Gene Summary

Gene:ETV5; ETS variant transcription factor 5
Aliases: ERM
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ETS translocation variant 5
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (8)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Messenger RNA
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Transcription
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Chromosome 3
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Western Blotting
  • Apoptosis
  • FISH
  • Up-Regulation
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • Trans-Activators
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets
  • Promoter Regions
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Cell Movement
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Bone Cancer
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Breast Cancer
  • ets-Domain Protein Elk-4
  • Staging
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Adenovirus E1A Proteins
  • Prostate Cancer
  • ETV5
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Translocation
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Zinc Finger E-box-Binding Homeobox 1
  • Signal Transduction
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ETV5 (cancer-related)

Ahmad ST, Rogers AD, Chen MJ, et al.
Capicua regulates neural stem cell proliferation and lineage specification through control of Ets factors.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2000 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Capicua (Cic) is a transcriptional repressor mutated in the brain cancer oligodendroglioma. Despite its cancer link, little is known of Cic's function in the brain. We show that nuclear Cic expression is strongest in astrocytes and neurons but weaker in stem cells and oligodendroglial lineage cells. Using a new conditional Cic knockout mouse, we demonstrate that forebrain-specific Cic deletion increases proliferation and self-renewal of neural stem cells. Furthermore, Cic loss biases neural stem cells toward glial lineage selection, expanding the pool of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). These proliferation and lineage effects are dependent on de-repression of Ets transcription factors. In patient-derived oligodendroglioma cells, CIC re-expression or ETV5 blockade decreases lineage bias, proliferation, self-renewal, and tumorigenicity. Our results identify Cic as an important regulator of cell fate in neurodevelopment and oligodendroglioma, and suggest that its loss contributes to oligodendroglioma by promoting proliferation and an OPC-like identity via Ets overactivity.

Li S, Ma J, Si Y, et al.
Differential expression and functions of Ehm2 transcript variants in lung adenocarcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(5):1747-1758 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ehm2 [also known as erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1‑like protein 4B (EPB41L4B)] is a member of the NF2/ERM/4.1 superfamily. The overexpression of Ehm2 has been observed in metastatic cancer cells. Through alternative splicing, the Ehm2 gene produces two transcript variants that encode the two different isoforms, Ehm2/1 and Ehm2/2. The biological functions of these different Ehm2 transcript variants remain unclear. The present study aimed to determine the expression of the Ehm2 variants in lung adenocarcinoma and their involvement in the disease progression of the patients. The expression of Ehm2 transcript variants in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Ehm2 variants were overexpressed or knocked down in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. The consequent effects of the genetic modifications on the cellular functions of lung cancer cells were then examined using in vitro cell viability, invasion and migration assays. The expression of epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT)‑related markers was evaluated by western blot analysis in the cell models. The association of Ehm2 variant expression with patient survival was analyzed using Kaplan‑Meier survival analysis. The expression of Ehm2/1 was significantly decreased in lung cancers compared with the paired normal lung tissues (P<0.05), while the Ehm2/2 protein levels were higher in the tumors than in the paired normal lung tissues, although this was not statistically significant. The overexpression of Ehm2/1 exerted inhibitory effects, while the knockdown of Ehm2/1 promoted the growth, invasion and migration of A549 cells in vitro. Ehm2/2 was expressed at low levels in the A549 cells and the enforced expression of Ehm2/2 significantly increased the invasiveness and migration of the A549 cells. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that Ehm2/1 was confined to the plasma membrane, while Ehm2/2 was observed at both the plasma membrane and cytoplasm. The overexpression of Ehm2/1 resulted in the upregulation of the epithelial marker, E‑cadherin, and in the decreased expression of the mesenchymal markers, N‑cadherin and Snail1, while the knockdown of Ehm2/1 and the enforced expression of Ehm2/2 had the opposite effects on the protein levels of EMT‑related markers. Kaplan‑Meier survival analysis revealed that higher Ehm2/1 transcript levels were associated with the longer survival of patients with lung adenocarcinoma, while the lower expression of Ehm2/2 exhibited a similar association with patient survival. Taken together, the two Ehm2 variants appear to be differentially expressed in lung adenocarcinoma. Ehm2/1 may function as a putative tumor suppressor in the disease progression of lung adenocarcinoma, while Ehm2/2 may have an opposite function.

Quintanilla M, Montero-Montero L, Renart J, Martín-Villar E
Podoplanin in Inflammation and Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Podoplanin is a small cell-surface mucin-like glycoprotein that plays a crucial role in the development of the alveoli, heart, and lymphatic vascular system. Emerging evidence indicates that it is also involved in the control of mammary stem-cell activity and biogenesis of platelets in the bone marrow, and exerts an important function in the immune response. Podoplanin expression is upregulated in different cell types, including fibroblasts, macrophages, T helper cells, and epithelial cells, during inflammation and cancer, where it plays important roles. Podoplanin is implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis, promotes inflammation-driven and cancer-associated thrombosis, and stimulates cancer cell invasion and metastasis through a variety of strategies. To accomplish its biological functions, podoplanin must interact with other proteins located in the same cell or in neighbor cells. The binding of podoplanin to its ligands leads to modulation of signaling pathways that regulate proliferation, contractility, migration, epithelial⁻mesenchymal transition, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. In this review, we describe the diverse roles of podoplanin in inflammation and cancer, depict the protein ligands of podoplanin identified so far, and discuss the mechanistic basis for the involvement of podoplanin in all these processes.

Nayak RC, Hegde S, Althoff MJ, et al.
The signaling axis atypical protein kinase C λ/ι-Satb2 mediates leukemic transformation of B-cell progenitors.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epigenetically regulated transcriptional plasticity has been proposed as a mechanism of differentiation arrest and resistance to therapy. BCR-ABL leukemias result from leukemic stem cell/progenitor transformation and represent an opportunity to identify epigenetic progress contributing to lineage leukemogenesis. Primary human and murine BCR-ABL

Puli OR, Danysh BP, McBeath E, et al.
The Transcription Factor ETV5 Mediates BRAFV600E-Induced Proliferation and TWIST1 Expression in Papillary Thyroid Cancer Cells.
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(11):1121-1134 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The ETS family of transcription factors is involved in several normal remodeling events and pathological processes including tumor progression. ETS transcription factors are divided into subfamilies based on the sequence and location of the ETS domain. ETV5 (Ets variant gene 5; also known as ERM) is a member of the PEA3 subfamily. Our meta-analysis of normal, benign, and malignant thyroid samples demonstrated that ETV5 expression is upregulated in papillary thyroid cancer and was predominantly associated with BRAF V600E or RAS mutations. However, the precise role of ETV5 in these lesions is unknown. In this study, we used the KTC1 cell line as a model for human advanced papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) because the cells harbor the heterozygous BRAF (V600E) mutation together with the C250T TERT promoter mutation. The role of ETV5 in PTC proliferation was tested using RNAi followed by high-throughput screening. Signaling pathways driving ETV5 expression were identified using specific pharmacological inhibitors. To determine if ETV5 influences the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) markers in these cells, an EMT PCR array was used, and data were confirmed by qPCR and ChIP-qPCR. We found that ETV5 is critical for PTC cell growth, is expressed downstream of the MAPK pathway, and directly upregulates the transcription factor TWIST1, a known marker of intravasation and metastasis. Increased ETV5 expression could therefore be considered as a marker for advanced PTCs and a possible future therapeutic target.

Sandoval GJ, Pulice JL, Pakula H, et al.
Binding of TMPRSS2-ERG to BAF Chromatin Remodeling Complexes Mediates Prostate Oncogenesis.
Mol Cell. 2018; 71(4):554-566.e7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromosomal rearrangements resulting in the fusion of TMPRSS2, an androgen-regulated gene, and the ETS family transcription factor ERG occur in over half of prostate cancers. However, the mechanism by which ERG promotes oncogenic gene expression and proliferation remains incompletely understood. Here, we identify a binding interaction between ERG and the mammalian SWI/SNF (BAF) ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex, which is conserved among other oncogenic ETS factors, including ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5. We find that ERG drives genome-wide retargeting of BAF complexes in a manner dependent on binding of ERG to the ETS DNA motif. Moreover, ERG requires intact BAF complexes for chromatin occupancy and BAF complex ATPase activity for target gene regulation. In a prostate organoid model, BAF complexes are required for ERG-mediated basal-to-luminal transition, a hallmark of ERG activity in prostate cancer. These observations suggest a fundamental interdependence between ETS transcription factors and BAF chromatin remodeling complexes in cancer.

Yeoh AE, Li Z, Dong D, et al.
Effective Response Metric: a novel tool to predict relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia using time-series gene expression profiling.
Br J Haematol. 2018; 181(5):653-663 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accurate risk assignment in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is essential to avoid under- or over-treatment. We hypothesized that time-series gene expression profiles (GEPs) of bone marrow samples during remission-induction therapy can measure the response and be used for relapse prediction. We computed the time-series changes from diagnosis to Day 8 of remission-induction, termed Effective Response Metric (ERM-D8) and tested its ability to predict relapse against contemporary risk assignment methods, including National Cancer Institutes (NCI) criteria, genetics and minimal residual disease (MRD). ERM-D8 was trained on a set of 131 patients and validated on an independent set of 79 patients. In the independent blinded test set, unfavourable ERM-D8 patients had >3-fold increased risk of relapse compared to favourable ERM-D8 (5-year cumulative incidence of relapse 38·1% vs. 10·6%; P = 2·5 × 10

Pan Y, Duron C, Bush EC, et al.
Graph complexity analysis identifies an ETV5 tumor-specific network in human and murine low-grade glioma.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(5):e0190001 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Conventional differential expression analyses have been successfully employed to identify genes whose levels change across experimental conditions. One limitation of this approach is the inability to discover central regulators that control gene expression networks. In addition, while methods for identifying central nodes in a network are widely implemented, the bioinformatics validation process and the theoretical error estimates that reflect the uncertainty in each step of the analysis are rarely considered. Using the betweenness centrality measure, we identified Etv5 as a potential tissue-level regulator in murine neurofibromatosis type 1 (Nf1) low-grade brain tumors (optic gliomas). As such, the expression of Etv5 and Etv5 target genes were increased in multiple independently-generated mouse optic glioma models relative to non-neoplastic (normal healthy) optic nerves, as well as in the cognate human tumors (pilocytic astrocytoma) relative to normal human brain. Importantly, differential Etv5 and Etv5 network expression was not directly the result of Nf1 gene dysfunction in specific cell types, but rather reflects a property of the tumor as an aggregate tissue. Moreover, this differential Etv5 expression was independently validated at the RNA and protein levels. Taken together, the combined use of network analysis, differential RNA expression findings, and experimental validation highlights the potential of the computational network approach to provide new insights into tumor biology.

Sato T, Sekido Y
NF2/Merlin Inactivation and Potential Therapeutic Targets in Mesothelioma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The neurofibromatosis type 2 (

Arvidsson G, Henriksson J, Sander B, Wright AP
Mixed-species RNAseq analysis of human lymphoma cells adhering to mouse stromal cells identifies a core gene set that is also differentially expressed in the lymph node microenvironment of mantle cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.
Haematologica. 2018; 103(4):666-678 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A subset of hematologic cancer patients is refractory to treatment or suffers relapse, due in part to minimal residual disease, whereby some cancer cells survive treatment. Cell-adhesion-mediated drug resistance is an important mechanism, whereby cancer cells receive survival signals

Park J, Jang JH, Oh S, et al.
LPA-induced migration of ovarian cancer cells requires activation of ERM proteins via LPA
Cell Signal. 2018; 44:138-147 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been implicated in the pathology of human ovarian cancer. This phospholipid elicits a wide range of cancer cell responses, such as proliferation, trans-differentiation, migration, and invasion, via various G-protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPARs). Here, we explored the cellular signaling pathway via which LPA induces migration of ovarian cancer cells. LPA induced robust phosphorylation of ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins, which are membrane-cytoskeleton linkers, in the ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3. Among the LPAR subtypes expressed in these cells, LPA

Lopez-Delisle L, Pierre-Eugène C, Louis-Brennetot C, et al.
Activated ALK signals through the ERK-ETV5-RET pathway to drive neuroblastoma oncogenesis.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(11):1417-1429 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Activating mutations of the ALK receptor occur in a subset of neuroblastoma tumors. We previously demonstrated that Alk mutations cooperate with MYCN overexpression to induce neuroblastoma in mice and identified Ret as being strongly upregulated in MYCN/Alk

Barros FBA, Assao A, Garcia NG, et al.
Moesin expression by tumor cells is an unfavorable prognostic biomarker for oral cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Moesin is a member of the ERM (ezrin, radixin and moesin) proteins that participate in cell migration and tumor invasion through transductional signals sent to actin filaments by glycoproteins, such as podoplanin.
METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate the participation of moesin and podoplanin in the invasive tumor front of oral squamous cell carcinomas, and their influence on patients' prognosis. Podoplanin and moesin immunoexpressions were evaluated by a semi-quantitative score method, based on the capture of 10 microscopic fields, at 400X magnification, in the invasive tumor front of oral squamous cell carcinomas. The association of moesin and podoplanin expression with clinicopathological variables was analyzed by the chi-square, or Fisher's exact test. The 5 and 10 years survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the survival curves were compared by using the log-rank test.
RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of moesin in the invasive front of oral squamous cell carcinomas was predominantly strong, homogenously distributed on the membrane and in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. The expression of moesin was not associated with clinical, demographic and microscopic features of the patients. Otherwise, podoplanin expression by malignant epithelial cells was predominantly strong and significantly associated with radiotherapy (p = 0.004), muscular invasion (p = 0.006) and lymph node involvement (p = 0.013). Strong moesin expression was considered an unfavorable prognostic factor for patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas, clinical stage II and III (p = 0.024).
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that strong moesin expression by malignant cells may help to determine patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and poor prognosis.

Ouyang P, Lin B, Du J, et al.
Global gene expression analysis of knockdown Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene in human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803.
Gene. 2018; 647:61-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our preview studies showed TPI gene which encodes the Triosephosphate isomerase was overexpressed in human gastric cancer (GC) tissues. However, the potential molecular mechanisms how TPI influences the GC development is not clear. Here, we performed global gene expression profiling for TPI knockdown using microarrays in human GC cell line MGC-803 cells. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Then the DEGs were analyzed by an online software WebGestalt to perform the functional analysis, pathway analysis and network analysis. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were visualized by Cytoscape and the module analysis was performed by ClusterONE. As a result, a total of 920 DEGs including 197 up- and 723 down-regulated genes were screened out. The DEGs were found to be significantly associated with the metabolic process, biological regulation, protein binding and ion binding. There were 11 significant pathways were enriched, and one of the most significant pathway was transcriptional misregulation in cancer (P<0.01), which contained common cancer-related genes, such as DUSP6, ETV5, IL6, PLAU, PPARG and HMGA2. Two PPI networks were constructed from BioGRID and TCGA_RNASeq_STAD, respectively. One network presented 25 genes with degree >10, and EGFR was the most "hub gene" with degree of 74. Four significant modules were identified and mainly enriched in protein domain of Histone and G-protein beta WD-40 repeat. Another network had 4 significant modules and they were associated with protein domain of MHC class I-like antigen recognition and Epidermal growth factor receptor ligand. In conclusion, DEGs and hub genes identified in the present study help us understand the molecular mechanisms of TPI in the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer.

Zhang XD, Huang GW, Xie YH, et al.
The interaction of lncRNA EZR-AS1 with SMYD3 maintains overexpression of EZR in ESCC cells.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(4):1793-1809 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
EZR, a member of the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family, is involved in multiple aspects of cell migration and cancer. SMYD3, a histone H3-lysine 4 (H3-K4)-specific methyltransferase, regulates EZR gene transcription, but the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic regulation remain ill-defined. Here, we show that antisense lncRNA EZR-AS1 was positively correlated with EZR expression in both human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues and cell lines. Both in vivo and in vitro studies revealed that EZR-AS1 promoted cell migration through up-regulation of EZR expression. Mechanistically, antisense lncRNA EZR-AS1 formed a complex with RNA polymerase II to activate the transcription of EZR. Moreover, EZR-AS1 could recruit SMYD3 to a binding site, present in a GC-rich region downstream of the EZR promoter, causing the binding of SMYD3 and local enrichment of H3K4me3. Finally, the interaction of EZR-AS1 with SMYD3 further enhanced EZR transcription and expression. Our findings suggest that antisense lncRNA EZR-AS1, as a member of an RNA polymerase complex and through enhanced SMYD3-dependent H3K4 methylation, plays an important role in enhancing transcription of the EZR gene to promote the mobility and invasiveness of human cancer cells.

Boratkó A, Csortos C
TIMAP, the versatile protein phosphatase 1 regulator in endothelial cells.
IUBMB Life. 2017; 69(12):918-928 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inhibited membrane associated protein, TIMAP, is the member of the myosin phosphatase targeting protein (MYPT) family of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) regulatory subunits. The N-terminal part of TIMAP has a typical MYPT family structure with a sequence element called MyPhone (myosin phosphatase N-terminal element), a putative bipartite nuclear localization signal, a PP1 catalytic subunit binding motif, and five ankyrin repeats. The C-terminal half of TIMAP is intrinsically disordered, but ends with a functional CAAX box for lipid modification which allows localization of TIMAP at the plasma membrane. TIMAP is prenylated by farnesyl transferase with the contribution of the anchoring protein, RACK1 in the cytoplasm. The controlling effect of TIMAP on PP1 is moderated by PKA/GSK3β and PKC mediated phosphorylation of TIMAP, the sites are located in the disordered region of the protein. TIMAP is abundant in endothelial cells. A growing body of evidence attained through characterization of newly identified protein partners calls attention to its critical role in normal and pathological activities of the endothelium via regulation of PP1. TIMAP binds the non-integrin laminin receptor 1 and the endothelin converting enzyme 1, which may connect TIMAP to angiogenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis. Barrier protecting role of TIMAP was shown for pulmonary artery endothelial cells. ERM (ezrin-radixin-moesin) proteins, as potential in vivo PP1-TIMAP substrates, are critical targets in the barrier maintenance. TIMAP affects phosphorylation level and subcellular localization of merlin and eukaryotic elongation factor-1A1. Merlin is a key component of signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, membrane domain formation and cell-cell junction organization. Noncanonical functions of the elongation factor include a role in organization of cytoskeleton dynamics and in apoptosis. The interacting/binding partners identified so far demonstrate a rather complex role of TIMAP in key functions of the endothelium offering TIMAP as a plausible target in pathological issues. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(12):918-928, 2017.

Li C, Wang Q, Ma J, et al.
Integrative Pathway Analysis of Genes and Metabolites Reveals Metabolism Abnormal Subpathway Regions and Modules in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Molecules. 2017; 22(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant metabolism is one of the main driving forces in the initiation and development of ESCC. Both genes and metabolites play important roles in metabolic pathways. Integrative pathway analysis of both genes and metabolites will thus help to interpret the underlying biological phenomena. Here, we performed integrative pathway analysis of gene and metabolite profiles by analyzing six gene expression profiles and seven metabolite profiles of ESCC. Multiple known and novel subpathways associated with ESCC, such as 'beta-Alanine metabolism', were identified via the cooperative use of differential genes, differential metabolites, and their positional importance information in pathways. Furthermore, a global ESCC-Related Metabolic (ERM) network was constructed and 31 modules were identified on the basis of clustering analysis in the ERM network. We found that the three modules located just to the center regions of the ERM network-especially the core region of Module_1-primarily consisted of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily members, which contributes to the development of ESCC. For Module_4, pyruvate and the genes and metabolites in its adjacent region were clustered together, and formed a core region within the module. Several prognostic genes, including GPT, ALDH1B1, ABAT, WBSCR22 and MDH1, appeared in the three center modules of the network, suggesting that they can become potentially prognostic markers in ESCC.

Santos BA, Oliveira JS, Cardoso NT, et al.
Major globally disseminated clonal complexes of antimicrobial resistant enterococci associated with infections in cancer patients in Brazil.
Infect Genet Evol. 2017; 55:56-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer and hematological malignancies constitute major comorbidities in enterococcal infections, but little is known about the characteristics of enterococci affecting cancer patients. The aim of this study was to characterize 132 enterococcal clinical isolates obtained from cancer patients attending a Cancer Reference Center in Brazil between April 2013 and March 2014. Susceptibility to 17 antimicrobial agents was assessed by disk diffusion method. Resistance and virulence genes were investigated by PCR. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed for selected Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates. The predominant species was E. faecalis (108 isolates), followed by E. faecium (18), Enterococcus gallinarum (3), Enterococcus avium (2) and Enterococcus durans (1). Multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates made up 44.7%, but all isolates were susceptible to fosfomycin, linezolid and glycopeptides. The most prevalent genes associated with erythromycin- and tetracycline-non susceptible isolates were erm(B) (47/71; 66.2%) and tet(M) (24/68; 35.3%), respectively. High-level resistance (HLR) to gentamicin was found in 22 (16.7%) isolates and 13 (59.1%) of them carried the aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia gene. HLR to streptomycin was detected in 34 (25.8%) isolates, of which 15 (44.1%) isolates had the ant(6')-Ia gene. The most common virulence genes were gelE (48.9%), esp (30.5%) and asa1 (29.8%). MLST performed for 26 E. faecalis isolates revealed 18 different sequence-types (STs), with seven corresponding to novel STs (625, 626, 627, 628, 629, 630, and 635). On the other hand, nine of 10 E. faecium isolates analyzed by MLST belonged to a single clonal complex, comprised of mostly ST412, which emerged worldwide after mid-2000s, but also two novel STs (963 and 964). We detected major globally disseminated E. faecalis and E. faecium clonal complexes along with novel closely related STs, indicating the fitness and continuous evolution of these hospital-adapted lineages.

Lemaître C, Tsang J, Bireau C, et al.
A human endogenous retrovirus-derived gene that can contribute to oncogenesis by activating the ERK pathway and inducing migration and invasion.
PLoS Pathog. 2017; 13(6):e1006451 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Endogenous retroviruses are cellular genes of retroviral origin captured by their host during the course of evolution and represent around 8% of the human genome. Although most are defective and transcriptionally silenced, some are still able to generate retroviral-like particles and proteins. Among these, the HERV-K(HML2) family is remarkable since its members have amplified relatively recently and many of them still have full length coding genes. Furthermore, they are induced in cancers, especially in melanoma, breast cancer and germ cell tumours, where viral particles, as well as the envelope protein (Env), can be detected. Here we show that HERV-K(HML2) Env per se has oncogenic properties. Its expression in a non-tumourigenic human breast epithelial cell line induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), often associated with tumour aggressiveness and metastasis. In our model, this is typified by key modifications in a set of molecular markers, changes in cell morphology and enhanced cell motility. Remarkably, microarrays performed in 293T cells reveal that HERV-K(HML2) Env is a strong inducer of several transcription factors, namely ETV4, ETV5 and EGR1, which are downstream effectors of the MAPK ERK1/2 and are associated with cellular transformation. We demonstrate that HERV-K(HML2) Env effectively activates the ERK1/2 pathway in our experimental setting and that this activation depends on the Env cytoplasmic tail. In addition, this phenomenon is very specific, being absent with every other retroviral Env tested, except for Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus (JSRV) Env, which is already known to have transforming properties in vivo. Though HERV-K Env is not directly transforming by itself, the newly discovered properties of this protein may contribute to oncogenesis.

Park JM, Han YM, Jeong M, et al.
Synthetic 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine inhibited metastasis of pancreatic cancer through concerted inhibitions of ERM and Rho-GTPase.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2017; 110:151-161 [PubMed] Related Publications
8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is generated consequent to oxidative stress, but its paradoxical anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-mutagenic effects via Rho-GTPase inhibition were noted in various models of inflammation and cancer. Metastasis occurs through cell detachment, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cell migration; during these processes, changes in cell morphology are initiated through Rho-GTPase-dependent actin cytoskeleton polymerization. In this study, we explored the anti-metastatic mechanisms of 8-OHdG in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells. 8-OHdG inhibits cell migration by inactivating ERM and Rho-GTPase proteins, and inhibiting focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). At 15min, 8-OHdG significantly inactivated ERM (p < 0.05) and led to a significant retardation of wound healing; siERM and H1152 (ROCK inhibitor) had similar effects (p < 0.05). However, FAK inhibitor 14, DPI (NOX inhibitor), and NAC (antioxidant) significantly delayed wound healing without inhibiting ERM or CD44 (p < 0.05). In the experiments on cell migration, siERM, siCD44, DPI, and 8-OHdG significantly inhibited MMPs. 8-OHdG significantly decreased DCF-DA activation in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells and down-regulated NOXs (nox-1, nox-2, and nox-3). Finally, all of these anti-migration actions of 8-OHdG resulted in significant inhibition of EMT, as evidenced by the up-regulation of ZO-1 and claudin-1 and down-regulation of vimentin. We found significant inhibition of lung metastasis of Panc-1 cells by 8-OHdG. In conclusion, exogenous 8-OHdG had potent anti-metastasis effects mediated by either ERM or Rho GTPase inhibition in metastasis-prone pancreatic cancer cells.

Liu CY, Yu T, Huang Y, et al.
ETS (E26 transformation-specific) up-regulation of the transcriptional co-activator TAZ promotes cell migration and metastasis in prostate cancer.
J Biol Chem. 2017; 292(22):9420-9430 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate cancer is a very common malignant disease and a leading cause of death for men in the Western world. Tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer involves multiple signaling pathways, including the Hippo pathway. Yes-associated protein (YAP) is the downstream transcriptional co-activator of the Hippo pathway, is overexpressed in prostate cancer, and plays a vital role in the tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer. However, the role of the YAP paralog and another downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), in prostate cancer has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that TAZ is a basal cell marker for the prostate epithelium. We found that overexpression of TAZ promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cell migration, and anchorage-independent growth in the RWPE1 prostate epithelial cells. Of note, knock down of TAZ in the DU145 prostate cancer cells inhibited cell migration and metastasis. We also found that SH3 domain binding protein 1 (SH3BP1), a RhoGAP protein that drives cell motility, is a direct target gene of TAZ in the prostate cancer cells, mediating TAZ function in enhancing cell migration. Moreover, the prostate cancer-related oncogenic E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factors, ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5, were required for TAZ gene transcription in PC3 prostate cancer cells. MAPK inhibitor U0126 treatment decreased TAZ expression in RWPE1 cells, and ETV4 overexpression rescued TAZ expression in RWPE1 cells with U0126 treatment. Our results show a regulatory mechanism of TAZ transcription and suggest a significant role for TAZ in the progression of prostate cancer.

Torres A, Alshalalfa M, Tomlins SA, et al.
Comprehensive Determination of Prostate Tumor ETS Gene Status in Clinical Samples Using the CLIA Decipher Assay.
J Mol Diagn. 2017; 19(3):475-484 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ETS family gene fusions are common in prostate cancer and molecularly define a tumor subset. ERG is the most commonly rearranged, leading to its overexpression, followed by ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5, and these alterations are generally mutually exclusive. We validated the Decipher prostate cancer assay to detect ETS alterations in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-accredited laboratory. Benchmarking against ERG immunohistochemistry and ETV1/4/5 RNA in situ hybridization, we examined the accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of gene expression ETS models using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. The m-ERG model achieved an area under curve of 95%, with 93% sensitivity and 98% specificity to predict ERG immunohistochemistry status. The m-ETV1, -ETV4, and -ETV5 models achieved areas under curve of 98%, 88%, and 99%, respectively. The models had 100% robustness for ETS status, and scores were highly correlated across sample replicates. Models predicted 41.5% of a prospective radical prostatectomy cohort (n = 4036) to be ERG

Ruggieri M, Praticò AD, Serra A, et al.
Childhood neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and related disorders: from bench to bedside and biologically targeted therapies.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2016; 36(5):345-367 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neurofibromatosis type 2 [NF2; MIM # 101000] is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the occurrence of vestibular schwannomas (VSs), schwannomas of other cranial, spinal and cutaneous nerves, cranial and spinal meningiomas and/or other central nervous system (CNS) tumours (e.g., ependymomas, astrocytomas). Additional features include early onset cataracts, optic nerve sheath meningiomas, retinal hamartomas, dermal schwannomas (i.e., NF2-plaques), and (few) café-au-lait spots. Clinically, NF2 children fall into two main groups: (1) congenital NF2 - with bilateral VSs detected as early as the first days to months of life, which can be stable/asymptomatic for one-two decades and suddenly progress; and (2) severe pre-pubertal (Wishart type) NF2- with multiple (and rapidly progressive) CNS tumours other-than-VS, which usually present first, years before VSs [vs. the classical adult (Gardner type) NF2, with bilateral VSs presenting in young adulthood, sometimes as the only disease feature]. Some individuals can develop unilateral VS associated with ipsilateral meningiomas or multiple schwannomas localised to one part of the peripheral nervous system [i.e., mosaic NF2] or multiple non-VS, non-intradermal cranial, spinal and peripheral schwannomas (histologically proven) [schwannomatosis]. NF2 is caused by mutations in the NF2 gene at chromosome 22q12.1, which encodes for a protein called merlin or schwannomin, most similar to the exrin-readixin-moesin (ERM) proteins; mosaicNF2 is due to mosaic phenomena for the NF2 gene, whilst schwannomatosis is caused by coupled germ-line and mosaic mutations either in the SMARCB1 gene [SWNTS1; MIM # 162091] or the LZTR1 gene [SWNTS2; MIM # 615670] both falling within the 22q region and the NF2 gene. Data driven from in vitro and animal studies on the merlin pathway [e.g., post-translational and upstream/downstream regulation] allowed biologically targeted treatment strategies [e.g., Lapatinib, Erlotinib, Bevacizumab] aimed to multiple tumour shrinkage and/or regression and tumour arrest of progression with functional improvement.

Cardoso NT, Santos BA, Barbosa AV, et al.
Serotypes, antimicrobial resistance and genotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae associated with infections in cancer patients in Brazil.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2017; 87(3):281-285 [PubMed] Related Publications
We sought to characterize pneumococcal isolates associated with bacteremia, pneumonia and meningitis in cancer patients and to estimate the coverage of the available pneumococcal vaccines. Fifty isolates recovered from 49 patients attending a cancer reference center over a 1-year period were analyzed. The prevalent serotypes were: 23F (12%), 6A (8%), 3, 4, 20, and 23A (6% each). All isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, levofloxacin, rifampicin, and vancomycin. Resistance or reduced susceptibility to penicillin made up 14%, and one isolate was also intermediately resistant to ceftriaxone. The three (6%) erythromycin-resistant isolates presented the M or cMLS

Hoadley KA, Siegel MB, Kanchi KL, et al.
Tumor Evolution in Two Patients with Basal-like Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Genomics Study of Multiple Metastases.
PLoS Med. 2016; 13(12):e1002174 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastasis is the main cause of cancer patient deaths and remains a poorly characterized process. It is still unclear when in tumor progression the ability to metastasize arises and whether this ability is inherent to the primary tumor or is acquired well after primary tumor formation. Next-generation sequencing and analytical methods to define clonal heterogeneity provide a means for identifying genetic events and the temporal relationships between these events in the primary and metastatic tumors within an individual.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed DNA whole genome and mRNA sequencing on two primary tumors, each with either four or five distinct tissue site-specific metastases, from two individuals with triple-negative/basal-like breast cancers. As evidenced by their case histories, each patient had an aggressive disease course with abbreviated survival. In each patient, the overall gene expression signatures, DNA copy number patterns, and somatic mutation patterns were highly similar across each primary tumor and its associated metastases. Almost every mutation found in the primary was found in a metastasis (for the two patients, 52/54 and 75/75). Many of these mutations were found in every tumor (11/54 and 65/75, respectively). In addition, each metastasis had fewer metastatic-specific events and shared at least 50% of its somatic mutation repertoire with the primary tumor, and all samples from each patient grouped together by gene expression clustering analysis. TP53 was the only mutated gene in common between both patients and was present in every tumor in this study. Strikingly, each metastasis resulted from multiclonal seeding instead of from a single cell of origin, and few of the new mutations, present only in the metastases, were expressed in mRNAs. Because of the clinical differences between these two patients and the small sample size of our study, the generalizability of these findings will need to be further examined in larger cohorts of patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that multiclonal seeding may be common amongst basal-like breast cancers. In these two patients, mutations and DNA copy number changes in the primary tumors appear to have had a biologic impact on metastatic potential, whereas mutations arising in the metastases were much more likely to be passengers.

Bizzarro V, Belvedere R, Migliaro V, et al.
Hypoxia regulates ANXA1 expression to support prostate cancer cell invasion and aggressiveness.
Cell Adh Migr. 2017; 11(3):247-260 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a Ca

Riecken LB, Zoch A, Wiehl U, et al.
CPI-17 drives oncogenic Ras signaling in human melanomas via Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin family proteins.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(48):78242-78254 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hyperactive Ras signaling has strong oncogenic effects causing several different forms of cancer. Hyperactivity is frequently induced by mutations within Ras itself, which account for up to 30% of all human cancers. In addition, hyperactive Ras signaling can also be triggered independent of Ras by either mutation or by misexpression of various upstream regulators and immediate downstream effectors. We have previously reported that C-kinase potentiated protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor of 17 kDa (CPI-17) can drive Ras activity and promote tumorigenic transformation by inhibition of the tumor suppressor Merlin. We now describe an additional element of this oncogenic mechanism in the form of the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) protein family, which exhibits opposing roles in Ras activity control. Thus, CPI-17 drives Ras activity and tumorigenesis in a two-fold way; inactivation of the tumor suppressor merlin and activation of the growth promoting ERM family. The in vivo significance of this oncogenic switch is highlighted by demonstrating CPI-17's involvement in human melanoma pathogenesis.

Smith SC, Palanisamy N, Martin E, et al.
The utility of ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5 RNA in-situ hybridization in the diagnosis of CIC-DUX sarcomas.
Histopathology. 2017; 70(4):657-663 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: A recently characterized group of undifferentiated small round cell sarcomas harbours fusions of the genes CIC and DUX4. Studies report a distinctive gene expression profile for these sarcomas, including expression of E26 transformation-specific (ETS) family proto-oncogenic transcription factors ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5. To test the utility of an ancillary diagnostic technique for these tumours, we evaluated chromogenic RNA in-situ hybridization assays for ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5 as diagnostic adjuncts for this emerging group of highly malignant sarcomas.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested six confirmed CIC-DUX4 sarcomas and 105 lesions in the differential, including 48 Ewing sarcomas for expression of ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5, scoring expression utilizing a previously validated scale. ETV1 and ETV4 were positive in five of six cases, while ETV5 was positive in six of six. No Ewing sarcoma or other sarcoma tested showed coexpression of these transcripts, while one ETV1/ETV4/ETV5 triple positive previously unclassified round cell sarcoma was identified as harbouring a CIC rearrangement by break-apart fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH).
CONCLUSION: We identified overexpression of ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5 transcripts in situ in CIC-DUX4 sarcomas using a robust assay in routine archival sections. One previously unclassified round cell sarcoma showed ETV1/4/5 positivity, and was proved to harbour a CIC rearrangement by break-apart FISH. The sensitivity and specificity observed with our in-situ hybridization assay implies potential utility as an ancillary diagnostic technique, particularly when faced with limited biopsy samples.

Kedage V, Selvaraj N, Nicholas TR, et al.
An Interaction with Ewing's Sarcoma Breakpoint Protein EWS Defines a Specific Oncogenic Mechanism of ETS Factors Rearranged in Prostate Cancer.
Cell Rep. 2016; 17(5):1289-1301 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
More than 50% of prostate tumors have a chromosomal rearrangement resulting in aberrant expression of an oncogenic ETS family transcription factor. However, mechanisms that differentiate the function of oncogenic ETS factors expressed in prostate tumors from non-oncogenic ETS factors expressed in normal prostate are unknown. Here, we find that four oncogenic ETS (ERG, ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5), and no other ETS, interact with the Ewing's sarcoma breakpoint protein, EWS. This EWS interaction was necessary and sufficient for oncogenic ETS functions including gene activation, cell migration, clonogenic survival, and transformation. Significantly, the EWS interacting region of ERG has no homology with that of ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5. Therefore, this finding may explain how divergent ETS factors have a common oncogenic function. Strikingly, EWS is fused to various ETS factors by the chromosome translocations that cause Ewing's sarcoma. Therefore, these findings link oncogenic ETS function in both prostate cancer and Ewing's sarcoma.

Georgescu MM, Mobley BC, Orr BA, et al.
NHERF1/EBP50 and NF2 as diagnostic markers for choroid plexus tumors.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2016; 4(1):55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The adaptor protein NHERF1 (Na/H exchanger-3 regulatory factor-1) and its associated ezrin-radixin-moesin-merlin/neurofibromin-2 (ERM-NF2) family proteins are required for epithelial morphogenesis and have been implicated in cancer progression. NHERF1 is expressed in ependymal cells and constitutes a highly sensitive diagnostic marker for ependymoma, where it labels membrane polarity structures. Since NHERF1 and ERM-NF2 proteins show polarized expression in choroid plexus (CP) cells, we tested their diagnostic utility in CP neoplasms. NHERF1 immunohistochemistry in 43 adult and pediatric tumors with papillary morphology revealed strong apical plasma membrane staining in CP papilloma (WHO grade I) and cytoplasmic expression in CP carcinoma (WHO grade III). Ezrin and moesin showed similar but less distinctive staining. NHERF1 also labeled papillary tumors of the pineal region in a microlumen and focal apical membrane pattern, suggestive of a transitional morphology between CP papilloma and ependymoma. CP tumors of all grades could be differentiated from metastatic carcinomas with papillary architecture by NF2, which showed polarized membranous staining in CP tumors. NHERF1 and NF2 immunohistochemistry showed enhanced sensitivity and specificity for CP tumors compared to commonly used markers, including cytokeratins and Kir7.1, emerging as reliable diagnostic tools for the differential diagnosis of papillary tumors of the central nervous system.

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