominant and overdominant models. In addition, rs315919 had a remarkable influence on esophageal cancer risk in females, while the association was not significant between rs3181052 and esophageal cancer risk in males.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided the first evidence that IL1RN rs3181052, rs452204, and rs315919 are correlated with a decreased risk of esophageal cancer in a Northwest Han Chinese population. These findings may be useful for the development of early prognostics for esophageal cancer. However, further larger studies on different ethnic populations are warranted to verify these findings.

Wu J, Zhang W, Cai J, et al.
Influence of IL-1R2 polymorphisms on endometrial cancer susceptibility in the Chinese Han population.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(5):e650 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recently, many studies have identified that genetic factor plays a crucial role in endometrial cancer development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-1R2 on endometrial cancer susceptibility.
METHODS: We performed a case-control study that included 293 patients with endometrial cancer and 579 healthy controls. Six SNPs in the IL-1R2 gene were genotyped using the Agena MassARRAY platform. Genetic models and haplotype analyses were used to assess the association between SNPs and endometrial cancer risk by computing odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS: Overall analysis results found that two SNPs (rs4851527 and rs3218896) and haplotypes TGTC and TACT were significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk. Stratified analysis by age showed that rs2072472 was associated with endometrial cancer risk in age >54 subgroup.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested that IL-1R2 polymorphisms may contribute to the development of endometrial cancer. Further studies are required to confirm the results.

Wang C, Zhang C, Xu J, et al.
Association between IL-1R2 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk in the Chinese Han population: A case-control study.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(5):e644 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1 receptor 2 (IL-1R2), as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of lung cancer. However, the role of IL-1R2 polymorphisms in patients with lung cancer has yet to be fully elucidated.
METHODS: Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-1R2 were genotyped in 259 patients and 346 healthy controls. We used the chi-squared test, genetic model analysis, Haploview analysis, and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) to evaluate the potential association between IL-1R2 polymorphisms and lung cancer susceptibility. Bioinformatics analyses were conducted to analyze the expression level of IL-1R2 and its association with the overall survival of lung cancer.
RESULTS: Our results found that rs3218977-GG was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.87; p = 0.023), and rs2072472 had a significant risk-increasing effect in the dominant model (AG + GG vs. AA: OR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.09-2.20; p = 0.015). The MDR model also revealed that rs2072472 is the most influential risk factor of lung cancer (testing accuracy = 0.543; cross-validation consistency = 10/10; p = 0.032). In addition, our results indicated that the IL-1R2 mRNA level was downregulated in lung cancer patients, whereas the high expression of IL-1R2 was related to a poor prognosis in lung cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that genetic variants of IL-1R2 may play a role in lung cancer susceptibility. Further population and functional validations of our findings are warranted.

Xiao L, Luo Y, Tai R, Zhang N
Estrogen receptor β suppresses inflammation and the progression of prostate cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(5):3555-3563 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
Previous studies demonstrated that estrogen receptor β (ERβ) signaling alleviates systemic inflammation in animal models, and suggested that ERβ‑selective agonists may deactivate microglia and suppress T cell activity via downregulation of nuclear factor κ‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF‑κB). In the present study, the role of ERβ in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced inflammation and association with NF‑κB activity were investigated in PC‑3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. Cells were treated with LPS to induce inflammation, and ELISA was performed to determine the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP‑1), interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6. MTT and Transwell assays, and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining were conducted to measure cell viability, apoptosis and migration, respectively. Protein expression was determined via western blot analysis. LPS‑induced inflammation resulted in elevated expression levels of TNF‑α, IL‑1β, MCP‑1 and IL‑6 compared with controls. ERβ overexpression significantly inhibited the LPS‑induced production of TNF‑α, IL‑1β, MCP‑1 and IL‑6. In addition, the results indicated that ERβ suppressed viability and migration, and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, which was further demonstrated by altered expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, B‑cell lymphoma 2‑associated X protein, caspase‑3, E‑cadherin and matrix metalloproteinase‑2. These effects were reversed by treatment with the ERβ antagonist PHTPP or ERβ‑specific short interfering RNA. ERβ overexpression reduced the expression levels of p65 and phosphorylated NF‑κB inhibitor α (IκBα), but not total IκBα expression in LPS‑treated cells. In conclusion, ERβ suppressed the viability and migration of the PC‑3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, it reduced inflammation and suppressed the activation of the NF‑κB pathway, suggesting that ERβ may serve roles as an anti‑inflammatory and anticancer agent in prostate cancer.

Ji H, Lu L, Huang J, et al.
IL1A polymorphisms is a risk factor for colorectal cancer in Chinese Han population: a case control study.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):181 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and genetic variations exert distinct roles in its pathogenesis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in interleukin 1 alpha (IL1A) were reported to be correlated to the susceptibility of diverse cancers. The aim of this study was to assess the association of IL1A SNPs with the risk of colorectal cancer in a Chinese Han population.
METHODS: To evaluate the correlation between IL1A polymorphisms and CRC risk, Agena MassARRAY platform was used for genotype determination among 248 CRC patients and 463 controls. The relationships between IL1A variants and CRC susceptibility were examined by logistic regression analysis. Stratified analysis was conducted for the association detection in males and females. Haplotype construction and analysis were applied to evaluate the potential relationship between the genetic block and the risk of CRC. SNP functional exploration was performed with available bioinformatics datasets.
RESULTS: After adjusting for age and gender, the "AA" genotype of rs2856838 exhibited a risk association with colorectal cancer in the recessive model (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.05-3.72, p = 0.036). With stratified analysis, the recessive models of rs3783550 (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.03-4.60, p = 0.043), rs2856838 (OR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.13-5.87, p = 0.024), rs1609682 (OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.04-4.65, p = 0.040), and rs3783521 (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.01-4.49, p = 0.048) revealed significant relationships between these variants and an increased CRC risk only in females. Bioinformatics analysis also revealed the putative functions of the selected SNPs.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that rs2856838 could influence the susceptibility to CRC in Chinese Han population from northwest China. IL1A variants rs3783550, rs2856838, rs1609682, and rs3783521 were associated with CRC risk only in females.

Ullah M, Azazzen D, Kaci R, et al.
High Expression of HLA-G in Ovarian Carcinomatosis: The Role of Interleukin-1β.
Neoplasia. 2019; 21(3):331-342 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
The present study focuses on the influence of the tumor microenvironment on the expression of HLA-G in ovarian cancer and its impact on immune cells. We used carcinomatosis fluids (n = 16) collected from patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer, detected by an increase in CA125 levels. Our results indicate that HLA-G is expressed by 1) ascitic cell clusters, 2) stromal cells (hospicells) extracted from cancer cell clusters, and 3) cancer cell lines and tumor cells. The origin of HLA-G was linked to inflammatory cytokines present in the cancer microenvironment. In parallel, the ascitic fluid of patients with ovarian cancer contains soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G). The mesothelial cell layer and submesothelial tissues, as well as the immune cell infiltrate, do not secrete HLA-G. In contrast, sHLA-G is absorbed by peritoneal tissues along with mesothelial layers as well as immune cell infiltrates. We demonstrated that interleukin-1β along with TGF-β can be a major HLA-G-inducing factor that upregulates HLA-G expression through the NF-κB pathway. The level of HLA-G in ascites correlated positively with the expression of T regulatory (T-regs) cells, while it negatively correlated with the expression of natural killer and memory cells in tumor-infiltrating immune cells. In conclusion, the production of HLA-G is associated with the presence of inflammatory cytokines and is strongly correlated with microenvironment tolerant cells such as T-regs and diminution of NK and memory T cells.

Jiang H, Yang Z, Song Z, et al.
γδ T cells in hepatocellular carcinoma patients present cytotoxic activity but are reduced in potency due to IL-2 and IL-21 pathways.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2019; 70:167-173 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver carcinoma and has one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers. The γδ T cells could infiltrate HCC and have demonstrated potent tumor-killing capacity. Here, we found that in peripheral blood, the vast majority of γδ T cells were Vδ2 T cells. In HCC patients, the frequency of Vδ2 T cells was significantly lower than in controls. γδ T cells that were harvested directly ex vivo possessed very limited capacity to eliminate Zol-loaded HCC cell lines, even at a high effector to target ratio. In vitro expansion with Zol could significantly increase the capacity of γδ T cells to eliminate HCC cell lines. But even with in vitro expansion, the γδ T cells from HCC patients presented significantly lower cytotoxic capacity than the γδ T cells from healthy individuals. The expression of IL-2 and IL-21 by γδ T cells was significantly lower in HCC patients than in control volunteers. Supplementing recombinant human IL-2 and IL-21 in the in vitro expansion culture increased the cytotoxic capacity of γδ T cells. In addition, the frequency of PD-1

Ungard RG, Linher-Melville K, Nashed M, et al.
xCT knockdown in human breast cancer cells delays onset of cancer-induced bone pain.
Mol Pain. 2019 Jan-Dec; 15:1744806918822185 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
Cancers in the bone produce a number of severe symptoms including pain that compromises patient functional status, quality of life, and survival. The source of this pain is multifaceted and includes factors secreted from tumor cells. Malignant cells release the neurotransmitter and cell-signaling molecule glutamate via the oxidative stress-related cystine/glutamate antiporter, system x

Tang D, Wu Q, Yuan Z, et al.
Identification of key pathways and gene changes in primary pancreatic stellate cells after cross-talk with pancreatic cancer cells (BXPC-3) using bioinformatics analysis.
Neoplasma. 2019; 2019(3):446-458 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is well known that as the king of cancer, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has relatively malignant biological behavior and poor prognosis. The interaction between pancreatic stellate cells and PDAC cells promotes the development of PDAC. The aim of this study was to describe gene characteristics in pancreatic stellate cell (PSCs) after cross-talked with BXPC-3 and unravel their underlying mechanisms. The expression profiling analysis of genes in PSCs was completed after co-cultured with primary BXPC-3 for 48h. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) enrichment analysis and gene ontology (GO) analysis were performed, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by Agilent GeneSpring GX program. In total, 1804 DEGs were filtered out in PSCs, including 958 up-regulated genes and 846 downregulated genes. GO analysis showed that the up-regulated DEGs were significantly enriched in biological processes (BP) such as defense response, immune system process and immune response; the down-regulated DEGs were significantly enriched in biological regulation and cytoskeleton organization. KEGG pathway analysis showed that 28 pathways were upregulated and 5 were downregulated. By constructing PPI network, we selected out 10 key genes (IL6,IL8, IL1B, BCL2, CCL2, CSF2, KIT, ICAM1, PTPRC and IGF1) and significant enriched pathways. In conclusion, the current study suggests that the filtered DEGs contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between PSCs and pancreatic cancer cells, and might be used as molecular targets to further the study the role of tumor microenvironment in the progression of PDAC.

Zhu A, Li X, Wu H, et al.
Molecular mechanism of SSFA2 deletion inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting cell apoptosis in glioma.
Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(3):600-606 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gliomas are the most common primary brain malignant tumors in humans. Glioblastoma multiforme(GBM) is the most malignant intracranial tumor with a relatively poor prognosis. There promote us to find effective anti-cancer therapies to reduce cancer mortality. By using bioinformatic analysis, we found SSFA2 as a gene with elevated expression in the glioma tissues. We detected the expression of SSFA2 in glioma tissues and in the glioma cell lines, as well as in normal brain tissues. SSFA2 expression was higher in glioma tissues, especially in glioblastoma multiforme than normal brain tissues. Subsequently, we found that down-regulate SSFA2 in glioma cell lines can regulate the cell cycle to reduce the proliferation ability and induce the early apoptosis rate in shSSFA2 cells relative to control cells. Moreover, we found that down-regulate SSFA2 in glioma cell line U87(shSSFA2-U87) inhibited the growth effectiveness compared to the control cell line U87. These result reveals us that SSFA2 may act as oncogene to promote the progression of glioma. For further research specific mechanisms of SSFA2 in gliomas, we used the gene chip to detect the downstream gene in U87. We found that 30 genes also may be as target gene of SSFA2, and we testify the protein expression by western-blot. The result reveal that IL1A, IL1B and CDK6 as target gene of SSFA2 to regulate the progression of glioma. These finding suggest that SSFA2 could be a new therapeutic target for gliomas.

Khodabandehlou N, Mostafaei S, Etemadi A, et al.
Human papilloma virus and breast cancer: the role of inflammation and viral expressed proteins.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is currently the most common neoplasm diagnosed in women globally. There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may play a key role in invasiveness of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of HPV in patients with breast cancer and its possible association with cancer progression.
METHODS: Breast specimens were collected from 72 patients with breast cancer and 31 healthy controls. The presence of HPV was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping was performed for positive cases. We also evaluated the viral factors such as E6, E2, and E7 in HPV positive cases. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA (and Real-time PCR techniques were used to measure the expression level of anti-carcinogenic genes, such as p53, retinoblastoma (RB), breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA1, BRCA2) and inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), and different interleukins [ILs] (IL-1,IL6, and IL-17).
RESULTS: The HPV DNA was detected in 48.6% of breast cancer samples, whereas only 16.1% of controls were positive for HPV. We observed statistically significant differences between breast cancer patients and HPV presence (P = 0.003). HPV type 18 was the most prevalent virus genotype in patients. The expression of P53, RB, BRCA1, and BRCA2 were decreased in patients with HPV-positive breast cancer as compared to HPV-negative breast cancer and healthy controls. (All P-values were less than 0.05). The presence of the HPV was associated with increased inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-17, TGF-β, TNF-α, and NF-kB) and tumor progression.
CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that HPV infection may implicate in the development of some types of breast cancer.

Mendoza-Rodríguez MG, Ayala-Sumuano JT, García-Morales L, et al.
IL-1β Inflammatory Cytokine-Induced
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(2) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
The mechanisms behind the induction of malignancy and chemoresistance in breast cancer cells are still not completely understood. Inflammation is associated with the induction of malignancy in different types of cancer and is highlighted as an important factor for chemoresistance. In previous work, we demonstrated that the inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β)-induced upregulation of genes was associated with chemoresistance in breast cancer cells. Here, we evaluated the participation and the expression profile of

Proença MA, Biselli JM, Succi M, et al.
Relationship between
World J Gastroenterol. 2018; 24(47):5351-5365 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
AIM: To examine the effect of
METHODS: Levels of
RESULTS: Overabundance of
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that

Abbasian MH, Abbasi B, Ansarinejad N, et al.
Association of interleukin-1 gene polymorphism with risk of gastric and colorectal cancers in an Iranian population.
Iran J Immunol. 2018; 15(4):321-328 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is associated with neoplasms and several types of cancer. Therefore, polymorphisms in the inflammation-related genes could modify the cancer susceptibility.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between IL-1RN VNTR and rs419598 polymorphisms in IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and colorectal cancer (CRC) and gastric cancer (GC) in an Iranian population.
METHODS: In this study, 126 cancer cases (91 CRC and 35 GC) and 97 healthy controls were included. Genotyping of IL-1RN VNTR and rs419598 was performed by PCR amplification and PCR-RFLP, respectively. Logistic regression was applied to identify the independent risk factors for colorectal and gastric cancers by computing the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical software.
RESULTS: There were significant differences between cancer groups and control group concerning the frequency of A1/A2 genotypes in IL-1RN VNTR polymorphism. The carrier status of IL-1RN* 2 allele was associated with increased risk of CRC (p = 0.0003; OR = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.491-0.85) and GC (p = 0.0006; OR = 0.106; 95% CI: 0.321-0.035). Also, the homozygous ILRN *2/*2 genotype was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer (p = 0.04; OR = 0.133; 95% CI: 0.020-0.908). There was no association between different alleles of rs419598 and CRC and GC.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates an association between the carrier status of IL-1RN* 2 and CRC and GC in an Iranian population.

Kitanaka N, Nakano R, Kitanaka T, et al.
NF-κB p65 and p105 implicate in interleukin 1β-mediated COX-2 expression in melanoma cells.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0208955 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
Inflammatory and microenvironmental factors produced by cancer cells are thought to directly or indirectly promote cancer cell growth. Prostaglandins, including prostaglandin E2, have key roles as a microenvironment factor in influencing the development of tumors, and are produced by the rate limiting enzyme cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). In this study, we used canine melanoma cells treated with the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and investigated the transcriptional factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling in IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression. IL-1β induced prostaglandin E2 release and COX-2 mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In the cells treated with the NF-κB inhibitors BAY11-7082 and TPC-1, IL-1β-mediated prostaglandin E2 release and COX-2 mRNA expression were inhibited. IL-1β also provoked phosphorylation of p65/RelA and p105/NF-κB1, which are members of the NF-κB families. The IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of p65 and p105 was attenuated in the presence of both NF-κB inhibitors. In melanoma cells transfected with siRNA of p65 or p105, IL-1β-mediated COX-2 mRNA expression was inhibited. These findings suggest that canonical activation of NF-κB signaling plays a crucial role for inflammatory states in melanoma cells.

Zhang X, Cho IH, Park JH, et al.
Fascin is involved in cancer cell invasion and is regulated by stromal factors.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(1):465-474 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. The stroma surrounding a tumor is known to contain a variety of factors that can increase angiogenesis, cancer growth and tumor progression. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of fascin in cancer growth and invasion and identify stromal factors involved in cancer progression. A fascin‑depleted cell line (fascindep) was used to observe the role of fascin in cancer invasion. Compared with wild‑type Mock cells, cancer cell invasion in Matrigel‑coated Transwell and three‑dimensional (3D) culture system were reduced by fascin depletion. Tumor cell growth in vivo was also significantly reduced in mice injected with fascindep cells. Notably, fascin expression was increased during Transwell invasion with Matrigel compared to Transwell invasion without Matrigel. TGF‑β1, EGF and IL‑1β significantly stimulated fascin expression. Such increased expression of fascin was also observed in cultured cells using conditioned media (CM) from cancer‑associated fibroblasts (CAFs). However, no significant change in fascin expression was observed using CM from normal fibroblasts (NFs). Stimulated expression of fascin by Matrigel and CAFs was reduced by biological specific inhibitor of TGF‑β1, EGF and IL‑1β. Compared with wild‑type Mock cells, the fascindep cell line showed low RhoA and NF‑κB activity, suggesting that RhoA and NF‑κB signals are involved in fascin expression. In conclusion, stromal factors are involved in cancer invasion and progression by activating intracellular signaling of cancer cells to increase fascin expression.

Han TS, Voon DC, Oshima H, et al.
Interleukin 1 Up-regulates MicroRNA 135b to Promote Inflammation-Associated Gastric Carcinogenesis in Mice.
Gastroenterology. 2019; 156(4):1140-1155.e4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastritis is associated with development of stomach cancer, but little is known about changes in microRNA expression patterns during gastric inflammation. Specific changes in gene expression in epithelial cells are difficult to monitor because of the heterogeneity of the tissue. We investigated epithelial cell-specific changes in microRNA expression during gastric inflammation and gastritis-associated carcinogenesis in mice.
METHODS: We used laser microdissection to enrich epithelial cells from K19-C2mE transgenic mice, which spontaneously develop gastritis-associated hyperplasia, and Gan mice, which express activated prostaglandin E2 and Wnt in the gastric mucosa and develop gastric tumors. We measured expression of epithelial cell-enriched microRNAs and used bioinformatics analyses to integrate data from different systems to identify inflammation-associated microRNAs. We validated our findings in gastric tissues from mice and evaluated protein functions in gastric cell lines (SNU-719, SNU-601, SNU-638, AGS, and GIF-14) and knockout mice. Organoids were cultured from gastric corpus tissues of wild-type and miR-135b-knockout C57BL/6 mice. We measured levels of microRNAs in pairs of gastric tumors and nontumor mucosa from 28 patients in Japan.
RESULTS: We found microRNA 135b (miR-135B) to be the most overexpressed microRNA in gastric tissues from K19-C2mE and Gan mice: levels increased during the early stages of gastritis-associated carcinogenesis. Levels of miR-135B were also increased in gastric tumor tissues from gp130
CONCLUSIONS: We found expression of miR-135B to be up-regulated by interleukin L1 signaling in gastric cancer cells and organoids. miR-135B promotes invasiveness and stem-cell features of gastric cancer cells in culture by reducing FOXN3 and RECK messenger RNAs. Levels of these messenger RNA targets, which encode tumor suppressor, are reduced in human gastric tumors.

Niu F, Wang T, Li J, et al.
The impact of genetic variants in IL1R2 on cervical cancer risk among Uygur females from China: A case-control study.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(1):e00516 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Disordered inflammation and immune response is an acknowledged risk factor for cervical cancer development. Interleukin-1 receptor type 2 (IL1R2) is a decoy receptor for IL-1 cytokines and involved in host inflammatory and immune progression which could lead to the lesion and neoplasia of cervix. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationships between IL1R2 polymorphisms and cervical cancer risk in Uygur females from China.
METHODS: In this case-control study, genotypes of six selected variants (rs11674595, rs4851527, rs719250, rs3218896, rs3218977, and rs2072472) distributed in IL1R2 were detected among 247 cervical cancer patients and 286 healthy controls with the usage of an Agena MassARRY method. Furthermore, Genetic models and haplotype analyses were conducted to estimate the associations of IL1R2 polymorphisms with cervical cancer risk.
RESULTS: After statistical analyses, rs719250 (odd ratio [OR] = 1.436, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.079-1.911, p = 0.013) and rs3218896 (OR = 1.552, 95% CI = 1.080-2.229, p = 0.017) showed obvious evidence in correlation to cervical cancer susceptibility owing to the surviving significant differences between cases and controls in allele model. Genetic model analyses also revealed significant associations of rs719250 and rs3218896 with cervical cancer risk in the codominant model, the dominant model and the log-additive model even after adjustment for age (p < 0.05). Moreover, haplotype "T/A" of rs11674595/rs4851527 (adjusted OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.54-0.98, p = 0.037) and "T/C" of rs719250/rs3218896 (adjusted OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.10-2.36, p = 0.015) exhibited protective and risky effects for Uygur individuals on cervical cancer development, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Our data first shed the new light on the associations of IL1R2 polymorphisms with cervical cancer susceptibility among Uygur females. These results are supposed to facilitate the tumorigenesis genetic research among Chinese minorities.

Matsushita A, Sato T, Mukai S, et al.
TAZ activation by Hippo pathway dysregulation induces cytokine gene expression and promotes mesothelial cell transformation.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(11):1966-1978 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) constitutes a very aggressive tumor that is caused by asbestos exposure after long latency. The NF2 tumor suppressor gene is mutated in 40-50% of MM; moreover, one of its downstream signaling cascades, the Hippo signaling pathway, is also frequently inactivated in MM cells. Although the YAP transcriptional coactivator, which is regulated by the Hippo pathway, can function as a pro-oncogenic protein, the role of TAZ, a paralog of YAP, in MM cells has not yet been clarified. Here, we show that TAZ is expressed and underphosphorylated (activated) in the majority of MM cells compared to immortalized mesothelial cells. ShRNA-mediated TAZ knockdown highly suppressed cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, cell motility, and invasion in MM cells harboring activated TAZ. Conversely, transduction of an activated form of TAZ in immortalized mesothelial cells enhanced these in vitro phenotypes and conferred tumorigenicity in vivo. Microarray analysis determined that activated TAZ most significantly enhanced the transcription of genes related to "cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction." Among selected cytokines, we found that IL-1 signaling activation plays a major role in proliferation in TAZ-activated MM cells. Both IL1B knockdown and an IL-1 receptor antagonist significantly suppressed malignant phenotypes of immortalized mesothelial cells and MM cells with activated TAZ. Overall, these results indicate an oncogenic role for TAZ in MMs via transcriptional induction of distinct pro-oncogenic genes including cytokines. Among these, IL-1 signaling appears as one of the most important cascades, thus potentially serving as a target pathway in MM cells harboring Hippo pathway inactivation.

Weinstein AM, Giraldo NA, Petitprez F, et al.
Association of IL-36γ with tertiary lymphoid structures and inflammatory immune infiltrates in human colorectal cancer.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(1):109-120 [PubMed] Related Publications
IL-1 family cytokines play a dual role in the gut, with different family members contributing either protective or pathogenic effects. IL-36γ is an IL-1 family cytokine involved in polarizing type-1 immune responses. However, its function in the gut, including in colorectal cancer pathogenesis, is not well appreciated. In a murine model of colon carcinoma, IL-36γ controls tertiary lymphoid structure formation and promotes a type-1 immune response concurrently with a decrease in expression of immune checkpoint molecules in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate that IL-36γ plays a similar role in driving a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human colorectal cancer. We analyzed a cohort of 33 primary colorectal carcinoma tumors using imaging, flow cytometry, and transcriptomics to determine the pattern and role of IL-36γ expression in this disease. In the colorectal tumor microenvironment, we observed IL-36γ to be predominantly expressed by M1 macrophages and cells of the vasculature, including smooth muscle cells and high endothelial venules. This pattern of IL-36γ expression is associated with a CD4

Chen Y, Sun J, Huang Y, et al.
Targeted codelivery of doxorubicin and IL-36γ expression plasmid for an optimal chemo-gene combination therapy against cancer lung metastasis.
Nanomedicine. 2019; 15(1):129-141 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Cancer metastasis is the main cause for the high mortality in breast cancer patients. In this work we developed a polymer POEG-st-Pmor for targeted co-delivery of IL-36γ expression plasmid and doxorubicin (Dox) to lung metastasis of breast cancer. The polymer readily formed micelles that were effective in loading Dox and simultaneously forming complexes with IL-36γ plasmid. Interestingly, particles co-loaded with Dox and plasmid was significantly smaller and more stable than the particles loaded with Dox only. Gene transfection in both lungs and s.c. tumors was significantly higher with our polymer compared to PEI. In addition, the Dox + IL-36γ/POEG-st-Pmor not only could bring improved anti-metastatic effect but synergistically enhance the type I immune response by increasing the IFN-γ positive CD4

Gonzalez-Hormazabal P, Romero S, Musleh M, et al.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(10):5703-5708 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Inflammation is a key process in gastric carcinogenesis. Cytokines are mediators of inflammation and are involved in metastasis and tumorigenicity. We previously assessed the role of cytokine gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer risk in Chile. In the present study, we aimed to analyze whether these polymorphisms are associated with overall survival (OS) in gastric cancer (GC) patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 153 individuals with GC diagnosis were followed-up for at least 2 years. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated from Cox regression models using SNPs as predictor variables. The following SNPs were genotyped for study using a TaqMan assay: rs16944 (IL1B -511C>T); rs4073 (IL8 -251 T>A); rs2275913 (IL-17 -197G>A); rs1800872 (IL10 -592 C>A); rs1800896 (IL10 -1082A>G); rs28372698 (IL32).
RESULTS: Interleukin-8 rs4073 (IL-8 -251T>A) showed association with OS under the dominant model (TA + AA) only when adjusted by clinicopathological variables (HR=1.64, 95%CI=1.05-2.55, p=0.030, q-value=0.18), but not with the univariate model (HR=1.51, 95%CI=0.98-2.31, p=0.062, q-value=0.37). No significant differences were observed after adjusting for population stratification (PC1 and PC2 from Principal Component Analysis using genotypes from Infinium Global Screening Array). After stratification by clinicopathological variables, the association with shorter overall survival was higher among patients with diffuse-type tumors (HR=2.24, 95%CI=1.16-4.45) and patients with tumor size >5 cm (HR=1.79, 95%CI=1.08-2.97).
CONCLUSION: These results suggest a role of IL-8 rs4073 in cancer prognosis. Its use as a prognostic marker of GC survival warrants further investigation.

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