Gene Summary

Gene:TLE1; TLE family member 1, transcriptional corepressor
Aliases: ESG, ESG1, GRG1
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transducin-like enhancer protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TLE1 (cancer-related)

Brassesco MS, Pezuk JA, Cortez MA, et al.
TLE1 as an indicator of adverse prognosis in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2018; 74:42-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of cancer in children, and despite the high rate of cure (over 80%) it still has a big impact on morbidity and mortality. The Transducin-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1), a transcriptional corepressor, has been described as dysregulated and recently emerged as a tumor marker in several cancer types, including hematologic malignancies.
METHODS: In the present study TLE1 gene expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR. A total of 60 consecutive pathological ALL samples and 8 normal bone marrow samples were included. Associations between TLE1 levels and clinicopathological features were estimated using Mann-Whitney tests.
RESULTS: TLE1 mRNA levels were significantly diminished in ALL samples when compared to normal counterparts (fold change -1.45, p-value 0.039). Lower TLE1 expression levels were associated with poorer prognostic features such as age at diagnosis (<1 or >9 years-old), absence of the Common Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Antigen (CALLA) and high white cell count. Considering immunophenotype, decreased expression of TLE1 was only evident for T-cell ALL, what was validated using gene expression profiling data available in public repositories. No associations with event or overall survival were observed. However, TLE1 expression was statistically different between patients who achieved complete clinical remission (CCR) from those that relapsed or died.
CONCLUSION: These data are of particular interest and give support for a plausible role of TLE1 as a tumor suppressor in T-cell ALL. Moreover, the prognostic value of this corepressor may assist ALL treatment stratification and suggest the need of alternative regimens.

Oyama Y, Nishida H, Kusaba T, et al.
Difference in transducin-like enhancer of split 1 protein expression between basal cell adenomas and basal cell adenocarcinomas - an immunohistochemical study.
Diagn Pathol. 2018; 13(1):48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Basal cell adenoma (BCA) and basal cell adenocarcinoma (BCAC) are benign and malignant, basaloid salivary gland neoplasms, respectively. These tumors show a dual-cell proliferation of inner luminal/ductal cells and outer abluminal/myoepithelial or basal cells. The only difference between them is defined as a malignant morphology such as invasion. Recently, the nuclear expression of β-catenin and a catenin beta-1 (CTNNB1) mutation were found in BCA. Transducin-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) belongs to the Groucho/TLE family, and it functions in the "off" state in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We hypothesized that if the dysregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway could be attributed to the tumorigenesis of BCA/BCAC, there might be differences in TLE1 expression between BCA and BCAC.
METHOD: The study included 35 BCA and 4 BCAC cases. We performed immunohistochemistry to detect TLE1 and β-catenin and investigated the catenin beta-1 (CTNNB1) mutational profile among BCA and BCAC cases.
RESULTS: In BCA, the expression of TLE1 was confined to luminal cells of glandular structures, in contrast to the expression of β-catenin in abluminal cells. The BCA cases harbored CTNNB1 gene mutations (12/35). In BCAC, luminal cell staining of TLE1 was identical to BCA in non-invasive areas (4/4) but indistinct in invasive areas (3/4). The BCAC cases were β-catenin positive for abluminal cells in both areas. The BCAC cases had CTNNB1 mutation (2/4) and the laser-captured microdissection allowed the separate collection of infiltrative and non-infiltrative areas to detect the same mutation.
CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical analysis for TLE1 can identify BCA and BCAC by luminal cell staining difference, especially indistinct luminal cell expression for TLE1 in invasive areas of BCAC. Moreover, TLE1 can be luminal/ductal cell markers.

Zhao H, Jia H, Han Q, Zhang J
Homeobox containing 1 inhibits liver cancer progression by promoting autophagy as well as inhibiting stemness and immune escape.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(3):1657-1665 [PubMed] Related Publications
Homeobox containing 1 (HMBOX1) is a novel transcription repressor that is significantly downregulated in human liver cancer tissues and cell lines, but the exact biological function of HMBOX1 in liver cancer is still unknown. We observed a negative association between HMBOX1 expression level and the clinical stages of liver cancer. HMBOX1 also increased the LC3 II/LC3 I ratio, the endogenous autophagy marker, and inhibited the p38/AKT/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, cancer stem cell specific genes, including CD133, KLF4, ESG1 and SOX2, were significantly downregulated upon HMBOX1 overexpression. Finally, the susceptibility of HepG2 cells to NK cell‑mediated cytolysis was increased by HMBOX1 overexpression and weakened by siRNA‑mediated inhibition of HMBOX1. All these findings indicated that HMBOX1 expression in hepatocytes could protect against the progression of liver cancer, and the underlying mechanisms may include promoting autophagy, inhibiting CSC phenotype and increasing the sensitivity of tumor cells to NK cell cytolysis. Therefore, HMBOX1 may be useful for developing new treatments for liver cancer.

Alegría-Landa V, Nájera L, Massa DS, et al.
Primary Subcutaneous Synovial Sarcoma: First Reported Subcutaneous Case Showing TLE1 Immunoreactivity.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2018; 40(10):772-777 [PubMed] Related Publications
Synovial sarcoma (SS) accounts for 5%-10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. It is a well-defined soft tissue neoplasm with biphasic and monophasic histologic subtypes and unknown histogenesis. It usually occurs in the extremities, especially the thigh-knee region of young adults. Recurrences are frequent and distant metastasis developed in approximately half of the patients. SSs are characterized by a recurrent nonrandom chromosomal translocation, t(X; 18) (p11; q11), which is considered the primary genetic event in more than 90% of cases. Only 4 cases of cutaneous and subcutaneous SSs have been published in the literature so far. We report a case of primary subcutaneous SS in the forearm of a young woman and discuss the histopathologic differential diagnosis with other similar neoplasms. This is the first reported case of primary cutaneous SS showing immunoreactivity for TLE1 in the nuclei of neoplastic cells, supporting the use of this marker for diagnosis of this rare cutaneous neoplasm.

Dali R, Verginelli F, Pramatarova A, et al.
Characterization of a FOXG1:TLE1 transcriptional network in glioblastoma-initiating cells.
Mol Oncol. 2018; 12(6):775-787 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadly malignant brain cancer of glial cell origin, with a median patient survival of less than 20 months. Transcription factors FOXG1 and TLE1 promote GBM propagation by supporting maintenance of brain tumour-initiating cells (BTICs) with stem-like properties. Here, we characterize FOXG1 and TLE1 target genes in GBM patient-derived BTICs using ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq approaches. These studies identify 150 direct FOXG1 targets, several of which are also TLE1 targets, involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, chemotaxis and angiogenesis. Negative regulators of NOTCH signalling, including CHAC1, are among the transcriptional repression targets of FOXG1:TLE1 complexes, suggesting a crosstalk between FOXG1:TLE1 and NOTCH-mediated pathways in GBM. These results provide previously unavailable insight into the transcriptional programs underlying the tumour-promoting functions of FOXG1:TLE1 in GBM.

Matsuyama A, Shiba E, Umekita Y, et al.
Clinicopathologic Diversity of Undifferentiated Sarcoma With BCOR-CCNB3 Fusion: Analysis of 11 Cases With a Reappraisal of the Utility of Immunohistochemistry for BCOR and CCNB3.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2017; 41(12):1713-1721 [PubMed] Related Publications
Undifferentiated sarcoma harboring the BCOR-CCNB3 fusion is characterized by its predilection to affect skeletons of adolescent males, cellular small round/spindle cell morphology, and CCNB3 immunoreactivity. We analyzed 11 cases of BCOR-CCNB3 sarcoma, 10 of which were identified in a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based screen of 85 patient samples recorded in our database as unclassified small round or spindle cell sarcomas. BCOR rearrangements were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 8 tumors. All patients were males aged between 6 and 31 years. In addition to 5 tumors in soft tissue and 4 in the axial or appendicular skeletons, which are typical locations, a tumor was located in the paranasal sinus and another in the lung. Microscopically, the tumors comprised proliferating atypical spindle and/or small round cells with diverse morphologic features such as small concentric whorls, myxoid stroma, a hemangiopericytomatous appearance, and/or hyalinized collagen resembling a solitary fibrous tumor, and angiomatous or slit-like spaces containing extravasated erythrocytes. Tumor cells were immunoreactive to CCNB3 (9/11), BCOR (10/10), TLE1 (6/10), bcl-2 (9/11), CD99 (8/10), CD56 (8/10), c-kit (4/10), and cyclin D1 (10/10). In an immunohistochemical analysis of an additional 412 small round or spindle cell tumors, CCNB3 was detected in 6 (1.5%) and BCOR in 18 (4.4%). Our analysis highlights the varying clinicopathologic features of this tumor, which partially overlap with other small round or spindle cell tumors, including solitary fibrous tumor and vascular tumors. Because CCNB3 and BCOR immunohistochemistry lacks adequate sensitivity and specificity, a molecular genetic approach remains essential for diagnosis.

Argani P, Kao YC, Zhang L, et al.
Primary Renal Sarcomas With BCOR-CCNB3 Gene Fusion: A Report of 2 Cases Showing Histologic Overlap With Clear Cell Sarcoma of Kidney, Suggesting Further Link Between BCOR-related Sarcomas of the Kidney and Soft Tissues.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2017; 41(12):1702-1712 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We report 2 primary renal sarcomas demonstrating BCOR-CCNB3 gene fusions that have recently been identified in undifferentiated round cell sarcomas of bone and soft tissue. These neoplasms occurred in male children aged 11 and 12 years, and both were cystic as a result of entrapment and dilatation of native renal tubules. Both cases were composed of variably cellular bland spindle cells with fine chromatin set in myxoid stroma and separated by a branching capillary vasculature. Both neoplasms demonstrated immunoreactivity for BCOR, cyclin D1, TLE1, and SATB2 in the spindle neoplastic cells and negativity in the prominent capillary vasculature. One case was extensively cystic and had hypocellular areas that simulated cystic nephroma; this neoplasm recurred 3 years later as a solid, highly cellular spindle cell sarcoma in the abdominal cavity. The morphology and immunoprofile of these renal neoplasms was compared with a control group of other sarcomas with BCOR genetic abnormalities, including clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK), infantile undifferentiated round cell sarcomas of soft tissue/primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy, and bone/soft tissue sarcomas with BCOR-CCNB3 gene fusion; along with primary renal synovial sarcoma. Our findings show that the renal sarcomas with BCOR-CCNB3 gene fusion overlap with CCSK. These results are in keeping with a "BCOR-alteration family" of renal and extrarenal neoplasms which includes CCSK and undifferentiated round cell sarcomas of soft tissue/primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy (which typically harbor BCOR internal tandem duplication), and BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas, all of which are primarily driven by BCOR overexpression and have overlapping (but not identical) clinicopathologic features.

Gupta N, Kenan S, Kahn LB
Synovial Sarcoma Mimicking Pleomorphic Hyalinizing Angiectatic Tumor of Soft Parts: A Case Report.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2018; 26(1):73-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Synovial sarcoma is a high-grade sarcoma commonly affecting young adults. The sites of involvement include soft tissue near joints, lung, pleura, mediastinum, larynx, kidney, and buttocks. Histologic types include monophasic, biphasic, and undifferentiated. We report a unique case of synovial sarcoma with low-grade histologic features mimicking pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT) with indolent behavior for a period of 10 years. The tumor showed angiectatic blood vessels with fibrinous cuffing, hypocellular and hypercellular spindle cell areas with rare mitoses, and focal atypia in a myxoid background. TLE1 was positive with SYT gene translocation detected on fluorescent in situ hybridization. Cases of myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma and myxofibrosarcoma have been reported as exhibiting histologic features of PHAT. However, to the best of our knowledge, cases of synovial sarcoma mimicking PHAT have not been reported.

Jiang D, Peng R, Yan X, et al.
Synovial sarcoma showing loss of a green signal in SS18 fluorescence in situ hybridization: a clinicopathological and molecular study of 12 cases.
Virchows Arch. 2017; 471(6):799-807 [PubMed] Related Publications
The phenomenon of losing a green signal in synovial sarcoma (SS) using the SS18 break-apart probe by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been poorly described. In this study, 12 SS with missing a green signal were identified. This series included 7 males and 5 females, aged 17 to 69 years (median, 38.5 years). The tumors involved the extremities (50%), mediastinum (16.7%), hypopharynx (8.3%), neck (8.3%), thyroid (8.3%), and retroperitoneum (8.3%). The tumors were classified as monophasic SS (58.3%) and poorly differentiated SS (41.7%). An anaplastic SS showing features of pleomorphic sarcoma was observed. Immunostaining for TLE1, BCL2, CD99, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), cytokeratin 7, S-100 protein, and CD34 was consistent with typical SS. In FISH, all the tumors showed the pattern of 1 to 3 fused signal(s) with 1 to 3 red signal(s), without corresponding a green signal. The fusion transcripts included SS18-SSX1 (8/10, 80%) and SS18-SSX2 (2/10, 20%) fusions. Median and 5-year overall survival were 19.1 months and 43.6%, respectively. In conclusion, we reported a series of SS losing a green signal in the SS18 FISH assay. We propose that this variant FISH pattern should be interpreted as a peculiar unbalanced rearrangement of the SS18 gene and subsequent SS18-SSX fusion test should be recommended. The cases in this study seem to show some unusual clinicopathological features, including unusual locations, higher proportions of poorly differentiated SS, and aggressive clinical course. However, whether this variant FISH pattern is associated with peculiar clinicopathologic features awaits larger series.

Yamada Y, Kuda M, Kohashi K, et al.
Histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of undifferentiated small round cell sarcomas associated with CIC-DUX4 and BCOR-CCNB3 fusion genes.
Virchows Arch. 2017; 470(4):373-380 [PubMed] Related Publications
CIC-DUX4 and BCOR-CCNB3 fusion-gene-associated small round cell sarcomas account for a proportion of pediatric small round cell sarcomas, but their pathological features have not been sufficiently clarified. We reviewed a large number of soft tissue tumors registered at our institution, retrieved the cases of unclassified tumors with a small round cell component, and subjected them to histopathological, immunohistochemical, and gene profile analysis. We reviewed 164 cases of unclassified tumors with a small round cell component and analyzed them by RT-PCR and FISH. Tumors positive for a specific fusion-gene were also subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations. We identified 16 cases of BCOR-CCNB3/CIC-associated (CIC-DUX4 or CIC gene rearrangement-positive) sarcomas. These included seven BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas and nine CIC-associated sarcomas. Heterogeneous elements included a myxoid spindle cell component in three BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas and an epithelioid cell component in two CIC-associated sarcomas (one CIC-DUX4-positive and one CIC-DUX4-negative sarcomas). Mitotic activity was low in both heterogeneous components. By immunohistochemistry, in seven BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas expression of EMA was positive in two cases, of p63 in three, of CD56 in six, of TLE1 in seven, of NKX2.2 in two, of CCNB3 in seven, and of BCOR in six cases (one case could not be tested for BCOR). In nine cases of CIC-associated sarcoma, CD56 was expressed in five, alpha-smooth muscle actin in one, ERG in three, and CD99, WT1 and TLE1 each in eight cases. Both sarcoma types showed not only a small round cell component, but also a myxoid/epithelioid component with low mitotic activity.

Herold T, Metzeler KH, Vosberg S, et al.
Acute myeloid leukemia with del(9q) is characterized by frequent mutations of NPM1, DNMT3A, WT1 and low expression of TLE4.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(1):75-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deletions of the long arm of chromosome 9 [del(9q)] are a rare but recurring aberration in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Del(9q) can be found as the sole abnormality or in combination with other cytogenetic aberrations such as t(8;21) and t(15;17). TLE1 and TLE4 were identified to be critical genes contained in the 9q region. We performed whole exome sequencing of 5 patients with del(9q) as the sole abnormality followed by targeted amplicon sequencing of 137 genes of 26 patients with del(9q) as sole or combined with other aberrations. We detected frequent mutations in NPM1 (10/26; 38%), DNMT3A (8/26; 31%), and WT1 (8/26; 31%) but only few FLT3-ITDs (2/26; 8%). All mutations affecting NPM1 and DNMT3A were exclusively identified in patients with del(9q) as the sole abnormality and were significantly more frequent compared to 111 patients classified as intermediate-II according to the European LeukemiaNet (10/14, 71% vs. 22/111, 20%; P < 0.001, 8/14, 57% vs. 26/111, 23%; P = 0.02). Furthermore, we identified DNMT3B to be rarely but recurrently targeted by truncating mutations in AML. Gene expression analysis of 13 patients with del(9q) and 454 patients with normal karyotype or various cytogenetic aberrations showed significant down regulation of TLE4 in patients with del(9q) (P = 0.02). Interestingly, downregulation of TLE4 was not limited to AML with del(9q), potentially representing a common mechanism in AML pathogenesis. Our comprehensive genetic analysis of the del(9q) subgroup reveals a unique mutational profile with the frequency of DNMT3A mutations in the del(9q) only subset being the highest reported so far in AML, indicating oncogenic cooperativity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Zaccarini DJ, Deng X, Tull J, et al.
Expression of TLE-1 and CD99 in Carcinoma: Pitfalls in Diagnosis of Synovial Sarcoma.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2018; 26(6):368-373 [PubMed] Related Publications
The characteristic immunoprofile for the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma, a neoplasm of unclear tissue origin, is expression of transducer-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE-1), CD99, partial expression of cytokeratin, and epithelial membrane antigen by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Diagnostic dilemma or misdiagnosis can occur due to overlap in IHC and morphology with carcinomas, and particularly poorly differentiated and metastatic tumors. The frequency of TLE-1 and CD99 expression in carcinomas by IHC has not been previously assessed. We evaluated TLE-1 and CD99 expression in various carcinomas and evaluated the expression of the SS18 (SYT) gene rearrangement (a characteristic biomarker for synovial sarcoma) in tumors with TLE-1 and/or CD99 expression. Immunostains of TLE-1 and CD99 were performed in 100 various carcinomas. Seven of the 98 cases (7%) of carcinomas showed TLE-1 expression, including 1 each of prostate adenocarcinoma (ADCA), esophageal ADCA, basal cell carcinoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, endometrial ADCA, ovarian serous carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. Twenty-one of the 100 cases (21%) of carcinomas demonstrated CD99 expression, including 6 prostate ADCA, 3 esophageal ADCA, 5 squamous cell carcinomas, 2 hepatocellular carcinomas, 1 each for endometrial ADCA, renal cell carcinoma, urothelial cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. An esophageal ADCA was positive for both TLE-1 and CD99. None of the carcinomas with positive TLE-1 (n=7) or CD99 (n=21) by IHC showed SS18 gene rearrangement by fluorescent in situ hybridization. TLE-1 and CD99 expression were identified in 7% and 21% of carcinomas, respectively. This is a potential pitfall in the IHC interpretation for diagnosis of synovial sarcoma. SS18 gene rearrangement by fluorescent in situ hybridization is helpful for the diagnostically challenging cases, either for confirmation or exclusion of synovial sarcoma.

Xu Y, Wang Y, Liu H, et al.
Genetic variants of genes in the Notch signaling pathway predict overall survival of non-small cell lung cancer patients in the PLCO study.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(38):61716-61727 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Notch signaling pathway has been shown to have biological significance and therapeutic application in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We hypothesize that genetic variants of genes in the Notch signaling pathway are associated with overall survival (OS) of NSCLC patients. To test this hypothesis, we performed multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to evaluate associations of 19,571 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 132 Notch pathway genes with OS of 1,185 NSCLC patients available from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. We found that five potentially functional tagSNPs in four genes (i.e., ADAM12 rs10794069 A > G, DTX1 rs1732793 G > A, TLE1 rs199731120 C > CA, TLE1 rs35970494 T > TC and E2F3 rs3806116 G > T) were associated with a poor OS, with a variant-allele attributed hazards ratio (HR) of 1.27 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.13-1.42, P = 3.62E-05], 1.30 (1.14-1.49, 8.16E-05), 1.40 (1.16-1.68, 3.47E-04), 1.27 (1.11-1.44, 3.38E-04), and 1.21 (1.09-1.33, 2.56E-04), respectively. Combined analysis of these five risk genotypes revealed that the genetic score 0-5 was associated with the adjusted HR in a dose-response manner (Ptrend = 3.44E-13); individuals with 2-5 risk genotypes had an adjusted HR of 1.56 (1.34-1.82, 1.46E-08), compared with those with 0-1 risk genotypes. Larger studies are needed to validate our findings.

Bruyneel J, Van Dorpe J, Praet M, et al.
Monosomy 22 and partial loss of INI1 expression in a biphasic synovial sarcoma with an Ewing sarcoma-like poorly differentiated component: Report of a case.
Pathol Res Pract. 2016; 212(7):658-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Poorly differentiated synovial sarcoma (PDSS) is a less common subtype of synovial sarcoma (SS) associated with a poor prognosis. We present a case of a SS with a poorly differentiated component that resembles Ewing sarcoma (ES). Initial immunohistochemical staining revealed a characteristic and strong expression of transducin-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) and weak to absent expression of integrase integrator 1 (INI1) staining. Stainings for keratin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) were negative in the tumoral lesion. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis showed a rearrangement of the synaptotagmin (SYT) gene, confirming the diagnosis of SS. FISH analysis for the EWS RNA-binding protein 1 (EWSR1) gene revealed monoallelic loss of EWSR1. This finding was confirmed by an array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), showing complete loss of chromosome 22. Based on literature review, showing only a handful of cases of cytogenetically studied SS with loss of chromosome 22, this is probably a rare event in SS. Therefore, we assume that monoallelic loss of chromosome 22 cannot fully elaborate the underlying mechanism of the INI1 staining pattern in all SS, but it could account for the weak to absent INI1 staining in at least some cases.

Cironi L, Petricevic T, Fernandes Vieira V, et al.
The fusion protein SS18-SSX1 employs core Wnt pathway transcription factors to induce a partial Wnt signature in synovial sarcoma.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:22113 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Expression of the SS18/SYT-SSX fusion protein is believed to underlie the pathogenesis of synovial sarcoma (SS). Recent evidence suggests that deregulation of the Wnt pathway may play an important role in SS but the mechanisms whereby SS18-SSX might affect Wnt signaling remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that SS18/SSX tightly regulates the elevated expression of the key Wnt target AXIN2 in primary SS. SS18-SSX is shown to interact with TCF/LEF, TLE and HDAC but not β-catenin in vivo and to induce Wnt target gene expression by forming a complex containing promoter-bound TCF/LEF and HDAC but lacking β-catenin. Our observations provide a tumor-specific mechanistic basis for Wnt target gene induction in SS that can occur in the absence of Wnt ligand stimulation.

Zang B, Huang G, Wang X, Zheng S
HPV-16 E6 promotes cell growth of esophageal cancer via downregulation of miR-125b and activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(10):13687-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is a possible cause of esophageal cancer. However, the molecular pathogenesis of HPV-infected esophageal cancer remains unclear. The expression levels of some microRNAs including miR-125b have been negatively correlated with HPV infection, and miR-125b downregulation is associated with tumorigenesis. In addition, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has been suggested to play an important role in esophageal cancer (EC). We examined miR-125b and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HPV-16 E6 promoted tumor progression in EC. HPV-16 E6 transfection decreased markedly the expression levels of miR-125b and promoted the colony formation in the Eca 109 and Kyse 150 cell lines, and restoration of miR-125b expression level antagonized the increased colony formation in HPV-16 E6 transfected cell lines. We also demonstrated that overexpression of E6 upregulated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity via modulating the multiple regulators including TLE1, GSK3β, and sFRP4. Overexpression of miR-125b restored the expression levels of these proteins. Expression of miR-125b was lower in HPV-16 E6 positive esophageal cancer tissues, and was negatively correlated with E6 mRNA levels. Our results indicate that HPV-16 E6 promotes tumorigenesis in EC via down-regulation of miR-125b, and this underlying mechanism may be involved in the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

Ito J, Suzuki S, Yoshida A, Mori T
Primary intraocular synovial sarcoma in the post retinal detachment operative state.
BMJ Case Rep. 2015; 2015 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Synovial sarcoma generally arises in the deep soft tissue, although it has been described at virtually every anatomic site except in the eyeball. We report the case of a 48-year-old woman who had a history of retinal detachment surgery and who had undergone vitrectomy and the insertion of a solid silicon explant 24 years previously. She reported a visual field defect. Funduscopy and MRI revealed a tumour just behind the iris in the left eyeball, and enucleation was performed. Microscopic examination of the tumour revealed uniform spindle cells in a fascicular arrangement with frequent mitotic figures. Immunohistochemistry showed that the tumour was positive for TLE1 and epithelial membrane antigen and fluorescent in situ hybridisation revealed that the tumour had a rearrangement of the SYT gene. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR confirmed the presence of a SYT-SSX2 fusion transcript. On the basis of these histomorphological and molecular features, the diagnosis of poorly differentiated synovial sarcoma was rendered.

Liu J, Li Y, Dong F, et al.
Trichostatin A suppresses lung adenocarcinoma development in Grg1 overexpressing transgenic mice.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 463(4):1230-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Trichostatin A (TSA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor and a potential therapeutic for various malignancies. The in vivo effect of TSA, however, has not been investigated in a transgenic lung cancer model. Previously, we generated transgenic mice with overexpression of Groucho-related-gene 1 (Grg1) and these mice all developed mucinous lung adenocarcinoma. Grg1 is a transcriptional co-repressor protein, the function of which is thought to depend on HDAC activity. However, functions outside the nucleus have also been proposed. We tested the supposition that Grg1-induced tumorigenesis is HDAC-dependent by assaying the therapeutic effect of TSA in the Grg1 transgenic mouse model. We found that TSA significantly inhibited lung tumorigenesis in Grg1 transgenic mice (p < 0.01). TSA did not affect overall Grg1 protein levels, but instead reduced ErbB1 and ErbB2 expression, which are upregulated by Grg1 in the absence of TSA. We confirmed this effect in A549 cells. Furthermore, lapatinib, an inhibitor of both ErbB1 and ErbB2, effectively masked the effect of TSA on the inhibition of A549 cell proliferation and migration, suggesting TSA does work, at least in part, by downregulating ErbB receptors. We additionally found that TSA reduced the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2, but not basic FGF and FGFR1. Our findings indicate that TSA effectively inhibits Grg1-induced lung tumorigenesis through the down-regulation of ErbB1 and ErbB2, as well as reduced VEGF signaling. This suggests TSA and other HDAC inhibitors could have therapeutic value in the treatment of lung cancers with Grg1 overexpression.

Ge C, Wu S, Wang W, et al.
miR-942 promotes cancer stem cell-like traits in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma through activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(13):10964-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is known to play a vital role in the maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are reported to be the origin of malignant cancers, and result in poor prognosis of multiple kinds of cancer. Therefore, it is of great importance to illuminate the mechanism by which the Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulates the cancer stem cell-like traits in cancers. Here, we report that miR-942 is significantly upregulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and miR-942 levels are associated with poor prognosis in ESCC patients. Overexpression of miR-942 promotes, whereas inhibition of miR-942 decreases, the tumor sphere formation, the CD90+ subpopulation cells and the expression of pluripotency associated markers. Moreover, in vivo assay shows that miR-942 overexpressing cells form larger tumors and display higher tumourigenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-942 upregulates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity via directly targeting sFRP4, GSK3β and TLE1, which are multiple level negative regulators of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade. In addition, our results indicate that c-myc directly binds to the miR-942 promoter and promotes its expression. Taken together, our findings establish an oncogenic role of miR-942 in ESCC and indicate that miR-942 might be an effective therapeutic target for ESCC.

Yao X, Ireland SK, Pham T, et al.
TLE1 promotes EMT in A549 lung cancer cells through suppression of E-cadherin.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 455(3-4):277-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Groucho transcriptional corepressor TLE1 protein has recently been shown to be a putative lung specific oncogene, but its underlying oncogenic activity in lung cancer has not been fully elucidated. In this report, we investigated whether TLE1 regulates lung cancer aggressiveness using the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 as a model system. Through a combination of genetic approaches, we found that TLE1 potentiates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells in part through suppression of the tumor suppressor gene E-cadherin. Exogenous expression of TLE1 in A549 cells resulted in heightened EMT phenotypes (enhanced fibroblastoid morphology and increased cell migratory potential) and in molecular alterations characteristic of EMT (downregulation of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and upregulation of the mesenchymal marker Vimentin). Conversely, downregulation of endogenous TLE1 expression in these cells resulted in reversal of basal EMT characterized by a cuboidal-like epithelial cell phenotype, reduced cell motility, and upregulated E-cadherin expression. Mechanistic studies showed that TLE1 suppresses E-cadherin expression at the transcriptional level in part by recruiting histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity to the E-cadherin promoter. Consistently, the HDAC inhibitor TSA partially reversed the TLE1-induced E-cadherin downregulation and cell migration, suggesting a role for HDACs in TLE1-mediated transcriptional repression of E-cadherin and EMT function. These findings uncover a novel role of TLE1 in regulating EMT in A549 cells through its repressive effect on E-cadherin and provide a mechanism for TLE1 oncogenic activity in lung cancer.

Bordonaro M, Lazarova DL
Hypothesis: cell signalling influences age-related risk of colorectal cancer.
J Cell Mol Med. 2015; 19(1):74-81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We propose that ageing is linked to colonic carcinogenesis through crosstalk between Wnt activity and signalling pathways related to ageing and senescence: progerin, klotho and mTOR. Mutations in the Wnt signalling pathway are responsible for the majority of colorectal cancers (CRCs); however, hyperactivation of Wnt signalling by butyrate, a breakdown product of dietary fibre, induces CRC cell apoptosis. This effect of butyrate may in part explain the protective action of fibre against CRC. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome is a premature ageing disorder caused by accumulation of the progerin protein; however, healthy individuals also produce progerin in the course of their normal ageing. Progerin activates expression of the Wnt inhibitors HES1 and TLE1. Thus, we hypothesize that with age, the increasing expression of progerin suppresses butyrate-mediated Wnt hyperactivation and apoptosis, leading to increased CRC risk. Wild-type klotho contributes to a significantly increased lifespan; however, Klotho gene variants differ significantly between newborns and elderly. Klotho inhibits basal Wnt signalling activity; thus, the protein may function as a tumour suppressor for CRC. However, similar to progerin, klotho variants associated with lifespan differences may repress butyrate-mediated Wnt hyperactivation, and thus increase the risk of CRC. Finally, mTOR signalling has also been linked to human ageing, and crosstalk between Wnt and mTOR signalling may influence colonic tumourigenesis. Understanding how progerin, klotho and mTOR link ageing with colonic neoplastic development may lead to novel preventive and therapeutic strategies against CRC associated with age.

Yao X, Jennings S, Ireland SK, et al.
The anoikis effector Bit1 displays tumor suppressive function in lung cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e101564 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mitochondrial Bit1 (Bcl-2 inhibitor of transcription 1) protein is a part of an apoptotic pathway that is uniquely regulated by integrin-mediated attachment. As an anoikis effector, Bit1 is released into the cytoplasm following loss of cell attachment and induces a caspase-independent form of apoptosis. Considering that anoikis resistance is a critical determinant of transformation, we hypothesized that cancer cells may circumvent the Bit1 apoptotic pathway to attain anchorage-independence and tumorigenic potential. Here, we provide the first evidence of the tumor suppressive effect of Bit1 through a mechanism involving anoikis induction in human lung adenocarcinoma derived A549 cells. Restitution of Bit1 in anoikis resistant A549 cells is sufficient to induce detachment induced-apoptosis despite defect in caspase activation and impairs their anchorage-independent growth. Conversely, stable downregulation of Bit1 in these cells significantly enhances their anoikis resistance and anchorage-independent growth. The Bit1 knockdown cells exhibit significantly enhanced tumorigenecity in vivo. It has been previously shown that the nuclear TLE1 corepressor is a putative oncogene in lung cancer, and we show here that TLE1 blocks Bit1 mediated anoikis in part by sequestering the pro-apoptotic partner of Bit1, the Amino-terminal Enhancer of Split (AES) protein, in the nucleus. Taken together, these findings suggest a tumor suppressive role of the caspase-independent anoikis effector Bit1 in lung cancer. Consistent with its role as a tumor suppressor, we have found that Bit1 is downregulated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues.

Williams JS, Xiao Y, Brownell I
Low pH reprograms somatic murine cells into pluripotent stem cells: a novel technique with therapeutic implications.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2014; 15(6):675-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are somatic cells that are reprogrammed into a state resembling embryonic stem cells (ESCs). iPSCs represent a promising technology with applications in cancer research, yet current methods used to generate iPSCs limit their translation to clinical use. In a recent Nature article, Obokata et al. detail a novel technique to generate pluripotent murine cells called stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP). STAP eliminates the need for exogenous expression of reprogramming factors used in previous iPSC technologies, instead transforming somatic cells to pluripotency using physical and chemical stimuli. The authors found that STAP cells are generated at a 10-fold higher efficiency than prior iPSC technologies. STAP cells display several features of pluripotency, namely the expression of pluripotency-related genes (Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Ecat1, Esg1, and Dax1), the ability to form teratomas in vivo, and the ability to produce viable, fertile mice in blastocyst complementation assays. Here, we review these findings on STAP and contrast it to previous iPSC technologies, while noting the potential of this method to generate autologous anti-tumor immune cells for cancer therapy.

Valente AL, Tull J, Zhang S
Specificity of TLE1 expression in unclassified high-grade sarcomas for the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2013; 21(5):408-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression of the transducin-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been widely used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma. Although TLE1 expression can be identified in more than 90% of synovial sarcomas, positive staining has been reported in up to one third of nonsynovial sarcomas, including peripheral nerve sheath tumors and neoplasms of fibrous and adipose tissues. The low specificity of this test in soft tissue tumors raises concern on its clinical application as a diagnostic biomarker. As synovial sarcoma is frequent among the differential diagnosis of unclassified high-grade sarcomas, and considering that the specificity of TLE1 antibody in this tumor group remains unclear, we evaluated TLE1 expression by IHC in 42 unclassified high-grade sarcomas. SS18 (SYT) gene break-apart analyses by fluorescence in situ hybridization were simultaneously performed as a gold standard biomarker for synovial sarcoma. Five cases that were positive for the SS18 break-apart by fluorescence in situ hybridization were also positive for TLE1 by IHC, whereas the remaining 37 cases negative for SS18 break-apart were all negative for TLE1. The results showed no evidence of nonspecific TLE1 expression in the nonsynovial high-grade sarcomas. We concluded that TLE1 is a highly specific biomarker for synovial sarcoma in the setting of differential diagnosis of unclassified high-grade sarcomas.

Li W, Chu Y, Zhang L, et al.
Ginsenoside Rg1 attenuates tau phosphorylation in SK-N-SH induced by Aβ-stimulated THP-1 supernatant and the involvement of p38 pathway activation.
Life Sci. 2012; 91(15-16):809-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: In the present study we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1) on neuronal damage examined in an adopted in vitro inflammatory neurodegeneration model and the involvement of p38 MAPK signal pathway.
MAIN METHODS: The supernatant from Aβ(1-40)-stimulated THP-1 monocytes was used as culture medium for SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells which was used as target neuronal cells. The cell viability of SK-N-SH cells was assessed by detecting lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage; the content of pro-inflammatory cytokine was measured by radioimmunoassay; the expressions of tau phosphorylation, p-38 and synaptophysin (SYN) were evaluated by western blot assay. The microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP-2) expression was confirmed by immunostaining.
KEY FINDINGS: Our results showed that incubation of the supernatant from Aβ(1-40)-stimulated THP-1 cells with SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells for 24h significantly increased LDH leakage, tau and p-38 phosphorylation in SK-N-SH cells with increased interleukin (IL)-1β release into the supernatant of THP-1 cells. Pretreatment of THP-1 cells with GRg1 (50, 100 and 150μM) for 30min before Aβ(1-40)-stimulation inhibited THP-1 cell-mediated Aβ neurotoxicity towards SK-N-SH neuroblastoma and also decreased IL-1β release into THP-1 supernatant dose-dependently. An inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB203580, had the same effect.
SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggested that activation of the p38 cell signal pathway may be involved in monocyte-mediated Aβ neurotoxicity towards SK-N-SH cells. Data obtained from this study demonstrated that GRg1 represented a potential treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Jones KB, Su L, Jin H, et al.
SS18-SSX2 and the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in mouse and human synovial sarcomas.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(18):2365-71, 2375.e1-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Synovial sarcoma is a deadly malignancy with limited sensitivity to traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. SS18-SSX fusion oncogene expression characterizes human synovial sarcomas and drives oncogenesis in a mouse model. Elevated expression of BCL2 is considered a consistent feature of the synovial sarcoma expression profile. Our objective was to evaluate the expression of apoptotic pathway members in synovial sarcomas and interrogate the impact of modulating SS18-SSX expression on this pathway. We show in human and murine synovial sarcoma cells that SS18-SSX increases BCL2 expression, but represses other anti-apoptotic genes, including MCL1 and BCL2A1. This repression is achieved by directly suppressing expression via binding through activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) to the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) response element (CRE) in the promoters of these genes and recruiting TLE1/Groucho. The suppression of these two anti-apoptotic pathways silences the typical routes by which other tumors evade BH3-domain peptidomimetic pharmacotherapy. We show that mouse and human synovial sarcoma cells are sensitive in vitro to ABT-263, a BH3-peptidomimetic, much more than the other tested cancer cell lines. ABT-263 also enhances the sensitivity of these cells to doxorubicin, a traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy used for synovial sarcoma. We also demonstrate the capacity of ABT-263 to stunt synovial sarcomagenesis in vivo in a genetic mouse model. These data recommend pursuit of BH3-peptidomimetic pharmacotherapy in human synovial sarcomas.

Su L, Sampaio AV, Jones KB, et al.
Deconstruction of the SS18-SSX fusion oncoprotein complex: insights into disease etiology and therapeutics.
Cancer Cell. 2012; 21(3):333-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Synovial sarcoma is a translocation-associated sarcoma where the underlying chromosomal event generates SS18-SSX fusion transcripts. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the SS18-SSX fusion oncoprotein is both necessary and sufficient to support tumorigenesis; however, its mechanism of action remains poorly defined. We have purified a core SS18-SSX complex and discovered that SS18-SSX serves as a bridge between activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) and transducin-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1), resulting in repression of ATF2 target genes. Disruption of these components by siRNA knockdown or treatment with HDAC inhibitors rescues target gene expression, leading to growth suppression and apoptosis. Together, these studies define a fundamental role for aberrant ATF2 transcriptional dysregulation in the etiology of synovial sarcoma.

Knösel T, Chen Y, Hotovy S, et al.
Loss of desmocollin 1-3 and homeobox genes PITX1 and CDX2 are associated with tumor progression and survival in colorectal carcinoma.
Int J Colorectal Dis. 2012; 27(11):1391-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genomewide expression profiling has identified a number of genes differentially expressed in colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) compared to normal tissue. Some of these genes were linked to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We tested whether genes including desmocollins and homeobox genes were distinct on the protein level and correlated the expression with clinicopathological data.
METHODS: Tissue microarrays of 402 R0-resected colorectal carcinomas of UICC stage II or III were constructed to evaluate ten biomarkers. Furthermore, mRNA expression of desmocollins was evaluated in eight colon cancer cell lines. Demethylation test was performed by treatment with 5-aza-2´-deoxycytide in five colon cancer cell lines.
RESULTS: On protein level, high expression of desmocollin 1 (DSC1) was observed in 41.6%, DSC2 in 58.0%, DSC3 in 61.4%, E-cadherin in 71.4%, CDX2 in 58.0%, PITX1 in 55.0%, CDK4 in 0.2%, TLE1 in 1.3%, Factor H in 42.5%, and MDM2 in 0.2%. Reduced expression of DSC1-3 was statistically linked to higher grading and DSC2, E-cadherin and CDX2 with shorter survival in high-grade carcinomas. Multivariate analysis showed that pathological stage and low PITX1 expression were statistically associated with shorter patients survival. On mRNA level, seven out of eight cell lines exhibited no expression of DSC1, and four out of seven restored DSC1 expression after demethylation test.
CONCLUSIONS: Reduced expression of PITX1 was independently correlated to shorter patients survival and could serve as a prognostic marker. Decreased expression of DSC1-3 is significantly correlated with higher tumor grading. Downregulation of DSC1 could be explained by DNA hypermethylation in colon cancer cells.

Villaroel-Salinas J, Campos-Martinez J, Ortiz-Hidalgo C
Synovial sarcoma of the tongue confirmed by molecular detection of the SYT-SSX2 fusion gene transcript.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2012; 20(4):386-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Involvement of the tongue by a synovial sarcoma (SS) is an extremely rare event; there have only been 13 cases previously reported. The authors present herein a case of monophasic SS arising in the tongue in a 32-year-old woman. The neoplasm expressed cytokeratins AE1-3, OSCAR, and EMA as well as Bcl-2 and TLE1. Molecular analysis indicated that the patient tested positive for the SYT/SS2 fusion transcript.

Foo WC, Cruise MW, Wick MR, Hornick JL
Immunohistochemical staining for TLE1 distinguishes synovial sarcoma from histologic mimics.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2011; 135(6):839-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transducer-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) is overexpressed in synovial sarcomas. We investigated TLE1 expression by immunohistochemical analysis in a well-characterized series of synovial sarcomas and other mesenchymal tumors most commonly considered in the differential diagnosis. Whole tissue sections of 212 tumors were evaluated: 73 synovial sarcomas (23 biphasic, 28 monophasic, 22 poorly differentiated), 47 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), 49 solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs), 20 fibrosarcomatous variants of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and 23 Ewing sarcomas/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs). All monophasic and poorly differentiated SSs and Ewing sarcoma/PNETs were previously confirmed to harbor t(X;18) and EWSR1 gene rearrangements, respectively. In total, 60 (82%) of 73 synovial sarcomas were positive for TLE1, including 18 biphasic (78%), 22 monophasic (79%), and 20 poorly differentiated (91%) tumors. Of the other tumors, only 7 MPNSTs (15%) and 4 SFTs (8%) were positive for TLE1, most of which showed only weak staining. TLE1 is a sensitive and specific marker for synovial sarcoma and can be helpful to distinguish synovial sarcoma from histologic mimics, particularly if moderate or strong staining is observed. In this study, only a small subset of MPNSTs and SFTs showed limited staining for TLE1.

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