Gene Summary

Gene:BUB1B; BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase B
Aliases: MVA1, SSK1, BUBR1, Bub1A, MAD3L, hBUBR1, BUB1beta
Summary:This gene encodes a kinase involved in spindle checkpoint function. The protein has been localized to the kinetochore and plays a role in the inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), delaying the onset of anaphase and ensuring proper chromosome segregation. Impaired spindle checkpoint function has been found in many forms of cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine-protein kinase BUB1 beta
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (31)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • Mutation
  • Risk Factors
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • RT-PCR
  • Urothelium
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Aneuploidy
  • Computational Biology
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Up-Regulation
  • Cell Cycle
  • Breast Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Chromosomal Instability
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Mad2 Proteins
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Chromosome 15
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor
  • Spindle Apparatus
  • Mitosis
  • BUB1B
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Protein Kinases
  • Databases, Genetic
  • Apoptosis
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • World Health Organization
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Wilms Tumour
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BUB1B (cancer-related)

Wong K, van der Weyden L, Schott CR, et al.
Cross-species genomic landscape comparison of human mucosal melanoma with canine oral and equine melanoma.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):353 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mucosal melanoma is a rare and poorly characterized subtype of human melanoma. Here we perform a cross-species analysis by sequencing tumor-germline pairs from 46 primary human muscosal, 65 primary canine oral and 28 primary equine melanoma cases from mucosal sites. Analysis of these data reveals recurrently mutated driver genes shared between species such as NRAS, FAT4, PTPRJ, TP53 and PTEN, and pathogenic germline alleles of BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53. We identify a UV mutation signature in a small number of samples, including human cases from the lip and nasal mucosa. A cross-species comparative analysis of recurrent copy number alterations identifies several candidate drivers including MDM2, B2M, KNSTRN and BUB1B. Comparison of somatic mutations in recurrences and metastases to those in the primary tumor suggests pervasive intra-tumor heterogeneity. Collectively, these studies suggest a convergence of some genetic changes in mucosal melanomas between species but also distinctly different paths to tumorigenesis.

Guo X, Dai X, Ni J, et al.
Geraniin Differentially Modulates Chromosome Stability of Colon Cancer and Noncancerous Cells by Oppositely Regulating their Spindle Assembly Checkpoint.
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2019; 60(3):254-268 [PubMed] Related Publications
Geraniin has been reported to specifically induce apoptosis in multiple human cancers, but the underlying mechanism is poorly defined. The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a surveillance system to ensure high-fidelity chromosome segregation during mitosis. Weakening of SAC to enhance chromosome instability (CIN) can be therapeutic because very high levels of CIN are lethal. In this study, we have investigated the effects of geraniin on the SAC of colorectal cancer HCT116 cells and noncancerous colon epithelial CCD841 cells. We find that treatment of HCT116 cells with geraniin leads to dose-dependent decrease of cell proliferation, colony formation, and anchorage-independent growth. Geraniin is found to induce apoptosis in mitotic and postmitotic HCT116 cells. Furthermore, geraniin weakens the SAC function of HCT116 cells by decreasing the transcriptional expression of several SAC kinases (particularly Mad2 and Bub1), which in turn leads to premature anaphase entry, mitotic aberrations, and CIN in HCT116 cells. In contrast, the proliferation of CCD841 cells is slightly inhibited by geraniin. Even more interestingly, geraniin increases the transcriptional expression of several SAC kinases (e.g., Mad1 and BubR1) to strengthen SAC efficiency, which contributes to the reduction of mitotic aberrations and CIN in CCD841 cells. Altogether, our findings reveal that the SAC pathway in human colon cancer and noncancerous cell lineages responses oppositely to geraniin treatment, resulting CIN promotion and suppression, respectively. Specific abrogation of SAC to induce catastrophic CIN in HCT116 cells may account for the selective anticancer action of geraniin.. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 60:254-268, 2019. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Zhuang L, Yang Z, Meng Z
Upregulation of BUB1B, CCNB1, CDC7, CDC20, and MCM3 in Tumor Tissues Predicted Worse Overall Survival and Disease-Free Survival in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:7897346 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective: To evaluate the association between upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and the outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Methods: Using Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets including GSE45436, GSE55092, GSE60502, GSE84402, and GSE17548, we detected upregulated DEGs in tumors. KEGG, GO, and Reactome enrichment analysis of the DEGs was conducted to clarify their function. The impact of the upregulated DEGs on patients' survival was analyzed based on TCGA profile.
Results: 161 shared upregulated DEGs were identified among GSE45436, GSE55092, GSE60502, and GSE84402 profiles. Cell cycle was the shared pathway/biological process in the gene sets investigation among databases of KEGG, GO, and Reactome. After being validated in GSE17548, 13 genes including BUB1B, CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNE2, CDC20, CDC6, CDC7, CDK1, CDK4, CDKN2A, CHEK1, MAD2L1, and MCM3 in cell cycle pathway were shared in the three databases for enrichment. The expression of BUB1B, CCNB1, CDC7, CDC20, and MCM3 was upregulated in HCC tissues when compared with adjacent normal tissues in 6.67%, 7.5%, 8.06%, 5.56%, and 9.72% of HCC patients, respectively. Overexpression of BUB1B, CCNB1, CDC7, CDC20, and MCM3 in HCC tissues accounted for poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in HCC patients (all log rank
Conclusion: Correlated with advanced histologic grade and/or vascular invasion, upregulation of BUB1B, CCNB1, CDC7, CDC20, and MCM3 in HCC tissues predicted worse OS and DFS in HCC patients. These genes could be novel therapeutic targets for HCC treatment.

Hu S, Liao Y, Chen L
Identification of Key Pathways and Genes in Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma via Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:6438-6448 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND To provide a better understanding of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) at the molecular level, this study aimed to identify the genes and key pathways associated with ATC by using integrated bioinformatics analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Based on the microarray data GSE9115, GSE65144, and GSE53072 derived from the Gene Expression Omnibus, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ATC samples and normal controls were identified. With DEGs, we performed a series of functional enrichment analyses. Then, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed and visualized, with which the hub gene nodes were screened out. Finally, modules analysis for the PPI network was performed to further investigate the potential relationships between DEGs and ATC. RESULTS A total of 537 common DEGs were screened out from all 3 datasets, among which 247 genes were upregulated and 275 genes were downregulated. GO analysis indicated that upregulated DEGs were mainly involved in cell division and mitotic nuclear division and the downregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the upregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in cell cycle and ECM-receptor interaction and the downregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in thyroid hormone synthesis, insulin resistance, and pathways in cancer. The top 10 hub genes in the constructed PPI network were CDK1, CCNB1, TOP2A, AURKB, CCNA2, BUB1, AURKA, CDC20, MAD2L1, and BUB1B. The modules analysis showed that genes in the top 2 significant modules of PPI network were mainly associated with mitotic cell cycle and positive regulation of mitosis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS We identified a series of key genes along with the pathways that were most closely related with ATC initiation and progression. Our results provide a more detailed molecular mechanism for the development of ATC, shedding light on the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

Zhang L, Huang Y, Ling J, et al.
Screening and function analysis of hub genes and pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma via bioinformatics approaches.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 22(3):511-521 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Liver carcinoma is a major cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Up to date, the mechanisms of liver cancerigenesis and development have not been fully understood. Multi-genes and pathways were involved in the tumorigenesis of liver cancer.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to screen key genes and pathways in liver cancerigenesis and development by using bioinformatics methods.
METHODS: A dataset GSE64041 were retrieved from GEO database and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened out. Then the DEG functions were annotated by gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis, respectively. The hub genes were further selected by protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis. Afterwards, the mRNA and protein expressions as well as the prognostic values of the hub genes were assessed.
RESULTS: As a result, 208 up-regulated and 82 down-regulated genes were screened out. These DEGs were mainly enriched in cell cycle and metabolism-related pathways. Through PPI analysis, TOP2A, PRDM10, CDK1, AURKA, BUB1, PLK1, CDKN3, NCAPG, BUB1B and CCNA2 were selected as hub genes, which were all over-expressed in liver cancers relative to those in normal tissues, respectively. Among them, PLK1 and CCNA2 were suggested to be prognostic factors for liver carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the present study identified several hub genes, and cell cycle and metabolism-related pathways that may play critical roles in the tumorigenesis of liver cancer. Future validation laboratory experiments are required to confirm the results.

Kiseljak-Vassiliades K, Zhang Y, Kar A, et al.
Elucidating the Role of the Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase in Adrenocortical Carcinoma.
Endocrinology. 2018; 159(7):2532-2544 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive cancer with a 5-year survival rate <35%. Mortality remains high due to lack of targeted therapies. Using bioinformatic analyses, we identified maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) as 4.1-fold overexpressed in ACC compared with normal adrenal samples. High MELK expression in human tumors correlated with shorter survival and with increased expression of genes involved in cell division and growth. We investigated the functional effects of MELK inhibition using newly developed ACC cell lines with variable MELK expression, CU-ACC1 and CU-ACC2, compared with H295R cells. In vitro treatment with the MELK inhibitor, OTSSP167, resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in rates of cell proliferation, colony formation, and cell survival, with relative sensitivity of each ACC cell line based upon the level of MELK overexpression. To confirm a MELK-specific antitumorigenic effect, MELK was inhibited in H295R cells via multiple short hairpin RNAs. MELK silencing resulted in 1.9-fold decrease in proliferation, and 3- to 10-fold decrease in colony formation in soft agar and clonogenicity assays, respectively. In addition, although MELK silencing had no effect on survival in normoxia, exposure to a hypoxia resulted in a sixfold and eightfold increase in apoptosis as assessed by caspase-3 activation and TUNEL, respectively. Together these data suggest that MELK is a modulator of tumor cell growth and survival in a hypoxic microenvironment in adrenal cancer cells and support future investigation of its role as a therapeutic kinase target in patients with ACC.

Wen DY, Lin P, Pang YY, et al.
Expression of the Long Intergenic Non-Protein Coding RNA 665 (LINC00665) Gene and the Cell Cycle in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, the Gene Expression Omnibus, and Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:2786-2808 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have a role in physiological and pathological processes, including cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 665 (LINC00665) gene and the cell cycle in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using database analysis including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). MATERIAL AND METHODS Expression levels of LINC00665 were compared between human tissue samples of HCC and adjacent normal liver, clinicopathological correlations were made using TCGA and the GEO, and qPCR was performed to validate the findings. Other public databases were searched for other genes associated with LINC00665 expression, including The Atlas of Noncoding RNAs in Cancer (TANRIC), the Multi Experiment Matrix (MEM), Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. RESULTS Overexpression of LINC00665 in patients with HCC was significantly associated with gender, tumor grade, stage, and tumor cell type. Overexpression of LINC00665 in patients with HCC was significantly associated with overall survival (OS) (HR=1.47795%; CI: 1.046-2.086). Bioinformatics analysis identified 469 related genes and further analysis supported a hypothesis that LINC00665 regulates pathways in the cell cycle to facilitate the development and progression of HCC through ten identified core genes: CDK1, BUB1B, BUB1, PLK1, CCNB2, CCNB1, CDC20, ESPL1, MAD2L1, and CCNA2. CONCLUSIONS Overexpression of the lncRNA, LINC00665 may be involved in the regulation of cell cycle pathways in HCC through ten identified hub genes.

Pritchard AL, Johansson PA, Nathan V, et al.
Germline mutations in candidate predisposition genes in individuals with cutaneous melanoma and at least two independent additional primary cancers.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(4):e0194098 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: While a number of autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive cancer syndromes have an associated spectrum of cancers, the prevalence and variety of cancer predisposition mutations in patients with multiple primary cancers have not been extensively investigated. An understanding of the variants predisposing to more than one cancer type could improve patient care, including screening and genetic counselling, as well as advancing the understanding of tumour development.
METHODS: A cohort of 57 patients ascertained due to their cutaneous melanoma (CM) diagnosis and with a history of two or more additional non-cutaneous independent primary cancer types were recruited for this study. Patient blood samples were assessed by whole exome or whole genome sequencing. We focussed on variants in 525 pre-selected genes, including 65 autosomal dominant and 31 autosomal recessive cancer predisposition genes, 116 genes involved in the DNA repair pathway, and 313 commonly somatically mutated in cancer. The same genes were analysed in exome sequence data from 1358 control individuals collected as part of non-cancer studies (UK10K). The identified variants were classified for pathogenicity using online databases, literature and in silico prediction tools.
RESULTS: No known pathogenic autosomal dominant or previously described compound heterozygous mutations in autosomal recessive genes were observed in the multiple cancer cohort. Variants typically found somatically in haematological malignancies (in JAK1, JAK2, SF3B1, SRSF2, TET2 and TYK2) were present in lymphocyte DNA of patients with multiple primary cancers, all of whom had a history of haematological malignancy and cutaneous melanoma, as well as colorectal cancer and/or prostate cancer. Other potentially pathogenic variants were discovered in BUB1B, POLE2, ROS1 and DNMT3A. Compared to controls, multiple cancer cases had significantly more likely damaging mutations (nonsense, frameshift ins/del) in tumour suppressor and tyrosine kinase genes and higher overall burden of mutations in all cancer genes.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified several pathogenic variants that likely predispose to at least one of the tumours in patients with multiple cancers. We additionally present evidence that there may be a higher burden of variants of unknown significance in 'cancer genes' in patients with multiple cancer types. Further screens of this nature need to be carried out to build evidence to show if the cancers observed in these patients form part of a cancer spectrum associated with single germline variants in these genes, whether multiple layers of susceptibility exist (oligogenic or polygenic), or if the occurrence of multiple different cancers is due to random chance.

Roberto GM, Engel EE, Scrideli CA, et al.
Downregulation of miR-10B* is correlated with altered expression of mitotic kinases in osteosarcoma.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(2):213-216 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dysregulated mitotic kinases have frequently been associated with cancer. Changes in their expression might result from diverse mechanisms including avoidance of the tight regulation exerted by miRNAs. Herein we show that miR-10b* is downregulated in osteosarcoma samples and demonstrate its correlation with PLK1, PLK4, BUB1, and BUBR1, which are strongly intercorrelated. The selection of miRNAs that coordinately target and regulate multiple members of cancer-related pathways are particularly advantageous to tumors. Thus, even though no associations with clinical parameters were found, our data place miR-10b* as a tumor suppressor that might contribute to guarantee genomic stability, deserving further functional confirmation.

Zhang Z, Zhang G, Gao Z, et al.
Comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed genes associated with PLK1 in bladder cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):861 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The significance of PLK1 (polo-like kinase 1) has become increasingly essential as both a biomarker and a target for cancer treatment. Here, we aimed to determine the downstream genes of PLK1 and their effects on the carcinogenesis and progression of bladder cancer.
METHODS: Specific siRNA was utilized to silence the target gene expression. The cell proliferation, invasion and migration of bladder cancer cells by MTT assay, BrdU assay and transwell assay. The differential expression genes were identified using Affymetrix HTA2.0 Array. The KEGG, GO and STRING analysis were used to analyze the signaling pathway and protein-protein interaction. Spearman analysis was used to analyze the correlation between protein and protein, between protein and clincopathologic characteristics.
RESULTS: PLK1 siRNA hindered the proliferation, invasion and migration of bladder cancer cells, as determined by the MTT, BrdU and transwell assays. A total of 561 differentially expressed genes were identified using an Affymetrix HTA2.0 Array in PLK1 knockdown T24 cells. According to KEGG, GO and STRING analysis, five key genes (BUB1B, CCNB1, CDC25A, FBXO5, NDC80) were determined to be involved in cell proliferation, invasion and migration. PLK1 knockdown decreased BUB1B, CCNB1, CDC25A and NDC80 expressions but increased FBXO5 expression. BUB1B, CCNB1, CDC25A and NDC80 were positively correlated with cell proliferation, invasion, migration and PLK1 expression in tissues, but FBXO5 was negatively correlated with each of those factors. The results showed that the five genes expressions were significantly correlation with the PLK1 expression in normal bladder tissues and bladder cancer tissues. Four of them (BUB1B, CCNB1, CDC25A, NDC80) were obviously positive correlations with pT stage and metastasis. But FBXO5 was negative correlated with pT stage and metastasis. Furthermore, significant correlations were found between CCNB1 or CDC25A or NDC80 and histological grade; between BUB1B or NDC80 and recurrence.
CONCLUSION: Five downstream genes of PLK1 were associated with the regulation of cell proliferation, invasion and migration in bladder cancer. Furthermore, these genes may play important roles in bladder cancer and become important biomarkers and targets for cancer treatment.

Shi G, Wang Y, Zhang C, et al.
Identification of genes involved in the four stages of colorectal cancer: Gene expression profiling.
Mol Cell Probes. 2018; 37:39-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer with high morbidity and mortality. However, its molecular mechanism is not clear, nor the genes related to CRC stages.
METHODS: Gene expression data in CRC and healthy colorectal tissues were obtained from gene expression omnibus. Limma package was used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between control and CRC (stage I, II, III, and IV), obtaining 4 DEG sets. VennPlex was utilized to find all DEGs and intersection DEGs. Functional interactions between all DEGs and protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between intersection DEGs were analyzed using ReactomeFIViz and STRING, respectively, and networks were visualized. Known CRC-related genes were down-loaded from Comparative Toxicogenomics Database and mapped to PPI network.
RESULTS: Totally, 851, 760, 729, and 878 DEGs were found between control and CRC stage I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Taken together, 1235 DEGs were found, as well as 128 up-regulated intersection DEGs, 365 down-regulated intersection DEGs, and 0 contra-regulated DEG. A functional interaction network of all DEGs and a PPI network of intersection DEGs were constructed, in which CDC20, PTTG1, and MAD2L1 interacted with BUB1B; UGT2B17 interacted with ADH1B; MCM7 interacted with MCM2. BUB1B, ADH1B, and MCM2 were known CRC-related genes. Gradually upregulated expressions of CDC20, PTTG1, MAD2L1, UGT2B17, and MCM7 in stage I, II, III, and IV CRC were confirmed by using quantitative PCR. Besides, up-regulated intersection DEGs enriched in pathways about Cell cycle, DNA replication, and p53 signaling.
CONCLUSION: CDC20, PTTG1, MAD2L1, UGT2B17, and MCM7 might be CRC stage-related genes.

Ma Q, Liu Y, Shang L, et al.
The FOXM1/BUB1B signaling pathway is essential for the tumorigenicity and radioresistance of glioblastoma.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(6):3367-3375 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Accumulating evidence indicates that mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase B (BUB1B) plays a critical role in multiple types of cancer. However, the biological function and molecular regulatory mechanism of BUB1B in glioblastoma (GBM) remain unclear. In the present study, we identified that BUB1B expression was enriched in GBM tumors and was functionally required for tumor proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Clinically, BUB1B expression was associated with poor prognosis in GBM patients and BUB1B‑dependent radioresistance in GBM was decreased by targeting BUB1B via shRNAs. Mechanistically, forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) transcriptionally regulated BUB1B expression by binding to and then activating the BUB1B promoter. Therapeutically, we found that FOXM1 inhibitor attenuated tumorigenesis and radioresistance of GBM both in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, BUB1B promotes tumor proliferation and induces radioresistance in GBM, indicating that BUB1B could be a potential therapeutic target for GBM.

Agarwal R, Narayan J, Bhattacharyya A, et al.
Gene expression profiling, pathway analysis and subtype classification reveal molecular heterogeneity in hepatocellular carcinoma and suggest subtype specific therapeutic targets.
Cancer Genet. 2017; 216-217:37-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
A very low 5-year survival rate among hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is mainly due to lack of early stage diagnosis, distant metastasis and high risk of postoperative recurrence. Hence ascertaining novel biomarkers for early diagnosis and patient specific therapeutics is crucial and urgent. Here, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of the expression data of 423 HCC patients (373 tumors and 50 controls) downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) followed by pathway enrichment by gene ontology annotations, subtype classification and overall survival analysis. The differential gene expression analysis using non-parametric Wilcoxon test revealed a total of 479 up-regulated and 91 down-regulated genes in HCC compared to controls. The list of top differentially expressed genes mainly consists of tumor/cancer associated genes, such as AFP, THBS4, LCN2, GPC3, NUF2, etc. The genes over-expressed in HCC were mainly associated with cell cycle pathways. In total, 59 kinases associated genes were found over-expressed in HCC, including TTK, MELK, BUB1, NEK2, BUB1B, AURKB, PLK1, CDK1, PKMYT1, PBK, etc. Overall four distinct HCC subtypes were predicted using consensus clustering method. Each subtype was unique in terms of gene expression, pathway enrichment and median survival. Conclusively, this study has exposed a number of interesting genes which can be exploited in future as potential markers of HCC, diagnostic as well as prognostic and subtype classification may guide for improved and specific therapy.

Lee E, Pain M, Wang H, et al.
Sensitivity to
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(20):5518-5529 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a mainly incurable disease in desperate need of more effective treatments. In this study, we develop evidence that the mitotic spindle checkpoint molecule

Sun M, Tong P, Kong W, et al.
HNF1B Loss Exacerbates the Development of Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinomas.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(19):5313-5326 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is characterized by major changes in chromosomal copy number (CN). No model is available to precisely elucidate the molecular drivers of this tumor type. HNF1B is a master regulator of gene expression. Here, we report that the transcription factor HNF1B is downregulated in the majority of ChRCC and that the magnitude of

Shindo K, Yu J, Suenaga M, et al.
Deleterious Germline Mutations in Patients With Apparently Sporadic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.
J Clin Oncol. 2017; 35(30):3382-3390 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Purpose Deleterious germline mutations contribute to pancreatic cancer susceptibility and are well documented in families in which multiple members have had pancreatic cancer. Methods To define the prevalence of these germline mutations in patients with apparently sporadic pancreatic cancer, we sequenced 32 genes, including known pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes, in DNA prepared from normal tissue obtained from 854 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, 288 patients with other pancreatic and periampullary neoplasms, and 51 patients with non-neoplastic diseases who underwent pancreatic resection at Johns Hopkins Hospital between 2000 and 2015. Results Thirty-three (3.9%; 95% CI, 3.0% to 5.8%) of 854 patients with pancreatic cancer had a deleterious germline mutation, 31 (3.5%) of which affected known familial pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes: BRCA2 (12 patients), ATM (10 patients), BRCA1 (3 patients), PALB2 (2 patients), MLH1 (2 patients), CDKN2A (1 patient), and TP53 (1 patient). Patients with these germline mutations were younger than those without (mean ± SD, 60.8 ± 10.6 v 65.1 ± 10.5 years; P = .03). Deleterious germline mutations were also found in BUB1B (1) and BUB3 (1). Only three of these 33 patients had reported a family history of pancreatic cancer, and most did not have a cancer family history to suggest an inherited cancer syndrome. Five (1.7%) of 288 patients with other periampullary neoplasms also had a deleterious germline mutation. Conclusion Germline mutations in pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes are commonly identified in patients with pancreatic cancer without a significant family history of cancer. These deleterious pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene mutations, some of which are therapeutically targetable, will be missed if current family history guidelines are the main criteria used to determine the appropriateness of gene testing.

Sun Q, Zhao H, Zhang C, et al.
Gene co-expression network reveals shared modules predictive of stage and grade in serous ovarian cancers.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(26):42983-42996 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Serous ovarian cancer (SOC) is the most lethal gynecological cancer. Clinical studies have revealed an association between tumor stage and grade and clinical prognosis. Identification of meaningful clusters of co-expressed genes or representative biomarkers related to stage or grade may help to reveal mechanisms of tumorigenesis and cancer development, and aid in predicting SOC patient prognosis. We therefore performed a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and calculated module-trait correlations based on three public microarray datasets (GSE26193, GSE9891, and TCGA), which included 788 samples and 10402 genes. We detected four modules related to one or more clinical features significantly shared across all modeling datasets, and identified one stage-associated module and one grade-associated module. Our analysis showed that MMP2, COL3A1, COL1A2, FBN1, COL5A1, COL5A2, and AEBP1 are top hub genes related to stage, while CDK1, BUB1, BUB1B, BIRC5, AURKB, CENPA, and CDC20 are top hub genes related to grade. Gene and pathway enrichment analyses of the regulatory networks involving hub genes suggest that extracellular matrix interactions and mitotic signaling pathways are crucial determinants of tumor stage and grade. The relationships between gene expression modules and tumor stage or grade were validated in five independent datasets. These results could potentially be developed into a more objective scoring system to improve prediction of SOC outcomes.

Suh YJ, Choe JY, Park HJ
Malignancy in Pheochromocytoma or Paraganglioma: Integrative Analysis of 176 Cases in TCGA.
Endocr Pathol. 2017; 28(2):159-164 [PubMed] Related Publications
Methods of diagnosing malignant pheochromocytoma (PCC) or paraganglioma (PGL) are needed. However, there are no reliable histopathologic criteria to distinguish malignant PCC/PGLs. The recent genomic analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) provides in-depth information enabling more accurate diagnosis of disease entities. Therefore, we investigated genomic expression differences and mutational differences of malignant PCC/PGLs with TCGA. As of December 2014, TCGA had acquired multigenomic analysis of 176 PCC/PGL samples. Clinical information, mutation status, and 20,531 gene messenger RNA (mRNA) expression dataset of normalized RNA-sequencing mRNA read counts were downloaded from TCGA, and integrated into a table. Of the 176 PCC/PGL samples in the dataset, 14 had metastasis and 162 exhibited no metastasis. mRNA expression and mutations were compared in these two groups. There were 76 males in the dataset of 176 TCGA samples. Mean age was 47.6 ± 15.2 years (19-83 years). There was no significant gender or race difference between metastatic and non-metastatic groups. mRNA expression of malignant PCC/PGLs was upregulated in five pathways of cell cycle (BUB1, BUB1B, CCNB2, CDC2, ESPL1), calcium signaling (CCNB2, CDC2, PRKCB1), regulation of actin cytoskeleton (DIAPH3, FGF18, IQGAP3), gap junction (CDC2, PRKCB1), and phosphatidylinositol (PRKCB1, TTK). Disease-free survival rates were significantly correlated with the presence or absence of mutations, such as RP11-798G7.5, HERC2, SETD2, TGDS, TRHDE, FKBP9, and BMS1. TCGA showed differences in mRNA expression and mutations between metastatic and non-metastatic PCC/PGLs. The improved recognition of genetic causes can help to achieve proper diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment of PCC/PGL.

Song H, Wu F, Li S, et al.
Microarray expression analysis of MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells after inhibition of CDK2.
Neoplasma. 2017; 64(3):351-357 [PubMed] Related Publications
The study aimed to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of CDK2 inhibition in neuroblastoma by bioinformatics analysis. Gene expression profile GSE16480 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from IMR32 between each time point and average expression of all time points. Gene significance was calculated using dSVDsig algorithm of dnet package. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was built. Then, integrated with gene significance, a core PPI network was detected by dNetPipeline algorithm in dnet package. Finally, pathway enrichment analysis was performed for genes in network. Totally, 1524 DEGs were identified. CCNA2 (cyclin A2), EXO1 (exonuclease 1), RAD51AP1 (RAD51 associated protein 1), TOP2A (topoisomerase (DNA) II alpha) and CDK1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1) were selected as DEGs with higher connectivity after PPI network analysis. In the network, CCNA2, CDK1, BUB1B (BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase B) and CCNB1 (cyclin B1) were involved in cell cycle pathway. Additionally, CCNB1, CDK1, CCNE2 (Cyclin E2), and RRM2B (ribonucleotide reductase subunit M2B) were involved in p53 signaling pathway. Cell cycle and p53 signaling pathway were closely associated with neuroblastoma after CDK2 inhibition. The DEGs, such as CCNA2, CCNB1, CDK1 and RRM2B may be the potential targets for neuroblastoma.

Kansler ER, Verma A, Langdon EM, et al.
Melanoma genome evolution across species.
BMC Genomics. 2017; 18(1):136 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer genomes evolve in both space and time, which contributes to the genetic heterogeneity that underlies tumor progression and drug resistance. In human melanoma, identifying mechanistically important events in tumor evolution is hampered due to the high background mutation rate from ultraviolet (UV) light. Cross-species oncogenomics is a powerful tool for identifying these core events, in which transgenically well-defined animal models of cancer are compared to human cancers to identify key conserved alterations.
RESULTS: We use a zebrafish model of tumor progression and drug resistance for cross-species genomic analysis in melanoma. Zebrafish transgenic tumors are initiated with just 2 genetic lesions, BRAF
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that targeting of alterations that are conserved between zebrafish and humans may offer new avenues for therapeutic intervention. The approaches described here will be broadly applicable to the diverse array of cancer models available in the zebrafish, which can be used to inform human cancer genomics.

Zhang Z, Zhang G, Kong C
Targeted inhibition of Polo-like kinase 1 by a novel small-molecule inhibitor induces mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells.
J Cell Mol Med. 2017; 21(4):758-767 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bladder cancer is a common cancer with particularly high recurrence after transurethral resection. Despite improvements in neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the outcome of patients with advanced bladder cancer has changed very little. In this study, the anti-tumour activities of a novel Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitor (RO3280) was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in the bladder carcinoma cell lines 5637 and T24. MTT assays, colony-formation assays, flow cytometry, cell morphological analysis and trypan blue exclusion assays were used to examine the proliferation, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of bladder carcinoma cells with or without RO3280 treatment. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the expressions of genes that are related to these cellular processes. Our results showed that RO3280 inhibited cell growth and cell cycle progression, increased Wee1 expression and cell division cycle protein 2 phosphorylation. In addition, RO3280 induced mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis, increased cleaved PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase) and caspase-3, and decreased BubR1 expression. The in vivo assay revealed that RO3280 retarded bladder cancer xenograft growth in a nude mouse model. Although further laboratory and pre-clinical investigations are needed to corroborate these data, our demonstration of bladder cancer growth inhibition and dissemination using a pharmacological inhibitor of PLK1 provides new opportunities for future therapeutic intervention.

Li T, Chen L, Cheng J, et al.
SUMOylated NKAP is essential for chromosome alignment by anchoring CENP-E to kinetochores.
Nat Commun. 2016; 7:12969 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromosome alignment is required for accurate chromosome segregation. Chromosome misalignment can result in genomic instability and tumorigenesis. Here, we show that NF-κB activating protein (NKAP) is critical for chromosome alignment through anchoring CENP-E to kinetochores. NKAP knockdown causes chromosome misalignment and prometaphase arrest in human cells. NKAP dynamically localizes to kinetochores, and is required for CENP-E kinetochore localization. NKAP is SUMOylated predominantly in mitosis and the SUMOylation is needed for NKAP to bind CENP-E. A SUMOylation-deficient mutant of NKAP cannot support the localization of CENP-E on kinetochores or proper chromosome alignment. Moreover, Bub3 recruits NKAP to stabilize the binding of CENP-E to BubR1 at kinetochores. Importantly, loss of NKAP expression causes aneuploidy in cultured cells, and is observed in human soft tissue sarcomas. These findings indicate that NKAP is a novel and key regulator of mitosis, and its dysregulation might contribute to tumorigenesis by causing chromosomal instability.

Zhang C, Gao W, Wen S, et al.
Potential key molecular correlations in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma revealed by integrated analysis of mRNA, miRNA and lncRNA microarray profiles.
Neoplasma. 2016; 63(6):888-900 [PubMed] Related Publications
To uncover potential key genes, microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), microarray data of mRNA, miRNAs and lncRNAs produced from matched sample pairs of LSCC and adjacent normal samples were used to this analysis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs), miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) and lncRNAs (DE-lncRNAs) were identified, and functions and correlations of them were analyzed. In total, 826 DEGs, 44 DE-miRNAs and 347 DE-lncRNAs were identified. The up-regulated DEGs were mainly related to cell cycle, and the down-regulated DEGs were correlated with regulation of biological quality and extracellular region. Furthermore, ATP1A2 was regulated by the lncRNA FLJ42875; AQP1 and TGFBR2 were targeted by LOC100505976; genes like BUB1B and CENPE were modulated by XLOC_l2_010636. Besides, genes like FGF2 and PIK3R1, and lncRNAs like LOC100505976 and XLOC_l2_010636 were modulated by hsa-miR-424-5p. The expression levels of hsa-miR-424-5p, LOC100505976 and XLOC_l2_010636 as well as several DEGs were confirmed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. These regulatory relationships of DEGs, DE-miRNAs and DE-lncRNAs might play pivotal roles in the tumorigenesis of LSCC.

Rao CV, Asch AS, Yamada HY
Emerging links among Chromosome Instability (CIN), cancer, and aging.
Mol Carcinog. 2017; 56(3):791-803 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aneuploidy was predicted to cause cancer. To test the prediction, various Chromosome Instability (CIN) mice models that carry transgenic mutations in mitotic regulators have been created. The availability of these mice has aided researchers in discovering connections between CIN, cancer, and aging. This review will focus on recent interdisciplinary findings regarding how CIN and aneuploidy affect carcinogenesis, immune dysfunction, and aging. High CIN can be generated in vivo by various intrinsic alterations (e.g., gene mutation, epigenetic modification) and extrinsic/environmental challenges (e.g., biological, chemical, biophysical), while immune surveillance, cell death, and natural turnover can remove cells with CIN. CIN itself is mutagenic and may cause further cellular mutations, which can be carcinogenic. Mitotically damaged cells can activate senescence-related tumor suppressors (e.g., p21

Weaver RL, Limzerwala JF, Naylor RM, et al.
BubR1 alterations that reinforce mitotic surveillance act against aneuploidy and cancer.
Elife. 2016; 5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BubR1 is a key component of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Mutations that reduce BubR1 abundance cause aneuploidization and tumorigenesis in humans and mice, whereas BubR1 overexpression protects against these. However, how supranormal BubR1 expression exerts these beneficial physiological impacts is poorly understood. Here, we used Bub1b mutant transgenic mice to explore the role of the amino-terminal (BubR1(N)) and internal (BubR1(I)) Cdc20-binding domains of BubR1 in preventing aneuploidy and safeguarding against cancer. BubR1(N) was necessary, but not sufficient to protect against aneuploidy and cancer. In contrast, BubR1 lacking the internal Cdc20-binding domain provided protection against both, which coincided with improved microtubule-kinetochore attachment error correction and SAC activity. Maximal SAC reinforcement occurred when both the Phe- and D-box of BubR1(I) were disrupted. Thus, while under- or overexpression of most mitotic regulators impairs chromosome segregation fidelity, certain manipulations of BubR1 can positively impact this process and therefore be therapeutically exploited.

Chakravarthi BV, Goswami MT, Pathi SS, et al.
MicroRNA-101 regulated transcriptional modulator SUB1 plays a role in prostate cancer.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(49):6330-6340 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNA-101, a tumor suppressor microRNA (miR), is often downregulated in cancer and is known to target multiple oncogenes. Some of the genes that are negatively regulated by miR-101 expression include histone methyltransferase EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2), COX2 (cyclooxygenase-2), POMP (proteasome maturation protein), CERS6, STMN1, MCL-1 and ROCK2, among others. In the present study, we show that miR-101 targets transcriptional coactivator SUB1 homolog (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)/PC4 (positive cofactor 4) and regulates its expression. SUB1 is known to have diverse role in vital cell processes such as DNA replication, repair and heterochromatinization. SUB1 is known to modulate transcription and acts as a mediator between the upstream activators and general transcription machinery. Expression profiling in several cancers revealed SUB1 overexpression, suggesting a potential role in tumorigenesis. However, detailed regulation and function of SUB1 has not been elucidated. In this study, we show elevated expression of SUB1 in aggressive prostate cancer. Knockdown of SUB1 in prostate cancer cells resulted in reduced cell proliferation, invasion and migration in vitro, and tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Gene expression analyses coupled with chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that SUB1 binds to the promoter regions of several oncogenes such as PLK1 (Polo-like kinase 1), C-MYC, serine-threonine kinase BUB1B and regulates their expression. Additionally, we observed SUB1 downregulated CDKN1B expression. PLK1 knockdown or use of PLK1 inhibitor can mitigate oncogenic function of SUB1 in benign prostate cancer cells. Thus, our study suggests that miR-101 loss results in increased SUB1 expression and subsequent activation of known oncogenes driving prostate cancer progression and metastasis. This study therefore demonstrates functional role of SUB1 in prostate cancer, and identifies its regulation and potential downstream therapeutic targets of SUB1 in prostate cancer.

Hahn MM, Vreede L, Bemelmans SA, et al.
Prevalence of germline mutations in the spindle assembly checkpoint gene BUB1B in individuals with early-onset colorectal cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(11):855-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germline mutations in BUB1B, encoding BUBR1, one of the crucial components of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), have been shown to cause variable phenotypes, including the recessive mosaic variegated aneuploidy (MVA) syndrome, which predisposes to cancer. Reduced levels of the wild-type BUBR1 protein have been linked to the development of gastrointestinal neoplasms. To determine whether mutations in BUB1B are enriched in individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed amplicon-based targeted next-generation sequencing of BUB1B on germline DNA of 192 individuals with early-onset CRC (≤50 years). None of the individuals was found to be homozygous or compound heterozygous for mutations in BUB1B. However, we did identify two rare heterozygous variants, p.Glu390del and p.Cys945Tyr, in patients who developed CRC at the ages of 41 and 43 years, respectively. Both variants were shown not to affect BUBR1 protein expression levels and protein localization. Since the p.Glu390del variant is located in the BUB3-binding domain, we also performed immunoprecipitation to examine whether this variant affects the binding of BUB1 or BUB3 to BUBR1 but, compared to wild-type BUBR1, no difference was observed. Our data suggest that mutations in BUB1B do not occur frequently in the germline of individuals with CRC and that BUB1B unlikely plays a major role in the predisposition to early-onset CRC. Whether carriers of pathogenic BUB1B mutations, such as the parents of MVA syndrome patients, have an increased risk for cancer remains of interest, as studies in mice have suggested that haploinsufficiency of BUB1B may cause an increase in carcinogen-induced tumors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Yamamoto Y, Oga A, Akao J, et al.
BUBR1 overexpression predicts disease-specific survival after nephroureterectomy in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2016; 46(8):754-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To date, there are few reliable markers to distinguish tumors with aggressive characteristics in upper tract urothelial carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to identify a biomarker related to genetic instability (chromosomal instability or microsatellite instability) with prognostic value, in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma.
METHODS: Expression of chromosomal instability-related markers (BUBR1, p53, polo-like kinase 1) and microsatellite instability-related markers (mismatch repair proteins, MLH1 and MSH2) were assessed by immunohistochemistry in 100 patients who had radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Numerical aberrations of chromosomes 7, 9 and 17 were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization, which allowed an estimation of the degree of chromosomal instability. BUB1B copy number was examined by array-based comparative genomic hybridization in 32 patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma.
RESULTS: BUBR1 status was most significantly correlated with chromosomal instability-related and low mismatch repair parameters, according to the molecular biomarkers examined. Overexpression of BUBR1 is frequently detected in tumors with higher histological grade (P < 0.0001) and is significantly associated with chromosomal instability (P = 0.0071). Array-based comparative genomic hybridization revealed that no tumors (0%) showed BUB1B amplification and gain, indicating that overexpression of BUBR1 was independent of BUB1B copy number. For disease-specific survival, BUBR1 overexpression, lymphovascular invasion, pathological tumor stage, pathological lymph node involvement and low MSH2 expression were significant prognostic factors in univariate analyses. In multivariate analyses, BUBR1 overexpression was an independent prognostic factor for disease-specific survival (P = 0.0483, risk ratio 3.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-18.43).
CONCLUSIONS: BUBR1 may have significant potential as a biomarker for estimating disease-specific survival in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma treated by radical nephroureterectomy.

Mansouri N, Movafagh A, Sayad A, et al.
Targeting of BUB1b Gene Expression in Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsies of Invasive Breast Cancer in Iranian Female Patients.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(S3):317-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Detection of micrometastasis in sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) is a very useful tool for appropriate assessment of the clinical stage of disease in breast cancer patients. Early identification of clinically relevant disease could lead to early treatment or staging approaches for breast cancer patient. Micrometastases in SLNs of women with invasive breast cancer are of great significance in this context. In this study we examined SLN biopsies considered to have small numbers of cancerous cells by real time RT-PCR. All of the samples underwent immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin for confirmation of the presence or absence of micrometastases. BUB1b expression assay of selected patients with and without metastasis showed overexpression in the former, but not in normal breast and lymph node tissue. Our results may be taken into account in the discussion about the merits of routine use of molecular assessment in pathogenetic studies of SLNs.

Hasanpourghadi M, Karthikeyan C, Pandurangan AK, et al.
Targeting of tubulin polymerization and induction of mitotic blockage by Methyl 2-(5-fluoro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxylate (MBIC) in human cervical cancer HeLa cell.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Microtubule Targeting Agents (MTAs) including paclitaxel, colchicine and vinca alkaloids are widely used in the treatment of various cancers. As with most chemotherapeutic agents, adverse effects and drug resistance are commonly associated with the clinical use of these agents. Methyl 2-(5-fluoro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H- benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxylate (MBIC), a benzimidazole derivative displays greater toxicity against various cancer compared to normal human cell lines. The present study, focused on the cytotoxic effects of MBIC against HeLa cervical cancer cells and possible actions on the microtubule assembly.
METHODS: Apoptosis detection and cell-cycle assays were performed to determine the type of cell death and the phase of cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells. Tubulin polymerization assay and live-cell imaging were performed to visualize effects on the microtubule assembly in the presence of MBIC. Mitotic kinases and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic proteins were evaluated by Western blot analysis. In addition, the synergistic effect of MBIC with low doses of selected chemotherapeutic actions were examined against the cancer cells.
RESULTS: Results from the present study showed that following treatment with MBIC, the HeLa cells went into mitotic arrest comprising of multi-nucleation and unsegregated chromosomes with a prolonged G2-M phase. In addition, the HeLa cells showed signs of mitochondrial-dependant apoptotic features such as the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspases. MBIC markedly interferes with tubulin polymerization. Western blotting results indicated that MBIC affects mitotic regulatory machinery by up-regulating BubR1, Cyclin B1, CDK1 and down-regulation of Aurora B. In addition, MBIC displayed synergistic effect when given in combination with colchicine, nocodazole, paclitaxel and doxorubicin.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, our study demonstrated the distinctive microtubule destabilizing effects of MBIC against cervical cancer cells in vitro. Besides that, MBIC exhibited synergistic effects with low doses of selected anticancer drugs and thus, may potentially reduce the toxicity and drug resistance to these agents.

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