Gene Summary

Gene:NRAS; NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase
Aliases: NS6, CMNS, NCMS, ALPS4, N-ras, NRAS1
Summary:This is an N-ras oncogene encoding a membrane protein that shuttles between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane. This shuttling is regulated through palmitoylation and depalmitoylation by the ZDHHC9-GOLGA7 complex. The encoded protein, which has intrinsic GTPase activity, is activated by a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor and inactivated by a GTPase activating protein. Mutations in this gene have been associated with somatic rectal cancer, follicular thyroid cancer, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, Noonan syndrome, and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:GTPase NRas
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (23)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (14)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (10)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
MelanomaNRAS and Melanoma View Publications944
LeukaemiaNRAS and Leukemia View Publications630
Skin CancerNRAS and Skin Cancer View Publications429
Colorectal CancerNRAS and Colorectal Cancer View Publications397
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML)NRAS and Acute Myeloid Leukaemia View Publications231
Thyroid CancerNRAS and Thyroid Cancer View Publications216
NeuroblastomaNRAS and Neuroblastoma View Publications23
Bladder CancerNRAS and Bladder Cancer View Publications23
RhabdomyosarcomaNRAS and Rhabdomyosarcoma View Publications18
Noonan SyndromeNRAS mutation Noonan Syndrome
Noonan Syndrome is an autosamal dominant multi-system disorder, characterised by facial anomalies, short stature, developmental delay, cardiac abnormalities and other symptoms. The syndrome pre-disposes to myeloproliferative disorders ( mainly chronic myeolomonocytic leukemia / juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia), with reports of neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and a wide range of other tumors.
View Publications7

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NRAS (cancer-related)

Naghizadeh S, Mohammadi A, Baradaran B, Mansoori B
Overcoming multiple drug resistance in lung cancer using siRNA targeted therapy.
Gene. 2019; 714:143972 [PubMed] Related Publications
Among cancers, lung cancer is the most morbidity and mortality disease that is remaining the fatalist. Generally, there are multiple treatment procedures for lung cancer, such as surgery, immunotherapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. There is, therefore, an urgent need for more specified and efficient methods for treatment of lung cancer such as RNAi, which in combination with traditional therapies could silence genes that are involved in the drug resistance. These genes may either be motivators of apoptosis inhibition, EMT and DNA repair system promoters or a member of intracellular signaling pathways, such as JAK/STAT, RAS/RAF/MEK, PI3K/AKT, NICD, B-catenin/TCF/LEF and their stimulator receptors including IGFR, EGFR, FGFR, VEGFR, CXCR4, MET, INTEGRINS, NOTCH1 and FRIZZLED, so could be considered as appropriate targets. In current review, the results of multiple studies which have employed drug application after one specific gene silencing or more than one gene from distinct pathways also simultaneous drug and RNAi usage in vitro and in vivo in lung cancer were summarized.

Makishima H
[Genomic aberrations in myelodysplastic syndromes and related disorders].
Rinsho Ketsueki. 2019; 60(6):600-609 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) are heterogeneous myeloid neoplasms that frequently evolve into secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML). Recent progress in next-generation sequencing technologies has allowed us to discover frequent mutations throughout the coding regions of MDS, MDS/MPN, and sAML, subsequently providing information on more than 60 driver genes in these diseases. As shown by many study groups recently, such driver mutations are acquired in a gene-specific fashion. DDX41 and SAMD9/SAMD9L mutations are observed in germline cells long before MDS presentation. In blood samples from healthy elderly individuals, somatic DNMT3A, TET2, and ASXL1 mutations are detected as age-related clonal hematopoiesis and supposed to be a risk factor for hematological neoplasms. Recent reports on MDS have shown that mutations in genes such as NRAS and FLT3, designated as Type I genes, were significantly associated with leukemic evolution. Another type (Type II) of genes, including RUNX1 and GATA2, has been shown to be related to the progression from low-risk to high-risk MDS. These driver mutations are significantly concomitant during disease progression. Overall, various types of driver mutations are sequentially acquired in MDS, accounting for the heterogeneity of these disorders.

Yoo SK, Song YS, Lee EK, et al.
Integrative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic characteristics associated with progression of aggressive thyroid cancer.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2764 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) and advanced differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) show fatal outcomes, unlike DTCs. Here, we demonstrate mutational landscape of 27 ATCs and 86 advanced DTCs by massively-parallel DNA sequencing, and transcriptome of 13 ATCs and 12 advanced DTCs were profiled by RNA sequencing. TERT, AKT1, PIK3CA, and EIF1AX were frequently co-mutated with driver genes (BRAF

Demin DE, Afanasyeva MA, Uvarova AN, et al.
Constitutive Expression of NRAS with Q61R Driver Mutation Activates Processes of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Leads to Substantial Transcriptome Change of Nthy-ori 3-1 Thyroid Epithelial Cells.
Biochemistry (Mosc). 2019; 84(4):416-425 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Q61R mutation of the NRAS gene is one of the most frequent driver mutations of thyroid cancer. Tumors with this mutation are characterized by invasion into blood vessels and formation of distant metastases. To study the role of this mutation in the growth of thyroid cancer, we developed a model system on the basis of thyroid epithelial cell line Nthy-ori 3-1 transduced by a lentiviral vector containing the NRAS gene with the Q61R mutation. It was found that the expression of NRAS(Q61R) in thyroid epithelial cells has a profound influence on groups of genes involved in the formation of intercellular contacts, as well as in processes of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell invasion. The alteration in the expression of these genes affects the phenotype of the model cells, which acquire traits of mesenchymal cells and demonstrate increased ability for survival and growth without attachment to the substrate. The key regulators of these processes are transcription factors belonging to families SNAIL, ZEB, and TWIST, and in different types of tumors the contribution of each individual factor can vary greatly. In our model system, phenotype change correlates with an increase in the expression of SNAIL2 and TWIST2 factors, which indicates their possible role in regulating invasive growth of thyroid cancer with the mutation of NRAS(Q61R).

Yu L, Teng F, Jiang M, Guo J
[Establishment of a novel TB-ARMS qPCR method for kras mutation detection].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2019; 35(5):880-891 [PubMed] Related Publications
A simple, robust and highly sensitive TB-ARMS method based on qPCR technique was developed to detect kras mutations. The technique was evaluated, and its clinical application was investigated. Mutation specific primers for eight common kras mutations and wild type gene targeted blockers were designed and optimized. Moreover, a mutant-enriched condition was used in to improve the sensitivity and specificity of mutation detection. Constructed plasmids carrying mutant kras genes, as well as confirmed wild type genomic DNA, were used as standard samples for evaluation of the methodology. The performance of our new method was validated by comparing the results of our method with that of a commercial kras kit in testing 40 clinical samples. Preoperative plasma samples, as well as paired tissue samples, were tested in parallel for evaluation of its clinical application. We have developed a new TB-ARMS method for kras mutation detection that can detect minor mutant alleles with a frequency as low as 0.01% in a heterogeneous sample. We have successfully demonstrated its 0.01% detection sensitivity with highly specific mutant amplification in conjunction with selective wild type suppression by blocker under a mutant-enriched reaction condition. We also showed that our TB-ARMS method was more accurate than the commercial kras kit, which is widely used presently. Furthermore, we have validated our method as an efficient liquid biopsy method, and the results of the plasma DNA detection with our TB-ARMS method were in consistent with the sequencing results of paired tissue samples. In conclusion, our TB-ARMS qPCR method could be effectively applied in kras mutation test for clinical tissue samples, as well as for liquid biopsy samples such as plasma.

Jerez S, Araya H, Hevia D, et al.
Extracellular vesicles from osteosarcoma cell lines contain miRNAs associated with cell adhesion and apoptosis.
Gene. 2019; 710:246-257 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor during childhood and adolescence. Several reports have presented data on serum biomarkers for osteosarcoma, but few reports have analyzed circulating microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we used next generation miRNA sequencing to examine miRNAs isolated from microvesicle-depleted extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from six different human osteosarcoma or osteoblastic cell lines with different degrees of metastatic potential (i.e., SAOS2, MG63, HOS, 143B, U2OS and hFOB1.19). EVs from each cell line contain on average ~300 miRNAs, and ~70 of these miRNAs are present at very high levels (i.e., >1000 reads per million). The most prominent miRNAs are miR-21-5p, miR-143-3p, miR-148a-3p and 181a-5p, which are enriched between 3 and 100 fold and relatively abundant in EVs derived from metastatic SAOS2 cells compared to non-metastatic MG63 cells. Gene ontology analysis of predicted targets reveals that miRNAs present in EVs may regulate the metastatic potential of osteosarcoma cell lines by potentially inhibiting a network of genes (e.g., MAPK1, NRAS, FRS2, PRCKE, BCL2 and QKI) involved in apoptosis and/or cell adhesion. Our data indicate that osteosarcoma cell lines may selectively package miRNAs as molecular cargo of EVs that could function as paracrine agents to modulate the tumor micro-environment.

Staněk L, Gürlich R, Hajer J, et al.
Molecular pathology of cholangiocellular carcinomas.
Cas Lek Cesk. 2019; 158(2):64-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cholangiocellular carcinoma is a relatively rare malignant tumor, originating from cholangiocytes, with poor prognosis and late diagnosis. It is a malignancy with a variable biological etiology, numerous genetic and epigenetic changes. Its incidence in the Czech Republic is about 1.4 per 100,000 people per year. For good prognosis and long-term survival, early diagnosis with surgical treatment is important. In these cases, a 5-year survival rate is about 20-40 %. In the early diagnosis imaging methods and histopathological verification play an essential role, whereas laboratory oncomarkers are not yet sufficiently accurate. The same applies for genetic markers. This leads to the search of new molecular targets and the high effort in the introduction of cytological and molecular-biological methods with high specificity and sensitivity into routine practice. Current early diagnosis is based on the use of efficient imaging methods. The use of genetic testing, and especially knowledge of the molecular basis of this disease, will be of a great benefit. The observation of the association between the genetic pathways, IDH1, RAS-MAPK etc., and genetic mutations of genes, such as TP53, KRAS, SMAD4, BRAF, IDH1/2, may be significant. From the molecular point of view, it is also interesting to monitor oncogenic potential in HBV/HCV infection.

Liu XN, Tian Z, Wei XF, et al.
[Combined detection of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations in the plasma and tumor tissues of colorectal cancer patients].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2019; 48(5):373-377 [PubMed] Related Publications

Cao Y, Zhu W, Chen W, et al.
Prognostic Value of BIRC5 in Lung Adenocarcinoma Lacking EGFR, KRAS, and ALK Mutations by Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis.
Dis Markers. 2019; 2019:5451290 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
Objective: This study was aimed at investigating the prognostic significance of Baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5 (BIRC5) in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) lacking EGFR, KRAS, and ALK mutations (triple-negative (TN) adenocarcinomas).
Methods: The gene expression profiles were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The identification of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was performed by GeneSpring GX. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to execute gene ontology function and pathway enrichment analysis. The protein interaction network was constructed by Cytoscape. The hub genes were extracted by MCODE and cytoHubba plugin from the network. Then, using BIRC5 as a candidate, the prognostic value in LAD and TN adenocarcinomas was verified by the Kaplan-Meier plotter and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, respectively. Finally, the mechanism of BIRC5 was predicted by a coexpressed network and enrichment analysis.
Results: A total of 38 upregulated genes and 121 downregulated genes were identified. 9 hub genes were extracted. Among them, the mRNA expression of 5 genes, namely, BIRC5, MCM4, CDC20, KIAA0101, and TRIP13, were significantly upregulated among TN adenocarcinomas (all
Conclusion: Overexpressed in tumors, BIRC5 is associated with unfavorable overall survival in TN adenocarcinomas. BIRC5 is a potential predictor and therapeutic target in TN adenocarcinomas.

Tsujino T, Sugito N, Taniguchi K, et al.
MicroRNA-143/Musashi-2/KRAS cascade contributes positively to carcinogenesis in human bladder cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(7):2189-2199 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
It has been well established that microRNA (miR)-143 is downregulated in human bladder cancer (BC). Recent precision medicine has shown that mutations in BC are frequently observed in FGFR3, RAS and PIK3CA genes, all of which correlate with RAS signaling networks. We have previously shown that miR-143 suppresses cell growth by inhibiting RAS signaling networks in several cancers including BC. In the present study, we showed that synthetic miR-143 negatively regulated the RNA-binding protein Musashi-2 (MSI2) in BC cell lines. MSI2 is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the stability of certain mRNAs and their translation by binding to the target sequences of the mRNAs. Of note, the present study clarified that MSI2 positively regulated KRAS expression through directly binding to the target sequence of KRAS mRNA and promoting its translation, thus contributing to the maintenance of KRAS expression. Thus, miR-143 silenced KRAS and MSI2, which further downregulated KRAS expression through perturbation of the MSI2/KRAS cascade.

Liang W, Guo M, Pan Z, et al.
Association between certain non-small cell lung cancer driver mutations and predictive markers for chemotherapy or programmed death-ligand 1 inhibition.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(6):2014-2021 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
This study aimed to analyze the association between driver mutations and predictive markers for some anti-tumor agents in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A cohort of 785 Chinese patients with NSCLC who underwent resection from March 2016 to November 2017 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University was investigated. The specimens were subjected to hybridization capture and sequence of 8 important NSCLC-related driver genes. In addition, the slides were tested for PD-L1, excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1), ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1), thymidylate synthase (TS) and β-tubulin III by immunohistochemical staining. A total of 498 (63.4%) patients had at least 1 driver gene alteration. Wild-type, EGFR rare mutation (mut), ALK fusion (fus), RAS mut, RET fus and MET mut had relatively higher proportions of lower ERCC1 expression. EGFR 19del, EGFR L858R, EGFR rare mut, ALK fus, HER2 mut, ROS1 fus and MET mut were more likely to have TS low expression. Wild-type, EGFR L858R, EGFR rare mut and BRAF mut were associated with lower β-tubulin III expression. In addition, wild-type, RAS mut, ROS1 fus, BRAF and MET mut had higher proportion of PD-L1 high expression. As a pilot validation, 21 wild-type patients with advanced NSCLC showed better depth of response and response rate to taxanes compared with pemetrexed/gemcitabine (31.2%/60.0% vs 26.6%/45.5%). Our study may aid in selecting the optimal salvage regimen after targeted therapy failure, or the chemo-regimen where targeted therapy has not been a routine option. Further validation is warranted.

Choi SY, Kim HW, Jeon SH, et al.
Comparison of PANAMutyper and PNAClamp for Detecting KRAS Mutations from Patients With Malignant Pleural Effusion.
In Vivo. 2019 May-Jun; 33(3):945-954 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: KRAS is one of the frequently mutated genes in human cancers and often relates with drug resistance and poor prognosis. PANAMutyper™ is a novel technology that integrates PNAClamp™ and PANA S-Melting™. In the present study, PANAMutyper™ and PNAClamp™ were compared for the detection of KRAS mutations using different samples of patients with malignant pleural effusion.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 103 patients (including 56 lung adenocarcinoma, 10 lung squamous carcinoma, 17 small cell lung cancer, 3 large cell lung cancer, 3 stomach cancer, 2 ovarian cancer, and others) with malignant pleural effusion were investigated using matched tumor tissue, cell block, and pleural effusion samples. The diagnostic performance of these two methods was compared.
RESULTS: KRAS mutations were detected in 18 (17.5%) of 103 patients using tissue, cell block, and pleural effusion samples. All 18 patients with KRAS mutations were detected by PANAMutyper™ using any sample type, however, only 7 cases were detected by PNAClamp™. Among the subtypes of KRAS mutations, substitution in codon 12, 35G>T was the most frequent, followed by substitution in codon 12, 35G>A and codon 12, 34G>A. In pleural effusion specimens, PANAMutyper™ showed a better diagnostic performance compared to PNAClamp™.
CONCLUSION: PANAMutyper™ had a diagnostic superiority for the detection of KRAS mutations in patients with malignant pleural effusion compared to PNAClamp™, although there was a concordance between PANAMutyper™ and PNAClamp™ results. Therefore, PANAMutyper™ can be used for a more sensitive and accurate detection of KRAS mutations.

Zeng MH, He XL, Yang MH, et al.
[Clinical and genetic analyses of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2019; 21(4):365-369 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and genetic features of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) and the association between genotype and prognosis. Methods The clinical data of 15 children who were diagnosed with JMML were collected. Next-generation sequencing was used to detect common gene mutations of JMML.
RESULTS: The male/female ratio was 6.5:1, and the age of onset was 19 months (range 2-67 months). Of the 15 children, 11 (73%) experienced disease onset before the age of 4 years, with abdominal distension and pyrexia as initial symptoms. All children had hepatosplenomegaly and superficial lymphadenectasis, with a number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of >1.0×10
CONCLUSIONS: In children with JMML, the type of gene mutation is associated with prognosis. The children with PTPN11 mutation often have a poor prognosis, and those with CBL or NRAS mutation have a relatively good prognosis.

Saeinasab M, Bahrami AR, González J, et al.
SNHG15 is a bifunctional MYC-regulated noncoding locus encoding a lncRNA that promotes cell proliferation, invasion and drug resistance in colorectal cancer by interacting with AIF.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):172 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are aberrantly expressed in various types of cancers, however our understanding of their role in the disease is still very limited.
METHODS: We applied RNAseq analysis from patient-derived data with validation in independent cohort of patients. We followed these studies with gene regulation analysis as well as experimental dissection of the role of the identified lncRNA by multiple in vitro and in vivo methods.
RESULTS: We analyzed RNA-seq data from tumors of 456 CRC patients compared to normal samples, and identified SNHG15 as a potentially oncogenic lncRNA that encodes a snoRNA in one of its introns. The processed SNHG15 is overexpressed in CRC tumors and its expression is highly correlated with poor survival of patients. Interestingly, SNHG15 is more highly expressed in tumors with high levels of MYC expression, while MYC protein binds to two E-box motifs on SNHG15 sequence, indicating that SNHG15 transcription is directly regulated by the oncogene MYC. The depletion of SNHG15 by siRNA or CRISPR-Cas9 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion, decreases colony formation as well as the tumorigenic capacity of CRC cells, whereas its overexpression leads to opposite effects. Gene expression analysis performed upon SNHG15 inhibition showed changes in multiple relevant genes implicated in cancer progression, including MYC, NRAS, BAG3 or ERBB3. Several of these genes are functionally related to AIF, a protein that we found to specifically interact with SNHG15, suggesting that the SNHG15 acts, at least in part, by regulating the activity of AIF. Interestingly, ROS levels, which are directly regulated by AIF, show a significant reduction in SNHG15-depleted cells. Moreover, knockdown of SNHG15 increases the sensitiveness of the cells to 5-FU, while its overexpression renders them more resistant to the chemotherapeutic drug.
CONCLUSION: Altogether, these results describe an important role of SNHG15 in promoting colon cancer and mediating drug resistance, suggesting its potential as prognostic marker and target for RNA-based therapies.

Kel A, Boyarskikh U, Stegmaier P, et al.
Walking pathways with positive feedback loops reveal DNA methylation biomarkers of colorectal cancer.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2019; 20(Suppl 4):119 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The search for molecular biomarkers of early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important but still quite challenging and unsolved task. Detection of CpG methylation in human DNA obtained from blood or stool has been proposed as a promising approach to a noninvasive early diagnosis of CRC. Thousands of abnormally methylated CpG positions in CRC genomes are often located in non-coding parts of genes. Novel bioinformatic methods are thus urgently needed for multi-omics data analysis to reveal causative biomarkers with a potential driver role in early stages of cancer.
METHODS: We have developed a method for finding potential causal relationships between epigenetic changes (DNA methylations) in gene regulatory regions that affect transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) and gene expression changes. This method also considers the topology of the involved signal transduction pathways and searches for positive feedback loops that may cause the carcinogenic aberrations in gene expression. We call this method "Walking pathways", since it searches for potential rewiring mechanisms in cancer pathways due to dynamic changes in the DNA methylation status of important gene regulatory regions ("epigenomic walking").
RESULTS: In this paper, we analysed an extensive collection of full genome gene-expression data (RNA-seq) and DNA methylation data of genomic CpG islands (using Illumina methylation arrays) generated from a sample of tumor and normal gut epithelial tissues of 300 patients with colorectal cancer (at different stages of the disease) (data generated in the EU-supported SysCol project). Identification of potential epigenetic biomarkers of DNA methylation was performed using the fully automatic multi-omics analysis web service "My Genome Enhancer" (MGE) ( MGE uses the database on gene regulation TRANSFAC®, the signal transduction pathways database TRANSPATH®, and software that employs AI (artificial intelligence) methods for the analysis of cancer-specific enhancers.
CONCLUSIONS: The identified biomarkers underwent experimental testing on an independent set of blood samples from patients with colorectal cancer. As a result, using advanced methods of statistics and machine learning, a minimum set of 6 biomarkers was selected, which together achieve the best cancer detection potential. The markers include hypermethylated positions in regulatory regions of the following genes: CALCA, ENO1, MYC, PDX1, TCF7, ZNF43.

Hou JX, Wang SJ, Liu YF, et al.
[NPM1 High Mutant Allele Burden is an Adverse Prognostic Factor for AML Patients with Mutated NPM1].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2019; 27(2):365-372 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features, accompanying gene mutation characteristics and prognostic factors of adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia with mutated NPM1 (NPM1
METHODS: Seventy-three patients with newly diagnosed adult NPM1
RESULTS: A total of 74 NPM1 site mutations were detected in 73 patients with NPM1
CONCLUSION: The NPM1 gene mutation in AML patients often is accompanied by other gene mutations, while the coexistence of fusion genes is rare; high NPM1 mutant allele burden is an independent prognostic factor for adult AML patients with mutated NPM1.

Jin H, Jang Y, Cheng N, et al.
Restoration of mutant K-Ras repressed miR-199b inhibits K-Ras mutant non-small cell lung cancer progression.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):165 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: miRNAs play crucial role in the progression of K-Ras-mutated nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, most studies have focused on miRNAs that target K-Ras. Here, we investigated miRNAs regulated by mutant K-Ras and their functions.
METHODS: miRNAs regulated by mutant K-Ras were screened using miRNA arrays. miR-199b expression levels were measured by qRT-PCR. The protein expression levels were measured using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The effects of miR-199b on NSCLC were examined both in vitro and in vivo by overexpressing or inhibiting miR-199b. DNA methylation was measured by bisulfite sequencing.
RESULTS: An inverse correlation was observed between K-Ras mutation status and miR-199b levels in NSCLC specimens and cell lines. The inhibition of miR-199b stimulated NSCLC growth and metastasis, while restoration of miR-199b suppressed K-Ras mutation-driven lung tumorigenesis as well as K-Ras-mutated NSCLC growth and metastasis. miR-199b inactivated ERK and Akt pathways by targeting K-Ras, KSR2, PIK3R1, Akt1, and Rheb1. Furthermore, we determined that mutant K-Ras inhibits miR-199b expression by increasing miR-199b promoter methylation.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that mutant K-Ras plays an oncogenic role through downregulating miR-199b in NSCLC and that overexpression of miR-199b is a novel strategy for the treatment of K-Ras-mutated NSCLC.

Zhang J, Hou L, Liang R, et al.
CircDLST promotes the tumorigenesis and metastasis of gastric cancer by sponging miR-502-5p and activating the NRAS/MEK1/ERK1/2 signaling.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence shows that, the dysregulation of circular RNAs (circRNAs) is associated with the progression of multiple malignancies. But, the underlying mechanisms by which has_circ_0032627 (circDLST) contributed to gastric cancer (GC) remain undocumented.
METHODS: The expression and cellular localization of circDLST and its association with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis in patients with GC was analysed by using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments as well as a subcutaneous xenograft tumor model and a liver metastasis model from orthotopic implantation of GC tissues were conducted to assess the role of circDLST in GC cells. CircDLST specific binding with miR-502-5p was confirmed by dual luciferase gene report, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays and RIP-miRNA expression profiling. qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis was used to detect the effects of circDLST on miR-502-5p-mediated NRAS/MEK1/ERK1/2 signaling in GC cells.
RESULTS: The expression levels of circDLST were dramatically elevated in GC tissues as compared with the adjacent normal tissues, and acted as an independent prognostic factor of poor survival in patients with GC. Knockdown of circDLST inhibited the cell viability, colony formation, DNA synthesis, cell invasion and liver metastasis in vitro and in vivo, whereas overexpression of circDLST had the opposite effects. Furthermore, circDLST was co-localized with miR-502-5p in the cytoplasm of GC cells, and acted as a sponge of miR-502-3p in GC cells, which abrogated the tumor promoting effects of circDLST by inactivating the NRAS/MEK1/ERK1/2 signaling in GC cells.
CONCLUSION: CircDLST promotes the tumorigenesis and metastasis of GC cells by sponging miR-502-5p to activate the NRAS/MEK1/ERK1/2 signaling.

Wei Y, Wang F, Sang B, et al.
Activation of KRas-ERK1/2 signaling drives the initiation and progression of glioma by suppressing the acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16.
Life Sci. 2019; 225:55-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acetylation of H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac) has been well-characterized as an acetylated mark, and the expression of which is closely associated with the tumorigenesis of human cancers. This study aimed to reveal whether KRas mutation drives the initiation and progression of glioma via modulation of H4 acetylation.
METHODS: Changes of H4K16 acetylation in human glioblastoma A172 cells following transfection with a plasmid for expression of mutant KRas were tested by western blot analysis. MTT assay, transwell assay, soft-agar colony formation assay, RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation were carried out to evaluate the effect of H4K16ac on A172 cells growth and migration. Furthermore, the enzymes participating in the deacetylation of H4K16ac were studied by using RT-PCR and western blot analysis.
RESULTS: H4K16ac was found to be deacetylated by KRas-ERK1/2 activation. H4K16Q (a plasmid for mimicking H4K16ac) repressed A172 cells viability, colony formation, and migratory capacity. Besides, H4K16ac was capable of regulating the transcription of several ERK1/2 pathway downstream genes. KRas-ERK1/2 signaling repressed H4 acetylation at K16 via modulation of a histone deacetylase Sirt2, as well as a histone acetyl-transferase TIP60. Moreover, KRas-ERK1/2 inhibited TIP60 via an MDM2-dependnet fashion.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that activation of KRas-ERK1/2 signaling participates in the onset and progression of glioma at least partially through modulating acetylation of H4 at K16. KRas-ERK1/2 signaling mediates the acetylation of H4K16 via Sirt2 and MDM2-dependnet degeneration of TIP60.

Yang L, Peng X, Li Y, et al.
Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR promotes exosome secretion by regulating RAB35 and SNAP23 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):78 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates that tumor cells release a large amount of exosomes loaded with cargos during tumorigenesis. Exosome secretion is a multi-step process regulated by certain related molecules. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. However, the role of lncRNA HOTAIR in regulating exosome secretion in HCC cells remains unclear.
METHODS: We analyzed the relationship between HOTAIR expression and exosome secretion-related genes using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Nanoparticle tracking analysis was performed to validate the effect of HOTAIR on exosome secretion. The transport of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) after overexpression of HOTAIR was detected by transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy analysis of cluster determinant 63 (CD63) with synaptosome associated protein 23 (SNAP23). The mechanism of HOTAIR's regulation of Ras-related protein Rab-35 (RAB35), vesicle associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP3), and SNAP23 was assessed using confocal co-localization analysis, phosphorylation assays, and rescue experiments.
RESULTS: We found an enrichment of exosome secretion-related genes in the HOTAIR high expression group. HOTAIR promoted the release of exosomes by inducing MVB transport to the plasma membrane. HOTAIR regulated RAB35 expression and localization, which controlled the docking process. Moreover, HOTAIR facilitated the final step of fusion by influencing VAMP3 and SNAP23 colocalization. In addition, we validated that HOTAIR induced the phosphorylation of SNAP23 via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated a novel function of lncRNA HOTAIR in promoting exosome secretion from HCC cells and provided a new understanding of lncRNAs in tumor cell biology.

Lombard DB, Cierpicki T, Grembecka J
Combined MAPK Pathway and HDAC Inhibition Breaks Melanoma.
Cancer Discov. 2019; 9(4):469-471 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
In this issue, Maertens and colleagues demonstrate that HDAC3 inhibition potentiates the effects of MAPK pathway inhibitors in melanoma, including difficult-to-treat

Savoia P, Fava P, Casoni F, Cremona O
Targeting the ERK Signaling Pathway in Melanoma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(6) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
The discovery of the role of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway in melanomagenesis and its progression have opened a new era in the treatment of this tumor. Vemurafenib was the first specific kinase inhibitor approved for therapy of advanced melanomas harboring BRAF-activating mutations, followed by dabrafenib and encorafenib. However, despite the excellent results of first-generation kinase inhibitors in terms of response rate, the average duration of the response was short, due to the onset of genetic and epigenetic resistance mechanisms. The combination therapy with MEK inhibitors is an excellent strategy to circumvent drug resistance, with the additional advantage of reducing side effects due to the paradoxical reactivation of the MAPK pathway. The recent development of RAS and extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK) inhibitors promises to add new players for the ultimate suppression of this signaling pathway and the control of pathway-related drug resistance. In this review, we analyze the pharmacological, preclinical, and clinical trial data of the various MAPK pathway inhibitors, with a keen interest for their clinical applicability in the management of advanced melanoma.

Luo C, Cen S, Ding G, Wu W
Mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma: clinical pathology and treatment options.
Cancer Commun (Lond). 2019; 39(1):13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma is a distinct subtype of colorectal cancer (CRC) characterized by the presence of abundant extracellular mucin which accounts for at least 50% of the tumor volume. Mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma is found in 10%-20% of CRC patients and occurs more commonly in female and younger patients. Moreover, mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma is more frequently located in the proximal colon and diagnosed at an advanced stage. Based on its molecular context, mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma is associated with the overexpression of mucin 2 (MUC2) and mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) proteins. At the same time, it shows higher mutation rates in the fundamental genes of the RAS/MAPK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways. Mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma also shows higher rates of microsatellite instability (MSI) than non-mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma which might correlate it with Lynch syndrome and the CpG island methylator phenotype. The prognosis of mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma as to non-mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma is debatable. Further, the impaired responses of mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma to palliative or adjuvant chemotherapy warrant more studies to be performed for a specialized treatment for these patients. In this review, we discuss the molecular background and histopathology of mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma, and provide an update on its prognosis and therapeutics from recent literatures.

Kelly MJ, So J, Rogers AJ, et al.
Bcor loss perturbs myeloid differentiation and promotes leukaemogenesis.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1347 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
The BCL6 Corepressor (BCOR) is a component of a variant Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) that is essential for normal development. Recurrent mutations in the BCOR gene have been identified in acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome among other cancers; however, its function remains poorly understood. Here we examine the role of BCOR in haematopoiesis in vivo using a conditional mouse model that mimics the mutations observed in haematological malignancies. Inactivation of Bcor in haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) results in expansion of myeloid progenitors and co-operates with oncogenic Kras

Chacon-Camacho OF, Lopez-Moreno D, Morales-Sanchez MA, et al.
Expansion of the phenotypic spectrum and description of molecular findings in a cohort of patients with oculocutaneous mosaic RASopathies.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(5):e625 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Postzygotic KRAS, HRAS, NRAS, and FGFR1 mutations result in a group of mosaic RASopathies characterized by related developmental anomalies in eye, skin, heart, and brain. These oculocutaneous disorders include oculoectodermal syndrome (OES) encephalo-cranio-cutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL), and Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome (SFMS). Here, we report the results of the clinical and molecular characterization of a novel cohort of patients with oculocutaneous mosaic RASopathies.
METHODS: Two OES, two ECCL, and two SFMS patients were ascertained in the study. In addition, two subjects with unilateral isolated epibulbar dermoids were also enrolled. Molecular analysis included PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing of KRAS, HRAS, NRAS, and FGFR1 genes in DNA obtained from biopsies (skin/epibulbar dermoids), buccal mucosa, and blood leukocytes. Massive parallel sequencing was employed in two cases with low-level mosaicism.
RESULTS: In DNA from biopsies, mosaicism for pathogenic variants, including KRAS p.Ala146Thr in two OES subjects, FGFR1 p.Asn546Lys and KRAS p.Ala146Val in ECCL patients, and KRAS p.Gly12Asp in both SFMS patients, was demonstrated. No mutations were shown in DNA from conjunctival lesions in two subjects with isolated epibubar dermoids.
CONCLUSION: Our study allowed the expansion of the clinical spectrum of mosaic RASopathies and supports that mosaicism for recurrent mutations in KRAS and FGFR1 is a commonly involved mechanism in these rare oculocutaneous anomalies.

Nagasu S, Sudo T, Kinugasa T, et al.
Y‑box‑binding protein 1 inhibits apoptosis and upregulates EGFR in colon cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(5):2889-2896 [PubMed] Related Publications
Y‑box‑binding protein 1 (YB‑1) is a DNA/RNA‑-binding protein and an important transcription and translation factor in carcinogenesis. However, the biological function and molecular correlation of YB‑1 in colorectal cancer are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the significance of YB‑1 expression and its biological role in colorectal cancer. Cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis were examined upon knockdown of YB‑1 expression in different colon cancer cell lines that had different genetic backgrounds. Since the properties of different colon cancer cell lines with specific RAS/RAF gene mutations downstream epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) may differ from wild‑type colorectal cancer, it is critical to study the role of YB‑1 with respect to the mutational status of RAS. The results indicated that the suppression of YB‑1 decreased cell proliferation (P<0.05) and migration (P<0.05) regardless of the status of RAS/RAF in the HT29, HCT116 and CaCo2 cell lines. In contrast, YB‑1 knockdown altered the expression of apoptosis‑related genes and the expression of EGFR was detected in the cell lines expressing wild‑type RAS/RAF but not in those expressing mutated RAS/RAF. These results indicated that YB‑1 plays an important role in cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis and EGFR expression in colorectal cancer. Furthermore, apoptosis and EGFR expression may be affected by the mutational status of RAS/RAF and controlled through YB‑1.

Singhi AD, George B, Greenbowe JR, et al.
Real-Time Targeted Genome Profile Analysis of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas Identifies Genetic Alterations That Might Be Targeted With Existing Drugs or Used as Biomarkers.
Gastroenterology. 2019; 156(8):2242-2253.e4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: It has been a challenge to select treatment for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) based on genome alterations. We performed targeted genomic profile analyses of a large number of PDACs to assess the full spectrum of actionable genomic alterations.
METHODS: We performed targeted genomic profile analyses of 3594 PDAC samples from an international cohort, including capture-based targeted genomic profiling of as many as 315 cancer-associated genes and intron regions of 28 genes that are rearranged in cancer cells. Tumor mutation burden (TMB) and microsatellite instability (MSI) status were also assessed. TMB was calculated across a 1.14-megabase region; TMB-high was defined as ≥20 mutations/megabase. MSI-high status was assigned based on analysis of 114 intron homopolymer loci.
RESULTS: KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, and SMAD4 were the most frequently altered genes in PDAC. We found KRAS mutations in 88% of samples. Among PDACs without mutations in KRAS, we found alterations in genes whose products are in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and are candidate drug targets (actionable targets, n = 132; 4%), as well as gene fusions (n = 51), gene amplifications (n = 35), genes with missense mutations (n = 30), and genes that contain deletions (n = 16). Many of these encode proteins in receptor tyrosine kinase, RAS, or mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Aside from TP53, alterations in genes encoding DNA damage repair proteins (BRCA and FANC) were detected in 14% of PDACs. Among PDACs evaluated for MSI (n = 2563) and TMB (n = 1021), MSI-high and/or TMB-high phenotypes were detected in 0.5% of samples. Alterations in FGF23, CCND2, PIK3CA, and FGF6 were more commonly detected in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm-associated PDACs.
CONCLUSIONS: In targeted genomic profile analyses of 3594 PDACs, we found 17% to contain genomic alterations that might make the tumor cells susceptible to currently used anticancer agents. We identified mutations in genes that could contribute to progression of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms into malignancies. These alterations might be used as biomarkers for early detection.

Han J, Gao XZ, Wei JG, et al.
[Clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of primary pulmonary adenoid cystic carcinoma: a study of 59 cases].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2019; 48(3):204-208 [PubMed] Related Publications

Sami MM, Hachim MY, Hachim IY, et al.
Nucleostemin expression in breast cancer is a marker of more aggressive phenotype and unfavorable patients' outcome: A STROBE-compliant article.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(9):e14744 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are postulated to play significant role in the pathogenesis, progression as well as drug resistance of breast cancer. Nucleostemin (NS) is thought to be a key molecule for stemness, and the clinical impact of NS immunoreactivity in breast cancer can indicate its actual role and future therapeutic potentials.The current study is an observational study with an attempt to evaluate the correlation between NS expression (protein and gene expression levels) and different clinicopathological attributes of invasive breast cancer. For that reason, we investigated NS immunohistochemistry expression on commercial tissue microarray (TMA) of 102 patients and 51 archival specimens from patients admitted to Saqr Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah and diagnosed in Al Baraha Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In addition, the association between NS (GNL3) gene expression and different prognostic parameters as well as patient outcome was also evaluated using 2 large publicly available databases.Interestingly, we found NS expression to be associated with less differentiated and more advance stage. In addition, NS expression was significantly higher in larger size (P = .001) and LN-positive tumors (P = .007). Notably, NS expression was significantly correlated to P53 positive (P = .037) status. Furthermore, NS was found to be more expressed in the highly aggressive breast cancer subtypes including human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes. Moreover, our results also showed that high GNL3 gene expression to be associated with poor patient outcome and higher chances of tumor recurrence.Our results highlight NS expression as a marker of aggressive phenotype and poor outcome and indicate its possible use as a potential target for CSC-associated breast cancer management.

Xiong DD, Xu WQ, He RQ, et al.
In silico analysis identified miRNA‑based therapeutic agents against glioblastoma multiforme.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(4):2194-2208 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) contribute to the development of various malignant neoplasms, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The present study aimed to explore the pathogenesis of GBM and to identify latent therapeutic agents for patients with GBM, based on an in silico analysis. Gene chips that provide miRNA expression profiling in GBM were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were also determined via the RobustRankAggreg algorithm. The target genes of DEMs were predicted and then intersected with GBM‑associated genes that were collected from the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis. Gene Oncology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses of the overlapping genes were then performed. Simultaneously, a connectivity map (CMap) analysis was performed to screen for potential therapeutic agents for GBM. A total of 10 DEMs (hsa‑miR‑196a, hsa‑miR‑10b, hsa‑miR‑196b, hsa‑miR‑18b, hsa‑miR‑542‑3p, hsa‑miR‑129‑3p, hsa‑miR‑1224‑5p, hsa‑miR‑876‑3p and hsa‑miR‑770‑5p) were obtained from three GEO gene chips (GSE25631, GSE42657 and GSE61710). Then, 1,720 target genes of the 10 miRNAs and 4,185 differently expressed genes in GBM were collected. By intersecting the aforementioned gene clusters, the present study identified 390 overlapping genes. GO and KEGG analyses of the 390 genes demonstrated that these genes were involved in certain cancer‑associated biological functions and pathways. Eight genes [(GTPase NRas (NRAS), calcium/calmodulin‑dependent protein kinase type II subunit Gamma (CAMK2G), platelet‑derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA), calmodulin 3 (CALM3), cyclin‑dependent kinase 6 (CDK6), calcium/calmodulin‑dependent protein kinase type II subunit beta (CAMK2B), retinoblastoma‑associated protein (RB1) and protein kinase C beta type (PRKCB)] that were centralized in the glioma pathway were selected for CMap analysis. Three chemicals (W‑13, gefitinib and exemestane) were identified as putative therapeutic agents for GBM. In summary, the present study identified three miRNA‑based chemicals for use as a therapy for GBM. However, more experimental data are needed to verify the therapeutic properties of these latent drugs in GBM.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. NRAS, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 01 September, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999