Gene Summary

Gene:ID2; inhibitor of DNA binding 2
Aliases: GIG8, ID2A, ID2H, bHLHb26
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the inhibitor of DNA binding family, members of which are transcriptional regulators that contain a helix-loop-helix (HLH) domain but not a basic domain. Members of the inhibitor of DNA binding family inhibit the functions of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in a dominant-negative manner by suppressing their heterodimerization partners through the HLH domains. This protein may play a role in negatively regulating cell differentiation. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

ID proteins are inhibitors of basic-Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factor function which have been implicated in the control of cell differentiation and proliferation. The human ID2 gene was cloned and characterised by Hara et al. (1994) and was mapped to 2p25 by Mathew et al. (1995).

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
NeuroblastomaID2 Expression in Neuroblastoma
Lasorella et al (2000) carried out a study to investigate how ID2, RB1, and the Myc family of genes interact in the context of carcinogenesis. RB1 knockout mouse embryos did not survive beyond 15 days, however, loss of ID2 reduced the embryonic lethality. They also found that 5/6 neuroblastoma cell lines with MYCN amplification had over 20 fold more ID2 than neuroblastoma cell lines without MYCN amplification. Also, the activation of MYCN caused a rapid, sustained increase in ID2 mRNA in 3T3 cells, normal human fibroblasts, and mouse embryo fibroblasts. They conclude that increased ID2 expression results from transcriptional activation by oncoproteins of the Myc family. Further studies are needed to investigate potential therapeutic approaches aimed at inhibiting ID2, such as the use of anti-Id2 oligonucleotides.
View Publications35
Breast CancerID2 Expression in Breast Cancer View Publications26
LeukaemiaID2 in Leukemia & Lymphoma
Ishiguro et al. (1996) found that ID2 expression increases with differentiation of human myeloid cells, their study included examination of 22 fresh acute myeloid leukaemia samples, with low expression in M0/M1 and high expression in M2/M3/M4 FAB types. In a study of transgenic mice which overexpressed the ID2 protein in thymocytes, Morrow MA et al. (1999) found a significant expansion of the early thymocyte stage and a depletion of thymocytes in later developmental stages. Mice from five of the six ID2 transgenic founder lines developed aggressive T cell hyperproliferation resembling lymphoma. They concluded that overexpression of ID2 has profound effects on T cell development and oncogenesis.
View Publications17
Lung CancerID2 Expression in Lung CancerPrognostic
ID2 expression has been associated with prognosis in both small cell lung cancer (Kamalian et al., 2008 ) and NSCLC (Rollin et al, 2009)
View Publications12
Liver CancerID2 Expression in hepatocellular carcinoma
See also occasional ID2 mutations in ICGC
View Publications10
Ewing's SarcomaUpregulation of ID2 in Ewing's Sarcoma
Studies suggest that upregulation of ID2 is mediated by EWS-ETS fusion proteins in Ewing's sarcoma (Nishimori et al, 2002 and Fukuma et al, 2003).
View Publications6
Pancreatic CancerID2 Overexpression in Pancreatic Cancer
Kleeff et al. (1998) found that primary pancreatic cancers markedly overexpressed ID2 mRNA compared to normal pancreas. They found abundant ID2 immunoreactivity in the pancreatic tumour cells, inhibition of ID2 expression by ID2 antisense oligonucleotides inhibited growth of tumour cells. Their study suggests that ID2 may have a role in human pancreatic cancer.
View Publications5

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ID2 (cancer-related)

Liu Y, Pandey PR, Sharma S, et al.
ID2 and GJB2 promote early-stage breast cancer progression by regulating cancer stemness.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 175(1):77-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive form of breast cancer which could progress to or recur as invasive breast cancer. The underlying molecular mechanism of DCIS progression is yet poorly understood, and appropriate biomarkers to distinguish benign form of DCIS from potentially invasive tumor are urgently needed.
METHODS: To identify the key regulators of DCIS progression, we performed gene-expression analysis of syngeneic breast cancer cell lines MCF10A,, and MCF10CA and cross-referenced the targets with patient cohort data.
RESULTS: We identified ID2 as a critical gene for DCIS initiation and found that ID2 promoted DCIS formation by enhancing cancer stemness of pre-malignant cells. ID2 also plays a pivotal role in survival of the aggressive cancer cells. In addition, we identified INHBA and GJB2 as key regulators for the transition of benign DCIS to aggressive phenotype. These two genes regulate migration, colonization, and stemness of invasive cancer cells. Upregulation of ID2 and GJB2 predicts poor prognosis after breast-conserving surgery. Finally, we found a natural compound Helichrysetin as ID2 inhibitor which suppresses DCIS formation in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that ID2 is a key driver of DCIS formation and therefore is considered to be a potential target for prevention of DCIS, while INHBA and GJB2 play vital roles in progression of DCIS to IDC and they may serve as potential prognosis markers.

Kijewska M, Viski C, Turrell F, et al.
Using an in-vivo syngeneic spontaneous metastasis model identifies ID2 as a promoter of breast cancer colonisation in the brain.
Breast Cancer Res. 2019; 21(1):4 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dissemination of breast cancers to the brain is associated with poor patient outcome and limited therapeutic options. In this study we sought to identify novel regulators of brain metastasis by profiling mouse mammary carcinoma cells spontaneously metastasising from the primary tumour in an immunocompetent syngeneic host.
METHODS: 4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma sublines derived from primary tumours and spontaneous brain and lung metastases in BALB/c mice were subject to genome-wide expression profiling. Two differentially expressed genes, Id2 and Aldh3a1, were validated in in-vivo models using mouse and human cancer cell lines. Clinical relevance was investigated in datasets of breast cancer patients with regards to distant metastasis-free survival and brain metastasis relapse-free survival. The role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)7 in regulating Id2 expression and promoting cell survival was investigated in two-dimensional and three-dimensional in-vitro assays.
RESULTS: In the spontaneous metastasis model, expression of Id2 and Aldh3a1 was significantly higher in 4T1 brain-derived sublines compared with sublines from lung metastases or primary tumour. Downregulation of expression impairs the ability of cells to colonise the brain parenchyma whereas ectopic expression in 4T1 and human MDA-MB-231 cells promotes dissemination to the brain following intracardiac inoculation but has no impact on the efficiency of lung colonisation. Both genes are highly expressed in oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancers and, within this poor prognosis sub-group, increased expression correlates with reduced distant metastasis-free survival. ID2 expression also associates with reduced brain metastasis relapse-free survival. Mechanistically, BMP7, which is present at significantly higher levels in brain tissue compared with the lungs, upregulates ID2 expression and, after BMP7 withdrawal, this elevated expression is retained. Finally, we demonstrate that either ectopic expression of ID2 or BMP7-induced ID2 expression protects tumour cells from anoikis.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies ID2 as a key regulator of breast cancer metastasis to the brain. Our data support a model in which breast cancer cells that have disseminated to the brain upregulate ID2 expression in response to astrocyte-secreted BMP7 and this serves to support metastatic expansion. Moreover, elevated ID2 expression identifies breast cancer patients at increased risk of developing metastatic relapse in the brain.

Bashanfer SAA, Saleem M, Heidenreich O, et al.
Disruption of MAPK1 expression in the ERK signalling pathway and the RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 fusion gene attenuate the differentiation and proliferation and induces the growth arrest in t(8;21) leukaemia cells.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(3):2027-2040 [PubMed] Related Publications
The t(8;21) translocation is one of the most frequent chromosome abnormalities associated with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). This abberation deregulates numerous molecular pathways including the ERK signalling pathway among others. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the gene expression patterns following siRNA‑mediated suppression of RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 and MAPK1 in Kasumi‑1 and SKNO‑1 cells and to determine the differentially expressed genes in enriched biological pathways. BeadChip microarray and gene ontology analysis revealed that RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 and MAPK1 suppression reduced the proliferation rate of the t(8;21) cells with deregulated expression of several classical positive regulator genes that are otherwise known to enhance cell proliferation. RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 suppression exerted an anti‑apoptotic effect through the overexpression of BCL2, BIRC3 and CFLAR genes, while MAPK1 suppression induced apopotosis in t(8;21) cells by the apoptotic mitochondrial changes stimulated by the activity of upregulated TP53 and TNFSF10, and downregulated JUN gene. RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 suppression supported myeloid differentiation by the differential expression of CEBPA, CEBPE, ID2, JMJD6, IKZF1, CBFB, KIT and CDK6, while MAPK1 depletion inhibited the differentiation of t(8;21) cells by elevated expression of ADA and downregulation of JUN. RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 and MAPK1 depletion induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. Accumulation of cells in the G1 phase was largely the result of downregulated expression of TBRG4, CCNE2, FOXO4, CDK6, ING4, IL8, MAD2L1 and CCNG2 in the case of RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 depletion and increased expression of RASSF1, FBXO6, DADD45A and P53 in the case of MAPK1 depletion. Taken together, the current results demonstrate that MAPK1 promotes myeloid cell proliferation and differentiation simultaneously by cell cycle progression while suppresing apoptosis.

Amaral LHP, Bufalo NE, Peres KC, et al.
ID Proteins May Reduce Aggressiveness of Thyroid Tumors.
Endocr Pathol. 2019; 30(1):24-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
ID genes have an important function in the cell cycle, and ID proteins may help identify aggressive tumors, besides being considered promising therapeutic targets. However, their role in thyroid tumors is still poorly understood. We examined ID expression and their correlation with diagnostic and prognostic features aiming to find a clinical application in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) cases. mRNA levels of ID1, ID2, ID3, and ID4 genes were quantified and their expression was observed by immunohistochemistry in 194 thyroid samples including 68 goiters, 16 follicular adenomas, 75 classic papillary thyroid carcinomas, 18 follicular variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma, 5 follicular thyroid carcinomas, and 1 anaplastic thyroid cancer, besides 11 normal thyroid tissues. DTC patients were managed according to standard protocols and followed up for M = 28 ± 16 months. ID2, ID3, and ID4 mRNA levels were higher in benign (2.0 ± 1.9; 0.6 ± 0.6; and 0.7 ± 1.0 AU, respectively) than those in malignant nodules (0.30 ± 0.62; 0.3 ± 0.3; and 0.2 ± 0.3 AU, respectively, p < 0.0001 for all three genes) and were associated with no extra thyroid invasion or metastasis at diagnosis. ID3 nuclear protein expression was higher in benign than that in malignant cells (5.2 ± 0.9 vs 3.0 ± 1.8 AU; p < 0.0001). On the contrary, the cytoplasmic expression of ID3 was higher in malignant than that in benign lesions (5.7 ± 1.5 vs 4.0 ± 1.4 AU; p < 0.0001). Our data indicate that ID genes are involved in thyroid tumorigenesis and suggest these genes act impeding the evolution of more aggressive phenotypes. The different patterns of their tissue expression may help identify malignancy and characterize thyroid lesion aggressiveness.

Meyer-Schaller N, Heck C, Tiede S, et al.
Foxf2 plays a dual role during transforming growth factor beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition by promoting apoptosis yet enabling cell junction dissolution and migration.
Breast Cancer Res. 2018; 20(1):118 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The most life-threatening step during malignant tumor progression is reached when cancer cells leave the primary tumor mass and seed metastasis in distant organs. To infiltrate the surrounding tissue and disseminate throughout the body, single motile tumor cells leave the tumor mass by breaking down cell-cell contacts in a process called epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). An EMT is a complex molecular and cellular program enabling epithelial cells to abandon their differentiated phenotype, including cell-cell adhesion and cell polarity, and to acquire mesenchymal features and invasive properties.
METHODS: We employed gene expression profiling and functional experiments to study transcriptional control of transforming growth factor (TGF)β-induced EMT in normal murine mammary gland epithelial (NMuMG) cells.
RESULTS: We identified that expression of the transcription factor forkhead box protein F2 (Foxf2) is upregulated during the EMT process. Although it is not required to gain mesenchymal markers, Foxf2 is essential for the disruption of cell junctions and the downregulation of epithelial markers in NMuMG cells treated with TGFβ. Foxf2 is critical for the downregulation of E-cadherin by promoting the expression of the transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin, Zeb1 and Zeb2, while repressing expression of the epithelial maintenance factor Id2 and miRNA 200 family members. Moreover, Foxf2 is required for TGFβ-mediated apoptosis during EMT by the transcriptional activation of the proapoptotic BH3-only protein Noxa and by the negative regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated survival signaling through direct repression of its ligands betacellulin and amphiregulin. The dual function of Foxf2 during EMT is underscored by the finding that high Foxf2 expression correlates with good prognosis in patients with early noninvasive stages of breast cancer, but with poor prognosis in advanced breast cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data identify the transcription factor Foxf2 as one of the important regulators of EMT, displaying a dual function in promoting tumor cell apoptosis as well as tumor cell migration.

Bermejo JL, Huang G, Manoochehri M, et al.
Long intergenic noncoding RNA 299 methylation in peripheral blood is a biomarker for triple-negative breast cancer.
Epigenomics. 2019; 11(1):81-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To identify DNA methylation biomarkers in peripheral blood samples from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients.
MATERIALS & METHODS: We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS): the most promising markers were identified in 233 TNBC case-control pairs (discovery set) and subsequently validated in an independent validation set (57 TNBC patients and 124 controls).
RESULTS: cg06588802 (LINC00299/ID2) showed a higher methylation in TNBC patients compared with controls (discovery set: 3% increase, p-value = 0.0009; validation set: 2% increase, p-value = 0.01). Consistent results at four neighboring methylation probes and the strong negative correlation (rho = -0.93) with LINC00299 expression add plausibility to this result.
CONCLUSION: Hypermethylation of LINC00299 in peripheral blood may constitute a useful circulating biomarker for TNBC.

Zhou XL, Zeng, Ye YH, et al.
Prognostic values of the inhibitor of DNA‑binding family members in breast cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(4):1897-1906 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
The inhibitor of DNA‑binding (ID) proteins are dominant‑negative modulators of transcription factors with basic helix‑loop‑helix (bHLH) structures, which control a variety of genes in cell cycle regulation. An increasing volume of evidence has demonstrated that the deregulated expression of IDs in several types of malignancy, including breast carcinoma, has been proven to serve crucial regulatory functions in tumorigenesis and the development of breast cancer (BC). The present study evaluated the prognostic values of the ID family members by investigating a set of publicly accessible databases, including Oncomine, bc‑GenExMiner, Kaplan‑Meier plotter and the Human Protein Atlas. The results demonstrated that mRNA levels of distinct IDs exhibited diverse profiles between BC and normal counterparts. The mRNA expression level of ID2 was significantly higher in breast cancer than normal tissues, while the mRNA expression levels of ID1, ID3 and ID4 were significantly lower in breast cancer tissues than in normal tissues. Furthermore, higher mRNA expression levels of ID1 and ID4 were associated with subgroups with lower pathological grades and fewer lymph node metastases. Survival analysis revealed that elevated mRNA levels of ID1 and ID4 predicted an improved survival in all patients with BC. Increased ID1 mRNA levels were associated with higher relapse‑free survival rates in all patients with BC, particularly in those with ER positive and Luminal A subtype tumors. Increased ID4 mRNA expression predicted longer survival times in all patients with BC, particularly in those with hormone receptor‑positive tumors or those treated with endocrine therapy. These results indicated that IDs are essential prognostic indicators in BC. Future studies on the effect of IDs on the pathogenesis and development of BC are warranted.

Zhang S, Li M, Ji H, Fang Z
Landscape of transcriptional deregulation in lung cancer.
BMC Genomics. 2018; 19(1):435 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a very heterogeneous disease that can be pathologically classified into different subtypes including small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) and large-cell carcinoma (LCC). Although much progress has been made towards the oncogenic mechanism of each subtype, transcriptional circuits mediating the upstream signaling pathways and downstream functional consequences remain to be systematically studied.
RESULTS: Here we trained a one-class support vector machine (OC-SVM) model to establish a general transcription factor (TF) regulatory network containing 325 TFs and 18724 target genes. We then applied this network to lung cancer subtypes and identified those deregulated TFs and downstream targets. We found that the TP63/SOX2/DMRT3 module was specific to LUSC, corresponding to squamous epithelial differentiation and/or survival. Moreover, the LEF1/MSC module was specifically activated in LUAD and likely to confer epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, known important for cancer malignant progression and metastasis. The proneural factor, ASCL1, was specifically up-regulated in SCLC which is known to have a neuroendocrine phenotype. Also, ID2 was differentially regulated between SCLC and LUSC, with its up-regulation in SCLC linking to energy supply for fast mitosis and its down-regulation in LUSC linking to the attenuation of immune response. We further described the landscape of TF regulation among the three major subtypes of lung cancer, highlighting their functional commonalities and specificities.
CONCLUSIONS: Our approach uncovered the landscape of transcriptional deregulation in lung cancer, and provided a useful resource of TF regulatory network for future studies.

Zhang TJ, Zhou JD, Zhang W, et al.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10:47 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Background: The long non-coding RNA

Bajikar SS, Wang CC, Borten MA, et al.
Tumor-Suppressor Inactivation of GDF11 Occurs by Precursor Sequestration in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Dev Cell. 2017; 43(4):418-435.e13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive and heterogeneous carcinoma in which various tumor-suppressor genes are lost by mutation, deletion, or silencing. Here we report a tumor-suppressive mode of action for growth-differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and an unusual mechanism of its inactivation in TNBC. GDF11 promotes an epithelial, anti-invasive phenotype in 3D triple-negative cultures and intraductal xenografts by sustaining expression of E-cadherin and inhibitor of differentiation 2 (ID2). Surprisingly, clinical TNBCs retain the GDF11 locus and expression of the protein itself. GDF11 bioactivity is instead lost because of deficiencies in its convertase, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (PCSK5), causing inactive GDF11 precursor to accumulate intracellularly. PCSK5 reconstitution mobilizes the latent TNBC reservoir of GDF11 in vitro and suppresses triple-negative mammary cancer metastasis to the lung of syngeneic hosts. Intracellular GDF11 retention adds to the concept of tumor-suppressor inactivation and reveals a cell-biological vulnerability for TNBCs lacking therapeutically actionable mutations.

Bae WJ, Koo BS, Lee SH, et al.
Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 is a novel therapeutic target for stemness of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Br J Cancer. 2017; 117(12):1810-1818 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are highly lethal epithelial tumours containing self-renewal cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs in HNSCCs are strongly associated with tumour initiation, invasion, and chemoradiation resistance. However, the important factors regulating stemness in HNSCCs remain unclear. Here, we investigated the molecular roles and clinical significance of inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2) protein to determine if it constitutes a novel therapeutic target for ablating HNSCC cells with stemness.
METHODS: We performed in vitro and in vivo studies of Id2 function and its effects on stemness using HNSCC cells. We also examined whether Id2 expression could be used as a prognostic indicator through immunohistochemical staining of 119 human HNSCC tumours.
RESULTS: Expression of Id2 was higher in HNSCC cells with stemness compared with differentiated HNSCC cells. Overexpression of Id2 increased proliferation, self-renewal, and expression of the putative stemness marker CD44 in HNSCC cells in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, silencing of Id2 using short hairpin RNA attenuated the stemness phenotype of HNSCC cells by reducing self-renewal, CD44 expression, cisplatin chemoresistance, and xenograft tumourigenicity. Most importantly, increased expression of Id2 was closely associated with poorer post-treatment survival rates in HNSCC patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Inhibitor of DNA binding2 represents a novel and promising therapeutic target for treating and improving the clinical outcomes for patients with HNSCC.

Paullin T, Powell C, Menzie C, et al.
Spheroid growth in ovarian cancer alters transcriptome responses for stress pathways and epigenetic responses.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(8):e0182930 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer, with over 200,000 women diagnosed each year and over half of those cases leading to death. These poor statistics are related to a lack of early symptoms and inadequate screening techniques. This results in the cancer going undetected until later stages when the tumor has metastasized through a process that requires the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). In lieu of traditional monolayer cell culture, EMT and cancer progression in general is best characterized through the use of 3D spheroid models. In this study, we examine gene expression changes through microarray analysis in spheroid versus monolayer ovarian cancer cells treated with TGFβ to induce EMT. Transcripts that included Coiled-Coil Domain Containing 80 (CCDC80), Solute Carrier Family 6 (Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 15 (SLC6A15), Semaphorin 3E (SEMA3E) and PIF1 5'-To-3' DNA Helicase (PIF1) were downregulated more than 10-fold in the 3D cells while Inhibitor Of DNA Binding 2, HLH Protein (ID2), Regulator Of Cell Cycle (RGCC), Protease, Serine 35 (PRSS35), and Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1, Member C1 (AKR1C1) were increased more than 50-fold. Interestingly, EMT factors, stress responses and epigenetic processes were significantly affected by 3D growth. The heat shock response and the oxidative stress response were also identified as transcriptome responses that showed significant changes upon 3D growth. Subnetwork enrichment analysis revealed that DNA integrity (e.g. DNA damage, genetic instability, nucleotide excision repair, and the DNA damage checkpoint pathway) were altered in the 3D spheroid model. In addition, two epigenetic processes, DNA methylation and histone acetylation, were increased with 3D growth. These findings support the hypothesis that three dimensional ovarian cell culturing is physiologically different from its monolayer counterpart.

Prabhu VV, Lulla AR, Madhukar NS, et al.
Cancer stem cell-related gene expression as a potential biomarker of response for first-in-class imipridone ONC201 in solid tumors.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(8):e0180541 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) correlate with recurrence, metastasis and poor survival in clinical studies. Encouraging results from clinical trials of CSC inhibitors have further validated CSCs as therapeutic targets. ONC201 is a first-in-class small molecule imipridone in Phase I/II clinical trials for advanced cancer. We have previously shown that ONC201 targets self-renewing, chemotherapy-resistant colorectal CSCs via Akt/ERK inhibition and DR5/TRAIL induction. In this study, we demonstrate that the anti-CSC effects of ONC201 involve early changes in stem cell-related gene expression prior to tumor cell death induction. A targeted network analysis of gene expression profiles in colorectal cancer cells revealed that ONC201 downregulates stem cell pathways such as Wnt signaling and modulates genes (ID1, ID2, ID3 and ALDH7A1) known to regulate self-renewal in colorectal, prostate cancer and glioblastoma. ONC201-mediated changes in CSC-related gene expression were validated at the RNA and protein level for each tumor type. Accordingly, we observed inhibition of self-renewal and CSC markers in prostate cancer cell lines and patient-derived glioblastoma cells upon ONC201 treatment. Interestingly, ONC201-mediated CSC depletion does not occur in colorectal cancer cells with acquired resistance to ONC201. Finally, we observed that basal expression of CSC-related genes (ID1, CD44, HES7 and TCF3) significantly correlate with ONC201 efficacy in >1000 cancer cell lines and combining the expression of multiple genes leads to a stronger overall prediction. These proof-of-concept studies provide a rationale for testing CSC expression at the RNA and protein level as a predictive and pharmacodynamic biomarker of ONC201 response in ongoing clinical studies.

Zhao TF, Jia HZ, Zhang ZZ, et al.
LncRNA H19 regulates ID2 expression through competitive binding to hsa-miR-19a/b in acute myelocytic leukemia.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(3):3687-3693 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) is the most common type of acute leukemia. Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve an important role in regulating gene expression through chromatin modification, transcription and post‑transcriptional processing. LncRNA H19 was considered as an independent prognostic marker for patients with tumors. The expression of lncRNA H19 was identified to be significantly upregulated in bone marrow samples from patients with AML‑M2. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the knockdown of lncRNA H19 resulted in increased expression of hsa‑microRNA (miR)‑19a/b and decreased expression of inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) in AML cells. The knockdown of lncRNA H19 inhibited the proliferation of AML cells in vitro, which could be partially reversed by ID2 overexpression. Furthermore, the results of the bioinformatic analysis revealed potential hsa‑miR‑19a/b‑3p binding sites in lncRNA H19 and ID2. Altogether, the results of the present study suggest that lncRNA H19 regulates the expression of ID2 through competitive binding to hsa‑miR‑19a and hsa‑miR‑19b, which may serve a role in AML cell proliferation.

Ma J, Zeng S, Zhang Y, et al.
BMP4 enhances hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation by promoting cell cycle progression via ID2/CDKN1B signaling.
Mol Carcinog. 2017; 56(10):2279-2289 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis, but the effects and signaling mechanisms of BMP4 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are not clearly clarified. The present study aimed to identify the roles of BMP4 in the proliferation of human HCC. In this study, BMP4 expression and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics and the survival of HCC patients were analyzed in two independent cohorts consisting of 310 subjects. Functional analysis of BMP4 on HCC proliferation was performed in vitro and in vivo in human HCC specimens, HCC cells of Bel-7402 and HCCLM3, and subcutaneous tumor model. The downstream signaling targets of BMP4 in HCC were investigated by PCR Array and Western blot. The results indicated that BMP4 expression was significantly increased in HCC tissues and closely related with unfavorable prognosis of HCC. BMP4 treatment increased cell proliferation and promoted G1/S cell cycle progression. In vivo subcutaneous tumor of nude mice model supported that BMP4 overexpression promoted the growth of HCC cells and BMP4 knockdown hold the opposite trend. Id2 was directly upregulated by BMP4, resulting in the mediated expression of cell cycle regulatory protein of CDKN1B. Blocking of Id2 attenuated BMP4-induced proliferation, confirming the important roles of Id2 in BMP4-mediated proliferation in HCC. So BMP4 is overexpressed in HCC tissues and acts as a poor prognostic factor of HCC patients. BMP4-induced ID2/CDKN1B signaling facilitates proliferation of HCC.

Li J, Roy S, Kim YM, et al.
Id2 Collaborates with Id3 To Suppress Invariant NKT and Innate-like Tumors.
J Immunol. 2017; 198(8):3136-3148 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id) proteins, including Id1-4, are transcriptional regulators involved in promoting cell proliferation and survival in various cell types. Although upregulation of Id proteins is associated with a broad spectrum of tumors, recent studies have identified that Id3 plays a tumor-suppressor role in the development of Burkitt's lymphoma in humans and hepatosplenic T cell lymphomas in mice. In this article, we report rapid lymphoma development in

Zhang Z, Rahme GJ, Chatterjee PD, et al.
ID2 promotes survival of glioblastoma cells during metabolic stress by regulating mitochondrial function.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(2):e2615 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Tumor cells proliferate in cellular environments characterized by a lack of optimal tissue organization resulting oftentimes in compromised cellular metabolism affecting nutrition, respiration, and energetics. The response of tumor cells to adverse environmental conditions is a key feature affecting their pathogenicity. We found that inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) expression levels significantly correlate with the ability of glioblastoma (GBM)-derived cell lines to survive glucose deprivation. ID2 suppressed mitochondrial oxidative respiration and mitochondrial ATP production by regulating the function of mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) complexes, resulting in reduced superoxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from mitochondria. ID2 suppression of ROS production reduced mitochondrial damage and enhanced tumor cell survival during glucose deprivation. Bioinformatics analysis of GBM gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database revealed that expression of ID2 mRNA is unique among ID gene family members in correlating with the expression of nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism and assembly of mETC. Our data indicate that the expression level of ID2 in GBM cells can predict the sensitivity of GBM-derived tumor cells to decreased glucose levels. Low levels of ID2 expression in human GBM tissues may identify a clinical group in which metabolic targeting of glycolytic pathways can be expected to have the greatest therapeutic efficacy.

Kamata YU, Sumida T, Kobayashi Y, et al.
Introduction of ID2 Enhances Invasiveness in ID2-null Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells via the SNAIL Axis.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2016 11-12; 13(6):493-497 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
AIM: Inhibitor of DNA-binding (ID) proteins are negative regulators of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that generally stimulate cell proliferation and inhibit differentiation. However, the role of ID2 in cancer progression remains ambiguous. Here, we investigated the function of ID2 in ID2-null oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We introduced an ID2 cDNA construct into ID2-null OSCC cells and compared them with empty-vector-transfected cells in terms of cell proliferation, invasion, and activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP).
RESULTS: ID2 introduction resulted in enhanced malignant phenotypes. The ID2-expressing cells showed increased N-cadherin, vimentin, and E-cadherin expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In addition, cell invasion drastically increased with increased expression and activity of MMP2. Immunoprecipitation revealed a direct interaction between ID2 and zinc finger transcription factor, snail family transcriptional repressor 1 (SNAIL1).
CONCLUSION: ID2 expression triggered a malignant phenotype, especially of invasive properties, through the ID2-SNAIL axis. Thus, ID2 represents a potential therapeutic target for OSCC.

Oliveira P, Carvalho J, Rocha S, et al.
Dies1/VISTA expression loss is a recurrent event in gastric cancer due to epigenetic regulation.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:34860 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Dies1/VISTA induces embryonic stem-cell differentiation, via BMP-pathway, but also acts as inflammation regulator and immune-response modulator. Dies1 inhibition in a melanoma-mouse model led to increased tumour-infiltrating T-cells and decreased tumour growth, emphasizing Dies1 relevance in tumour-microenvironment. Dies1 is involved in cell de/differentiation, inflammation and cancer processes, which mimic those associated with Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT). Despite this axis linking Dies1 with EMT and cancer, its expression, modulation and relevance in these contexts is unknown. To address this, we analysed Dies1 expression, its regulation by promoter-methylation and miR-125a-5p overexpression, and its association with BMP-pathway downstream-effectors, in a TGFβ1-induced EMT-model, cancer cell-lines and primary samples. We detected promoter-methylation as a mechanism controlling Dies1 expression in our EMT-model and in several cancer cell-lines. We showed that the relationship between Dies1 expression and BMP-pathway effectors observed in the EMT-model, was not present in all cell-lines, suggesting that Dies1 has other cell-specific effectors, beyond the BMP-pathway. We further demonstrated that: Dies1 expression loss is a recurrent event in GC, caused by promoter methylation and/or miR-125a-5p overexpression and; GC-microenvironment myofibroblasts overexpress Dies1. Our findings highlight Dies1 as a novel player in GC, with distinct roles within tumour cells and in the tumour-microenvironment.

Ettersperger J, Montcuquet N, Malamut G, et al.
Interleukin-15-Dependent T-Cell-like Innate Intraepithelial Lymphocytes Develop in the Intestine and Transform into Lymphomas in Celiac Disease.
Immunity. 2016; 45(3):610-625 [PubMed] Related Publications
The nature of gut intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) lacking antigen receptors remains controversial. Herein we showed that, in humans and in mice, innate intestinal IELs expressing intracellular CD3 (iCD3(+)) differentiate along an Id2 transcription factor (TF)-independent pathway in response to TF NOTCH1, interleukin-15 (IL-15), and Granzyme B signals. In NOTCH1-activated human hematopoietic precursors, IL-15 induced Granzyme B, which cleaved NOTCH1 into a peptide lacking transcriptional activity. As a result, NOTCH1 target genes indispensable for T cell differentiation were silenced and precursors were reprogrammed into innate cells with T cell marks including intracellular CD3 and T cell rearrangements. In the intraepithelial lymphoma complicating celiac disease, iCD3(+) innate IELs acquired gain-of-function mutations in Janus kinase 1 or Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, which enhanced their response to IL-15. Overall we characterized gut T cell-like innate IELs, deciphered their pathway of differentiation and showed their malignant transformation in celiac disease.

Luo C, Lim JH, Lee Y, et al.
A PGC1α-mediated transcriptional axis suppresses melanoma metastasis.
Nature. 2016; 537(7620):422-426 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Melanoma is the deadliest form of commonly encountered skin cancer because of its rapid progression towards metastasis. Although metabolic reprogramming is tightly associated with tumour progression, the effect of metabolic regulatory circuits on metastatic processes is poorly understood. PGC1α is a transcriptional coactivator that promotes mitochondrial biogenesis, protects against oxidative stress and reprograms melanoma metabolism to influence drug sensitivity and survival. Here, we provide data indicating that PGC1α suppresses melanoma metastasis, acting through a pathway distinct from that of its bioenergetic functions. Elevated PGC1α expression inversely correlates with vertical growth in human melanoma specimens. PGC1α silencing makes poorly metastatic melanoma cells highly invasive and, conversely, PGC1α reconstitution suppresses metastasis. Within populations of melanoma cells, there is a marked heterogeneity in PGC1α levels, which predicts their inherent high or low metastatic capacity. Mechanistically, PGC1α directly increases transcription of ID2, which in turn binds to and inactivates the transcription factor TCF4. Inactive TCF4 causes downregulation of metastasis-related genes, including integrins that are known to influence invasion and metastasis. Inhibition of BRAF

Svoboda M, Meshcheryakova A, Heinze G, et al.
AID/APOBEC-network reconstruction identifies pathways associated with survival in ovarian cancer.
BMC Genomics. 2016; 17(1):643 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Building up of pathway-/disease-relevant signatures provides a persuasive tool for understanding the functional relevance of gene alterations and gene network associations in multifactorial human diseases. Ovarian cancer is a highly complex heterogeneous malignancy in respect of tumor anatomy, tumor microenvironment including pro-/antitumor immunity and inflammation; still, it is generally treated as single disease. Thus, further approaches to investigate novel aspects of ovarian cancer pathogenesis aiming to provide a personalized strategy to clinical decision making are of high priority. Herein we assessed the contribution of the AID/APOBEC family and their associated genes given the remarkable ability of AID and APOBECs to edit DNA/RNA, and as such, providing tools for genetic and epigenetic alterations potentially leading to reprogramming of tumor cells, stroma and immune cells.
RESULTS: We structured the study by three consecutive analytical modules, which include the multigene-based expression profiling in a cohort of patients with primary serous ovarian cancer using a self-created AID/APOBEC-associated gene signature, building up of multivariable survival models with high predictive accuracy and nomination of top-ranked candidate/target genes according to their prognostic impact, and systems biology-based reconstruction of the AID/APOBEC-driven disease-relevant mechanisms using transcriptomics data from ovarian cancer samples. We demonstrated that inclusion of the AID/APOBEC signature-based variables significantly improves the clinicopathological variables-based survival prognostication allowing significant patient stratification. Furthermore, several of the profiling-derived variables such as ID3, PTPRC/CD45, AID, APOBEC3G, and ID2 exceed the prognostic impact of some clinicopathological variables. We next extended the signature-/modeling-based knowledge by extracting top genes co-regulated with target molecules in ovarian cancer tissues and dissected potential networks/pathways/regulators contributing to pathomechanisms. We thereby revealed that the AID/APOBEC-related network in ovarian cancer is particularly associated with remodeling/fibrotic pathways, altered immune response, and autoimmune disorders with inflammatory background.
CONCLUSIONS: The herein study is, to our knowledge, the first one linking expression of entire AID/APOBECs and interacting genes with clinical outcome with respect to survival of cancer patients. Overall, data propose a novel AID/APOBEC-derived survival model for patient risk assessment and reconstitute mapping to molecular pathways. The established study algorithm can be applied further for any biologically relevant signature and any type of diseased tissue.

Hu H, Sun Z, Li Y, et al.
The Histologic Classifications of Lung Adenocarcinomas Are Discriminable by Unique Lineage Backgrounds.
J Thorac Oncol. 2016; 11(12):2161-2172 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Lung adenocarcinomas are a heterogeneous set of diseases with distinct genetic and histologic characteristics. Besides the discovery of oncogenic mutations and introduction of the histologic classifications (2011 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society and 2015 WHO), increasing evidence has linked this intertumor heterogeneity to the lung lineage-specific pathways and lineage genes. Therefore, in this study, we assessed the gene expression of identified lung lineage genes to study their role in distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma diversities.
METHODS: A total of 278 surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas were included. Each case was evaluated for genetic mutations and histologic classification. Lineage genes associated with respiratory tract differentiation (NK2 homeobox 1 gene [NKX2-1], GATA protein binding 6 gene [GATA6], foxhead box J1 gene [FOXJ1], and SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor gene [SPDEF]) and stem/basal-like status (inhibitor of DNA binding 2, HLH protein gene [ID2], POU class 5 homeobox 1 gene [POU5F1], SRY-box 2 gene [SOX2], and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog gene [MYC]) were selected. mRNA expression of these genes in each tumor sample was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and normalized to paired normal lung tissue.
RESULTS: Distinct lineage gene expressions were found on the basis of genetic and histologic diversities. Expression of NKX2-1, GATA6, FOXJ1, and POU5F1 exhibited a significant linear relationship across histologic subgroups that was independent of genetic mutation status. Expression levels of NKX2-1 and POU5F1 were also associated with EGFR mutation status, independent of histologic subtypes. Further analysis revealed that the overexpression of SPDEF defined longer relapse-free survivals, especially in stage I disease.
CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we showed the unique lineage backgrounds of different histologic subtypes and oncogenic mutations. Assessing this added parameter might be beneficial in discriminating intertumor heterogeneity, advancing target exploration, developing theranostic/prognostic biomarkers, and designing clinical trials.

Mo SJ, Liu X, Hao XY, et al.
EYA4 functions as tumor suppressor gene and prognostic marker in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma through β-catenin/ID2 pathway.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 380(2):403-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Eye absent homolog 4 (EYA4) was initially found as key gene in controlling eye development in Drosophila. We recently found that EYA4 was an independent prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma. Its biological functions in malignancies remained unknown. The present study aimed at investigating its biological functions, molecular mechanisms and prognostic values in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Overexpression of EYA4 in PDAC cells inhibited proliferation and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Depletion of EYA4 in PDAC cells enhanced proliferation and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, armed with the serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase activity, EYA4 dephosphorylated β-catenin at Ser675, blocked β-catenin nuclear translocation and inhibited ID2 transactivation. Consistently, EYA4 expression inversely correlated with the levels of p-Ser675-β-catenin and ID2 in tissues. EYA4 expression in PDAC tissues was significantly reduced as compared with adjacent non-tumoral tissues. EYA4 expression was an independent prognostic factor in PDAC, with a lower EYA4 level in association with shorter long-term survival and disease-free time. We showed that EYA4 functioned as tumor suppressor gene in PDAC via repressing β-catenin/ID2 activation, and was an independent prognostic factor in PDAC.

Ghisi M, Kats L, Masson F, et al.
Id2 and E Proteins Orchestrate the Initiation and Maintenance of MLL-Rearranged Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Cancer Cell. 2016; 30(1):59-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
E proteins and their antagonists, the Id proteins, are transcriptional regulators important for normal hematopoiesis. We found that Id2 acts as a key regulator of leukemia stem cell (LSC) potential in MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Low endogenous Id2 expression is associated with LSC enrichment while Id2 overexpression impairs MLL-AF9-leukemia initiation and growth. Importantly, MLL-AF9 itself controls the E-protein pathway by suppressing Id2 while directly activating E2-2 expression, and E2-2 depletion phenocopies Id2 overexpression in MLL-AF9-AML cells. Remarkably, Id2 tumor-suppressive function is conserved in t(8;21) AML. Low expression of Id2 and its associated gene signature are associated with poor prognosis in MLL-rearranged and t(8;21) AML patients, identifying the Id2/E-protein axis as a promising new therapeutic target in AML.

Sumida T, Ishikawa A, Nakano H, et al.
Targeting ID2 expression triggers a more differentiated phenotype and reduces aggressiveness in human salivary gland cancer cells.
Genes Cells. 2016; 21(8):915-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inhibitors of DNA-binding (ID) proteins are negative regulators of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and generally stimulate cell proliferation and inhibit differentiation. We previously determined that ID1 was highly expressed in aggressive salivary gland cancer (SGC) cells in culture. Here, we show that ID2 is also expressed in aggressive SGC cells. ID2 knockdown triggers important changes in cell behavior, that is, it significantly reduces the expression of N-cadherin, vimentin and Snail, induces E-cadherin expression and leads to a more differentiated phenotype exemplified by changes in cell shape. Moreover, ID2 knockdown almost completely suppresses invasion and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9. In conclusion, ID2 expression maintains an aggressive phenotype in SGC cells, and ID2 repression triggers a reduction in cell aggressiveness. ID2 therefore represents a potential therapeutic target during SGC progression. ID proteins are negative regulators of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and generally stimulate cell proliferation and inhibit differentiation. ID2 knockdown triggers important changes in cell behavior, that is, it significantly reduces the expression of N-cadherin, vimentin and Snail, induces E-cadherin expression and leads to a more differentiated phenotype exemplified by changes in cell shape. ID2 therefore represents a potential therapeutic target during SGC progression.

Xue K, Song J, Yang Y, et al.
PAX5 promotes pre-B cell proliferation by regulating the expression of pre-B cell receptor and its downstream signaling.
Mol Immunol. 2016; 73:1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PAX5 is indispensable for the commitment of early lymphoid progenitors to the B cell lineage as well as for the development of B cells. Although previous studies have indicated that the Pax5-conditional-knockout mouse exhibited dedifferentiation of mature B cell and the development of aggressive lymphomas, the changes of Pax5 gene expressions in pre-B cells have not been analyzed. To understand the functional importance of Pax5 gene in the proliferation and survival of pre-B cells, we established a Pax5-knockdown model using 70Z/3 pre-B cell line. Pax5 knockdown 70Z/3 cells (70Z/3-KD cells) showed down-regulations of pre-BCR compounds such as CD19, BLNK, Id2 and λ5. The signaling via pre-BCRs was significantly diminished in the 70Z/3-KD cells, and this alteration was normalized by restored Pax5 gene expression. Loss of PAX5 reduced the growth rates in the 70Z/3-KD cells, compared to the mock cells. Meanwhile, the proliferation of pre-B cells was reduced by the knockdown of Pax5 gene. Moreover, further examinations showed that PAX5 was also activated in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) as a cell proliferation enhancer. These findings suggested that pax5 is critically important for the proliferation and survival of pre-B cells.

Dong HJ, Jang GB, Lee HY, et al.
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling/Id2 cascade mediates the effects of hypoxia on the hierarchy of colorectal-cancer stem cells.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:22966 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Hypoxia, a feature common to most solid tumors, is known to regulate many aspects of tumorigenesis. Recently, it was suggested that hypoxia increased the size of the cancer stem-cell (CSC) subpopulations and promoted the acquisition of a CSC-like phenotype. However, candidate hypoxia-regulated mediators specifically relevant to the stemness-related functions of colorectal CSCs have not been examined in detail. In the present study, we showed that hypoxia specifically promoted the self-renewal potential of CSCs. Through various in vitro studies, we found that hypoxia-induced Wnt/β-catenin signaling increased the occurrence of CSC-like phenotypes and the level of Id2 expression in colorectal-cancer cells. Importantly, the levels of hypoxia-induced CSC-sphere formation and Id2 expression were successfully attenuated by treatment with a Wnt/β-catenin-signaling inhibitor. We further demonstrated, for the first time, that the degree of hypoxia-induced CSC-sphere formation (CD44(+) subpopulation) in vitro and of tumor metastasis/dissemination in vivo were markedly suppressed by knocking down Id2 expression. Taken together, these data suggested that Wnt/β-catenin signaling mediated the hypoxia-induced self-renewal potential of colorectal-cancer CSCs through reactivating Id2 expression.

Moeinvaziri F, Shahhoseini M
Epigenetic role of CCAAT box-binding transcription factor NF-Y on ID gene family in human embryonic carcinoma cells.
IUBMB Life. 2015; 67(11):880-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is a histone substitute protein that specifically binds to the CCAAT box of the target genes and thereby promotes their regulation. NF-Y transcription factor, with defined CCAAT element-binding activities, target a gene family that encodes a group of basic helix-loop-helix ID factors (ID1-ID4), with or without CCAAT box at their promoter region. In this study, the expressions of NF-Y in mRNA and protein level were evaluated in a human embryonic carcinoma cell line, named NTera2, before and after 7 days induction of differentiation. We also looked into expression levels of ID genes in NTera2 cells during differentiation because of their critical role in development. By using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with real-time polymerase chain reaction, NF-Y incorporation and acetylation/dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9ac/me2) was quantitatively evaluated on the regulatory regions of considered genes to monitor the changes in epigenetic markers at ID gene promoters throughout differentiation. The results demonstrated a marked down-regulation of ID1, ID2, and ID3 genes, parallel to a loss of NF-Y binding to the promoters of these genes. The data show that although the genes encoding NF-Y complex remained expressed at mRNA level, NF-YC is lost at the protein level onset of differentiation. Additionally, the epigenetic marks of H3K9ac and H3K9me2 at the target gene promoters decreased and increased, respectively, after 1 day of differentiation. It is suggested that, in the absence of NF-Y binding, the corresponding regions adopt a heterochromatic nature, whereas when NF-Y comes back after 7 days of differentiation, the ID1-3 promoters become again converted into active chromatin. The ID4 gene, lacking a CCAAT box, behaves differently and does not show any incorporation. This experiment implies for the first time that the presence of NF-Y transcription factor plays a pivotal role in transcriptional regulation of ID genes in development.

Shen W, Chen D, Liu S, et al.
S100A4 interacts with mutant p53 and affects gastric cancer MKN1 cell autophagy and differentiation.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(6):2123-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
The acquired p53 mutations are the most common genetic alterations in human cancers. Mutant p53 proteins tend to accumulate, augmenting their oncogenic potential. However, the mechanisms for mutant p53 accumulation are not known. Previous studies have shown that S100A4 interacts with wild‑type p53. The present study marks the first time the effect of S100A4 on mutant p53 levels in gastric cancer MKN1 cells, which harbor mutant p53V143A, and the functional consequences have been investigated. S100A4 interacted with mutant p53V143A in the cells, and S100A4 inhibition decreased mutant p53V143A levels, indicating that S100A4 promoted mutant p53 accumulation through their interaction. We also found that S100A4 inhibition altered the expression of the mutant p53V143A target genes [c-Myc and inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2)]. Moreover, we demonstrated that S100A4 knockdown increased mutant p53-related autophagy and cell differentiation. In conclusion, our data suggest a novel mechanism for mutant p53V143A accumulation and add a new facet to the role of S100A4 in cancer.

Further References

Kleeff J, Ishiwata T, Friess H, et al.
The helix-loop-helix protein Id2 is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Res. 1998; 58(17):3769-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Id2 belongs to the Id family of helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins, which upon heterodimerization with basic HLH proteins prevent basic HLH proteins from DNA binding. Proteins of the Id family act as negative regulatory transcriptional factors, and their expression correlates with cell proliferation and arrested differentiation in many cell lineages. In this study, we characterized the expression of Id2 in normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues. Pancreatic cancers markedly overexpressed Id2 mRNA in comparison to the normal pancreas. Furthermore, there was abundant Id2 immunoreactivity in the cancer cells within the pancreatic tumor mass. In PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells, steady-state Id2 mRNA levels increased upon serum addition and decreased after induction of differentiation with either sodium butyrate or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Inhibition of Id2 expression with Id2 antisense oligonucleotides inhibited the growth of these cells, whereas random and sense oligonucleotides were without effect. These findings suggest that Id2 may have a role in human pancreatic cancer.

Lasorella A, Noseda M, Beyna M, et al.
Id2 is a retinoblastoma protein target and mediates signalling by Myc oncoproteins.
Nature. 2000; 407(6804):592-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
In mammalian cells, Id proteins coordinate proliferation and differentiation. Id2 is a dominant-negative antagonist of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and proteins of the retinoblastoma (Rb) family. Here we show that Id2-Rb double knockout embryos survive to term with minimal or no defects in neurogenesis and haematopoiesis, but they die at birth from severe reduction of muscle tissue. In neuroblastoma, an embryonal tumour derived from the neural crest, Id2 is overexpressed in cells carrying extra copies of the N-myc gene. In these cells, Id2 is in molar excess of the active form of Rb. The overexpression of Id2 results from transcriptional activation by oncoproteins of the Myc family. Cell-cycle progression induced by Myc oncoproteins requires inactivation of Rb by Id2. Thus, a dual connection links Id2 and Rb: during normal cell-cycle, Rb prohibits the action of Id2 on its natural targets, but oncogenic activation of the Myc-Id2 transcriptional pathway overrides the tumour-suppressor function of Rb.

Lasorella A, Boldrini R, Dominici C, et al.
Id2 is critical for cellular proliferation and is the oncogenic effector of N-myc in human neuroblastoma.
Cancer Res. 2002; 62(1):301-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Perturbation of the function of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein is found in most human tumors. Id2 is a natural target of the Rb protein that is recruited by Myc oncoproteins to bypass the tumor suppressor function of Rb. Here we report that an "N-Myc-Id2 pathway" persists during late development of the nervous system and parallels the rising levels of active Rb in neuronal precursors withdrawing from the cell cycle. An immunohistochemical analysis of primary neuroblastoma from 47 patients shows that expression of Id2 is strongly predictive of poor outcome, irrespective of other clinical and biological variables. Overexpression of Id2 mediates cellular transformation and is required to maintain the malignant behavior of neuroblastoma cells. Correspondingly, embryonic fibroblasts from Id2-null mice display impaired ability to proliferate. We suggest that Id2 overexpression may be a better prognostic indicator than N-myc gene amplification in neuroblastoma. Thus, disrupting Id2 function may lead to new and useful therapeutic strategies for cancer patients.

Hara E, Yamaguchi T, Nojima H, et al.
Id-related genes encoding helix-loop-helix proteins are required for G1 progression and are repressed in senescent human fibroblasts.
J Biol Chem. 1994; 269(3):2139-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Three complete cDNA clones encoding Id-related helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins lacking a basic region were isolated from a pcD2 cDNA expression library prepared from TIG-3 human diploid fibroblasts (HDF). Of these cDNAs (Id-1H, Id-1H', and Id-2H), two (Id-1H and Id-1H') appeared to be derived by alternative RNA splicing. Id-1H and Id-2H seem to be human homologues of mouse Id-1 and Id-2, respectively, and have potential to encode 154 and 135 amino acid proteins. The Id-1H and Id-2H mRNAs were barely detectable in quiescent early passage HDF; serum coordinately induced both mRNAs, with two peaks of expression, in early and late in G1. Antisense oligomers complementary to Id-1H and Id-2H mRNA prevented early passage HDF from entering the S phase of the cell cycle. The treatment of serum-stimulated early passage cells with the antisense Id-1H oligomer completely abolished Id-1H. In senescent cells, serum barely induced the Id-1H and Id-2H mRNAs, although the levels of c-myc expression induced were similar in early passage and senescent cells. The expression levels of these Id genes vary among immortal human cell lines. Both genes were overexpressed in VA4 SV40-transformed lung fibroblasts and EJ-1 bladder carcinoma cells, while these genes were expressed at a very low level in SVts8 cells derived from SV40 tsA-transformed TIG-3 cells. SVts8 cells may acquire some function redundant to Id proteins. HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells expressed the Id-1H gene but not the Id-2H gene, suggesting these Id genes may subserve redundant functions.

Mathew S, Chen W, Murty VV, et al.
Chromosomal assignment of human ID1 and ID2 genes.
Genomics. 1995; 30(2):385-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Id (inhibitor of DNA binding) proteins regulate transcription during development by interacting with transcription factors. Three human genes, ID1, ID2, and ID3, have been identified that belong to this family of transcription regulators. We show, by somatic cell hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments, that ID1 and ID2 are localized at 20q11 and 2p25, respectively.

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