Gene Summary

Gene:FANCG; FA complementation group G
Aliases: FAG, XRCC9
Summary:The Fanconi anemia complementation group (FANC) currently includes FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1 (also called BRCA2), FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCJ (also called BRIP1), FANCL, FANCM and FANCN (also called PALB2). The previously defined group FANCH is the same as FANCA. Fanconi anemia is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by cytogenetic instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, increased chromosomal breakage, and defective DNA repair. The members of the Fanconi anemia complementation group do not share sequence similarity; they are related by their assembly into a common nuclear protein complex. This gene encodes the protein for complementation group G. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:Fanconi anemia group G protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

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Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

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Fanconi Anemia - Complementation Group G

Latest Publications

Ramanagoudr-Bhojappa R, Carrington B, Ramaswami M, et al.
Multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of 19 Fanconi anemia pathway genes in zebrafish revealed their roles in growth, sexual development and fertility.
PLoS Genet. 2018; 14(12):e1007821 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a genomic instability syndrome resulting in aplastic anemia, developmental abnormalities, and predisposition to hematological and other solid organ malignancies. Mutations in genes that encode proteins of the FA pathway fail to orchestrate the repair of DNA damage caused by DNA interstrand crosslinks. Zebrafish harbor homologs for nearly all known FA genes. We used multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis to generate loss-of-function mutants for 17 FA genes: fanca, fancb, fancc, fancd1/brca2, fancd2, fance, fancf, fancg, fanci, fancj/brip1, fancl, fancm, fancn/palb2, fanco/rad51c, fancp/slx4, fancq/ercc4, fanct/ube2t, and two genes encoding FA-associated proteins: faap100 and faap24. We selected two indel mutations predicted to cause premature truncations for all but two of the genes, and a total of 36 mutant lines were generated for 19 genes. Generating two independent mutant lines for each gene was important to validate their phenotypic consequences. RT-PCR from homozygous mutant fish confirmed the presence of transcripts with indels in all genes. Interestingly, 4 of the indel mutations led to aberrant splicing, which may produce a different protein than predicted from the genomic sequence. Analysis of RNA is thus critical in proper evaluation of the consequences of the mutations introduced in zebrafish genome. We used fluorescent reporter assay, and western blots to confirm loss-of-function for several mutants. Additionally, we developed a DEB treatment assay by evaluating morphological changes in embryos and confirmed that homozygous mutants from all the FA genes that could be tested (11/17), displayed hypersensitivity and thus were indeed null alleles. Our multiplexing strategy helped us to evaluate 11 multiple gene knockout combinations without additional breeding. Homozygous zebrafish for all 19 single and 11 multi-gene knockouts were adult viable, indicating FA genes in zebrafish are generally not essential for early development. None of the mutant fish displayed gross developmental abnormalities except for fancp-/- fish, which were significantly smaller in length than their wildtype clutch mates. Complete female-to-male sex reversal was observed in knockouts for 12/17 FA genes, while partial sex reversal was seen for the other five gene knockouts. All adult females were fertile, and among the adult males, all were fertile except for the fancd1 mutants and one of the fancj mutants. We report here generation and characterization of zebrafish knockout mutants for 17 FA disease-causing genes, providing an integral resource for understanding the pathophysiology associated with the disrupted FA pathway.

Yabe M, Koike T, Ohtsubo K, et al.
Associations of complementation group, ALDH2 genotype, and clonal abnormalities with hematological outcome in Japanese patients with Fanconi anemia.
Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(2):271-280 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder that predisposes patients to bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To study which genetic and phenotypic factors predict clinical outcomes for Japanese FA patients, we examined the FA genes, bone marrow karyotype, and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) genotype; variants of which are associated with accelerated progression of BMF in FA. In 88 patients, we found morphologic MDS/AML in 33 patients, including refractory cytopenia in 16, refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) in 7, and AML in 10. The major mutated FA genes observed in this study were FANCA (n = 52) and FANCG (n = 23). The distribution of the ALDH2 variant alleles did not differ significantly between patients with mutations in FANCA and FANCG. However, patients with FANCG mutations had inferior BMF-free survival and received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at a younger age than those with FANCA mutations. In FANCA, patients with the c.2546delC mutation (n = 24) related to poorer MDS/AML-free survival and a younger age at HSCT than those without this mutation. All patients with RAEB/AML had an abnormal karyotype and poorer prognosis after HSCT; specifically, the presence of a structurally complex karyotype with a monosomy (n = 6) was associated with dismal prognosis. In conclusion, the best practice for a clinician may be to integrate the morphological, cytogenetic, and genetic data to optimize HSCT timing in Japanese FA patients.

Benitez A, Liu W, Palovcak A, et al.
FANCA Promotes DNA Double-Strand Break Repair by Catalyzing Single-Strand Annealing and Strand Exchange.
Mol Cell. 2018; 71(4):621-628.e4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
FANCA is a component of the Fanconi anemia (FA) core complex that activates DNA interstrand crosslink repair by monoubiquitination of FANCD2. Here, we report that purified FANCA protein catalyzes bidirectional single-strand annealing (SA) and strand exchange (SE) at a level comparable to RAD52, while a disease-causing FANCA mutant, F1263Δ, is defective in both activities. FANCG, which directly interacts with FANCA, dramatically stimulates its SA and SE activities. Alternatively, FANCB, which does not directly interact with FANCA, does not stimulate this activity. Importantly, five other patient-derived FANCA mutants also exhibit deficient SA and SE, suggesting that the biochemical activities of FANCA are relevant to the etiology of FA. A cell-based DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair assay demonstrates that FANCA plays a direct role in the single-strand annealing sub-pathway (SSA) of DSB repair by catalyzing SA, and this role is independent of the canonical FA pathway and RAD52.

Li N, Ding L, Li B, et al.
Functional analysis of Fanconi anemia mutations in China.
Exp Hematol. 2018; 66:32-41.e8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare recessive disease characterized by progressive bone marrow failure, congenital abnormalities, and increased incidence of cancers. To date, mutations in 22 genes can cause FA or an FA-like phenotype. In China, in addition to clinical information, FA diagnosis primarily relies on genetic sequencing because the chromosome breakage test is rarely performed. Here, we employed multiple genetic diagnostic tools (DNA sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and chromosome microarray) and a variant-based functional assay platform to investigate the genetic cause in 25 Chinese suspected FA patients. A total of 45 distinct candidate variants were detected in six FA genes (FA-A, FA-B, FA-C, FA-D2, FA-G, and FA-J), of which 36 were novel. Eight missense variants and one indel variant were unable to restore FANCD2 mono-ubiquitination and mitomycin C resistance in a panel of FA indicator cell lines, indicating that these mutations are deleterious. Three missense variants (FANCA-L424V, FANCC-E273K, and FANCG-A153G) were harmless. Finally, 23 patients were molecularly diagnosed with FA, consistent with their clinical phenotype. In the FA-A subgroup, large deletions accounted for 14% of the disease-causing variants. We have established a comprehensive molecular diagnostic workflow for Chinese FA patients that can substitute for standard FA cytogenetic analysis.

Velimezi G, Robinson-Garcia L, Muñoz-Martínez F, et al.
Map of synthetic rescue interactions for the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway identifies USP48.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):2280 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Defects in DNA repair can cause various genetic diseases with severe pathological phenotypes. Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare disease characterized by bone marrow failure, developmental abnormalities, and increased cancer risk that is caused by defective repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Here, we identify the deubiquitylating enzyme USP48 as synthetic viable for FA-gene deficiencies by performing genome-wide loss-of-function screens across a panel of human haploid isogenic FA-defective cells (FANCA, FANCC, FANCG, FANCI, FANCD2). Thus, as compared to FA-defective cells alone, FA-deficient cells additionally lacking USP48 are less sensitive to genotoxic stress induced by ICL agents and display enhanced, BRCA1-dependent, clearance of DNA damage. Consequently, USP48 inactivation reduces chromosomal instability of FA-defective cells. Our results highlight a role for USP48 in controlling DNA repair and suggest it as a potential target that could be therapeutically exploited for FA.

Dimishkovska M, Kotori VM, Gucev Z, et al.
Novel Founder Mutation in
Balkan Med J. 2018; 35(1):108-111 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fanconi anemia is a rare autosomal recessive or X-linked disorder characterised by clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Most fanconi anemia patients harbour homozygous or double heterozygous mutations in the
CASE REPORT: The novel
CONCLUSION: The finding of the

Cagnan I, Gunel-Ozcan A, Aerts-Kaya F, et al.
Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Carrying FANCD2 Mutation Differ from the Other Fanconi Anemia Complementation Groups in Terms of TGF-β1 Production.
Stem Cell Rev Rep. 2018; 14(3):425-437 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) secretion from cells in the bone marrow (BM) niche affects hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) fate and has a cardinal role in HSC quiescence. BM mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), a component of the BM niche, may produce abnormal levels of TGF-β in Fanconi anemia (FA) and may play a role in bone marrow failure. Here, we molecularly and cellularly characterized FA BM-MSCs by addressing their immunophenotype, proliferation- and differentiation- capacity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, senescence activity as well as expression and secretion levels of TGF-β isoforms. In ten FA patients, mutations were detected in FANCA (n = 7), FANCG (n = 1) and FANCD2 (n = 2) genes. The immunophenotype, with the exception of CD29, and differentiation capacity of FA BM-MSCs were similar to healthy donors. FA BM-MSCs showed decreased proliferation, increased ROS level and an arrest in G2 following DEB treatment. β-galactosidase staining indicated elevated senescence of FANCD2-deficient cells. FA BM-MSCs displayed TGF-β1 mRNA levels similar to donor BM-MSCs, and was not affected by DEB treatment. However, secretion of TGF-β was absent in FA-D2 BM-MSCs. Absence of TGF-β secretion may be related to early onset of senescence of the FANCD2-deficient BM-MSCs. The proliferative response of FA-D2 BM-MSCs to rTGF-β1 was not different from FANCA-deficient and donor cells and raises the possibility that rTGF-β1 may reverse the senescence of the FANCD2-deficient BM-MSCs which needs to be investigated further.

Francies FZ, Wainwright R, Poole J, et al.
Diagnosis of Fanconi Anaemia by ionising radiation- or mitomycin C-induced micronuclei.
DNA Repair (Amst). 2018; 61:17-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fanconi Anaemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by defects in DNA repair, associated with chromosomal instability and cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents such as mitomycin C (MMC). The FA repair pathway involves complex DNA repair mechanisms crucial for genomic stability. Deficiencies in DNA repair genes give rise to chromosomal radiosensitivity. FA patients have shown increased clinical radiosensitivity by exhibiting adverse normal tissue side-effects. The study aimed to investigate chromosomal radiosensitivity of homozygous and heterozygous carriers of FA mutations using three micronucleus (MN) assays. The G0 and S/G2MN assays are cytogenetic assays to evaluate DNA damage induced by ionising radiation in different phases of the cell cycle. The MMC MN assay detects DNA damage induced by a crosslinking agent in the G0 phase. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of FA and their parents were screened for the complete coding region of 20 FA genes. Blood samples of all FA patients and parents were exposed to ionising radiation of 2 and 4Gy. Chromosomal radiosensitivity was evaluated in the G0 and S/G2 phase. Most of our patients were homozygous for the founder mutation FANCG c.637_643delTACCGCC; p.(Tyr213Lysfs*6) while one patient was compound heterozygous for FANCG c.637_643delTACCGCC and FANCG c.1379G > A, p.(Gly460Asp), a novel missense mutation. Another patient was compound heterozygous for two deleterious FANCA mutations. In FA patients, the G0- and S/G2-MN assays show significantly increased chromosomal radiosensitivity and genomic instability. Moreover, chromosomal damage was significantly elevated in MMC treated FA cells. We also observed an increase in chromosomal radiosensitivity and genomic instability in the parents using 3 assays. The effect was significant using the MMC MN assay. The MMC MN assay is advantageous as it is less labour intense, time effective and has potential as a reliable alternative method for detecting FA patients from parents and controls.

Aymun U, Iram S, Aftab I, et al.
Screening for mutations in two exons of FANCG gene in Pakistani population.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2017; 161(2):158-163 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fanconi anemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of genetic instability. It is both molecularly and clinically, a heterogeneous disorder. Its incidence is 1 in 129,000 births and relatively high in some ethnic groups. Sixteen genes have been identified among them mutations in FANCG gene are most common after FANCA and FANCC gene mutations.
OBJECTIVE: To study mutations in exon 3 and 4 of FANCG gene in Pakistani population.
METHODS: Thirty five patients with positive Diepoxybutane test were included in the study. DNA was extracted and amplified for exons 3 and 4. Thereafter Sequencing was done and analyzed for the presence of mutations.
RESULTS: No mutation was detected in exon 3 whereas a carrier of known mutation c.307+1 G>T was found in exon 4 of the FANCG gene.
CONCLUSION: Absence of any mutation in exon 3 and only one heterozygous mutation in exon 4 of FANCG gene points to a different spectrum of FA gene pool in Pakistan that needs extensive research in this area.

Türke C, Horn S, Petto C, et al.
Loss of heterozygosity in FANCG, FANCF and BRIP1 from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 50(6):2207-2220 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent advances have been made in the understanding of Fanconi anemia (FA), a hereditary disease that increases the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) by 500- to 700-fold. FA patients harbour germline mutations in genes of cellular DNA repair pathways that are assumed to facilitate the accumulation of mutations during HNSCC development. Mutations in these FA genes may also contribute to HNSCC in general. In the present study, we analysed three FA genes; FANCF, FANCG and BRIP1, that are involved in the repair of DNA inter strand cross-links, in HNSCC and their potential role for patient survival. We measured loss of heterozygosity (LOH) mutations at eight microsatellite loci flanking three FA genes in 54 HNSCC of the oral cavity and corresponding blood samples. Survival analyses were carried out using mutational data and clinical variables. LOH was present in 17% (FANCF region), 41% (FANCG region) and 11% (BRIP1 region) of the patients. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank tests indicated strong clinical predictors (lymph node stages with decreased survival: p=2.69e-12; surgery with improved survival: p=0.0005). LOH in the FANCF region showed a weaker association with decreased overall survival (p=0.006), which however, did not hold in multivariate analyses. LOH may predominantly indicate copy number gains in FANCF and losses in FANCG and BRIP1. Integration of copy number data and gene expression proved difficult as the available sample sets did not overlap. In conclusion, LOH in FA genes appears to be a common feature of HNSCC development seen here in 57% of patients and other mutation types may increase this mutation frequency. We suggest larger patient cohorts would be needed to test the observed association of LOH in FANCF and patient survival comprehensively.

Solanki A, Kumar Selvaa C, Sheth F, et al.
Characterization of two novel FANCG mutations in Indian Fanconi anemia patients.
Leuk Res. 2017; 53:50-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
FA is a rare recessive genetic disorder with autosomal or X-linked mode of inheritance and is associated with 19 different FA complementation groups. We have studied three patients clinically diagnosed as FA. All three patients showed a high frequency chromosomal breakage in MMC induced blood cultures and FANCD2 non-monoubiquitination by western blotting. The molecular analysis using direct sequencing revealed two novel mutations in FANCG; 2 novel mutations c.1143+5G>C and c.883dupG, and a reported mutation c.1471_1473delAAAinsG. We have for the first time modeled FANCG protein with fold based template search using pGenthreader which revealed sequence fold identical to super helical TPR domain of O linked GLCNAC transferase and have studied the impact of mutations on the function and structure of FANCG. All three mutations are potential pathogenic molecular changes which can affect FANCG interactions required for FA pathway, homologous recombination repairs and unhooking step of the ICL repair process.

van Twest S, Murphy VJ, Hodson C, et al.
Mechanism of Ubiquitination and Deubiquitination in the Fanconi Anemia Pathway.
Mol Cell. 2017; 65(2):247-259 [PubMed] Related Publications
Monoubiquitination and deubiquitination of FANCD2:FANCI heterodimer is central to DNA repair in a pathway that is defective in the cancer predisposition syndrome Fanconi anemia (FA). The "FA core complex" contains the RING-E3 ligase FANCL and seven other essential proteins that are mutated in various FA subtypes. Here, we purified recombinant FA core complex to reveal the function of these other proteins. The complex contains two spatially separate FANCL molecules that are dimerized by FANCB and FAAP100. FANCC and FANCE act as substrate receptors and restrict monoubiquitination to the FANCD2:FANCI heterodimer in only a DNA-bound form. FANCA and FANCG are dispensable for maximal in vitro ubiquitination. Finally, we show that the reversal of this reaction by the USP1:UAF1 deubiquitinase only occurs when DNA is disengaged. Our work reveals the mechanistic basis for temporal and spatial control of FANCD2:FANCI monoubiquitination that is critical for chemotherapy responses and prevention of Fanconi anemia.

Mahato D, Samanta D, Mukhopadhyay SS, Krishnaraj RN
A systems biology approach for elucidating the interaction of curcumin with Fanconi anemia FANC G protein and the key disease targets of leukemia.
J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2017; 37(3):276-282 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disorder with a high risk of malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinoma. There is a constant search out of new potential therapeutic molecule to combat this disorder. In most cases, patients with FA develop haematological malignancies with acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Identifying drugs which can efficiently block the pathways of both these disorders can be an ideal and novel strategy to treat FA. The curcumin, a natural compound obtained from turmeric is an interesting therapeutic molecule as it has been reported in the literature to combat both FA as well as leukemia. However, its complete mechanism is not elucidated. Herein, a systems biology approach for elucidating the therapeutic potential of curcumin against FA and leukemia is investigated by analyzing the computational molecular interactions of curcumin ligand with FANC G of FA and seven other key disease targets of leukemia. The proteins namely DOT1L, farnesyl transferase (FDPS), histone decetylase (EP3000), Polo-like kinase (PLK-2), aurora-like kinase (AUKRB), tyrosine kinase (ABL1), and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) were chosen as disease targets for leukemia and modeled structure of FANC G protein as the disease target for FA. The docking investigations showed that curcumin had a very high binding affinity of -8.1 kcal/mol with FANC G protein. The key disease targets of leukemia namely tyrosine kinase (ABL1), aurora-like kinase (AUKRB), and polo-like kinase (PLK-2) showed that they had the comparable binding affinities of -9.7 k cal/mol, -8.7 k cal/mol, and -8.6 k cal/mol, respectively with curcumin. Further, the percentage similarity scores obtained from PAM50 using EMBOSS MATCHER was shown to provide a clue to understand the structural relationships to an extent and to predict the binding affinity. This investigation shows that curcumin effectively interacts with the disease targets of both FA and leukemia.

Yabar CS, Winter JM
Pancreatic Cancer: A Review.
Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2016; 45(3):429-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is now the third leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States, yet advances in treatment options have been minimal over the past decade. In this review, we summarize the evaluation and treatments for this disease. We highlight molecular advances that hopefully will soon translate into improved outcomes.

Chun MJ, Kim S, Hwang SK, et al.
AMP-activated protein kinase is involved in the activation of the Fanconi anemia/BRCA pathway in response to DNA interstrand crosslinks.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(33):53642-53653 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fanconi anemia complementation group (FANC) proteins constitute the Fanconi Anemia (FA)/BRCA pathway that is activated in response to DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). We previously performed yeast two-hybrid screening to identify novel FANC-interacting proteins and discovered that the alpha subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα1) was a candidate binding partner of the FANCG protein, which is a component of the FA nuclear core complex. We confirmed the interaction between AMPKα and both FANCG using co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Additionally, we showed that AMPKα interacted with FANCA, another component of the FA nuclear core complex. AMPKα knockdown in U2OS cells decreased FANCD2 monoubiquitination and nuclear foci formation upon mitomycin C-induced ICLs. Furthermore, AMPKα knockdown enhanced cellular sensitivity to MMC. MMC treatment resulted in an increase in AMPKα phosphorylation/activation, indicating AMPK is involved in the cellular response to ICLs. FANCA was phosphorylated by AMPK at S347 and phosphorylation increased with MMC treatment. MMC-induced FANCD2 monoubiquitination and nuclear foci formation were compromised in a U2OS cell line that stably overexpressed the S347A mutant form of FANCA compared to wild-type FANCA-overexpressing cells, indicating a requirement for FANCA phosphorylation at S347 for proper activation of the FA/BRCA pathway. Our data suggest AMPK is involved in the activation of the FA/BRCA pathway.

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