Gene Summary

Gene:CYP1B1; cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily B member 1
Aliases: CP1B, ASGD6, GLC3A, CYPIB1, P4501B1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. The enzyme encoded by this gene localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and metabolizes procarcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 17beta-estradiol. Mutations in this gene have been associated with primary congenital glaucoma; therefore it is thought that the enzyme also metabolizes a signaling molecule involved in eye development, possibly a steroid. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cytochrome P450 1B1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CYP1B1 (cancer-related)

Zajda K, Rak A, Ptak A, Gregoraszczuk EL
Compounds of PAH mixtures dependent interaction between multiple signaling pathways in granulosa tumour cells.
Toxicol Lett. 2019; 310:14-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mechanism of PAH mixtures, using granulosa tumour cells, was investigated. Cells were exposed to a mixture of all 16 priority PAHs (M1) or a mixture of five PAHs not classified as human carcinogens (M2). The effect of siAHR, siAHRR and siNFKB2 on the expression of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GSTM1, ERα, AR and cell proliferation was described. M1 decreased AhR and CYP1A1, while increased AhRR and ARNT expression. M2 also decreased AhR and CYP1A1 but had no effect on AhRR expression. siAHRR reversed the inhibitory effect of M1 on AhR and CYP1A1,while inhibitory effect of M2 was still observed. siNFKB2 reversed inhibitory effect of both mixtures on AhR and CYP1A1 expression and stimulatory effect of M1 on AhRR expression. siAHR reversed stimulatory effect of both mixtures on ERα expression. Stimulatory effect of M1 on cell proliferation was not observed in siAHR, was still observed in siESR1 cells. M2 had no effect on cell proliferation, however stimulatory effect was appeared in siAHR and siESR1cells. In conclusion: M1 by activation of AhRR and NFkB p52, but M2 only by activation of NFκB attenuated AhR signalling and ligand-induced CYP1A1 expression. Interaction between AhR and ER following M1 and M2 exposure is primarily initiated through AhR.

An D, Song Z, Yi Y, et al.
Oroxylin A, a methylated metabolite of baicalein, exhibits a stronger inhibitory effect than baicalein on the CYP1B1-mediated carcinogenic estradiol metabolite formation.
Phytother Res. 2019; 33(4):1033-1043 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1)-mediated formation of 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2) from 17β-estradiol plays an important role in the progression of human breast cancer, while the biotransformation of 17β-estradiol to 2-hydroxyestradiol mediated by cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is considered as a less harmful pathway. In this study, inhibitory effects of flavonoids baicalein and oroxylin A, a metabolite of baicalein in human body, on CYP1A1 and 1B1 activities were investigated in vitro. The inhibition intensities of baicalein and oroxylin A towards CYP1B1 were greater than towards CYP1A1 with a mixed mechanism. In addition, oroxylin A showed a stronger inhibitory effect than baicalein towards the CYP1B1-mediated 17β-estradiol 4-hydroxylation, with the IC

Lv JW, Zheng ZQ, Wang ZX, et al.
Pan-cancer genomic analyses reveal prognostic and immunogenic features of the tumor melatonergic microenvironment across 14 solid cancer types.
J Pineal Res. 2019; 66(3):e12557 [PubMed] Related Publications
We performed comprehensive genomic analyses of the melatonergic system within the tumor microenvironment and their clinical relevance across a broad spectrum of solid tumors. RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of 14 solid tumors representing 6658 human samples were analyzed. The tumor melatonergic system was characterized by the rates of melatonin synthesis and metabolism using a two-gene expression model (melatonin synthesis/metabolism Index). We calculated three indexes according to different melatonin metabolism isoenzymes (Index-I [ASMT:CYP1A1], Index-II [ASMT:CYP1A2], and Index-III [ASMT:CYP1B1]). Samples of each cancer type were classified into two subgroups (high vs low) based on median values. Clinical outcomes, mutational burden, and neoepitope abundance were analyzed and compared. We found that the ability of the tumor microenvironment to synthesize and accumulate melatonin varied across cancer types and negatively correlated with tumor burden. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and multivariable modeling showed that the three indexes played different roles across different cancers and harbored prognostic values in breast cancer (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]

Qiu J, Du Z, Liu J, et al.
Association between polymorphisms in estrogen metabolism genes and breast cancer development in Chinese women: A prospective case-control study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(47):e13337 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We comprehensively identified polymorphisms in estrogen-metabolizing genes that may be associated with breast cancer initiation in Chinese women, via an ongoing prospective case-control study.An ongoing prospective case-control study of 427 female case patients diagnosed with breast cancer from August 2013 to March 2015 and 536 women (case controls) with no prior history of cancer or benign breast tumors was performed. Buccal cell specimens were obtained using the cotton swabbing method. DNA was extracted from the buccal cells using the phenol/chloroform method. Genotype was carried out for 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs4646903, rs1056836, rs1695, rs4970737, and rs4680) using direct sequencing.The polymorphic genotypes of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) (P = .044) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) (P = .008) showed significantly different distributions, while that of cytochrome P450 (CYP1B1) (P = .051) showed a slight difference in distribution between healthy women and patients with breast cancer. Individuals with homozygous variant genotypes for GSTP1 or COMT exhibited a higher risk of developing breast cancer than those with wild-type genotypes; however, for CYP1B1, the homozygous variant genotype was associated with a lower risk, and the heterozygous genotype for these 3 genes was not associated with breast cancer development.An individual's risk of breast cancer is only influenced by the specific combination of risk-associated alleles of COMT and GSTP1, despite the protective effects of the homozygous CYP1B1 genotype revealed by univariate analysis.

Duffy DL, Zhu G, Li X, et al.
Novel pleiotropic risk loci for melanoma and nevus density implicate multiple biological pathways.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):4774 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The total number of acquired melanocytic nevi on the skin is strongly correlated with melanoma risk. Here we report a meta-analysis of 11 nevus GWAS from Australia, Netherlands, UK, and USA comprising 52,506 individuals. We confirm known loci including MTAP, PLA2G6, and IRF4, and detect novel SNPs in KITLG and a region of 9q32. In a bivariate analysis combining the nevus results with a recent melanoma GWAS meta-analysis (12,874 cases, 23,203 controls), SNPs near GPRC5A, CYP1B1, PPARGC1B, HDAC4, FAM208B, DOCK8, and SYNE2 reached global significance, and other loci, including MIR146A and OBFC1, reached a suggestive level. Overall, we conclude that most nevus genes affect melanoma risk (KITLG an exception), while many melanoma risk loci do not alter nevus count. For example, variants in TERC and OBFC1 affect both traits, but other telomere length maintenance genes seem to affect melanoma risk only. Our findings implicate multiple pathways in nevogenesis.

Ruiz-Pinto S, Martin M, Pita G, et al.
Pharmacogenetic variants and response to neoadjuvant single-agent doxorubicin or docetaxel: a study in locally advanced breast cancer patients participating in the NCT00123929 phase 2 randomized trial.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2018; 28(11):245-250 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Taxanes and anthracyclines are widely used in the treatment of breast cancer, although the benefit is limited to a proportion of patients and predictive biomarkers for clinical outcome remain elusive.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out a pharmacogenetic study in 181 patients with locally advanced breast cancer enrolled in a phase 2 randomized clinical trial (NCT00123929), where patients were randomly assigned to receive neoadjuvant single-agent docetaxel 100 mg/m(2) (n=84) or doxorubicin 75 mg/m(2) (n=97). We studied the association of 226 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15 key drug biotransformation genes with neoadjuvant pathological tumor response residual cancer burden index to docetaxel and to doxorubicin.
RESULTS: We identified a significant association for rs162561, an intronic SNP located in the cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily B member 1 (CYP1B1) gene, with tumor response in patients treated with single-agent docetaxel (dominant model: β=1.02, 95% confidence interval=0.49-1.55; P=1.77×10(-4)), and for rs717620, an SNP located in the promoter of the ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 2 (ABCC2) gene, in patients treated with neoadjuvant doxorubicin (recessive model: β=1.67; 95% confidence interval=0.26-3.11; P=0.02).
CONCLUSION: We identified two polymorphisms in CYP1B1 and ABCC2 associated with tumor pathological response following docetaxel or doxorubicin neoadjuvant monotherapy, respectively. Although further validation is required, these variants could be potential predictive genetic markers for treatment outcome in breast cancer patients.

Elfaki I, Mir R, Almutairi FM, Duhier FMA
Cytochrome P450: Polymorphisms and Roles in Cancer, Diabetes and Atherosclerosis
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(8):2057-2070 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cytochromes P450s (CYPs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the metabolism of drugs and other substances. Endogenous substrates of CYPs include eicosanoids, estradiol, arachidonic acids, cholesterol, vitamin D and neurotransmitters. Exogenous substrates of CYPs include the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and about 80% of currently used drugs. Some isoforms can activate procarcinogens to ultimate carcinogens. Genetic polymorphisms of CYPs may affect the enzyme catalytic activity and have been reported among different populations to be associated with various diseases and adverse drug reactions. With regard of drug metabolism, phenotypes for CYP polymorphism range from ultrarapid to poor metabolizers. In this review, we discuss some of the most clinically important CYPs isoforms (CYP2D6, CYP2A6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP1B1 and CYP1A2) with respect to gene polymorphisms and drug metabolism. Moreover, we review the role of CYPs in renal, lung, breast and prostate cancers and also discuss their significance for atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Bulus H, Oguztuzun S, Güler Simsek G, et al.
Expression of CYP and GST in human normal and colon tumor tissues.
Biotech Histochem. 2019; 94(1):1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the immunohistochemical staining characteristics of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), CYPB1, CYP2E1, and glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), GSTT1, GSTO1, GSTK1 in colon tumor and surrounding normal colon tissues. Tissues were obtained from 47 patients with colon adenocarcinoma and the staining intensity of tumor and control tissues was compared. CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTO1 and GSTK1 expressions in colon cancer cells were significantly greater than those in normal colon epithelial cells. No significant relation was found between the isoenzyme expressions and age, gender, smoking status, tumor grade and tumor stage. The higher expressions of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, GSTP1, GSTO1, GSTT1 and GSTK1 in tumor than in normal colon tissues may be important for colon cancer progression and development.

Lepri SR, Sartori D, Semprebon SC, et al.
Genistein Affects Expression of Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) Genes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HEPG2/C3A) Cell Line.
Drug Metab Lett. 2018; 12(2):138-144 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genistein (5,7-Dihydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) is the most abundant isoflavone in soybean, which has been associated with a lower risk of development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Of particular interest regarding cancer preventive properties of flavonoids is their interaction with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs). However, contradictory data report the effect of genistein on expression of СYPs enzymes.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of genistein on cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene expression levels in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2/C3A) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) cells.
METHODS: Real-time RT-PCR was used to examine the expression of genes families involved in xenobiotic metabolism, such as CYP1 (CYP1A1, CYP1B1), CYP2 (CYP2E1, CYP2D6), CYP3 (CYP3A4); and of a family involved in the catabolism of the all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), CYP26 (CYP26A1, CYP26B1).
RESULTS: RT-qPCR data analysis showed that after 12 h of exposure of HepG2/C3A cells to genistein (5 and 50 µM) there was an upregulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and downregulation of CYP2D6, CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 mRNA levels. There was no change in the mRNA levels of CYP P450 genes in HT29 cells.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that treatment with genistein in non-toxic concentrations may impact the expression level of CYPs involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics and drug metabolizing enzymes. Moreover, the downregulation of ATRA metabolism-related genes opens a new research path for the study of genistein as retinoic acid metabolism blocking agent for treating cancer and other pathologies.

Sawrycki P, Domagalski K, Cechowska M, et al.
Relationship between CYP1B1 polymorphisms (c.142C > G, c.355G > T, c.1294C > G) and lung cancer risk in Polish smokers.
Future Oncol. 2018; 14(16):1569-1577 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To determine whether three of CYP1B1 single nucleotide polymorphisms, c.142C > G, c.355G > T and c.1294C > G are associated with a lung cancer risk.
PATIENTS & METHODS:  A total of 112 lung cancer patients and 100 controls were genotyped using the RFLP-PCR.
RESULTS: In the c.142C > G polymorphisms, G allele was more frequent in lung cancer patients than in controls (p < 0.001), while in the c.1294C > G polymorphisms, C allele was more frequent in lung cancer patients, than in controls (p = 0.012). In the c.355G > T polymorphism, the distribution of alleles in both analyzed groups was similar. The GTC haplotype turned out to be correlated with the increased lung cancer risk, compared with the most common CGG haplotype (OR: 2.38; p = 0.001).
CONCLUSION: CYP1B1 gene polymorphisms appear to influence lung cancer susceptibility.

Rahmani M, Talebi M, Hagh MF, et al.
Aberrant DNA methylation of key genes and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 97:1493-1500 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA methylation is a dynamic process influencing gene expression by altering either coding or non-coding loci. Despite advances in treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL); relapse occurs in approximately 20% of patients. Nowadays, epigenetic factors are considered as one of the most effective mechanisms in pathogenesis of malignancies. These factors are reversible elements which can be potentially regarded as therapy targets and disease prognosis. DNA methylation, which primarily serves as transcriptional suppressor, mostly occurs in CpG islands of the gene promoter regions. This was shown as a key epigenetic factor in inactivating various tumor suppressor genes during cancer initiation and progression. We aimed to review methylation status of key genes involved in hematopoietic malignancies such as IKZF1, CDKN2B, TET2, CYP1B1, SALL4, DLC1, DLX family, TP73, PTPN6, and CDKN1C; and their significance in pathogenesis of ALL. The DNA methylation alterations in promoter regions of the genes have been shown to play crucial roles in tumorigenesis. Methylation -based inactivation of these genes has also been reported as associated with prognosis in acute leukemia. In this review, we also addressed the association of gene expression and methylation pattern in ALL patients.

Tan YQ, Chiu-Leung LC, Lin SM, Leung LK
The citrus flavonone hesperetin attenuates the nuclear translocation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor.
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2018; 210:57-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
The environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins are carcinogens and their adverse effects have been largely attributed to the activation of AhR. Hesperetin is a flavonone found abundantly in citrus fruits and has been shown to be a biologically active agent. In the present study, the effect of hesperetin on the nuclear translocation of AhR and the downstream gene expression was investigated in MCF-7 cells. Confocal microscopy indicated that 7, 12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) -induced nuclear translocation of AhR was deterred by hesperetin treatment. The reduced nuclear translocation could also be observed in Western analysis. Reporter-gene assay further illustrated that the induced XRE transactivation was weakened by the treatment of hesperetin. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay demonstrated that the gene expressions of CYP1A1, 1A2, and 1B1 followed the same pattern of AhR translocation. These results suggested that hesperetin counteracted AhR transactivation and suppressed the downstream gene expression.

Li R, Dou S, Ruan M, et al.
A feasibility and safety study of concurrent chemotherapy based on genetic testing in patients with high-risk salivary gland tumors: Preliminary results.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(17):e0564 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and safety of customized chemotherapy regimens based on the gene characteristics of salivary gland tumors.
METHODS: Patients were enrolled with histologically confirmed intermediate or high grade, stage T3-4, N1-3 disease, and T1-2, N0 patients with a close (≤1 mm) or microscopically positive surgical margin were also enrolled in the study. All patients received radical surgery and postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy. To evaluate the responsiveness of therapies, the chemotherapy regimen was based on gene targets, β-tubulin III, ABCB1, STMN1, and CYP1B1 (for docetaxel) and TYMS (for pemetrexed). The primary endpoints were treatment compliance and acute toxicities.
RESULTS: A total of 20 patients were enrolled between September 2013 and January 2016. The median age was 46 years (range: 23-70 years). Genetic testing showed that 8 patients may have been sensitive to docetaxel, 5 patients may have been sensitive to pemetrexed, and 7 patients sensitive to either docetaxel or pemetrexed. All patients received the full dose of radiation. A total of 19 patients (95%) completed 2 cycles of concurrent chemotherapy (CCT). One patient treated concurrently with pemetrexed experienced grade 3 neutropenia. Three patients experienced grade 3 oral mucositis, and 2 patients experienced grade 3 dermatitis.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that a CCT selecting method based on the gene targets associated with drug sensitivity was clinically feasible and safe. Further studies enrolled more patients with longer follow-up times are needed to confirm the clinical efficacy of this CCT selecting method.

Fathi Z, Syn NL, Zhou JG, Roudi R
Molecular epidemiology of lung cancer in Iran: implications for drug development and cancer prevention.
J Hum Genet. 2018; 63(7):783-794 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epidemiological studies undertaken over the past decades reveal a gradual but progressive increase in the incidence and mortality attributable to lung cancer in the Islamic Republic of Iran, a sovereign state geographically situated at the crossroads of Central Eurasia and Western Asia. We identified references published in English and Persian through searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Scientific Information Database (SID)-a specialized Iranian database, which indexes Iranian scientific journals-between inception and 15 September 2017. Of 1475 references identified through electronic searches, we reviewed the full text of 88 studies, and included 38 studies in the review. Potentially druggable NSCLC targets, which have been studied in Iran include EGFR, ALK, ERBB2, and KIT; but no studies were found, which examined the impact of MET, ROS1, BRAF, PIK3CA, and FGFR1 aberrations. We were able to identify some literature on DNA repair genes and xenobiotic metabolism, including TP53, TP63, ERCC2, XRCC2, SIRT1, PTEN, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GSTT1, and GSTM1. We also found an increasing amount of research performed in relation to the tumor microenvironment and immune contexture, including CTLA4, MAGE, FOXP3, IFN-γ, and various interleukins, chemokines, and transcription factors; but did not identify any publication concerning the expression of PD-1/PD-L1 in lung cancer. Our survey of research performed in Iran has revealed a dearth of studies in topics, which are otherwise highly pursued in developed countries, but nevertheless, has begun to hint at a distinct biology of lung cancer in this part of the world.

Allam RM, Al-Abd AM, Khedr A, et al.
Fingolimod interrupts the cross talk between estrogen metabolism and sphingolipid metabolism within prostate cancer cells.
Toxicol Lett. 2018; 291:77-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sphingolipids are critical regulators of tumor microenvironments and play an important role in estrogen-dependent cancers. Estrogen and estrogen metabolites were found to be involved in prostate cancer. Fingolimod (FTY720) is a sphingokinase-1 (SphK1) inhibitor with anticancer properties against various tumor cell types. Herein, we investigated the interference of FTY720 with the cross talk between sphingolipid metabolism and estrogen metabolism within prostate cancer cells. FTY720 showed cytotoxic antiproliferative effects against androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cells with IC

Moghadam AR, Mehramiz M, Entezari M, et al.
A genetic polymorphism in the CYP1B1 gene in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: an Iranian Mashhad cohort study recruited over 10 years.
Pharmacogenomics. 2018; 19(6):539-546 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer globally and the seventh most common cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Recent studies have shown that CYP450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1, which plays a role in the metabolism of xenobiotics, is associated with several cancers. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the association between a genetic variant, CYP1B1-rs1056836 gene, with the clinical characteristics of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC).
METHOD: In this study, 117 patients with ESCC and 208 healthy controls were recruited. DNA was extracted and genotyped using real-time PCR-based TaqMan. Kaplan-Meier curves were utilized to assess overall and progression-free survival. To evaluate the relationship between clinicopathological data, genotypic frequencies, disease prognosis and survival, Pearson's χ
RESULTS: The genotypic frequency for GG, GC and CC were 58.6, 29.8 and 11.5%, respectively, in the healthy subjects and 51.8, 36.14 and 12% in the ESCC group. An association between the GG genotype and stage of ESCC was found. Also, statistically significant results were not found for this variation and risk of ESCC.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest a relationship between the CYP1B1-rs1056836 genetic polymorphism and clinical features of ESCC, supporting further studies in larger populations in different ethnic groups, taking into account potentially important environmental factors such as diet.

Baker SC, Arlt VM, Indra R, et al.
Differentiation-associated urothelial cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase predicates the xenobiotic-metabolizing activity of "luminal" muscle-invasive bladder cancers.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(5):606-618 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Extra-hepatic metabolism of xenobiotics by epithelial tissues has evolved as a self-defence mechanism but has potential to contribute to the local activation of carcinogens. Bladder epithelium (urothelium) is bathed in excreted urinary toxicants and pro-carcinogens. This study reveals how differentiation affects cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity and the role of NADPH:P450 oxidoreductase (POR). CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transcripts were inducible in normal human urothelial (NHU) cells maintained in both undifferentiated and functional barrier-forming differentiated states in vitro. However, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) activity, the generation of reactive BaP metabolites and BaP-DNA adducts, were predominantly detected in differentiated NHU cell cultures. This gain-of-function was attributable to the expression of POR, an essential electron donor for all CYPs, which was significantly upregulated as part of urothelial differentiation. Immunohistology of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) revealed significant overall suppression of POR expression. Stratification of MIBC biopsies into "luminal" and "basal" groups, based on GATA3 and cytokeratin 5/6 labeling, showed POR over-expression by a subgroup of the differentiated luminal tumors. In bladder cancer cell lines, CYP1-activity was undetectable/low in basal POR

García-Martínez A, Gamboa-Loira B, Tejero ME, et al.
CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic variants and breast cancer risk in Mexican women.
Salud Publica Mex. 2017 Sep-Oct; 59(5):540-547 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if variants in the genes CYP1A1 (T3801C and A4889G), CYP1B1 (G119T), GSTM1 (indel) and GSTT1 (indel) are associated with breast cancer (BC) among Mexican women.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 952 incident cases with histologically confirmed BC were matched by age (± 5 years) and zone of residence with 998 healthy population controls. Genetic variants in genes CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GSTM1 and GSTT1were genotyped by allelic discrimination and multiplex PCR. In a subsample of women, 105 markers for ancestry were determined.
RESULTS: An increased BC risk, independent of other BC risk factors, was observed among carriers of CYP1B1 G119T genotype (T/T vs. G/G: OR=1.9; 95%CI 1.4-2.5).
CONCLUSION: Our results support the existence of genetic susceptibility for BC conferred by CYP1B1 G119T variant among Mexican women.

Tang L, Platek ME, Yao S, et al.
Associations between polymorphisms in genes related to estrogen metabolism and function and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.
Carcinogenesis. 2018; 39(2):125-133 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Substantial preclinical data suggest estrogen's carcinogenic role in prostate cancer development; however, epidemiological evidence based on circulating estrogen levels is largely null. Compared with circulating estrogen, the intraprostatic estrogen milieu may play a more important role in prostate carcinogenesis. Using a nested case-control design in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), we examined associations of genetic variants of genes that are involved in estrogen synthesis, metabolism and function with prostate cancer risk. A total of 25 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 13 genes (PGR, ESR1, ESR2, CYP17A1, HSD17B1, CYP19A1, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, COMT, UGT1A6, UGT1A10, UGT2B7, UGT2B15) were examined in whites only. Controls (n = 1380) were frequency matched to cases on age, PCPT treatment arm, and family history (n = 1506). Logistic regression models adjusted for age and family history were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) separately in the placebo and finasteride arms. SNPs associated with prostate cancer risk differed by treatment arm. The associations appeared to be modified by circulating estrogen and androgen levels. CYP19A1 was the only gene harboring SNPs that were significantly associated with risk in both the placebo and finasteride arms. Haplotype analysis with all three CYP19A1 SNPs genotyped (rs700518, rs2445765, rs700519) showed that risk-allele haplotypes are associated with the increased prostate cancer risk in both arms when comparing with the non-risk allele haplotype. In conclusion, associations between SNPs in estrogen-related genes and prostate cancer risk are complex and may be modified by circulating hormone levels and finasteride treatment.

Licznerska B, Szaefer H, Wierzchowski M, et al.
Evaluation of the effect of the new methoxy-stilbenes on expression of receptors and enzymes involved in estrogen synthesis in cancer breast cells.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2018; 444(1-2):53-62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our previous study showed that the new synthetic methoxy-stilbenes, 3,4,2'-trimethoxy-trans-stilbene (3MS), 3,4,2',4'-tetramethoxy-trans-stilbene (4MS), and 3,4,2',4',6'-pentamethoxy-trans-stilbene (5MS), modulate the constitutive expression of enzymes and receptors involved in estrogen metabolism in breast immortalized epithelial MCF10 cells. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 3MS, 4MS, and 5MS in comparison to resveratrol activity in MCF7 estrogen-dependent and MDA-MB-231 estrogen-independent breast cancer cell lines. 3MS similarly to resveratrol reduced the expression of estrogen receptor α in MCF7 cells. However, in these cells, 5MS reduced the most CYP19, the gene encoding aromatase, at mRNA transcript level. In contrast, in the MDA-MB-231 cells, the most efficient inhibitor of CYP19 expression was 3MS, reducing the level of its protein by ~ 25%. This stilbene also inhibited the aromatase activity in a recombinant protein system with IC

Liu C, Cui H, Gu D, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer risk: Evidence from meta-analyses and genome-wide association studies.
Lung Cancer. 2017; 113:18-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
A growing number of studies investigating the association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and lung cancer risk have been published since over a decade ago. An updated integrative assessment on the credibility and strength of the associations is required. We searched PubMed, Medline, and Web of Science on or before August 29

Liu Y, Nan F, Lu K, et al.
Identification of key genes in endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma via TCGA database.
Cancer Biomark. 2017; 21(1):11-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Understanding the molecular mechanisms is important in development and therapy of endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma.
OBJECTIVE: To identify key genes in endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: The data of mRNA, miRNA and DNA methylation were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and differential analysis was performed. Then, bioinformatic analysis was used to explore the regulatory mechanisms of miRNA and DNA methylation on gene expression. The regulatory network between differentially expressed miRNAs and target genes was established. Finally, the quantitative RT-PCR was applied to validate the bioinformatics results.
RESULTS: We obtained biological omics data of 381 patients with endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma from TCGA data portal. After data processing, up to 2068 DEGs and 69 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified. Prediction and correlation analysis revealed that 175 DEGs that were not only the target genes but also negatively correlated with the screened differentially expressed miRNAs. After the integrated analysis of differentially methylated CpG islands and DEGs, 16 related genes were obtained. The quantitative RT-PCR results were roughly consistent with the bioinformatics analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The altered DEGs (ZEB1, ZEB2, TIMP2, TCF4, CYP1B1, PITX1, PITX2, ZNF154 and TSPYL5) may be involved in tumor differentiation of endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma and could be used as potential therapeutic targets for the disease.

Miki Y, Hata S, Ono K, et al.
Roles of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Aromatase-Dependent Cell Proliferation in Human Osteoblasts.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and its expression is influenced by environmental compounds, such as 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and β-naphthoflavone (β-NF). AhR and its downstream genes, such as

Dunlap TL, Howell CE, Mukand N, et al.
Red Clover Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) and Estrogen Receptor (ER) Agonists Enhance Genotoxic Estrogen Metabolism.
Chem Res Toxicol. 2017; 30(11):2084-2092 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Many women consider botanical dietary supplements (BDSs) as safe alternatives to hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms. However, the effect of BDSs on breast cancer risk is largely unknown. In the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, P450 1B1 metabolizes estrogens to 4-hydroxylated catechols, which are oxidized to genotoxic quinones that initiate and promote breast cancer. In contrast, P450 1A1 catalyzed 2-hydroxylation represents a detoxification pathway. The current study evaluated the effects of red clover, a popular BDS used for women's health, and its isoflavones, biochanin A (BA), formononetin (FN), genistein (GN), and daidzein (DZ), on estrogen metabolism. The methoxy estrogen metabolites (2-MeOE

Ogura J, Miyauchi S, Shimono K, et al.
Carbidopa is an activator of aryl hydrocarbon receptor with potential for cancer therapy.
Biochem J. 2017; 474(20):3391-3402 [PubMed] Related Publications
Carbidopa is used with l-DOPA (l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) to treat Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients exhibit lower incidence of most cancers including pancreatic cancer, but with the notable exception of melanoma. The decreased cancer incidence is not due to l-DOPA; however, the relevance of Carbidopa to this phenomenon has not been investigated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Carbidopa, independent of l-DOPA, might elicit an anticancer effect. Carbidopa inhibited pancreatic cancer cell proliferation both

Jin UH, Cheng Y, Park H, et al.
Short Chain Fatty Acids Enhance Aryl Hydrocarbon (Ah) Responsiveness in Mouse Colonocytes and Caco-2 Human Colon Cancer Cells.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):10163 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands are important for gastrointestinal health and play a role in gut inflammation and the induction of T regulatory cells, and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) butyrate, propionate and acetate also induce similar protective responses. Initial studies with butyrate demonstrated that this compound significantly increased expression of Ah-responsive genes such as Cyp1a1/CYP1A1 in YAMC mouse colonocytes and Caco-2 human colon cancer cell lines. Butyrate synergistically enhanced AhR ligand-induced Cyp1a1/CYP1A1 in these cells with comparable enhancement being observed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and also microbiota-derived AhR ligands tryptamine, indole and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (DHNA). The effects of butyrate on enhancing induction of Cyp1b1/CYP1B1, AhR repressor (Ahrr/AhRR) and TCDD-inducible poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (Tiparp/TiPARP) by AhR ligands were gene- and cell context-dependent with the Caco-2 cells being the most responsive cell line. Like butyrate and propionate, the prototypical hydroxyamic acid-derived histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors Panobinostat and Vorinostat also enhanced AhR ligand-mediated induction and this was accompanied by enhanced histone acetylation. Acetate also enhanced basal and ligand-inducible Ah responsiveness and histone acetylation, demonstrating that acetate was an HDAC inhibitor. These results demonstrate SCFA-AhR ligand interactions in YAMC and Caco-2 cells where SCFAs synergistically enhance basal and ligand-induced expression of AhR-responsive genes.

Słowikowski BK, Gałęcki B, Dyszkiewicz W, Jagodziński PP
Decreased expression of cytochrome p450 1B1 in non-small cell lung cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 95:339-345 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies have associated oestrogen metabolism and cigarette smoking with their carcinogenic impact on the lungs. Compounds commonly found in tobacco smoke induce the activity of CYP1B1, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of catecholic derivatives of oestrogens. During their redox transformations, these structures can release large amounts of reactive oxygen species or can form DNA adducts, which lead to the decomposition of genetic material. This process may illustrate the synergistic effect of oestrogenic activity and tobacco combustion on oestrogen-dependant lung cancer development. There is considerable evidence suggesting that the level of oestrogen in lung tumours is elevated. Therefore, by using reverse transcription, real-time PCR and Western Blot analysis, we evaluated the CYP1B1 status in tissues from 76 patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to confirm whether potential overexpression of CYP1B1 may impact lung cancerogenesis induced by oestrogens. We found significantly lower levels of CYP1B1 transcripts (p=0.00001) and proteins (p=0.000085) in lung tumour material compared to corresponding, histopathologically unchanged tissues. We also analysed the association of CYP1B1 expression with gender, age and clinicopathological data of NSCLC patients. We observed lower amounts of CYP1B1 occurring in the middle stages of LC, regardless of gender, age or histological type of lung cancer.

Stueve TR, Li WQ, Shi J, et al.
Epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in lung tissue shows concordance with blood studies and identifies tobacco smoke-inducible enhancers.
Hum Mol Genet. 2017; 26(15):3014-3027 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Smoking-associated DNA hypomethylation has been observed in blood cells and linked to lung cancer risk. However, its cause and mechanistic relationship to lung cancer remain unclear. We studied the association between tobacco smoking and epigenome-wide methylation in non-tumor lung (NTL) tissue from 237 lung cancer cases in the Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology study, using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We identified seven smoking-associated hypomethylated CpGs (P < 1.0 × 10-7), which were replicated in NTL data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Five of these loci were previously reported as hypomethylated in smokers' blood, suggesting that blood-based biomarkers can reflect changes in the target tissue for these loci. Four CpGs border sequences carrying aryl hydrocarbon receptor binding sites and enhancer-specific histone modifications in primary alveolar epithelium and A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. A549 cell exposure to cigarette smoke condensate increased these enhancer marks significantly and stimulated expression of predicted target xenobiotic response-related genes AHRR (P = 1.13 × 10-62) and CYP1B1 (P < 2.49 × 10-61). Expression of both genes was linked to smoking-related transversion mutations in lung tumors. Thus, smoking-associated hypomethylation may be a consequence of enhancer activation, revealing environmentally-induced regulatory elements implicated in lung carcinogenesis.

Kamiza AB, You JF, Wang WC, et al.
Polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing genes and colorectal cancer risk in patients with lynch syndrome: A retrospective cohort study in Taiwan.
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2018; 59(1):69-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytochrome P450 (CYP), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and N-acetyltransferase (NAT) are crucial for metabolism and clearance of xenobiotics. This study investigated whether CYP, GST, and NAT single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients with Lynch syndrome. The interaction between these SNPs and cigarette smoking or meat consumption was also explored. We identified 270 patients with Lynch syndrome from the Taiwan Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer Consortium. A weighted Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs). The GSTA1 rs3957356 TT (HR = 5.36, 95% CI = 2.39-12.0) and CYP1B1 rs1056836 CC (HR = 7.24, 95% CI = 3.51-14.9) were significantly associated with CRC risk when compared to wild-type CC and GG genotypes, respectively. However, the CYP1A1 rs4646903 CC genotype significantly reduced the risk of CRC (HR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.12-0.89) when compared to TT genotype. Moreover, significant interactions were observed between NAT1 acetylation and CYP1B1 rs1056827 and meat consumption.Our results suggest that xenobiotic-metabolizing SNPs are not only associated with CRC risk in patients with Lynch syndrome in Taiwan but also interact with meat consumption to modify the disease risk. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:69-78, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Katiyar T, Maurya SS, Hasan F, et al.
Association of cytochrome P450 1B1 haplotypes with head and neck cancer risk.
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2017; 58(6):443-450 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic polymorphisms have been reported in several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, including CYP1B1 which metabolically activates procarcinogens present in tobacco to carcinogenic intermediates. This study used a case-control approach in North Indian population to determine associations between genetic variants in CYP1B1 and risk of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC). We examined the genotype and haplotype frequencies at various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including SNPs previously reported in the promoter region and intron 1 of CYP1B1 in Caucasians. Using cycle sequencing, 9 SNPs were identified in the promoter region, intron 1, and exons 2 and 3. Haplotype analysis revealed that 5 SNPs (those in the promoter region, intron, and Arg48Gly and Ala119Ser in exon 2) were in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD). Cases with the T-A-T-G-T haplotype were significantly associated with increased risk of HNSCC. Interestingly, qRT-PCR studies revealed a significant increase in mRNA expression of CYP1B1 in peripheral blood isolated from cases with the T-A-T-G-T haplotype compared with cases with the C-G-C-C-G haplotype, and in cases compared to controls for both main haplotypes. The data thus provide evidence that CYP1B1 haplotypes could be more effective in predicting HNSCC risk. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:443-450, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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