ABCC2

Gene Summary

Gene:ABCC2; ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C (CFTR/MRP), member 2
Aliases: DJS, MRP2, cMRP, ABC30, CMOAT
Location:10q24
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. This protein is expressed in the canalicular (apical) part of the hepatocyte and functions in biliary transport. Substrates include anticancer drugs such as vinblastine; therefore, this protein appears to contribute to drug resistance in mammalian cells. Several different mutations in this gene have been observed in patients with Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ABCC2 (cancer-related)

Joerger M, Huitema AD, Boot H, et al.
Germline TYMS genotype is highly predictive in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies receiving capecitabine-based chemotherapy.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2015; 75(4):763-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This work was initiated to extend data on the effect of pharmacogenetics and chemotherapy pharmacokinetics (PK) on clinical outcome in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies.
METHODS: We assessed 44 gene polymorphisms in 16 genes (TYMS, MTHFR, GSTP1, GSTM1, GSTT1, DPYD, XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, ERCC1, RECQ1, RAD54L, ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2 and UGT2B7) in 64 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) receiving capecitabine/oxaliplatin and 76 patients with advanced gastroesophageal cancer (GEC) receiving epirubicin/cisplatin/capecitabine, respectively. Plasma concentrations of anticancer drugs were measured for up to 24 h, and results were submitted to population PK analysis. We calculated the association between gene polymorphisms, chemotherapy exposure, tumor response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and chemotherapy-related toxicity using appropriate statistical tests.
RESULTS: Patients with a low clearance of 5FU were at increased risk of neutropenia (P < 0.05) and hand-foot syndrome (P = 0.002). DPYD T85C, T1896C and A2846T mutant variants were associated with diarrhea (P < 0.05) and HFS (P < 0.02), and IVS14+1G>A additionally with diarrhea (P < 0.001). The TYMS 2R/3G, 3C/3G or 3G/3G promoter variants were associated with worse PFS in the CRC (HR = 2.0, P < 0.01) and GEC group (HR = 5.4, P < 0.001) and worse OS in the GEC group (HR = 4.7, P < 0.001). The GSTP1 A313G mutant variant was associated with a higher PFS (HR = 0.55, P = 0.001) and OS (HR = 0.60, P = 0.002) in the CRC group.
CONCLUSIONS: Germline polymorphisms of DPYD, TYMS and GSTP1 have a significant effect on toxicity and clinical outcome in patients receiving capecitabine-based chemotherapy for advanced colorectal or gastroesophageal cancer. These data should further be validated in prospective clinical studies.

Warta R, Theile D, Mogler C, et al.
Association of drug transporter expression with mortality and progression-free survival in stage IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e108908 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) have been associated with chemotherapy resistance and are considered unfavorable prognostic factors for survival of cancer patients. Analyzing mRNA expression levels of a subset of drug transporters by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) or protein expression by tissue microarray (TMA) in tumor samples of therapy naïve stage IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) (qRT-PCR, n = 40; TMA, n = 61), this in situ study re-examined the significance of transporter expression for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas database was used to externally validate the respective findings (n = 317). In general, HNSCC tended to lower expression of drug transporters compared to normal epithelium. High ABCB1 mRNA tumor expression was associated with both favorable progression-free survival (PFS, p = 0.0357) and overall survival (OS, p = 0.0535). Similar results were obtained for the mRNA of ABCC1 (MRP1, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1; PFS, p = 0.0183; OS, p = 0.038). In contrast, protein expression of ATP7b (copper transporter ATP7b), mRNA expression of ABCG2 (BCRP, breast cancer resistance protein), ABCC2 (MRP2), and SLC31A1 (hCTR1, human copper transporter 1) did not correlate with survival. Cluster analysis however revealed that simultaneous high expression of SLC31A1, ABCC2, and ABCG2 indicates poor survival of HNSCC patients. In conclusion, this study militates against the intuitive dogma where high expression of drug efflux transporters indicates poor survival, but demonstrates that expression of single drug transporters might indicate even improved survival. Prospectively, combined analysis of the 'transportome' should rather be performed as it likely unravels meaningful data on the impact of drug transporters on survival of patients with HNSCC.

Konecny GE, Wang C, Hamidi H, et al.
Prognostic and therapeutic relevance of molecular subtypes in high-grade serous ovarian cancer.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(10) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Molecular classification of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) using transcriptional profiling has proven to be complex and difficult to validate across studies. We determined gene expression profiles of 174 well-annotated HGSOCs and demonstrate prognostic significance of the prespecified TCGA Network gene signatures. Furthermore, we confirm the presence of four HGSOC transcriptional subtypes using a de novo classification. Survival differed statistically significantly between de novo subtypes (log rank, P = .006) and was the best for the immunoreactive-like subtype, but statistically significantly worse for the proliferative- or mesenchymal-like subtypes (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.18 to 3.02, P = .008, and adjusted hazard ratio = 2.45, 95% confidence interval = 1.43 to 4.18, P = .001, respectively). More prognostic information was provided by the de novo than the TCGA classification (Likelihood Ratio tests, P = .003 and P = .04, respectively). All statistical tests were two-sided. These findings were replicated in an external data set of 185 HGSOCs and confirm the presence of four prognostically relevant molecular subtypes that have the potential to guide therapy decisions.

Namisaki T, Schaeffeler E, Fukui H, et al.
Differential expression of drug uptake and efflux transporters in Japanese patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Drug Metab Dispos. 2014; 42(12):2033-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Targeted chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is impaired by intrinsic and/or acquired drug resistance. Because drugs used in HCC therapy (e.g., anthracyclines or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib) are substrates of uptake and/or efflux transporters, variable expression of these transporters at the plasma membrane of tumor cells may contribute to drug resistance and subsequent clinical response. In this study, the variability of expression of uptake transporters [organic cation transporter (OCT) 1 and OCT3] and efflux transporters [multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1)/P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 1, MRP2, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)], selected for their implication in transporting drugs used in HCC therapy, was investigated. HCC and corresponding nontumor tissue samples were collected from 24 Japanese patients at the time of surgery. Protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Expression data were correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and patients' outcome (median follow-up, 53 months). Generally, expression was highly variable among individual tumor samples. Yet median expression of OCT1, OCT3, and MDR1 in HCC was significantly lower (1.4-, 2.7-, and 2-fold, respectively) than in nontumor tissue, while expression of MRP2 persisted and BCRP showed a trend of increased levels in HCC. Patients with low BCRP expression had significantly shorter overall and recurrence-free survival times. Results suggest different expression patterns of drug transporters in HCC, which are associated only in part with clinicopathological characteristics. Detailed information on expression of drug transporters in HCC may be promising for individualization and optimization of drug therapy for liver cancer.

Benabbou N, Mirshahi P, Bordu C, et al.
A subset of bone marrow stromal cells regulate ATP-binding cassette gene expression via insulin-like growth factor-I in a leukemia cell line.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(4):1372-80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
The importance of the insulin-like growth factor, IGF, as a signaling axis in cancer development, progression and metastasis is highlighted by its effects on cancer cells, notably proliferation and acquired resistance. The role of the microenvironment within which cancer cells evolve and which mediates this effect is far from clear. Here, the involvement of IGF-I in inducing multidrug resistance in a myeloid leukemia cell line, grown in the presence of bone marrow-derived stromal cells called 'Hospicells' (BMH), is demonstrated. We found that i) drug sensitive as well as resistant leukemia cells express IGF-I and its receptor IGF-IR. However, the resistant cells were found to secrete high levels of IGF-I. ii) Presence of exogenous IGF-I promoted cell proliferation, which decreased when an inhibitor of IGF-IR (picropodophyllin, PPP) was added. iii) BMH and IGF-I are both involved in the regulation of genes of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) related to resistance development (MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, MRP3 and BCRP). iv) The levels of ABC gene expression by leukemia cells were found to increase in the presence of increasing numbers of BMH. However, these levels decreased when IGF-IR was inhibited by addition of PPP. v) Co-culture of the drug-sensitive leukemia cells with BMH induced protection against the action of daunorubicin. This chemoresistance was amplified by the presence of IGF-I whereas it decreased when IGF-IR was inhibited. Our results underline the role of microenvironment in concert with the IGF-1 pathway in conferring drug resistance to leukemia cells.

Au A, Baba AA, Azlan H, et al.
Clinical impact of ABCC1 and ABCC2 genotypes and haplotypes in mediating imatinib resistance among chronic myeloid leukaemia patients.
J Clin Pharm Ther. 2014; 39(6):685-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The introduction and success of imatinib mesylate (IM) has brought about a paradigm shift in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) treatment. However, despite the high efficacy of IM, clinical resistance develops due to a heterogeneous array of mechanisms. Pharmacogenetic variability as a result of genetic polymorphisms could be one of the most important factors influencing resistance to IM. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between genetic variations in drug efflux transporter ABCC1 (MRP1) and ABCC2 (MRP2) genes and response to IM in patients with CML.
METHODS: We genotyped 215 Malaysian patients with CML (comprising of two groups with 108 IM resistant and 107 IM responsive) for polymorphisms of ABCC1 (2012G>T and 2168G>A) and ABCC2 (-24C>T, 1249G>A and 3972C>T) genes. Genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies were compared between two groups of patients. Patients with CML were further stratified according to their clinical response to IM into those having cytogenetics and molecular responses, and the associations with genotypes were evaluated.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We observed no significant differences in the distribution of any of the tested genotypes between the investigated groups. However, on evaluating the risk association, ABCC2 T₋₂₄ G₁₂₄₉ T₃₉₇₂ haplotype was found to be associated with IM resistance (P = 0·046). These results suggest that haplotype variants -24T and 3972T might be associated with lower expression of ABCC2 protein and reduced transport activity and hence might be contributing to development of IM resistance.
WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Our results suggest the ABCC2 T₋₂₄ G₁₂₄₉ T₃₉₇₂ haplotype was associated with imatinib resistance. However, the evidence is as yet insufficient to establish this haplotype as a predictive biomarker for response to the drug.

Zgheib NK, Akra-Ismail M, Aridi C, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes predict increased toxicity with methotrexate therapy in Lebanese children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2014; 24(8):387-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to analyze polymorphisms in genes involved in 6-mercaptopurine detoxification (TPMT); methotrexate (MTX) metabolism including ABCB1 (or MDR1), ABCC2, SLC19A1 (or RFC1), and SLCO1B1; and the MTX effect mainly MTHFR and TYMS, and to assess whether these polymorphisms are predictors of treatment toxicity and/or MTX clearance.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 127 Lebanese acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, of whom 117 were treated following the St Jude's Children Research Hospital protocol. Genotyping was performed using real-time PCR or restriction fragment length polymorphism. MTX levels were measured using a polarization fluorescence assay from Roche. MTX clearance was estimated on the basis of all available MTX levels measured after high-dose MTX treatment during the consolidation phase.
RESULTS: Five variants in four genes (MTHFR, ABCB1, ABCC2, and TYMS) were shown to be associated with toxicity, but neither was associated with MTX pharmacokinetic parameters. For instance, during the consolidation phase, a statistically significant association was found between MTHFR rs1801133 variant allele carriers and a decrease in hemoglobin levels [odds ratio (OR)=3.057; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.217; 7.680]. In addition, a statistically significant association was found among neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count<500) and variant allele carriers of ABCB1 rs1045642 (OR=5.174; 95% CI: 1.674; 15.989) and ABCB1 rs1128503 (OR=3.364; 95% CI: 1.257; 9.004), respectively. ABCC2 rs717620 variant allele carriers needed significantly more time to reach a MTX level below 0.1 µmol/l (β=5.122; 95% CI: 1.412; 8.831). During the continuation phase, a statistically significant association was found between ABCC2 rs717620 and TYMS 28-bp tandem repeats carriers with the need to decrease weekly MTX doses (β=-4.905; 95% CI: -9; -0.809 and β=-5.770; 95% CI: -10.138; -1.403), respectively.
CONCLUSION: Genotyping for MTHFR, ABCB1, ABCC2, and TYMS polymorphisms may be useful in identifying patients at risk of increased MTX toxicity and the need for dose optimization before treatment initiation.

Tonigold M, Rossmann A, Meinold M, et al.
A cisplatin-resistant head and neck cancer cell line with cytoplasmic p53(mut) exhibits ATP-binding cassette transporter upregulation and high glutathione levels.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014; 140(10):1689-704 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines with cytoplasmically sequestered mutant p53 (p53(mut_c)) are frequently more resistant to cisplatin (CDDP) than cells with mutant but nuclear p53 (p53(mut_n)). The aim of the study was to identify underlying mechanisms implicated in CDDP resistance of HNSCC cells carrying cytoplasmic p53(mut).
METHODS: Microarray analysis, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry were used to identify and evaluate candidate genes involved in CDDP resistance of p53(mut_c) cells. RNAi knockdown or treatment with inhibitors together with flow cytometry-based methods was used for functional assessment of the identified candidate genes. Cellular metabolic activity was assessed with the XTT assay, and the redox capacity of cells was evaluated by measuring cellular glutathione (GSH) levels.
RESULTS: Upregulation of ABCC2 and ABCG2 transporters was observed in CDDP-resistant p53(mut_c) HNSCC cells. Furthermore, p53(mut_c) cells exhibited a pronounced side population that could be suppressed by RNAi knockdown of ABCG2 as well as treatment with the ATP-binding-cassette transporter inhibitors imatinib, MK571 and tariquidar. Metabolic activity and cellular GSH levels were higher in CDDP-resistant p53(mut_c) cells, consistent with a higher capacity to fend off cytotoxic oxidative effects such as those caused by CDDP treatment. Finally, ABCC2/G2 inhibition of HNSCC cells with MK571 markedly enhanced CDDP sensitivity of HNSCC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The observations in this study point to a major role of p53(mut_c) in conferring a stem cell like phenotype to HNSCC cells that is associated with ABCC2/G2 overexpression, high GSH and metabolic activity levels as well as CDDP resistance.

Li W, Zhai B, Zhi H, et al.
Association of ABCB1, β tubulin I, and III with multidrug resistance of MCF7/DOC subline from breast cancer cell line MCF7.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):8883-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Docetaxel is a first-line chemotherapeutic agent for treating advanced breast cancer. The development of chemoresistance or multidrug resistance (MDR), however, results in breast cancer chemotherapy failure. This study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying docetaxel-resistance in treatment of breast cancer. The docetaxel-resistant subline MCF7/DOC, derived from the parental sensitive breast cancer cell line MCF7, was established by intermittent exposure to moderate concentrations of docetaxel, followed by examination of its phenotypes. The MCF7/DOC subline showed cross resistance against paclitaxel, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and 5-Fu. Compared to the parental MCF7, MCF7/DOC cells were enlarged with heterogeneous sizes and a cobblestone and polygonal appearance. They were arrested at G2/M phase and proliferated slowly. The colony formation potential of MCF7/DOC in soft agar was significantly increased. MCF7/DOC cells showed reduced intracellular accumulation and increased efflux of rhodamine 123. The mRNA expression level of adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, i.e., ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCG2, and β tubulin isotypes were characterized by quantitative PCR. High-level expression of ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin mRNA in MCF7/DOC was detected. Downregulation of ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin mediated by three combined siRNAs resulted in stronger growth inhibition of MCF7/DOC than inhibition of the expression of individual genes. ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin might contribute to the MDR of MCF7/DOC and be potential therapeutic targets for overcoming MDR of breast cancer.

Gonzalez-Sanchez E, Marin JJ, Perez MJ
The expression of genes involved in hepatocellular carcinoma chemoresistance is affected by mitochondrial genome depletion.
Mol Pharm. 2014; 11(6):1856-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deletions and mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which are frequent in human tumors, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), may contribute to enhancing their malignant phenotype. Here we have investigated the effect of mtDNA depletion in the expression of genes accounting for mechanisms of chemoresistance (MOC) in HCC. Using human HCC SK-Hep-1 cells depleted of mtDNA (Rho), changes in gene expression in response to antitumor drugs previously assayed in HCC treatment were analyzed. In Rho cells, a decreased sensitivity to doxorubicin-, SN-38-, cisplatin (CDDP)-, and sorafenib-induced cell death was found. Both constitutive and drug-induced reactive oxygen species generation were decreased. Owing to activation of the NRF2-mediated pathway, MDR1, MRP1, and MRP2 expression was higher in Rho than in wild-type cells. This difference was maintained after further upregulation induced by treatment with doxorubicin, SN-38, or CDDP. Topoisomerase-IIa expression was also enhanced in Rho cells before and after treatment with these drugs. Moreover, the ability of doxorubicin, SN-38 and CDDP to induce proapoptotic signals was weaker in Rho cells, as evidenced by survivin upregulation and reductions in Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratios. Changes in these genes seem to play a minor role in the enhanced resistance of Rho cells to sorafenib, which may be related to an enhanced intracellular ATP content together with the loss of expression of the specific target of sorafenib, tyrosine kinase receptor Kit. In conclusion, these results suggest that mtDNA depletion may activate MOC able to hinder the efficacy of chemotherapy against HCC.

Morris ME, Dave RA
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of phenethyl isothiocyanate: implications in breast cancer prevention.
AAPS J. 2014; 16(4):705-13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC)-a naturally occurring isothiocyanate in cruciferous vegetables-has been extensively studied as a chemopreventive agent in several preclinical species and in humans. Pharmacokinetic features of unchanged PEITC are (I) linear and first-order absorption, (II) high protein binding and capacity-limited tissue distribution, and (III) reversible metabolism and capacity-limited hepatic elimination. Membrane transport of PEITC is mediated by BCRP, multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 1, and MRP2 transporters belonging to the ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) family. PEITC is metabolized by glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the liver, with the glutathione conjugate of PEITC undergoing further conversion to mercapturic acid by N-acetyl transferase in rats and humans. PEITC modulates the activity and expression of numerous phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes and can inhibit the metabolism of procarcinogens to form carcinogens and increase carcinogen elimination. In recent years, several in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated molecular mechanisms underlying the pharmacodynamics of PEITC in breast cancer that include cancer cell apoptosis by upregulation of apoptotic genes, cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase by generation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of intracellular glutathione, downregulation of the estrogen receptor, decrease in sensitivity to estrogen, and inhibition of tumor metastasis. Inhibition of angiogenesis is one of the recently reported mechanisms of breast cancer prevention by PEITC. Complex pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PEITC necessitate a systems-biology approach in parallel with PK/PD modeling to develop PEITC as a therapeutic agent for treating cancers.

Sharifi MJ, Bahoush G, Zaker F, et al.
Association of -24CT, 1249GA, and 3972CT ABCC2 gene polymorphisms with methotrexate serum levels and toxic side effects in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2014; 31(2):169-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients after being treated with methotrexate, have differences in methotrexate serum levels and toxic side effects. One of the main determinants of these toxic side effects is the host pharmacogenetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of -24CT, 1249GA, and 3972CT ABCC2 gene polymorphisms with serum levels, and toxic side effects of methotrexate in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Applying polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques, the prevalence of -24CT, 1249GA, and 3972CT ABCC2 gene polymorphisms was evaluated in 65 acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. The relationship between polymorphisms and methotrexate serum levels and toxicities was studied. A reverse significant relationship was detected between 3972T allele carriers and hepatotoxicity (P = 0.01, OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.09-0.72). Also, 1249A allele carriers had increased rate of gastrointestinal toxicity (P = 0.05, OR = 3.47, 95% CI = 1.04-11.57). No significant relationship was detected between -24CT polymorphism and methotrexate toxic side effects. There was no significant relationship between these three polymorphisms and methotrexate serum levels. Genotyping for 3972CT and 1249GA ABCC2 gene variants maybe useful in acute lymphoblastic leukemia to optimize methotrexate therapy and reducing the associated toxicity.

Kaewpiboon C, Surapinit S, Malilas W, et al.
Feroniellin A-induced autophagy causes apoptosis in multidrug-resistant human A549 lung cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(4):1233-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
During the screening of natural chemicals that can reverse multidrug resistance in human A549 lung cancer cells resistant to etoposide (A549RT-eto), we discovered that Feroniellin A (FERO), a novel furanocoumarin, shows toxicity toward A549RT-eto cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. FERO reduced the expression of NF-κB, leading to downregulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by MDR1, which eventually sensitized A549RT-eto cells to apoptosis. FERO specifically diminished transcription and promoter activity of MDR1 but did not inhibit the expression of other multidrug resistance genes MRP2 and BCRP. Moreover, co-administration of FERO with Bay11-7802, an inhibitor of NF-κB, accelerated apoptosis of A549RT-eto cells through decreased expression of P-gp, indicating that NF-κB is involved in multidrug resistance. Conversely, addition of Z-VAD, a pan-caspase inhibitor, blocked FERO-induced apoptosis in A549RT-eto cells but did not block downregulation of P-gp, indicating that a decrease in P-gp expression is necessary but not sufficient for FERO-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that FERO also induces autophagy, which is characterized by the conversion of LC3 I to LC3 II, induction of GFP-LC3 puncta, enhanced expression of Beclin-1 and ATG5, and inactivation of mTOR. Furthermore, suppression of Beclin-1 by siRNA reduced FERO-induced apoptosis in A549RT-eto cells and activation of autophagy by rapamycin accelerated FERO-induced apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy plays an active role in FERO-induced apoptosis. Herein, we report that FERO reverses multidrug resistance in A549RT-eto cells and exerts its cytotoxic effect by induction of both autophagy and apoptosis, which suggests that FERO can be a useful anticancer drug for multidrug-resistant lung cancer.

Noori-Daloii MR, Saffari M, Raoofian R, et al.
The multidrug resistance pumps are inhibited by silibinin and apoptosis induced in K562 and KCL22 leukemia cell lines.
Leuk Res. 2014; 38(5):575-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Silibinin have been introduced for several years as a potent antioxidant in the field of nutraceuticals. Based on wide persuasive effects of this drug, we have decided to investigate the effects of silibinin on chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in vitro models, K562 and KCL22 cell lines. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, microculture tetrazolium test (MTT assay) and real-time PCR were employed to evaluate the effects of silibinin on cell cytotoxicity, cell proliferation and expression of various multidrug resistance genes in these cell lines, respectively. Our results have shown that presence of silibinin has inhibitory effects on cell proliferation of K562 and KCL22 cell lines. Also, our data indicated that silibinin, in a dose-dependent manner with applying no cytotoxic effects, inhibited cell proliferation and reduced mRNA expression levels of some transporter genes e.g. MDR1, MRP3, MRP2, MRP1, MRP5, MRP4, ABCG2, ABCB11, MRP6 and MRP7. The multifarious in vitro inhibitory effects of silibinin are in agreement with growing body of evidence that silibinin would be an efficient anticancer agent in order to be used in multi-target therapy to prevail the therapeutic hold backs against CML.

Liu Y, Yin Y, Sheng Q, et al.
Association of ABCC2 -24C>T polymorphism with high-dose methotrexate plasma concentrations and toxicities in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e82681 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Methotrexate (MTX) is a key agent for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Increased MTX plasma concentrations are associated with a higher risk of adverse drug effects. ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 2 (ABCC2) is important for excretion of MTX and its toxic metabolite. The ABCC2 -24C>T polymorphism (rs717620) reportedly contributes to variability of MTX kinetics. In the present study, we assessed the association between the ABCC2 -24C>T polymorphism and methotrexate (MTX) toxicities in childhood ALL patients treated with high-dose MTX. A total of 112 Han Chinese ALL patients were treated with high-dose MTX according to the ALL-Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster 2000 protocol. Our results showed that presence of the -24T allele in ABCC2 gene led to significantly higher MTX plasma concentrations at 48 hours after the start of infusion, which would strengthen over repeated MTX infusion. The -24T allele in ABCC2 gene was significantly associated with higher risks of high-grade hematologic (leucopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia) and non-hematologic (gastrointestinal and mucosal damage/oral mucositis) MTX toxicities. This study provides the first evidence that the -24T allele in ABCC2 gene is associated with the severity of MTX toxicities, which add fresh insights into clinical application of high-dose MTX and individualization of MTX treatment.

Lee YK, Lin TH, Chang CF, Lo YL
Galectin-3 silencing inhibits epirubicin-induced ATP binding cassette transporters and activates the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway via β-catenin/GSK-3β modulation in colorectal carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e82478 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Multidrug resistance (MDR), an unfavorable factor compromising the treatment efficacy of anticancer drugs, involves the upregulation of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters and induction of galectin-3 signaling. Galectin-3 plays an anti-apoptotic role in many cancer cells and regulates various pathways to activate MDR. Thus, the inhibition of galectin-3 has the potential to enhance the efficacy of the anticancer drug epirubicin. In this study, we examined the effects and mechanisms of silencing galectin-3 via RNA interference (RNAi) on the β-catenin/GSK-3β pathway in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Galectin-3 knockdown increased the intracellular accumulation of epirubicin in Caco-2 cells; suppressed the mRNA expression of galectin-3, β-catenin, cyclin D1, c-myc, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), MDR-associated protein (MRP) 1, and MRP2; and downregulated the protein expression of P-gp, cyclin D1, galectin-3, β-catenin, c-Myc, and Bcl-2. Moreover, galectin-3 RNAi treatment significantly increased the mRNA level of GSK-3β, Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9; remarkably increased the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio; and upregulated the GSK-3β and Bax protein expressions. Apoptosis was induced by galectin-3 RNAi and/or epirubicin as demonstrated by chromatin condensation, a higher sub-G1 phase proportion, and increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity, indicating an intrinsic/mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Epirubicin-mediated resistance was effectively inhibited via galectin-3 RNAi treatment. However, these phenomena could be rescued after galectin-3 overexpression. We show for the first time that the silencing of galectin-3 sensitizes MDR cells to epirubicin by inhibiting ABC transporters and activating the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis through modulation of the β-catenin/GSK-3β pathway in human colon cancer cells.

Yanagimachi M, Goto H, Kaneko T, et al.
Influence of pre-hydration and pharmacogenetics on plasma methotrexate concentration and renal dysfunction following high-dose methotrexate therapy.
Int J Hematol. 2013; 98(6):702-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-dose methotrexate therapy (HD-MTX) has been well established for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aims of this study were to investigate whether clinical and pharmacogenetic factors influence plasma MTX concentration and renal dysfunction in patients treated with HD-MTX. In a total of 127 courses of HD-MTX in 51 patients with childhood ALL, influence of clinical and pharmacogenetic factors on plasma MTX concentration and HD-MTX-related renal dysfunction was evaluated. Clinical factors included age, gender, duration of HD-MTX continuous-infusion and duration of pre-hydration before HD-MTX. Pharmacogenetic factors included 5 gene polymorphisms within the MTX pathway genes, namely, SLC19A1, MTHFR, ABCC2 and ABCG2. Short duration of pre-hydration before HD-MTX is the most important risk factor for prolonged high MTX concentration (p < 0.001, OR 6.40, 95 % CI 2.39-17.16) and renal dysfunction (p = 0.013, OR 3.15, 95 % CI 1.27-7.80). The T allele at MTHFR C677T was the risk factor for prolonged high MTX concentration (p = 0.009, OR 5.54, 95 % CI 1.54-19.85), but not for renal dysfunction. We found the influence of MTHFR C677T polymorphism on prolonged high MTX concentration. We reconfirmed the importance of adequate pre-hydration before HD-MTX to prevent prolonged high MTX concentration and MTX-related renal dysfunction.

Cheung YF, Yu W, Cheuk DK, et al.
Plasma high sensitivity troponin T levels in adult survivors of childhood leukaemias: determinants and associations with cardiac function.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77063 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We sought to quantify plasma high sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTnT) levels, their determinants, and their associations with left ventricular (LV) myocardial deformation in adult survivors of childhood acute leukaemias.
METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred adult survivors (57 males) of childhood acute leukaemias, aged 24.1 ± 4.2 years, and 42 age-matched controls (26 males) were studied. Plasma cTnT was determined using a highly sensitive assay. Genotyping of NAD(P)H oxidase and multidrug resistance protein polymorphisms was performed. Left ventricular function was assessed by conventional, three-dimensional, and speckle tracking echocardiography. The medians (interquartile range) of hs-cTnT in male and female survivors were 4.9 (4.2 to 7.2) ng/L and 1.0 (1.0 to 3.5) ng/L, respectively. Nineteen survivors (13 males, 6 females) (19%) had elevated hs-cTnT (>95(th) centile of controls). Compared to those without elevated hs-TnT levels, these subjects had received larger cumulative anthracycline dose and were more likely to have leukaemic relapse, stem cell transplant, and cardiac irradiation. Their LV systolic and early diastolic myocardial velocities, isovolumic acceleration, and systolic longitudinal strain rate were significantly lower. Survivors having CT/TT at CYBA rs4673 had higher hs-cTnT levels than those with CC genotype. Functionally, increased hs-cTnT levels were associated with worse LV longitudinal systolic strain and systolic and diastolic strain rates.
CONCLUSIONS: Increased hs-cTnT levels occur in a significant proportion of adult survivors of childhood acute leukaemias and are associated with larger cumulative anthracycline dose received, history of leukaemic relapse, stem cell transplant, and cardiac irradiation, genetic variants in free radical metabolism, and worse LV myocardial deformation.

Wang NN, Zhao LJ, Wu LN, et al.
Mechanistic analysis of taxol-induced multidrug resistance in an ovarian cancer cell line.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(9):4983-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To establish a taxol-resistant cell line of human ovarian carcinoma (A2780/Taxol) and investigate its biological features.
METHODS: The drug-resistant cell line (A2780/Taxol) was established by continuous stepwise selection with increasing concentrations of Taxol. Cell morphology was assessed by microscopy and growth curves were generated with in vitro and in vivo tumor xenograft models. With rhodamine123 (Rh123) assays, cell cycle distribution and the apoptotic rate were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM). Drug resistance-related and signal associated proteins, including P-gp, MRPs, caveolin-1, PKC-α, Akt, ERK1/2, were detected by Western blotting.
RESULTS: A2780/Taxol cells were established with stable resistance to taxol. The drug resistance index (RI) was 430.7. Cross-resistance to other drugs was also shown, but there was no significant change to radioresistance. Compared with parental cells, A2780/Taxol cells were significantly heteromorphous, with a significant delay in population doubling time and reduced uptake of Rh123 (p < 0.01). In vivo, tumor take by A2780 cells was 80%, and tumor volume increased gradually. In contrast, with A2780/Taxol cells in xenograft models there was no tumor development. FCM analysis revealed that A2780/Taxol cells had a higher percentage of G0/G1 and lower S phase, but no changes of G2 phase and the apoptosis rate. Expression of P-gp, MRP1, MRP2, BCRP, LRP, caveolin-1, PKC-α, Phospho-ERK1/2 and Phospho-JNK protein was significantly up-regulated, while Akt and p38 MARK protein expression was not changed in A2780/Taxol cells.
CONCLUSION: The A2780/Taxol cell line is an ideal model to investigate the mechanism of muti-drug resistance related to overexpression of drug-resistance associated proteins and activation of the PKC-α/ERK (JNK) signaling pathway.

Ricciardelli C, Ween MP, Lokman NA, et al.
Chemotherapy-induced hyaluronan production: a novel chemoresistance mechanism in ovarian cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:476 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronan (HA) an important component of the extracellular matrix, has been linked to tumor progression and drug resistance in several malignancies. However, limited data is available for ovarian cancer. This study investigated the role of hyaluronan (HA) and a potential link between the HA-CD44 pathway and membrane ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins in ovarian cancer chemoresistance.
METHODS: We investigated the ability of HA to block the cytotoxic effects of the chemotherapy drug carboplatin, and to regulate the expression of ABC transporters in ovarian cancer cells. We also examined HA serum levels in ovarian cancer patients prior to and following chemotherapy and assessed its prognostic relevance.
RESULTS: HA increased the survival of carboplatin treated ovarian cancer cells expressing the HA receptor, CD44 (OVCAR-5 and OV-90). Carboplatin significantly increased expression of HAS2, HAS3 and ABCC2 and HA secretion in ovarian cancer cell conditioned media. Serum HA levels were significantly increased in patients following platinum based chemotherapy and at both 1st and 2nd recurrence when compared with HA levels prior to treatment. High serum HA levels (>50 μg/ml) prior to chemotherapy treatment were associated with significantly reduced progression-free (P = 0.014) and overall survival (P = 0.036). HA production in ovarian cancer cells was increased in cancer tissues collected following chemotherapy treatment and at recurrence. Furthermore HA treatment significantly increased the expression of ABC drug transporters (ABCB3, ABCC1, ABCC2, and ABCC3), but only in ovarian cancer cells expressing CD44. The effects of HA and carboplatin on ABC transporter expression in ovarian cancer cells could be abrogated by HA oligomer treatment. Importantly, HA oligomers increased the sensitivity of chemoresistant SKOV3 cells to carboplatin.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that carboplatin chemotherapy induces HA production which can contribute to chemoresistance by regulating ABC transporter expression. The HA-CD44 signaling pathway is therefore a promising target in platinum resistant ovarian cancer.

Colombo PE, Fabbro M, Theillet C, et al.
Sensitivity and resistance to treatment in the primary management of epithelial ovarian cancer.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2014; 89(2):207-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynaecologic malignancy. Despite wide initial sensibility to chemotherapy especially to platinum-based regimens, the vast majority of patients with advanced stages of the disease develop recurrences and subsequent resistance to treatments. Ovarian cancer is actually considered as a heterogeneous disease at the clinical, histological and molecular level. In this review, the mechanisms of intrinsic sensitivity or resistance to treatment, especially to platinum-based chemotherapy are considered with particular reference to the significance of tumour heterogeneity. The molecular features involved in acquired resistance are reviewed and the current hypotheses are discussed. In particular, potential disruptions of the DNA reparation pathways are highlighted.

Zhao Y, Bao Q, Schwarz B, et al.
Stem cell-like side populations in esophageal cancer: a source of chemotherapy resistance and metastases.
Stem Cells Dev. 2014; 23(2):180-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dye-effluxing side population (SP) cells can be resistant to chemotherapy and are thought to resemble cancer stem cells. We characterized the relevance of the SP subpopulation in esophageal cancer cell lines and their relation to chemotherapy resistance and metastasis. The SP subpopulation was detected using Hoechst 33342 staining in five esophageal cancer cell lines OE19, OE21, OE33, PT1590, and LN1590. CTx-resistant cell lines were developed after long-term exposure to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin and validated by analysis of resistance markers, thymidylate synthase and ERCC1. While neither LN1590 nor PT1590 had detectable SP cells, OE19, OE21, and OE33 cells were found to contain varying levels of SP cells. With increasing duration of 5-FU or cisplatin therapy, the SP subpopulation substantially emerged in PT1590 and LN1590. OE19-SP cells displayed significant higher tumorigenicity than OE19- non-SP (NSP) cells after subcutaneous tumor cell injection in vivo. SP cells isolated from OE19 and OE19/5-FUres were subsequently analyzed by an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) polymerase chain reaction array. Interestingly, the SP fraction of OE19/5-FUres showed a dramatic upregulation of EMT-related genes compared to the SP fraction of OE19. Our results provide evidence that (1) the proportion of SP cells is different in esophageal cancer, (2) SP cells exhibit stem cell properties and are associated to chemotherapy resistance, and (3) long-term CTx selects for SP cells with an upregulated EMT gene profile, which might be the source of systemic disease relapse. Further investigations are necessary to ideally target these EMT-associated SP cells in esophageal cancer.

Armenian SH, Ding Y, Mills G, et al.
Genetic susceptibility to anthracycline-related congestive heart failure in survivors of haematopoietic cell transplantation.
Br J Haematol. 2013; 163(2):205-13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors are at increased risk for developing congestive heart failure (CHF), primarily due to pre-HCT exposure to anthracyclines. We examined the association between the development of CHF after HCT and polymorphisms in 16 candidate genes involved in anthracycline metabolism, iron homeostasis, anti-oxidant defence, and myocardial remodelling. A nested case-control study design was used. Cases (post-HCT CHF) were identified from 2950 patients who underwent HCT between 1988 and 2007 at City of Hope and had survived ≥1 year. This cohort formed the sampling frame for selecting controls (without CHF) matched on: age, race/ethnicity, cumulative anthracycline exposure, stem cell source (allogeneic, autologous), and length of follow-up. Seventy-seven cases with pre-HCT germline DNA and 178 controls were genotyped. Multivariate analysis revealed that the odds of CHF was higher in females [Odds Ratio (OR) = 2·9, P < 0·01], individuals with pre-HCT chest radiation (OR = 4·7, P = 0·05), hypertension (OR = 2·9, P = 0·01), and with variants of genes coding for the NAD(P)H-oxidase subunit RAC2 (rs13058338, 7508T→A; OR = 2·8, P < 0·01), HFE (rs1799945, 63C→G; OR = 2·5, P = 0·05) or the doxorubicin efflux transporter ABCC2 (rs8187710, 1515G→A; OR = 4·3, P < 0·01). A combined (clinical and genetic) CHF predictive model performed better [area under the curve (AUC), 0·79] than the genetic (AUC = 0·67) or the clinical (AUC = 0·69) models alone.

Lee SH, Nam HJ, Kang HJ, et al.
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates head and neck cancer stem cell traits through suppression of Notch pathway.
Eur J Cancer. 2013; 49(15):3210-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most solid cancers including head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSC) are believed to be initiated from and maintained by cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are responsible for treatment resistance, resulting in tumour relapse. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant polyphenol in green tea, can potently inhibit cancer growth and induce apoptosis in various cancers, including HNSC. However, its effect on HNSC CSCs is not well elucidated. In this study, we examined the anti-tumour effect of EGCG on HNSC CSCs. We demonstrated that EGCG inhibits the self-renewal capacity of HNSC CSCs by suppressing their sphere forming capacity, and attenuates the expression of stem cell markers, such as Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and CD44. EGCG treatment augmented cisplatin-mediated chemosensitivity by suppressing ABCC2 and ABCG2 transporter genes, which are putative molecules of treatment resistance of CSC. In addition, the combination treatment of EGCG and cisplatin inhibited tumour formation and induced apoptosis in a xenograft model. As one of mechanisms of suppression of HNSC CSC traits, EGCG decreased the transcriptional level of Notch, resulting in the inhibition of Notch signalling. Collectively, our data suggest that EGCG in combination with cisplatin can be used for the management of HNSC CSCs.

Benabbou N, Mirshahi P, Cadillon M, et al.
Hospicells promote upregulation of the ATP-binding cassette genes by insulin-like growth factor-I via the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in an ovarian cancer cell line.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(3):685-94 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Interaction between tumor cells and their micro-environment has a crucial role in the development, progression and drug resistance of cancer. Our objective was to confirm the role of Hospicells, which are stromal cells from the cancer microenvironment, in drug resistance and tumor cell growth. We demonstrated that soluble factors secreted by Hospicells activate several genes and upregulate the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in ovarian cancer cell lines. Hospicells express all insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family as detected by gene array, RT-PCR, protein array and immunocytochemistry. While focusing attention on the microenvironment, we considered the role of IGF-I in proliferation and survival of ovarian cancer cells. Indeed, IGF-I is a major regulator of different stages of cancer development. We studied the effect of exogenously added IGF-I on the regulation of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) genes (MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, MRP3, MRP5 and BCRP) in the ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR3 and validated the results obtained using the IGF-IR antagonist picropodophyllin. IGF-I regulates the expression of ABC genes in OVCAR3 cells via the PI3-kinase, MEK and JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathways. The OVCAR3 cell line when co-cultured with Hospicells showed a marked degree of drug resistance. The drug resistance observed could be amplified with exogenous IGF-I. Addition of IGF-IR inhibitor, however, reduced the degree of resistance in these exposed cells. Cells that were treated with anticancer drugs and then exposed to IGF-I showed an increase in drug resistance and, thereby, an increase in cell survival. This observation indicates that drug resistance of OVCAR3 cells increases when there is synergy between OVCAR3 cells and Hospicells and it is amplified when IGF-I was exogenously added. In conclusion, inhibition of IGF-IR and targeting of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway can be a target for ovarian cancer therapy.

Kim HS, Kim NC, Chae KH, et al.
Expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 in human gallbladder carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:527534 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Gallbladder carcinoma (GBCA) is one of the most aggressive malignancies. It is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage, and prognosis remains poor despite advances in imaging techniques and aggressive surgical treatment. Overexpression of multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) in tumor cells is a major cause of the intrinsic multidrug resistance phenotype. Despite the documented importance of MRP expression in many carcinomas, the prognostic significance of MRP2 expression in primary GBCA is not known. Immunostaining for MRP2 was performed on tissue samples obtained from 143 patients with GBCA. We examined the association between MRP expression and clinicopathological characteristics and outcome of patients with GBCA. GBCA demonstrated MRP2 immunoreactivity in the apicolateral membranes of epithelial cells. MRP2 expression was positive in 53.1% (76/143) of GBCA samples. Positive MRP2 expression was significantly associated with the presence of local recurrence (P = 0.038), lymphatic invasion (P = 0.038), vascular invasion (P = 0.023), and perineural invasion (P = 0.006). In addition, the median survival time of patients with MRP2-positive GBCA (15 months) was significantly shorter than that of patients with MRP2-negative GBCA (85 months, P = 0.011). We found that the expression of MRP2 in GBCA contributed to aggressive tumor behavior and poor prognosis, suggesting that MRP2 expression can be used as a potential prognostic biomarker of GBCA.

Wang H, Zhai Z, Li N, et al.
Steroidal saponin of Trillium tschonoskii. Reverses multidrug resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Phytomedicine. 2013; 20(11):985-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Combating with multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major part of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) chemotherapy. Steroidal saponin from Trillium tschonoskii (TTS) could be a potential weapon. We found TTS could reverse the MDR in HCC cells and significantly enhance chemosensitization. TTS inhibited HepG2 and R-HepG2 cells survival in a dose-dependent manner by 75% and 76%, respectively (p<0.01), as well as colony formation 77% and 81% (p<0.01). Moreover, TTS induced sensitization of R-HepG2 to anti-cancer drugs, indicated by significantly reduced IC50. On the other hand, TTS suppressed expression of P-glucoprotein in MDR HCC cells, and thereby increased accumulation of doxorubicin from 126 ng/10(5)cells to 752 ng/10(5)cells (p<0.01). TTS also repressed expression of many other MDR genes, such as MRP1, MRP2, MRP3, MRP5, MVP and GST-π. In vivo, TTS dose-dependently reduced R-HepG2 cells xenografts tumour formation by inhibiting tumour cells proliferation in mice. Consistence with in vitro finding, TTS induced R-HepG2 sensitization to doxorubicin and therefore reduced tumour formation in vivo.

Choi HK, Cho KB, Phuong NT, et al.
SIRT1-mediated FoxO1 deacetylation is essential for multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 expression in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells.
Mol Pharm. 2013; 10(7):2517-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous studies have shown that multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) is overexpressed in tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells (TAMR-MCF-7 cells) and forkhead box-containing protein, O subfamily1 (FoxO1), functions as a key regulator of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene transcription. This study aimed to investigate the role of FoxO1 in regulating MRP2 gene expression in TAMR-MCF-7 cells. The proximal promoter region of the human MRP2 gene contains four putative FoxO binding sites, and MRP2 gene transcription was stimulated by FoxO1 overexpression in MCF-7 cells. Subcellular fractionation and immunoblot analyses revealed that basal MRP2 expression and nuclear levels of FoxO1 were enhanced in TAMR-MCF-7 cells compared to MCF-7 cells and the enhanced MRP2 gene transcription was suppressed by FoxO1 siRNA. Because nuclear localization of FoxO1 is regulated by SIRT1 deacetylase, we were further interested in whether SIRT1 is involved in MRP2 expression. Overexpression of SIRT1 with FoxO1 potentiated the gene transcriptional activity of MRP2, and the basal activity and expression of SIRT1 was increased in TAMR-MCF-7 cells. In addition, SIRT1 inhibition reduced both the nuclear FoxO1 levels and MRP2 expression and enhanced cytotoxic effects of paclitaxel and doxorubicin in TAMR-MCF-7 cells. These results suggest that FoxO1 activation via SIRT1-mediated deacetylation is closely related with up-regulation of MRP2 in TAMR-MCF-7 cells.

Horiguchi S, Shiraha H, Nagahara T, et al.
Loss of runt-related transcription factor 3 induces gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer.
Mol Oncol. 2013; 7(4):840-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIM: Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is a tumor suppressor gene that is expressed in gastric and other cancers including pancreatic cancer. However, the precise function of RUNX3 in pancreatic cancer has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of decreased RUNX3 expression in pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: This study included 36 patients with primary pancreatic cancer, who had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy. All patients were treated with 1000 mg/m2 gemcitabine after the surgery. The pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1, MIAPaCa-2, BxPC-3, SUIT-2, and KLM-1 were used for immunoblotting analysis of RUNX3 and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) expressions. Ectopic RUNX3 expression was achieved by cDNA transfection of the cells, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) against RUNX3 was used to knock down endogenous RUNX3. Cell growth in the presence of gemcitabine was assessed using the MTT assay.
RESULTS: Patients with RUNX3-positive and RUNX3-negative pancreatic cancer had a median survival of 1006 and 643 days, respectively. Exogenous RUNX3 expression reduced the expression of MRP1, MRP2, and MRP5 in endogenous RUNX3-negative cells, whereas RUNX3 siRNA increased the expressions of these genes in endogenous RUNX3-positive cells. Exogenous RUNX3 expression decreased gemcitabine IC50 in RUNX3-negative cells.
CONCLUSION: Loss of RUNX3 expression contributes to gemcitabine resistance by inducing MRP expression, thereby resulting in poor patient survival.

Radtke S, Zolk O, Renner B, et al.
Germline genetic variations in methotrexate candidate genes are associated with pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood. 2013; 121(26):5145-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
The pharmacogenetics of methotrexate (MTX) was investigated in a large cohort of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Four hundred ninety-nine children with ALL from the ALL-BFM (Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster) 2000 trial who received 1996 courses of MTX at 5 g/m(2) were genotyped for 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 5 candidate genes of the MTX/folate pathway. Patients' MTX pharmacokinetics, MTX toxicities, and outcomes were correlated with the genotypes. The interindividual variability in MTX kinetics had a substantial genetic component between 68% and 75%. The SLCO1B1 rs4149056 variant was significantly associated with MTX kinetics. In a multiple regression model, MTX area under the concentration time curve (AUC)0-48h increased by 26% (P < .001) per SLCO1B1 rs4149056 C allele. MTX AUC0-48h was a significant predictor of overall toxic adverse events during MTX courses (R(2) = 0.043; P < .001), whereas the thymidylate synthase rs34743033 tandem repeat polymorphism was predictive of stomatitis (R(2) = 0.018; P = .009), a frequent side effect of high-dose MTX. Multiple Cox regression analyses revealed an association of minimal residual disease (hazard ratio 7.3; P < .001) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase rs1801131 (hazard ratio 3.1; P = .015) with event-free survival in the ALL-BFM 2000 study population. Genetic variations substantially influence the kinetics and response to high-dose MTX therapy in childhood ALL.

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