Gene Summary

Gene:ETV1; ETS variant transcription factor 1
Aliases: ER81
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the ETS (E twenty-six) family of transcription factors. The ETS proteins regulate many target genes that modulate biological processes like cell growth, angiogenesis, migration, proliferation and differentiation. All ETS proteins contain an ETS DNA-binding domain that binds to DNA sequences containing the consensus 5'-CGGA[AT]-3'. The protein encoded by this gene contains a conserved short acidic transactivation domain (TAD) in the N-terminal region, in addition to the ETS DNA-binding domain in the C-terminal region. This gene is involved in chromosomal translocations, which result in multiple fusion proteins including EWS-ETV1 in Ewing sarcoma and at least 10 ETV1 partners (see PMID: 19657377, Table 1) in prostate cancer. In addition to chromosomal rearrangement, this gene is overexpressed in prostate cancer, melanoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ETS translocation variant 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Prostate CancerETV1 translocations in Prostate Cancer
Gene fusions involving the erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factors ERG, ETV1, ETV4, ETV5, and FLI1 are a common feature of prostate carcinomas. Most frequently, the androgen-activated gene TMPRSS2 is fused to the ERG gene, but less frequently involving ETV1, ETV4 ,ETV5 and over 12 fusion partners identified so far.
View Publications99
Ewing's Sarcoma t(7;22)(p22;q12) EWS-ETV1 Translocation in Ewing's Sarcoma View Publications27
Gastrointestinal Stromal TumorsETV1 overexpression in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours View Publications30
MelanomaETV1 overexpression in Melanoma View Publications4

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ETV1 (cancer-related)

Gyvyte U, Kupcinskas J, Juzenas S, et al.
Identification of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) deregulated in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs).
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0209342 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are >200 nucleotides long non-coding RNAs, which have been shown to be implicated in carcinogenic processes by interacting with cancer associated genes or other non-coding RNAs. However, their role in development of rare gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is barely investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define lincRNAs deregulated in GIST and find new GIST-lincRNA associations. Next-generation sequencing data of paired GIST and adjacent tissue samples from 15 patients were subjected to a web-based lincRNA analysis. Three deregulated lincRNAs (MALAT1, H19 and FENDRR; adjusted p-value < 0.05) were selected for expression validation in a larger group of patients (n = 22) by RT-qPCR method. However, only H19 and FENDRR showed significant upregulation in the validation cohort (adjusted p < 0.05). Further, we performed correlation analyses between expression levels of deregulated lincRNAs and GIST-associated oncogenes or GIST deregulated microRNAs. We found high positive correlations between expression of H19 and known GIST related oncogene ETV1, and between H19 and miR-455-3p. These findings expand the knowledge on lincRNAs deregulated in GIST and may be an important resource for the future studies investigating lincRNAs functionally relevant to GIST carcinogenesis.

Yang J, Chen Y, Lu J, et al.
Identification and characterization of novel fusion genes in prostate cancer by targeted RNA capture and next-generation sequencing.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2018; 50(11):1166-1172 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene fusions play critical roles in the development and progression of prostate cancer, and have been used as molecular biomarkers for diagnosis of the malignant disease. To further explore the novel fusions in prostate cancer, we performed targeted RNA capture and next-generation sequencing in a cohort of 52 prostate cancer patients, identified and validated 14 fusion events (7 types of fusion genes) in 12 cases, including three novel fusion genes. We characterized a chromosome rearrangement-induced trigenic KLK2-DGKB-ETV1 fusion, which may function as a non-coding RNA to upregulate the expression of the wild-type ETV1 protein in the tumor tissue. Additionally, we detected two novel fusion forms of HNRNPA2B1-ETV1 and SLC45A2-AMACR fusions, respectively. Interestingly, fusion events participated by kinase genes, which frequently occurred in other human cancers, were not present in these prostate cancer cases, suggesting discrepant gene fusion patterns in different cancers. These findings expand the genetic spectrum of prostate cancer and provide insight into diagnosis of this prevalent disease.

Orlando G, Law PJ, Cornish AJ, et al.
Promoter capture Hi-C-based identification of recurrent noncoding mutations in colorectal cancer.
Nat Genet. 2018; 50(10):1375-1380 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Efforts are being directed to systematically analyze the non-coding regions of the genome for cancer-driving mutations

Sandoval GJ, Pulice JL, Pakula H, et al.
Binding of TMPRSS2-ERG to BAF Chromatin Remodeling Complexes Mediates Prostate Oncogenesis.
Mol Cell. 2018; 71(4):554-566.e7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromosomal rearrangements resulting in the fusion of TMPRSS2, an androgen-regulated gene, and the ETS family transcription factor ERG occur in over half of prostate cancers. However, the mechanism by which ERG promotes oncogenic gene expression and proliferation remains incompletely understood. Here, we identify a binding interaction between ERG and the mammalian SWI/SNF (BAF) ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex, which is conserved among other oncogenic ETS factors, including ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5. We find that ERG drives genome-wide retargeting of BAF complexes in a manner dependent on binding of ERG to the ETS DNA motif. Moreover, ERG requires intact BAF complexes for chromatin occupancy and BAF complex ATPase activity for target gene regulation. In a prostate organoid model, BAF complexes are required for ERG-mediated basal-to-luminal transition, a hallmark of ERG activity in prostate cancer. These observations suggest a fundamental interdependence between ETS transcription factors and BAF chromatin remodeling complexes in cancer.

Chakravarthi BVSK, Chandrashekar DS, Hodigere Balasubramanya SA, et al.
Wnt receptor Frizzled 8 is a target of ERG in prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2018; 78(16):1311-1320 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among men. Many molecular changes have been detailed during PCa progression. The gene encoding the transcription factor ERG shows recurrent rearrangement, resulting in the overexpression of ERG in the majority of prostate cancers. Overexpression of ERG plays a critical role in prostate oncogenesis and development of metastatic disease. Among the downstream effectors of ERG, Frizzled family member FZD4 has been shown to be a target of ERG. Frizzled-8 (FZD8) has been shown to be involved in PCa bone metastasis. In the present study, we show that the expression of FZD8 is directly correlated with ERG expression in PCa. Furthermore, we show that ERG directly targets and activates FZD8 by binding to its promoter. This activation is specific to ETS transcription factor ERG and not ETV1. We propose that ERG overexpression in PCa leads to induction of Frizzled family member FZD8, which is known to activate the Wnt pathway. Taken together, these findings uncover a novel mechanism for PCa metastasis, and indicate that FZD8 may represent a potential therapeutic target for PCa.

Eryilmaz IE, Kordan Y, Vuruskan BA, et al.
T2E (TMPRSS2-ERG) fusion transcripts are associated with higher levels of AMACR mRNA and a subsequent prostate cancer diagnosis in patients with atypical small acinar proliferation.
Gene. 2018; 645:69-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic rearrangements involving androgen-regulated transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and genes from the ETS transcription factor family, most commonly ERG and ETV1, result in alteration that responsible for oncogenic activity in prostate cancer (PC). The aims of the present study were to: 1) investigate the frequency of these fusion transcripts in prostate tissue samples obtained from patients diagnosed with atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP), 2) determine any clinical significance of T2E expression at the RNA level in predicting PC detection in subsequent biopsies, and 3) evaluate expression of the PC marker, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), according to T2E status by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). T2E transcripts were detected in 31.7% (n=20) of the patients examined, and this was significantly associated with subsequent detection of PC in ASAP patients with a prostate specific antigen (PSA) level of 4-10ng/ml (p=0.045). AMACR expression was also significantly higher in the patients who were diagnosed with PC in subsequent biopsies than in the patients who were not diagnosed with PC (p=0.034) and in T2E-positive ASAP patients (p=0.002) compared to T2E-negative ASAP patients. Although these results need to be further clinically validated, we suggest that the presence of T2E transcript, in association with higher AMACR expression, is an indicator of PC risk from a T2E-positive focus or an unsampled malignant gland adjacent to a T2E-positive site in ASAP lesions.

Jung M, Park SH, Jeon YK, et al.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of unusual phenotype after imatinib treatment: A case report and diagnostic utility of ETV1 mRNA in situ hybridization.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(49):e9031 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common tumor of mesenchymal origin in gastrointestinal tract. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining combined with a typical morphology is used for the diagnosis of GIST. Typically, IHC staining for v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene (KIT) and discovered on GIST-1(DOG1) is positive in almost all GISTs. However, imatinib mesylate, a specific inhibitor of KIT tyrosine kinase, frequently involves changes in the morphology and IHC staining of GIST, impeding the diagnosis. Recently, in situ hybridization (ISH) for E26 transformation-specific sequence variant 1 (ETV1) mRNA was introduced as a useful marker to diagnose GIST.
PATIENT CONCERNS: We report 2 cases of gastric GIST, which expressed unusual phenotypes after imatinib therapy.
DIAGNOSES: The first patient was found to have a gastric subepithelial tumor in gastroduodenoscopy done for regular checkup. In biopsy of the tumor, it showed homogenous spindle cells that were positive to standard IHC markers for GIST. The second patient visited our hospital because of a palpable mass in the abdomen. In abdominal computed tomography (CT), a tumor arising from the stomach was found. A needle biopsy was done and the patient was diagnosed of gastric GIST because the biopsy showed spindle cells positive to typical IHC markers for GIST. After imatinib treatment, in both patients, the resected tumors were composed of heterogeneous spindle cells negative to KIT, DOG1, and CD34 IHC staining, which was unusual for GIST. However, ISH for ETV1 mRNA done for both biopsied and resected tumors was positive, even after imatinib treatment. A molecular analysis found a mutation in exon 11 of KIT gene before and after imatinib therapy in both patients, confirming the diagnosis of GIST.
INTERVENTIONS: Both patients took neoadjuvant imatinib treatment, and afterwards, underwent a surgical resection.
OUTCOMES: The patients remain on imatinib treatment and no progression or recurrence has been detected to date.
LESSONS: ISH for ETV1 mRNA is a useful technique in diagnosing GIST when IHC with KIT, DOG1, or CD34 fail to stain positive after imatinib therapy.

Ran L, Chen Y, Sher J, et al.
FOXF1 Defines the Core-Regulatory Circuitry in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor.
Cancer Discov. 2018; 8(2):234-251 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The cellular context that integrates upstream signaling and downstream nuclear response dictates the oncogenic behavior and shapes treatment responses in distinct cancer types. Here, we uncover that in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), the forkhead family member FOXF1 directly controls the transcription of two master regulators,

Li J, Lai Y, Ma J, et al.
miR-17-5p suppresses cell proliferation and invasion by targeting ETV1 in triple-negative breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):745 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the malignancy with the worst outcome among all breast cancer subtypes. We reported that ETV1 is a significant oncogene in TNBC tumourigenesis. Consequently, investigating the critical regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) of ETV1 may be beneficial for TNBC targeted therapy.
METHODS: We performed in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect the location of miR-17-5p and ETV1 in TNBC patient samples, respectively. miR-17-5p expression in TNBC tissues and cell lines was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). ETV1 expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR, western blotting and IHC. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), colony formation, Transwell and wound closure assays were utilized to determine the TNBC cell proliferation and migration capabilities. In vivo tumour metastatic assays were performed in a zebra fish model.
RESULTS: The abundance of miR-17-5p was significantly decreased in TNBC cell lines and clinical TNBC tissues. The miR-17-5p expression levels were closely correlated with tumour size (P < 0.05) and TNM stage (P < 0.05). By contrast, the expression of ETV1 was significantly up-regulated in TNBC cell lines and tissues. There is an inverse correlation between the expression status of miR-17-5p and ETV1 (r = -0.28, P = 3.88 × 10
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that miR-17-5p acts as a tumour suppressor in TNBC by targeting ETV1, and a low-abundance of miR-17-5p may be involved in the pathogenesis of TNBC. These findings indicate that miR-17-5p may be a therapeutic target for TNBC.

Johnson A, Severson E, Gay L, et al.
Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of 282 Pediatric Low- and High-Grade Gliomas Reveals Genomic Drivers, Tumor Mutational Burden, and Hypermutation Signatures.
Oncologist. 2017; 22(12):1478-1490 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of death for children with cancer in the U.S. Incorporating next-generation sequencing data for both pediatric low-grade (pLGGs) and high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) can inform diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic decision-making.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed comprehensive genomic profiling on 282 pediatric gliomas (157 pHGGs, 125 pLGGs), sequencing 315 cancer-related genes and calculating the tumor mutational burden (TMB; mutations per megabase [Mb]).
RESULTS: In pLGGs, we detected genomic alterations (GA) in 95.2% (119/125) of tumors.
CONCLUSION: Comprehensive genomic profiling of pediatric gliomas provides objective data that promote diagnostic accuracy and enhance clinical decision-making. Additionally, TMB could be a biomarker to identify pediatric glioblastoma (GBM) patients who may benefit from immunotherapy.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: By providing objective data to support diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic decision-making, comprehensive genomic profiling is necessary for advancing care for pediatric neuro-oncology patients. This article presents the largest cohort of pediatric low- and high-grade gliomas profiled by next-generation sequencing. Reportable alterations were detected in 95% of patients, including diagnostically relevant lesions as well as novel oncogenic fusions and mutations. Additionally, tumor mutational burden (TMB) is reported, which identifies a subpopulation of hypermutated glioblastomas that harbor deleterious mutations in DNA repair genes. This provides support for TMB as a potential biomarker to identify patients who may preferentially benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Britton E, Rogerson C, Mehta S, et al.
Open chromatin profiling identifies AP1 as a transcriptional regulator in oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
PLoS Genet. 2017; 13(8):e1006879 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) is one of the ten most prevalent forms of cancer and is showing a rapid increase in incidence and yet exhibits poor survival rates. Compared to many other common cancers, the molecular changes that occur in this disease are relatively poorly understood. However, genes encoding chromatin remodeling enzymes are frequently mutated in OAC. This is consistent with the emerging concept that cancer cells exhibit reprogramming of their chromatin environment which leads to subsequent changes in their transcriptional profile. Here, we have used ATAC-seq to interrogate the chromatin changes that occur in OAC using both cell lines and patient-derived material. We demonstrate that there are substantial changes in the regulatory chromatin environment in the cancer cells and using this data we have uncovered an important role for ETS and AP1 transcription factors in driving the changes in gene expression found in OAC cells.

Baysan M, Woolard K, Cam MC, et al.
Detailed longitudinal sampling of glioma stem cells in situ reveals Chr7 gain and Chr10 loss as repeated events in primary tumor formation and recurrence.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 141(10):2002-2013 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intratumoral heterogeneity at the genetic, epigenetic, transcriptomic, and morphologic levels is a commonly observed phenomenon in many aggressive cancer types. Clonal evolution during tumor formation and in response to therapeutic intervention can be predicted utilizing reverse engineering approaches on detailed genomic snapshots of heterogeneous patient tumor samples. In this study, we developed an extensive dataset for a GBM case via the generation of polyclonal and monoclonal glioma stem cell lines from initial diagnosis, and from multiple sections of distant tumor locations of the deceased patient's brain following tumor recurrence. Our analyses revealed the tissue-wide expansion of a new clone in the recurrent tumor and chromosome 7 gain and chromosome 10 loss as repeated genomic events in primary and recurrent disease. Moreover, chromosome 7 gain and chromosome 10 loss produced similar alterations in mRNA expression profiles in primary and recurrent tumors despite possessing other highly heterogeneous and divergent genomic alterations between the tumors. We identified ETV1 and CDK6 as putative candidate genes, and NFKB (complex), IL1B, IL6, Akt and VEGF as potential signaling regulators, as potentially central downstream effectors of chr7 gain and chr10 loss. Finally, the differences caused by the transcriptomic shift following gain of chromosome 7 and loss of chromosome 10 were consistent with those generally seen in GBM samples compared to normal brain in large-scale patient-tumor data sets.

Schaefer IM, Mariño-Enríquez A, Fletcher JA
What is New in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor?
Adv Anat Pathol. 2017; 24(5):259-267 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The classification "gastrointestinal stromal tumor" (GIST) became commonplace in the 1990s and since that time various advances have characterized the GIST lineage of origin, tyrosine kinase mutations, and mechanisms of response and resistance to targeted therapies. In addition to tyrosine kinase mutations and their constitutive activation of downstream signaling pathways, GISTs acquire a sequence of chromosomal aberrations. These include deletions of chromosomes 14q, 22q, 1p, and 15q, which harbor putative tumor suppressor genes required for stepwise progression from microscopic, preclinical forms of GIST (microGIST) to clinically relevant tumors with malignant potential. Recent advances extend our understanding of GIST biology beyond that of the oncogenic KIT/PDGFRA tyrosine kinases and beyond mechanisms of KIT/PDGFRA-inhibitor treatment response and resistance. These advances have characterized ETV1 as an essential interstitial cell of Cajal-GIST transcription factor in oncogenic KIT signaling pathways, and have characterized the biologically distinct subgroup of succinate dehydrogenase deficient GIST, which are particularly common in young adults. Also, recent discoveries of MAX and dystrophin genomic inactivation have expanded our understanding of GIST development and progression, showing that MAX inactivation is an early event fostering cell cycle activity, whereas dystrophin inactivation promotes invasion and metastasis.

Yu L, Wu X, Chen M, et al.
The Effects and Mechanism of YK-4-279 in Combination with Docetaxel on Prostate Cancer.
Int J Med Sci. 2017; 14(4):356-366 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Liu CY, Yu T, Huang Y, et al.
ETS (E26 transformation-specific) up-regulation of the transcriptional co-activator TAZ promotes cell migration and metastasis in prostate cancer.
J Biol Chem. 2017; 292(22):9420-9430 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate cancer is a very common malignant disease and a leading cause of death for men in the Western world. Tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer involves multiple signaling pathways, including the Hippo pathway. Yes-associated protein (YAP) is the downstream transcriptional co-activator of the Hippo pathway, is overexpressed in prostate cancer, and plays a vital role in the tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer. However, the role of the YAP paralog and another downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), in prostate cancer has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that TAZ is a basal cell marker for the prostate epithelium. We found that overexpression of TAZ promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cell migration, and anchorage-independent growth in the RWPE1 prostate epithelial cells. Of note, knock down of TAZ in the DU145 prostate cancer cells inhibited cell migration and metastasis. We also found that SH3 domain binding protein 1 (SH3BP1), a RhoGAP protein that drives cell motility, is a direct target gene of TAZ in the prostate cancer cells, mediating TAZ function in enhancing cell migration. Moreover, the prostate cancer-related oncogenic E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factors, ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5, were required for TAZ gene transcription in PC3 prostate cancer cells. MAPK inhibitor U0126 treatment decreased TAZ expression in RWPE1 cells, and ETV4 overexpression rescued TAZ expression in RWPE1 cells with U0126 treatment. Our results show a regulatory mechanism of TAZ transcription and suggest a significant role for TAZ in the progression of prostate cancer.

Torres A, Alshalalfa M, Tomlins SA, et al.
Comprehensive Determination of Prostate Tumor ETS Gene Status in Clinical Samples Using the CLIA Decipher Assay.
J Mol Diagn. 2017; 19(3):475-484 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ETS family gene fusions are common in prostate cancer and molecularly define a tumor subset. ERG is the most commonly rearranged, leading to its overexpression, followed by ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5, and these alterations are generally mutually exclusive. We validated the Decipher prostate cancer assay to detect ETS alterations in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-accredited laboratory. Benchmarking against ERG immunohistochemistry and ETV1/4/5 RNA in situ hybridization, we examined the accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of gene expression ETS models using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. The m-ERG model achieved an area under curve of 95%, with 93% sensitivity and 98% specificity to predict ERG immunohistochemistry status. The m-ETV1, -ETV4, and -ETV5 models achieved areas under curve of 98%, 88%, and 99%, respectively. The models had 100% robustness for ETS status, and scores were highly correlated across sample replicates. Models predicted 41.5% of a prospective radical prostatectomy cohort (n = 4036) to be ERG

Kao YC, Sung YS, Chen CL, et al.
ETV transcriptional upregulation is more reliable than RNA sequencing algorithms and FISH in diagnosing round cell sarcomas with CIC gene rearrangements.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(6):501-510 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CIC rearrangements have been reported in two-thirds of EWSR1-negative small blue round cell tumors (SBRCTs). However, a number of SBRCTs remain unclassified despite exhaustive analysis. Fourteen SBRCTs lacking driver genetic events by RNA sequencing (RNAseq) analysis were collected. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering was performed using samples from our RNAseq database, including 13 SBRCTs with non-CIC genetic abnormalities and 2 CIC-rearranged angiosarcomas among others. Remarkably, all 14 study cases showed high mRNA levels of ETV1/4/5, and by unsupervised clustering most grouped into a distinct cluster, separate from other tumors. Based on these results indicating a close relationship with CIC-rearranged tumors, we manually inspected CIC reads in RNAseq data. FISH for CIC and DUX4 abnormalities and immunohistochemical stains for ETV4 were also performed. In the control group, only 2 CIC-rearranged angiosarcomas had high ETV1/4/5 expression. Upon manual inspection of CIC traces, 7 of 14 cases showed CIC-DUX4 fusion reads, 2 cases had DUX4-CIC reads, while the remaining 5 were negative. FISH showed CIC break-apart in 7 cases, including 5 cases lacking CIC-DUX4 or DUX4-CIC fusion reads on RNAseq manual inspection. However, no CIC abnormalities were detected by FISH in 6 cases with CIC-DUX4 or DUX4-CIC reads. ETV4 immunoreactivity was positive in 7 of 11 cases. Our results highlight the underperformance of FISH and RNAseq methods in diagnosing SBRCTs with CIC gene abnormalities. The downstream ETV1/4/5 transcriptional up-regulation appears highly sensitive and specific and can be used as a reliable molecular signature and diagnostic method for CIC fusion positive SBRCTs.

Shen Y, Stanislauskas M, Li G, et al.
Epigenetic and genetic dissections of UV-induced global gene dysregulation in skin cells through multi-omics analyses.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:42646 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To elucidate the complex molecular mechanisms underlying the adverse effects UV radiation (UVR) on skin homeostasis, we performed multi-omics studies to characterize UV-induced genetic and epigenetic changes. Human keratinocytes from a single donor treated with or without UVR were analyzed by RNA-seq, exome-seq, and H3K27ac ChIP-seq at 4 h and 72 h following UVR. Compared to the relatively moderate mutagenic effects of UVR, acute UV exposure induced substantial epigenomic and transcriptomic alterations, illuminating a previously underappreciated role of epigenomic and transcriptomic instability in skin pathogenesis. Integration of the multi-omics data revealed that UVR-induced transcriptional dysregulation of a subset of genes was attributable to either genetic mutations or global redistribution of H3K27ac. H3K27ac redistribution further led to the formation of distinctive super enhancers in UV-irradiated cells. Our analysis also identified several new UV target genes, including CYP24A1, GJA5, SLAMF7 and ETV1, which were frequently dysregulated in human squamous cell carcinomas, highlighting their potential as new molecular targets for prevention or treatment of UVR-induced skin cancers. Taken together, our concurrent multi-omics analyses provide new mechanistic insights into the complex molecular networks underlying UV photobiological effects, which have important implications in understanding its impact on skin homeostasis and pathogenesis.

Lotan TL, Torres A, Zhang M, et al.
Somatic molecular subtyping of prostate tumors from HOXB13 G84E carriers.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(14):22772-22782 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A recurrent germline mutation (G84E) in the HOXB13 gene is associated with early onset and family history-positive prostate cancer in patients of European descent, occurring in up to 5% of prostate cancer families. To date, the molecular features of prostate tumors occurring in HOXB13 G84E carriers have not been studied in a large cohort of patients. We identified 101 heterozygous carriers of G84E who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer between 1985 and 2011 and matched these men by race, age and tumor grade to 99 HOXB13 wild-type controls. Immunostaining for HOXB13, PTEN, ERG, p53 and SPINK1 as well as RNA in situ hybridization for ETV1/4/5 were performed using genetically validated assays. Tumors from G84E carriers generally expressed HOXB13 protein at a level comparable to benign and wild-type glands. ETS gene expression (either ERG or ETV1/4/5) was seen in 36% (36/101) of tumors from G84E carriers compared to 68% (65/96) of the controls (p < 0.0001). PTEN was lost in 11% (11/101) of G84E carriers compared to 25% (25/99) of the controls (p = 0.014). PTEN loss was enriched among ERG-positive compared to ERG-negative tumors in both groups of patients. Nuclear accumulation of the p53 protein, indicative of underlying TP53 missense mutations, was uncommon in both groups, occurring in 1% (1/101) of the G84E carriers versus 2% (2/92) of the controls (p = NS). Taken together, these data suggest that genes other than ERG and PTEN may drive carcinogenesis/progression in the majority of men with germline HOXB13 mutations.

Liao S, Davoli T, Leng Y, et al.
A genetic interaction analysis identifies cancer drivers that modify EGFR dependency.
Genes Dev. 2017; 31(2):184-196 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A large number of cancer drivers have been identified through tumor sequencing efforts, but how they interact and the degree to which they can substitute for each other have not been systematically explored. To comprehensively investigate how cancer drivers genetically interact, we searched for modifiers of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) dependency by performing CRISPR, shRNA, and expression screens in a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) model. We elucidated a broad spectrum of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and oncogenes (OGs) that can genetically modify proliferation and survival of cancer cells when EGFR signaling is altered. These include genes already known to mediate EGFR inhibitor resistance as well as many TSGs not previously connected to EGFR and whose biological functions in tumorigenesis are not well understood. We show that mutation of

Hashimoto Y, Shiina M, Kato T, et al.
The role of miR-24 as a race related genetic factor in prostate cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(10):16581-16593 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) among African-Americans (AfA) is significantly higher than Caucasian-Americans (CaA) but the genetic basis for this disparity is not known. To address this problem, we analyzed miRNA expression in AfA (n = 81) and CaA (n = 51) PCa patients. Here, we found that miR-24 is differentially expressed in AfA and CaA PCa patients and attempt to clarify its role in AfA patients. Also, the public sequencing data of the miR-24 promoter confirmed that it was highly methylated and down-regulated in PCa patients. Utilizing a VAMCSF and NDRI patient cohorts, we discovered that miR-24 expression was linked to a racial difference between AfA/CaA PCa patients. Interestingly, miR-24 was restored after treatment of PCa cells with 5Aza-CdR in an AfA cell line (MDA-PCa-2b), while restoration of miR-24 was not observed in CaA cells, DU-145. Ectopic expression of miR-24 showed decreased growth and induced apoptosis, though the effect was less in the CaA cell line compared to the AfA cell line. Finally, we found unique changes in biological pathways and processes associated with miR-24 transfected AfA cells by quantitative PCR-based gene expression array. Evaluation of the altered pathways showed that AR, IGF1, IGFBP5 and ETV1 were markedly decreased in the AfA derived cell line compared with CaA cells, and there was a reciprocal regulatory relationship of miR-24/target expression in prostate cancer patients. These results demonstrate that miR-24 may be a central regulator of key events that contribute to race-related tumorigenesis and has potential to be a therapeutic agent for PCa treatment.

Lázaro-Ibáñez E, Lunavat TR, Jang SC, et al.
Distinct prostate cancer-related mRNA cargo in extracellular vesicle subsets from prostate cell lines.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Multiple types of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes (EXOs), are released by all cells constituting part of the cellular EV secretome. The bioactive cargo of EVs can be shuffled between cells and consists of lipids, metabolites, proteins, and nucleic acids, including multiple RNA species from non-coding RNAs to messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In this study, we hypothesized that the mRNA cargo of EVs could differ based on the EV cellular origin and subpopulation analyzed.
METHODS: We isolated MVs and EXOs from PC-3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells by differential centrifugation and compared them to EVs derived from the benign PNT2 prostate cells. The relative mRNA levels of 84 prostate cancer-related genes were investigated and validated using quantitative reverse transcription PCR arrays.
RESULTS: Based on the mRNA abundance, MVs rather than EXOs were enriched in the analyzed transcripts, providing a snapshot of the tumor transcriptome. LNCaP MVs specifically contained significantly increased mRNA levels of NK3 Homeobox 1 (NKX3-1), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and tumor protein 53 (TP53) genes, whereas PC-3 MVs carried increased mRNA levels of several genes including, caveolin-2 (CAV2), glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), pescadillo ribosomal biogenesis factor 1 (PES1), calmodulin regulated spectrin associated protein 1 (CAMSAP1), zinc-finger protein 185 (ZNF185), and others compared to PNT2 MVs. Additionally, ETS variant 1 (ETV1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNAs identified in LNCaP- and PC-3- derived MVs highly correlated with prostate cancer progression.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new understandings of the variability of the mRNA cargo of MVs and EXOs from different cell lines despite same cancer origin, which is essential to better understand the the proportion of the cell transcriptome that can be detected within EVs and to evaluate their role in disease diagnosis.

Shiina M, Hashimoto Y, Kato T, et al.
Differential expression of miR-34b and androgen receptor pathway regulate prostate cancer aggressiveness between African-Americans and Caucasians.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(5):8356-8368 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
African-Americans are diagnosed with more aggressive prostate cancers and have worse survival than Caucasians, however a comprehensive understanding of this health disparity remains unclear. To clarify the mechanisms leading to this disparity, we analyzed the potential involvement of miR-34b expression in African-Americans and Caucasians. miR-34b functions as a tumor suppressor and has a multi-functional role, through regulation of cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis. We found that miR-34b expression is lower in human prostate cancer tissues from African-Americans compared to Caucasians. DNA hypermethylation of the miR-34b-3p promoter region showed significantly higher methylation in prostate cancer compared to normal samples. We then sequenced the promoter region of miR-34b-3p and found a chromosomal deletion in miR-34b in African-American prostate cancer cell line (MDA-PCA-2b) and not in Caucasian cell line (DU-145). We found that AR and ETV1 genes are differentially expressed in MDA-PCa-2b and DU-145 cells after overexpression of miR-34b. Direct interaction of miR-34b with the 3' untranslated region of AR and ETV1 was validated by luciferase reporter assay. We found that miR-34b downregulation in African-Americans is inversely correlated with high AR levels that lead to increased cell proliferation. Overexpression of miR-34b in cell lines showed higher inhibition of cell proliferation, apoptosis and G1 arrest in the African-American cells (MDA-PCa-2b) compared to Caucasian cell line (DU-145). Taken together, our results show that differential expression of miR-34b and AR are associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness in African-Americans.

Smith SC, Palanisamy N, Martin E, et al.
The utility of ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5 RNA in-situ hybridization in the diagnosis of CIC-DUX sarcomas.
Histopathology. 2017; 70(4):657-663 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: A recently characterized group of undifferentiated small round cell sarcomas harbours fusions of the genes CIC and DUX4. Studies report a distinctive gene expression profile for these sarcomas, including expression of E26 transformation-specific (ETS) family proto-oncogenic transcription factors ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5. To test the utility of an ancillary diagnostic technique for these tumours, we evaluated chromogenic RNA in-situ hybridization assays for ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5 as diagnostic adjuncts for this emerging group of highly malignant sarcomas.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested six confirmed CIC-DUX4 sarcomas and 105 lesions in the differential, including 48 Ewing sarcomas for expression of ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5, scoring expression utilizing a previously validated scale. ETV1 and ETV4 were positive in five of six cases, while ETV5 was positive in six of six. No Ewing sarcoma or other sarcoma tested showed coexpression of these transcripts, while one ETV1/ETV4/ETV5 triple positive previously unclassified round cell sarcoma was identified as harbouring a CIC rearrangement by break-apart fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH).
CONCLUSION: We identified overexpression of ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5 transcripts in situ in CIC-DUX4 sarcomas using a robust assay in routine archival sections. One previously unclassified round cell sarcoma showed ETV1/4/5 positivity, and was proved to harbour a CIC rearrangement by break-apart FISH. The sensitivity and specificity observed with our in-situ hybridization assay implies potential utility as an ancillary diagnostic technique, particularly when faced with limited biopsy samples.

Kedage V, Selvaraj N, Nicholas TR, et al.
An Interaction with Ewing's Sarcoma Breakpoint Protein EWS Defines a Specific Oncogenic Mechanism of ETS Factors Rearranged in Prostate Cancer.
Cell Rep. 2016; 17(5):1289-1301 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
More than 50% of prostate tumors have a chromosomal rearrangement resulting in aberrant expression of an oncogenic ETS family transcription factor. However, mechanisms that differentiate the function of oncogenic ETS factors expressed in prostate tumors from non-oncogenic ETS factors expressed in normal prostate are unknown. Here, we find that four oncogenic ETS (ERG, ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5), and no other ETS, interact with the Ewing's sarcoma breakpoint protein, EWS. This EWS interaction was necessary and sufficient for oncogenic ETS functions including gene activation, cell migration, clonogenic survival, and transformation. Significantly, the EWS interacting region of ERG has no homology with that of ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5. Therefore, this finding may explain how divergent ETS factors have a common oncogenic function. Strikingly, EWS is fused to various ETS factors by the chromosome translocations that cause Ewing's sarcoma. Therefore, these findings link oncogenic ETS function in both prostate cancer and Ewing's sarcoma.

Gu ML, Wang YM, Zhou XX, et al.
An inhibitor of the acetyltransferases CBP/p300 exerts antineoplastic effects on gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2763-2770 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasm featured by activated mutations of KIT and PDGFRA. Although overall survival rates have greatly improved by the development of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, most patients ultimately acquire resistance due to secondary mutations of KIT or PDGFRA. Inhibition of the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) CREB‑binding protein (CBP) and p300 results in antineoplastic effects in various cancers. To determine whether CBP/p300 can serve as an antineoplastic target for GISTs, specific short interfering RNA sequences and the selective HAT inhibitor C646 were administered to GIST882 cells. Cell viability, apoptosis and the cell cycle were analysed using the Cell Counting Kit-8, a caspase-3/7 activity assay or Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (PI) staining and PI staining. Gene and protein expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Transcriptional blockage of CBP, rather than p300, resulted in suppression of cell proliferation. Interestingly, both CBP and p300 depletion enhanced caspase-3/7 activity. A lack of CBP and p300 caused ETS translocation variant 1 (ETV1) downregulation and KIT inhibition in GIST cells. Nevertheless, the absence of CBP, not p300, leads to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 inactivation and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation, suggesting a more crucial role for CBP than p300 in cell proliferation and survival. Furthermore, proliferation of GIST cells was reduced by administration of C646, a selective HAT inhibitor for CBP/p300. Apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest were detected after exposure to C646, indicating that its antitumor activities were supported by its antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects. Additionally, C646 treatment attenuated ETV1 protein expression and inactivated KIT-dependent pathways. Taken together, the present study suggests that CBP/p300 may serve as novel antineoplastic targets and that use of the selective HAT inhibitor C646 is a promising antitumor strategy for GISTs.

Vinagre J, Nabais J, Pinheiro J, et al.
TERT promoter mutations in pancreatic endocrine tumours are rare and mainly found in tumours from patients with hereditary syndromes.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:29714 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
One of the hallmarks of cancer is its unlimited replicative potential that needs a compensatory mechanism for the consequential telomere erosion. Telomerase promoter (TERTp) mutations were recently reported as a novel mechanism for telomerase re-activation/expression in order to maintain telomere length. Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) were so far recognized to rely mainly on the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism. It was our objective to study if TERTp mutations were present in pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET) and could represent an alternative mechanism to ALT. TERTp mutations were detected in 7% of the cases studied and were mainly associated to patients harbouring hereditary syndromes. In vitro, using PET-derived cell lines and by luciferase reporter assay, these mutations confer a 2 to 4-fold increase in telomerase transcription activity. These novel alterations are able to recruit ETS transcription factor members, in particular GABP-α and ETV1, to the newly generated binding sites. We report for the first time TERTp mutations in PETs and PET-derived cell lines. Additionally, our data indicate that these mutations serve as an alternative mechanism and in an exclusive manner to ALT, in particular in patients with hereditary syndromes.

Ta L, Xuan C, Xing N, Zhu X
COP1 is downregulated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and inhibits the migration of RCC ACHN cells in vitro.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 14(2):1371-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Constitutive photomorphogenic 1 (COP1) belongs to the COP‑de-etiolated (DET)‑fusca (FUS) protein family and has been demonstrated to suppress prostate adenocarcinomas and other types of tumor, such as liver and gastric cancer. The present study investigated the expression of COP1 and its downstream factor, ets variant 1 (ETV1) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tissue samples, and evaluated the correlation of COP1 expression levels with the clinicopathological characteristics of RCC. In addition, the role of COP1 in the proliferation and migration of RCC ACHN cells was investigated. The results demonstrated significantly downregulated COP1 expression levels in the RCC intratumors, which was negatively associated with clinicopathological characteristics, such as tumor size, tumor‑node‑metastasis (TNM) stage and lymph node or distant metastasis. COP1 was demonstrated to markedly reduce the colony size of RCC ACHN cells, and inhibit the migration and invasion of ACHN cells. In addition, ETV1 and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly downregulated by the overexpressed COP1. Thus, the results of the present study demonstrate the reduced expression of COP1 and the upregulated expression of ETV1 in RCC tissue samples, which was associated with a high tumor-node-metastasis stage of RCC. Furthermore, the overexpression of COP1 in the RCC ACHN cells inhibited the migration and invasion of ACHN cells, and downregulated ETV1 and MMP7 expression levels. The present study demonstrated the tumor suppressive role of COP1 in RCC by inhibiting cell migration.

Wang HC, Li TY, Chao YJ, et al.
KIT Exon 11 Codons 557-558 Deletion Mutation Promotes Liver Metastasis Through the CXCL12/CXCR4 Axis in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(14):3477-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: KIT mutations, the most prevalent genetic event in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), are associated with malignant features and poor prognosis. Aggressive GISTs possess a high propensity to spread to the liver. This study aimed to explore the role of KIT mutations in GIST liver metastasis.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 170 GISTs were used to determine the association between KIT mutations and liver metastasis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the correlation of KIT mutations with CXCR4 and ETV1 expression. Genetic and pharmacologic methods were used to study the regulation of CXCR4 and ETV1 by KIT mutations.
RESULTS: Codons 557 and 558 in KIT exon 11 were deletion hot spots in GISTs. KIT exon 11 deletions involving codons 557-558 were highly associated with liver metastasis. Overexpression of mutant KIT with exon 11 codons 557-558 deletion (KIT Δ557-558) increased GIST cell motility and liver metastasis. Mechanistically, overexpression of KIT Δ557-558 in GIST cells increased ETV1 and CXCR4 expression. CXCR4 knockdown counteracted KIT Δ557-558-mediated cell migration. Moreover, KIT Δ557-558-induced CXCR4 expression could be abolished by silencing ETV1. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that ETV1 directly bound to the CXCR4 promoter. After ERK inhibitor PD325901 treatment, the upregulation of ETV1 by KIT Δ557-558 was prevented. In addition, KIT exon 11 codons 557-558 deletion enhanced CXCL12-mediated GIST cell migration and invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: KIT exon 11 557-558 deletion upregulates CXCR4 through increased binding of ETV1 to the CXCR4 promoter in GIST cells, which thus promotes liver metastasis. These findings highlighted the potential therapeutic targets for metastatic GISTs. Clin Cancer Res; 22(14); 3477-87. ©2016 AACR.

Kim TD, Jin F, Shin S, et al.
Histone demethylase JMJD2A drives prostate tumorigenesis through transcription factor ETV1.
J Clin Invest. 2016; 126(2):706-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histone demethylase upregulation has been observed in human cancers, yet it is unknown whether this is a bystander event or a driver of tumorigenesis. We found that overexpression of lysine-specific demethylase 4A (KDM4A, also known as JMJD2A) was positively correlated with Gleason score and metastasis in human prostate tumors. Overexpression of JMJD2A resulted in the development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in mice, demonstrating that JMJD2A can initiate prostate cancer development. Moreover, combined overexpression of JMJD2A and the ETS transcription factor ETV1, a JMJD2A-binding protein, resulted in prostate carcinoma formation in mice haplodeficient for the phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) tumor-suppressor gene. Additionally, JMJD2A cooperated with ETV1 to increase expression of yes associated protein 1 (YAP1), a Hippo pathway component that itself was associated with prostate tumor aggressiveness. ETV1 facilitated the recruitment of JMJD2A to the YAP1 promoter, leading to changes in histone lysine methylation in a human prostate cancer cell line. Further, YAP1 expression largely rescued the growth inhibitory effects of JMJD2A depletion in prostate cancer cells, indicating that YAP1 is a downstream effector of JMJD2A. Taken together, these data reveal a JMJD2A/ETV1/YAP1 axis that promotes prostate cancer initiation and that may be a suitable target for therapeutic inhibition.

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