Gene Summary

Gene:DDIT3; DNA damage inducible transcript 3
Aliases: CHOP, CEBPZ, CHOP10, CHOP-10, GADD153, AltDDIT3, C/EBPzeta
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors. The protein functions as a dominant-negative inhibitor by forming heterodimers with other C/EBP members, such as C/EBP and LAP (liver activator protein), and preventing their DNA binding activity. The protein is implicated in adipogenesis and erythropoiesis, is activated by endoplasmic reticulum stress, and promotes apoptosis. Fusion of this gene and FUS on chromosome 16 or EWSR1 on chromosome 22 induced by translocation generates chimeric proteins in myxoid liposarcomas or Ewing sarcoma. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two isoforms with different length have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: DDIT3 (cancer-related)

Cao Y, Trillo-Tinoco J, Sierra RA, et al.
ER stress-induced mediator C/EBP homologous protein thwarts effector T cell activity in tumors through T-bet repression.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1280 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Understanding the intrinsic mediators that render CD8

Hei SM, Wei HJ, Chen H, Wang JG
[Pathological significance of NY-ESO-1 expression in the diagnosis of myxoid liposarcoma].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2019; 48(3):225-230 [PubMed] Related Publications

Chen YC, Liu YC, El-Shazly M, et al.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Reported cases of breast cancer have skyrocketed in the last decades with recent advances in examination techniques. Brest cancer has become the second leading cause of mortality among women worldwide, urging the scientific community to develop or find new drugs from natural sources with potent activity and a reasonable safety profile to tackle this ailment.

Yano S, Wu S, Sakao K, Hou DX
Involvement of ERK1/2-mediated ELK1/CHOP/DR5 pathway in 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate-induced apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2019; 83(5):960-969 [PubMed] Related Publications
6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a major bioactive compound in Wasabi. Although 6-MSITC is reported to have cancer chemopreventive activities in rat model, the molecular mechanism is unclear. In this study, we investigated the anticancer mechanisms using two types of human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116 p53

Zhu J, Xu S, Gao W, et al.
Honokiol induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in human lung cancer cells.
Life Sci. 2019; 221:204-211 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Honokiol is a hydroxylated biphenyl natural product and displays potent antitumor activity against several cancers including prostate cancer, melanoma, leukemia, and colorectal cancer. The present study was to investigate the in vitro activity of honokiol against A549 and 95-D human lung cancer cells.
MAIN METHODS: A549 and 95-D cells were used with honokiol treatment. Cell viability was determined by CCK-8 assay. The cell migration and apoptosis were evaluated by wound healing assay and TUNEL staining method respectively. The expressions of ER-related proteins were analyzed by western blot and the CHOP siRNA was used to downregulate the CHOP expression.
KEY FINDINGS: The results demonstrated that treatment of A549 and 95-D cells with honokiol significantly reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, honokiol treatment decreased cell migration and enhanced cell apoptosis, which is accompanied by the upregulation of the expressions of ER stress-induced apoptotic signaling molecules such as GRP78, phosphorylated PERK, phosphorylated eIF2α, CHOP, Bcl-2, Bax, and cleaved Caspase 9. Honokiol treatment-induced increase of ER stress-related signaling molecules and apoptotic proteins in A549 and 95-D cells were reversed by CHOP siRNA.
SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, we conclude that ER stress may participate in the action of the anticancer activity of honokiol in A549 and 95-D cells and induction of ER stress-related apoptosis may represent a novel therapeutic intervention for human lung cancer.

Zhai X, Yuan S, Yang X, et al.
Chitosan Oligosaccharides Induce Apoptosis in Human Renal Carcinoma via Reactive-Oxygen-Species-Dependent Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.
J Agric Food Chem. 2019; 67(6):1691-1701 [PubMed] Related Publications
In recent years, various studies have confirmed the role of natural products as effective cancer prevention and treatment drugs. The present study demonstrated that chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) from shells of shrimp and crab caused an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human renal carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. First, the in vivo biodistribution of COS was investigated by the synthesis of cyanine-7-labeled COS (COS-Cy7) following tail vein injection. The kidney was found to be a major target organ. Then, the impacts on renal carcinoma cell proliferation, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were observed in vitro, and an orthotopic xenograft tumor model was designed to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of COS in vivo. In renal carcinoma cells, COS induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in a ROS-dependent fashion. COS significantly promoted mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and Nrf2 target genes, such as heme oxygenase 1, modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase, and solute carrier family 7 member 11. Additionally, COS significantly upregulated the protein expression of glucose-regulated protein 78, protein RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase, eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, activating transcription factor 4, C/EBP homologous protein, and cytochrome c, which justified the activation of the ER stress signaling pathway. In vivo, COS repressed tumor growth and induced apoptosis and ROS accumulation, consistent with the in vitro results. Taken together, COS repressed human renal carcinoma growth and induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, mainly via ROS-dependent ER stress pathways.

Su J, Xu T, Jiang G, et al.
Gambogenic acid triggers apoptosis in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2Z cells by activating volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying chloride channel.
Fitoterapia. 2019; 133:150-158 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gambogenic acid (GNA) is one of the main components of Gamboge, and its anti-cancer effects have been well confirmed by previous researches. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has not been thoroughly studied, and the pathogenesis of NPC is unclear. Scientists have neither discovered effective therapies nor achieved a desirable prognosis. Some studies have found that the regulation of intra- and extracellular ion channels hinges directly on cell apoptosis, and treatment with GNA brings changes to the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying chloride (VSOR Cl

Wu MH, Lee CY, Huang TJ, et al.
MLN4924, a Protein Neddylation Inhibitor, Suppresses the Growth of Human Chondrosarcoma through Inhibiting Cell Proliferation and Inducing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Apoptosis.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 20(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chondrosarcoma, a heterogeneous malignant bone tumor, commonly produces cartilage matrix, which generally has no response to conventional therapies. Studies have reported that MLN4924, a NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor, achieves antitumor effects against numerous malignancies. In this study, the suppressive effects of MLN4924 on human chondrosarcoma cell lines were investigated using in vitro and in vivo assays, which involved measuring cell viability, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, proliferation, cell cycles, molecule-associated cell cycles, apoptosis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. Our results demonstrated that MLN4924 significantly suppressed cell viability, exhibited cytotoxicity, and stimulated apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7 in chondrosarcoma cell lines. Furthermore, MLN4924 significantly inhibited cell proliferation by diminishing the phosphorylation of histone H3 to cause G2/M cell cycle arrest. In addition, MLN4924 activated ER stress⁻related apoptosis by upregulating the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), enhancing the expression of GRP78 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP, an inducer of endoplasmic ER stress⁻related apoptosis) and activating the cleavage of caspase-4. Moreover, MLN4924 considerably inhibited the growth of chondrosarcoma tumors in a xenograft mouse model. Finally, MLN4924-mediated antichondrosarcoma properties can be accompanied by the stimulation of ER stress⁻related apoptosis, implying that targeting neddylation by MLN4924 is a novel therapeutic strategy for treating chondrosarcoma.

Kim JL, Lee DH, Jeong S, et al.
Imatinib‑induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells is mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(3):1616-1626 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Imatinib is a powerful tyrosine kinase inhibitor that specifically targets BCR‑ABL, c‑KIT, and PDGFR kinases, and is used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and other types of cancers. However, the possible anticancer effects of imatinib in gastric cancer have not yet been explored. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of imatinib on gastric cancer cells and determined the molecular mechanism underlying these effects. We determined that imatinib induced mitochondria‑mediated apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by involving endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress‑associated activation of c‑Jun NH2‑terminal kinase (JNK). We also found that imatinib suppressed cell proliferation in a time‑ and dose‑dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis revealed that imatinib‑treated AGS cells were arrested in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Moreover, imatinib‑treated cells exhibited increased levels of phosphorylated JNK, and of the transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein, an ER stress‑associated apoptotic molecule. Results of cell viability assays revealed that treatment with a combination of imatinib and chemotherapy agents irinotecan or 5‑Fu synergistically inhibited cell growth, compared with treatment with any of these drugs alone. These data indicated that imatinib exerted cytotoxic effects on gastric cancer cells by inducing apoptosis mediated by reactive oxygen species generation and ER stress‑associated JNK activation. Furthermore, we revealed that imatinib induced the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by inhibiting platelet‑derived growth factor receptor signaling. Collectively, our results strongly support the use of imatinib in the treatment of treating gastric cancer.

Xu T, Huang C, Qi XT, et al.
2-Bromopalmitate sensitizes osteosarcoma cells to adriamycin-induced apoptosis via the modulation of CHOP.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2019; 844:204-215 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour, but the survival rate of patients has plateaued since the mid-1980s. Adriamycin is an integral component of the current first-line chemotherapies used for osteosarcoma, but dose-dependent severe side effects often limit its clinical application. Here, we propose a potential combination regimen in which adriamycin plus 2-bromopalmitate, a palmitoylation inhibitor, exhibited powerful therapeutic effects on osteosarcoma. First, 2-bromopalmitate strongly increased the proliferation inhibition of adriamycin in both human osteosarcoma cell lines and primary osteosarcoma cells. Adriamycin-induced apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells was enhanced when synergized with 2-bromopalmitate. Our study indicated that the reactive oxygen species scavenger NAC and GSH could largely reverse the apoptosis induced by adriamycin combined with 2-bromopalmitate, demonstrating that reactive oxygen species played an essential role in this combination therapy. Moreover, CHOP was remarkably elevated in the combination group, and silencing of CHOP almost completely blocked the apoptosis induced by the combination of 2-bromopalmitate and adriamycin. Taken together, our study provides a prospective therapeutic strategy to eliminate osteosarcoma, which is propitious to clinical combination therapy development.

Jeon MY, Min KJ, Woo SM, et al.
Maritoclax Enhances TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis via CHOP-Mediated Upregulation of DR5 and miR-708-Mediated Downregulation of cFLIP.
Molecules. 2018; 23(11) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Maritoclax, an active constituent isolated from marine bacteria, has been known to induce Mcl-1 downregulation through proteasomal degradation. In this study, we investigated the sensitizing effect of maritoclax on tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma cells. We found that combined treatment with maritoclax and TRAIL markedly induced apoptosis in renal carcinoma (Caki, ACHN and A498), lung cancer (A549) and hepatocellular carcinoma (SK-Hep1) cells. The upregulation of death receptor 5 (DR5) and downregulation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (cFLIP) were involved in maritoclax plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Maritoclax-induced DR5 upregulation was regulated by induction of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression. Interestingly, maritoclax induced cFLIP downregulation through the increased expression of miR-708. Ectopic expression of cFLIP prevented combined maritoclax and TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Taken together, maritoclax sensitized TRAIL-induced apoptosis through CHOP-mediated DR5 upregulation and miR-708-mediated cFLIP downregulation.

Shi TL, Zhang L, Cheng QY, et al.
Xanthatin induces apoptosis by activating endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatoma cells.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2019; 843:1-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has high incidence and mortality in patients with chronic liver diseases worldwide. However, there are limited chemotherapeutic agents for HCC in clinic. Xanthatin, a natural sesquiterpene lactone, has significant antitumor activity against a variety of cancers, but little is known about its effects on HCC and the underlying mechanism. Here, we evaluated the antitumor effects of xanthatin on human hepatoma cells. We found that xanthatin caused morphological changes and reduced cell viability in three HCC cell lines in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Xanthatin at 10 μM significantly arrested cell cycle at the G2/M checkpoint, and at 40 μM significantly arrested cell cycle at the S phase in hepatoma cells. Additionally, xanthatin induced apoptosis associated with activation of caspase-3 in hepatoma cells, but did not apparently induce apoptosis in human normal LO2 hepatocytes. We also demonstrated that the three primary signaling pathways of unfolded protein response (UPR) were activated by xanthatin to different extents. Notably, the PERK/eIF-2α/ATF4 axis was most significantly activated by xanthatin. More importantly, both xanthatin and tunicamycin, an endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) inducing compound, increased the levels of CHOP and cleaved-caspase-3 in HepG2 cells, but their effects were significantly abolished by siRNA-mediated knockdown of CHOP. Further experiments validated that xanthatin more potently activated ATF4 by promoting its nuclear translocation in hepatoma cells. Taken together, we discovered that xanthatin induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells by activating ERS. Our current data revealed a novel mechanism for xanthatin as a promising anti-tumor candidate for HCC therapy.

Zolekar A, Lin VJT, Mishra NM, et al.
Stress and interferon signalling-mediated apoptosis contributes to pleiotropic anticancer responses induced by targeting NGLY1.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 119(12):1538-1551 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although NGLY1 is known as a pivotal enzyme that catalyses the deglycosylation of denatured glycoproteins, information regarding the responses of human cancer and normal cells to NGLY1 suppression is limited.
METHODS: We examined how NGLY1 expression affects viability, tumour growth, and responses to therapeutic agents in melanoma cells and an animal model. Molecular mechanisms contributing to NGLY1 suppression-induced anticancer responses were revealed by systems biology and chemical biology studies. Using computational and medicinal chemistry-assisted approaches, we established novel NGLY1-inhibitory small molecules.
RESULTS: Compared with normal cells, NGLY1 was upregulated in melanoma cell lines and patient tumours. NGLY1 knockdown caused melanoma cell death and tumour growth retardation. Targeting NGLY1 induced pleiotropic responses, predominantly stress signalling-associated apoptosis and cytokine surges, which synergise with the anti-melanoma activity of chemotherapy and targeted therapy agents. Pharmacological and molecular biology tools that inactivate NGLY1 elicited highly similar responses in melanoma cells. Unlike normal cells, melanoma cells presented distinct responses and high vulnerability to NGLY1 suppression.
CONCLUSION: Our work demonstrated the significance of NGLY1 in melanoma cells, provided mechanistic insights into how NGLY1 inactivation leads to eradication of melanoma with limited impact on normal cells, and suggested that targeting NGLY1 represents a novel anti-melanoma strategy.

Byun HS, Zhou W, Park I, et al.
C-27-carboxylated oleanane triterpenoids up-regulate TRAIL DISC assembly via p38 MAPK and CHOP-mediated DR5 expression in human glioblastoma cells.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2018; 158:243-260 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite recent tremendous progress, targeting of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as a cancer therapy has limited success in many clinical trials, in part due to inactivation of death inducing signaling complex (DISC)-mediated caspase-8 signaling cascade in highly malignant tumors such as glioblastoma. In this study, screening of constituents derived from Astilbe rivularis for TRAIL-sensitizing activity identified C-27-carboxylated oleanolic acid derivatives (C27OAs) including 3β-hydroxyolean-12-en-27-oic acid (C27OA-1), 3β,6β,7α-trihydroxyolean-12-en-27-oic acid (C27OA-2), and 3β-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-olean-12-en-27-oic acid (C27OA-3) as novel TRAIL sensitizers. Interestingly, these C27OAs did not affect apoptotic cell death induced by either ligation of other death receptor (DR) types, such as TNF and Fas or DNA damaging agents, which suggests that C27OAs effectively and selectively sensitize TRAIL-mediated caspase-8 activation. Mechanistically, C27OAs upregulate the expression of cell surface DR5 and DISC formation without affecting downstream intracellular apoptosis-related proteins. The upregulation of DR5 expression by C27OAs strictly depends on transactivation of C/EBP homology protein, which is regulated through the p38 MAPK pathway, rather than p53 and intracellular reactive oxygen species status. Taken together, our results identify the novel C27OAs as TRAIL sensitizers targeting the upstream DISC assembly of DR5, and provide a rationale for further development of C27OAs for facilitating TRAIL-based chemotherapy in glioblastoma patients.

He M, Zhu J, Yu N, et al.
The Superior Antitumor Effect of Self-Assembled Paclitaxel Nanofilaments for Lung Cancer Cells.
Curr Drug Deliv. 2019; 16(2):171-178 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Paclitaxel (Ptx) has been regarded as one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs for lung cancers. Increasing studies focused on the nano-delivery system of Ptx due to its poor solubility and hypersensitivity. The aim of the recent study was to investigate the antitumor effects of self-assembled Ptx nano-filaments for lung cancer cells.
METHODS: In the present study, we designed and synthesized novel Ptx-loaded nano-filaments through conjugation of Ptx and succinic acid (SA) (Ptx-SA, P-NFs). Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 and H460 cells were used for detecting the antitumor effects of P-NFs, including cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and migration. Western blotting was performed for analyzing mechanism.
RESULTS: P-NFs nano-filaments exerted superior antitumor effects against NSCLC cells compared with free Ptx using cytotoxicity tests. Furthermore, P-NFs nano-filaments were much more effective in inducing NSCLC cells apoptosis and inhibiting A549 cells migration than free Ptx. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, the expression of apoptotic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins was detected. The results indicated that P-NFs nano-filaments enhanced the expression of bax/bcl-2, protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), phospho- c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), and C/EPB homologous protein (CHOP), which suggested that the strong antitumor effect of P-NFs nano-filaments may be partially attributed to the activation ER stress.
CONCLUSION: The current work demonstrated that P-NFs nano-filaments showed superior cytotoxicity of lung cancer cells, highlighting a novel profile of nano-filaments delivery systems as potential strategies for facilitating the therapeutic efficacy of Ptx in lung cancer treatment.

Lim EJ, Yoon YJ, Heo J, et al.
Ciprofloxacin Enhances TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Lung Cancer Cells by Upregulating the Expression and Protein Stability of Death Receptors through CHOP Expression.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is a potent antimicrobial agent with multiple effects on host cells and tissues. Previous studies have highlighted their proapoptotic effect on human cancer cells. The current study showed that subtoxic doses of CIP effectively sensitized multiple cancer cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis. Although TRAIL alone mediated the partial proteolytic processing of procaspase-3 in lung cancer cells, co-treatment with CIP and TRAIL efficiently restored the complete activation of caspases. We found that treatment of lung cancer with CIP significantly upregulated the expression and protein stability of death receptor (DR) 5. These effects were mediated through the regulation of transcription factor CCAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) since the silencing of these signaling molecules abrogated the effect of CIP. Taken together, these results indicated that the upregulation of death receptor expression and protein stability by CIP contributed to the restoration of TRAIL-sensitivity in lung cancer cells.

Kao RH, Lai GM, Chow JM, et al.
Opposite Regulation of CHOP and GRP78 and Synergistic Apoptosis Induction by Selenium Yeast and Fish Oil via AMPK Activation in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells.
Nutrients. 2018; 10(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Selenium has been intensively studied for the use of cancer prevention and treatment. However, the clinical effects are still plausible. To enhance its efficacy, a combinational study of selenium yeast (SY) and fish oil (FO) was performed in A549, CL1-0, H1299, HCC827 lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) cells to investigate the enhancement in apoptosis induction and underlying mechanism. By sulforhodamine B staining, Western blot and flow cytometric assays, we found a synergism between SY and FO in growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of LADC cells. In contrast, the fetal lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5) were unsusceptible to this combination effect. FO synergized SY-induced apoptosis of A549 cells, accompanied with synergistic activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and reduction of Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and β-catenin. Particularly, combining with FO not only enhanced the SY-elevated proapoptotic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), but also reduced the cytoprotective glucose regulated protein of molecular weight 78 kDa (GRP78). Consequently, the CHOP downstream targets such as phospho-JNK and death receptor 5 were also elevated, along with the cleavage of caspase-8, -3, and the ER stress-related caspase-4. Accordingly, inhibition of AMPK by compound C diminished the synergistic apoptosis induction, and elevated CHOP/GRP78 ratio by SY combined with FO. The AMPK-dependent synergism suggests the combination of SY and FO for chemoprevention and integrative treatment of LADC.

Kamiya T, Watanabe M, Hara H, et al.
Induction of Human-Lung-Cancer-A549-Cell Apoptosis by 4-Hydroperoxy-2-decenoic Acid Ethyl Ester through Intracellular ROS Accumulation and the Induction of Proapoptotic CHOP Expression.
J Agric Food Chem. 2018; 66(41):10741-10747 [PubMed] Related Publications
Royal jelly, a natural product secreted by honeybees, contains several fatty acids, such as 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (DE), and shows anti- and pro-apoptotic properties. 4-Hydroperoxy-2-decenoic acid ethyl ester (HPO-DAEE), a DE derivative, exhibits potent antioxidative activity; however, it currently remains unclear whether HPO-DAEE induces cancer-cell death. In the present study, treatment with HPO-DAEE induced human-lung-cancer-A549-cell death (52.7 ± 10.2%) that was accompanied by DNA fragmentation. Moreover, the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, 2.38 ± 0.1-fold) and the induction of proapoptotic CCAAT-enhancer-binding-protein-homologous-protein (CHOP) expression (18.4 ± 4.0-fold) were observed in HPO-DAEE-treated cells. HPO-DAEE-elicited CHOP expression and cell death were markedly suppressed by pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, by 2.40 ± 1.57-fold and 5.7 ± 1.6%, respectively. Pretreatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum stress, also suppressed A549-cell death (38.4 ± 1.1%). Furthermore, we demonstrated the involvement of extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38-related signaling in HPO-DAEE-elicited cell-death events. Overall, we concluded that HPO-DAEE induces A549-cell apoptosis through the ROS-ERK-p38 pathway and, at least in part, the CHOP pathway.

Kim H, Moon JY, Burapan S, et al.
Induction of ER Stress-Mediated Apoptosis by the Major Component 5,7,4'-Trimethoxyflavone Isolated from Kaempferia parviflora Tea Infusion.
Nutr Cancer. 2018 Aug-Sep; 70(6):984-996 [PubMed] Related Publications
Kaempferia parviflora (KP) is a famous medicinal plant from Thailand, and is a rich source of various kinds of methoxyflavones (MFs). Many kinds of food products such as tea, capsule, and liquor are manufactured from the rhizomes of KP. In this study, KP infusions were prepared with different brewing conditions, and the amounts of three major methoxylflavones, 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (DMF), 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (TMF), and 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF), were analyzed. The antiproliferative activities of DMF, TMF, and PMF isolated from the brewed tea samples were evaluated. TMF was discovered to be significantly effective at inhibiting proliferation of SNU-16 human gastric cancer cells in a concentration dependent manner. TMF induced apoptosis, as evidenced by increments of sub-G1 phase, DNA fragmentation, annexin-V/PI staining, the Bax/Bcl-xL ratio, proteolytic activation of caspase-3,-7,-8, and degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein. Furthermore, it was found that TMF induced apoptosis via ER stress, verified by an increase in the level of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), inositol-requiring enzyme 1 α (IRE1α), activating transcription factor-4 (ATF-4), and the splice isoform of X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1) mRNA.

Jayasooriya RGPT, Dilshara MG, Karunarathne WAHM, et al.
Camptothecin enhances c-Myc-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress and leads to autophagy by activating Ca
Food Chem Toxicol. 2018; 121:648-656 [PubMed] Related Publications
Camptothecin (CPT) from Camptotheca acuminate was discovered for anticancer drugs, which targets topoisomease I. However, whether CPT regulates c-Myc expression has not been understood in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy. In this study, we found that CPT enhanced c-Myc expression and that the transient knockdown of c-Myc abrogated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which resulted in the accumulation of ER stress-regulating proteins, such as PERK, eIF2α, ATF4, and CHOP. Moreover, the transfection of eIF2α-targeted siRNA attenuated CPT-induced autophagy and decreased the levels of Beclin-1 and Atg7, which indicated that CPT upregulated ER stress-mediated autophagy. In addition, CPT phosphorylated AMPK in response to intracellular Ca

Hofvander J, Viklund B, Isaksson A, et al.
Different patterns of clonal evolution among different sarcoma subtypes followed for up to 25 years.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):3662 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To compare clonal evolution in tumors arising through different mechanisms, we selected three types of sarcoma-amplicon-driven well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDLS), gene fusion-driven myxoid liposarcoma (MLS), and sarcomas with complex genomes (CXS)-and assessed the dynamics of chromosome and nucleotide level mutations by cytogenetics, SNP array analysis and whole-exome sequencing. Here we show that the extensive single-cell variation in WDLS has minor impact on clonal key amplicons in chromosome 12. In addition, only a few of the single nucleotide variants in WDLS were present in more than one lesion, suggesting that such mutations are of little significance in tumor development. MLS displays few mutations other than the FUS-DDIT3 fusion, and the primary tumor is genetically sometimes much more complex than its relapses, whereas CXS in general shows a gradual increase of both nucleotide- and chromosome-level mutations, similar to what has been described in carcinomas.

Ma B, Zhang H, Wang Y, et al.
Corosolic acid, a natural triterpenoid, induces ER stress-dependent apoptosis in human castration resistant prostate cancer cells via activation of IRE-1/JNK, PERK/CHOP and TRIB3.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):210 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The development of potent non-toxic chemotherapeutic drugs against castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains a major challenge. Corosolic acid (CA), a natural triterpenoid, has anti-cancer activity with limited side effects. However, CA anti-prostate cancer activities and mechanisms, particularly in CRPC, are not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated CA anti-tumor ability against human CRPC and its mechanism of action.
METHODS: The cell apoptosis and proliferation effects were evaluated via MTT detection, colony formation assay and flow cytometry. Western blot, gene transfection and immunofluorescence assay were applied to investigate related protein expression of Endoplasmic reticulum stress. A xenograft tumor model was established to investigate the inhibitory effect of CA on castration resistant prostate cancer in vivo.
RESULTS: The results showed that CA inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cell (PCa) line PC-3 and DU145, as well as retarded tumor growth in a xenograft model, exerting a limited toxicity to normal cells and tissues. Importantly, CA activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated two pro-apoptotic signaling pathways, as evidenced by increased protein levels of typical ER stress markers including IRE-1/ASK1/JNK and PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP. IRE-1, PERK or CHOP knockdown partially attenuated CA cytotoxicity against PCa cells. Meanwhile, CHOP induced expression increased Tribbles 3 (TRIB3) level, which lead to AKT inactivation and PCa cell death. CHOP silencing resulted in PCa cells sensitive to CA-induced apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrated, for the first time, that CA might represent a novel drug candidate for the development of an anti-CRPC therapy.

Anding AL, Jones JD, Newton MA, et al.
4-HPR Is an Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Aggravator and Sensitizes Breast Cancer Cells Resistant to TRAIL/Apo2L.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(8):4403-4416 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) is a synthetic retinoid, less toxic than the parent all-trans retinoic acid (RA). Unlike RA, 4-HPR induces apoptosis in tumor cells. Because 4-HPR can hydrolyze to liberate RA, a potent human teratogen, the unhydrolyzable ketone analog of 4-HPR, 4-hydroxybenzylretinone (4-HBR) has been prepared and has been found to cause apoptosis in tumor cells and shrink carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumors as 4-HPR does. Herein, we examined the mechanism whereby 4-HPR and 4-HBR induce apoptosis and death in breast cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gene expression profiling was conducted in MCF-7 cells over a 1.5- to 6-h time course and changes were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 153 (GADD153 or C/EBP homologous protein, CHOP) was knocked down and the effect on 4-HPR-induced cell death and gene expression was assessed. 4-HPR synergy with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL or Apo2 ligand) was also examined.
RESULTS: Drug treatment induced increased expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related and pro-apoptotic genes. Gene expression changes were verified by qPCR in three invasive ductal breast carcinoma cell lines (MCF-7, T-47D, MDA-MB-231). GADD153 showed the largest increase in the microarray experiment; however, knockdown of GADD153 did not abrogate apoptosis and death. Genes related to the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis including a receptor for TRAIL, death receptor 5 (DR5), were up-regulated by drug treatment. A dose of 4-HPR that alone is ineffective in killing TRAIL-resistant MCF-7 cells, synergized with recombinant TRAIL to induce breast cancer cell death.
CONCLUSION: 4-HPR and analogs might be useful in sensitizing tumor cells to death receptor agonists.

Kim SY, Hong M, Heo SH, et al.
Inhibition of euchromatin histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 sensitizes breast cancer cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand through reactive oxygen species-mediated activating transcription factor 4-C/EBP homologous protein-death receptor 5 pathway activation.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(11):1492-1506 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been characterized as an anti-cancer therapeutic agent with prominent cancer cell selectivity over normal cells. However, breast cancer cells are generally resistant to TRAIL, thus limiting its therapeutic potential. In this study, we found that BIX-01294, a selective inhibitor of euchromatin histone methyltransferase 2/G9a, is a strong TRAIL sensitizer in breast cancer cells. The combination of BIX-01294 and TRAIL decreased cell viability and led to an increase in the annexin V/propidium iodide-positive cell population, DNA fragmentation, and caspase activation. BIX-01294 markedly increased death receptor 5 (DR5) expression, while silencing of DR5 using small interfering RNAs abolished the TRAIL-sensitizing effect of BIX-01294. Specifically, BIX-01294 induced C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)-mediated DR5 gene transcriptional activation and DR5 promoter activation was induced by upregulation of the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase-mediated activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Moreover, inhibition of reactive oxygen species by N-acetyl-L-cysteine efficiently blocked BIX-01294-induced DR5 upregulation by inhibiting ATF4/CHOP expression, leading to diminished sensitization to TRAIL. These findings suggest that BIX-01294 sensitizes breast cancer cells to TRAIL by upregulating ATF4/CHOP-dependent DR5 expression with a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. Furthermore, combination treatment with BIX-01294 and TRAIL suppressed tumor growth and induced apoptosis in vivo. In conclusion, we found that epigenetic regulation can contribute to the development of resistance to cancer therapeutics such as TRAIL, and further studies of unfolded protein responses and the associated epigenetic regulatory mechanisms may lead to the discovery of new molecular targets for effective cancer therapy.

Yu L, Wang Q, Yeung KW, et al.
A Biotinylated and Endoplasmic Reticulum-Targeted Glutathione-Responsive Zinc(II) Phthalocyanine for Targeted Photodynamic Therapy.
Chem Asian J. 2018; 13(22):3509-3517 [PubMed] Related Publications
A biotinylated glutathione (GSH)-responsive zinc(II) phthalocyanine has been prepared and characterized. With a 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonyl moiety, its fluorescence emission and singlet oxygen generation were silenced in its intact state. Upon exposure to high concentration of GSH, its photosensitizing properties were restored in phosphate buffered saline and inside tumor cells. It also showed preferential uptake on HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells (with higher biotin receptor expression) rather than Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (with lower biotin receptor expression). Upon irradiation, it caused photocytotoxicity with an IC

Zhang X, Zhou T, Li W, et al.
Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in advanced gastric cancer.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(8):1105-1109 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported the clinical and prognostic significance of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in advanced gastric cancer (GC). Therefore, the present study investigated the expression of CHOP in advanced GC patients to determine its potential prognostic role.
METHODS: The levels of CHOP in 95 patients with advanced GC and adjacent non-cancerous tissues were evaluated by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the association of CHOP expression with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of advanced GC patients was analyzed.
RESULTS: The levels of CHOP were down-regulated in advanced GC compared with non-cancerous tissues (P<0.01). In addition, high CHOP expression more frequently occurred in advanced GC tissues with depth of invasion of T
CONCLUSION: Low expression of CHOP predicts the poor prognosis of advanced GC patients, and CHOP may be a prognostic biomarker for patients with advanced GC.

Zhang L, Cheng X, Xu S, et al.
Curcumin induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated apoptosis in human papillary thyroid carcinoma BCPAP cells via disruption of intracellular calcium homeostasis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(24):e11095 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine tumor. Our previous studies have demonstrated that curcumin can induce apoptosis in human papillary thyroid carcinoma BCPAP cells. However, the underlined mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major organelle for synthesis, maturation, and folding proteins as well as a large store for Ca. Overcoming chronically activated ER stress by triggering pro-apoptotic pathways of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is a novel strategy for cancer therapeutics. Our study aimed to uncover the ER stress pathway involved in the apoptosis caused by curcumin.
METHODS: BCPAP cells were treated with different doses of curcumin (12.5-50 μM). Annexin V/PI double staining was used to determine cell apoptosis. Rhod-2/AM calcium fluorescence probe assay was performed to measure the calcium level of endoplasmic reticulum. Western blot was used to examine the expression of ER stress marker C/EBP homologous protein 10 (CHOP) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). X-box binding protein1 (XBP-1) spliced form was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
RESULTS: Curcumin significantly inhibited anchorage-independent cell growth and induced apoptosis in BCPAP cells. Curcumin induced ER stress and UPR responses in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) partially reversed the antigrowth activity of curcumin. Moreover, curcumin significantly increased inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) phosphorylation and XBP-1 mRNA splicing to induce a subsets of ER chaperones. Increased cleavage of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), which enhances expression of its downstream target CHOP was also observed. Furthermore, curcumin induced intracellular Ca influx through inhibition of the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum ATPase 2A (SERCA2) pump. The increased cytosolic Ca then bound to calmodulin to activate calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling, leading to mitochondrial apoptosis pathway activation. Ca chelator BAPTA partially reversed curcumin-induced ER stress and growth suppression, confirming the possible involvement of calcium homeostasis disruption in this response.
CONCLUSIONS: Curcumin inhibits thyroid cancer cell growth, at least partially, through ER stress-associated apoptosis. Our observations provoked that ER stress activation may be a promising therapeutic target for thyroid cancer treatment.(Figure is included in full-text article.).

Yanda MK, Liu Q, Cebotaru L
A potential strategy for reducing cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with a CFTR corrector.
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(29):11513-11526 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with progressive enlargement of cysts, leading to a decline in function and renal failure that cannot be prevented by current treatments. Mutations in

Tong L, Yi L, Liu P, et al.
Tumour cell dormancy as a contributor to the reduced survival of GBM patients who received standard therapy.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(1):463-471 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a fatal cancer with varying life expectancy, even for patients undergoing the same standard therapy. Identification of differentially expressed genes in GBM patients with different survival rates may benefit the development of effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, key pathways and genes correlated with survival in GBM patients were screened with bioinformatic analysis. Included in the study were 136 eligible patients who had undertaken surgical resection of GBM followed by temozolomide (TMZ) chemoradiation and long-term therapy with TMZ. A total of 383 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to GBM survival were identified. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analysis as well as hub gene screening and module analysis were performed. As expected, angiogenesis and migration of GBM cells were closely correlated with a poor prognosis. Importantly, the results also indicated that cell dormancy was an essential contributor to the reduced survival of GBM patients. Given the lack of specific targeted genes and pathways known to be involved in tumour cell dormancy, we proposed enriched candidate genes related to the negative regulation of cell proliferation, signalling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, and 3 hub genes (FTH1, GRM1 and DDIT3). Maintaining persistent cell dormancy or preventing tumour cells from entering dormancy during chemoradiation should be a promising therapeutic strategy.

Li Z, Wu J, Sheng L
Ibrutinib improves the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia by activating endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death.
Pharmazie. 2018; 73(5):294-299 [PubMed] Related Publications
The current study mainly aims to evaluate the effects of ibrutinib on endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-induced apoptosis in Reh cells, which may shed light on the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) among children. In line with previous studies, our data show that ibrutinib significantly suppressed Reh cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We further evaluated the role of ibrutinib on Reh cell colony formation and apoptosis. Ibrutinib inhibited clonogenic capacity and induced Reh cell apoptosis, suggesting an anti-tumor effects of ibrutinib in the progression of ALL. Further study showed that ibrutinib treatment increased ERS-related protein expression, including Bip, ATF4 and CHOP, suggesting the induction of ER-stress in Reh cells. More importantly, once ER-stress was suppressed by tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an ER-stress inhibitor, the upregulation of Bip, ATF4, CHOP, cleaved-caspase3 and cleaved-PARP after ibrutinib treatment was partially reversed, suggesting that induction of ALL cell apoptosis by ibrutinib was partially attributed to activation of ER stress. In summary, we showed novel data that ER-stress induced cell apoptosis plays a key role in the therapeutic effects of ibrutinib on ALL cell malignancies.

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