Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: KDM5B (cancer-related)
Hao T, Li CX, Ding XY, Xing XJMicroRNA-363-3p/p21(Cip1/Waf1) axis is regulated by HIF-2α in mediating stemness of melanoma cells.
Neoplasma. 2019; 2019(3):427-436 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Melanoma is a malignant tumor. The acquisition of stemness of melanoma cells aggravates the malignant transformation, which can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs, miR). MiR-363-3p is a key tumor-related miRNA, but its role in stemness and melanoma cells is still unknown. Presently, miR-363-3p, induced by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α, played a positive role in the stemness of melanoma cells. The levels of miR-363-3p and HIF-2α were upregulated in melanoma cell lines. Overexpression of HIF-2α significantly increased the levels of miR-363-3p. However, both HIF-2α knockdown and miR-363-3p inhibition inhibited the levels of the stemness markers (CD133, CD271, Jarid1B, and Nanog). Furthermore, the levels of miR-363-3p and HIF-2α were upregulated in fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS)-sorted CD271high/+ cells. Whereas miR-363-3p depletion reduced the proportion and the spheroidization of the CD271high/+ cells, decreased the levels of CD133, CD271, Jarid1B and Nanog with restrained proliferative activity of CD271high/+ cells. Additionally, miR-363-3p was confirmed a key downstream of HIF-2α. Intriguingly, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A [CDKN1A, p21(Cip1/Waf1)], a key inhibitor of S-phase DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression, was confirmed a target gene of miR-363-3p by luciferase reporter gene assay. The protein levels of CD133, CD271, Jarid1B and Nanog were upregulated with enhanced proliferative activity of CD271high/+ cells by inhibition of p21 in melanoma cells. In conclusion, miR-363-3p is induced by HIF-2α to promote the stemness of melanoma cells via inhibiting p21. The present study provides novel insights that HIF-2α/miR-363-3p/p21 signaling may be a potential target of research and therapy of melanoma.
Li H, Xue Y, Ma J, et al.SNHG1 promotes malignant biological behaviors of glioma cells via microRNA-154-5p/miR-376b-3p- FOXP2- KDM5B participating positive feedback loop.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):59 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs has been reported in tumorigenesis and play important roles in regulating malignant behavior of cancers, including glioma.
METHODS: According to the TCGA database, we identified SNHG1, miRNA-154-5p and miR-376b-3p whose expression were significantly changed in the glioma samples. Furthermore, we investigated SNHG1, miRNA-154-5p and miR-376b-3p expression in clinical samples and glioma cell lines using qRT-PCR analysis and the correlation between them using RNA immunoprecipitation and dual-luciferase reporter. The underlying mechanisms of SNHG1 in glioma were also investigated using immunohistochemistry staining, Western blotting, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and RNA pulldown. Cell Counting Kit-8, transwell assays, and flow cytometry were used to investigate malignant biological behaviors.
RESULTS: We have elucidated the potential molecular mechanism of long non-coding RNA SNHG1 regulating the malignant behavior of glioma cells by binding to microRNA-154-5p or miR-376b-3p. Moreover, our deep-going results showed that FOXP2 existed as a direct downstream target of both microRNA-154-5p and miR-376b-3p; FOXP2 increased promoter activities and enhanced the expression of the oncogenic gene KDM5B; and KDM5B also acts as a RNA-binding protein to maintain the stability of SNHG1.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, this study demonstrates that the SNHG1- microRNA-154-5p/miR-376b-3p- FOXP2- KDM5B feedback loop plays a pivotal role in regulating the malignant behavior of glioma cells.
Li L, Shou H, Wang Q, Liu SInvestigation of the potential theranostic role of KDM5B/miR-29c signaling axis in paclitaxel resistant endometrial carcinoma.
Gene. 2019; 694:76-82 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common female reproductive system tumors. In this study, we explored the clinical significance of Histone demethylase KDM5B gene and its effects on paclitaxel (PTX) sensitivity in EC.
METHOD: First, we found that KDM5B expression significantly higher in EC tissues and cell lines. The elevated KDM5B expression was associated with high pathological grade and low PTX sensitivity. The functional role of KDM5B in PTX-resistant Ishikawa-R and HEC1A-R cells were examined by gene silencing experiments.
RESULTS: Knockdown of KDM5B resulted in the re-sensitization towards paclitaxel in both resistant cell lines. In addition, we also identified that microRNA-29c-3p (a tumor suppressor) was significantly lower in the EC cells and linked to the low PTX sensitivity of EC. The up-regulation of miR-29c-3p using exogenous mimic molecules markedly increased PTX sensitivity in both cell lines and reduced expression of KDM5B while the inhibitor of miR-29-3p resulted in the opposite effects. Notably, we also demonstrated that the level of miR-29c-3p was inversely correlated to the invasive, colony-forming abilities and PTX resistance in both cell lines. We also identified that miR-29c-3p has a binding site in the 3'UTR of the KDM5B gene, establishing a link of this signaling axis. In conclusion, high-expression of KDM5B is associated with the poor response to PTX in EC patients. Silencing of KDM5B led to the reversal of PTX resistance through miR-29c-3p/KDM5B pathway in EC.
CONCLUSION: Our findings provide new insights into the mechanism by which EC cells acquire paclitaxel resistance and potential this signaling as a theronostic marker for this malignancy.
JARID1B/KDM5B histone demethylase's mRNA is markedly overexpressed in breast cancer tissues and cell lines and the protein has been shown to have a prominent role in cancer cell proliferation and DNA repair. However, the mechanism of its post-transcriptional regulation in cancer cells remains elusive. We performed a computational analysis of transcriptomic data from a set of 103 breast cancer patients, which, along with JARID1B upregulation, showed a strong downregulation of 2 microRNAs (miRNAs), mir-381 and mir-486, potentially targeting its mRNA. We showed that both miRNAs can target JARID1B 3'UTR and reduce luciferase's activity in a complementarity-driven repression assay. Moreover, MCF7 breast cancer cells overexpressing JARID1B showed a strong protein reduction when transfected with mir-486. This protein's decrease is accompanied by accumulation of DNA damage, enhanced radiosensitivity and increase of BRCA1 mRNA, 3 features previously correlated with JARID1B silencing. These results enlighten an important role of a miRNA's circuit in regulating JARID1B's activity and suggest new perspectives for epigenetic therapies.
Zheng YC, Chang J, Wang LC, et al.Lysine demethylase 5B (KDM5B): A potential anti-cancer drug target.
Eur J Med Chem. 2019; 161:131-140 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Lysine demethylase 5B (KDM5B) is a histone demethylase identified in 2007, which is responsible for erasing H3K4me2/3 activation marker. It participates in multiple repressive transcriptional complexes around target gene promoters and performs wide regulatory effects on chromatin structure. Until now, there is growing evidence for the oncogenic function of KDM5B. As the H3K4me2/3 residue represents the transcription initiation site of the active transcription gene, and demethylation of H3K4 is associated with transcriptional repression, making it a potential participant in inhibiting the expression of tumor suppressors. Therefore, KDM5B is considered as a promising drug target for cancer therapy, and many medicinal chemists are trying to design and synthesize potent and selective KDM5B inhibitors with the aid of high-throughput screening, structure based drug design, and structure activity relationship studies. This review focuses on the basic biochemical and physiological function of KDM5B and its involved mechanisms in cancers, a comprehensive overview of KDM5B inhibitors is also introduced.
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Recently, epigenetic dysregulation has been known to promote tumor progression and therefore may be a therapeutic target for anticancer therapy. JARID1B, a member of histone demethylases, has been found to be related to tumorigenesis in certain kinds of cancers. However, its biological roles in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain largely unclear.
METHODS: We firstly examined the expression of JARID1B in surgical specimens and six NSCLC cell lines. Then, we evaluated the relationship between JARID1B expression and clinicopathologic parameters in 72 NSCLC patients, thereby established its prognostic importance. We subsequently studied the functional roles of JARID1B in tumorigenesis to verify its clinicopathologic significance.
RESULTS: Our results showed that JARID1B was overexpressed in NSCLC cells and JARID1B overexpression was associated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, advanced stages, and poor overall survival in NSCLC patients. JARID1B overexpression resulted in increased cell proliferation and formation of tumorspheres and correlated positively with the expression of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, while the c-Met signaling pathway was actively involved. It also correlated with the strength of resistance to cisplatin and doxorubicin. On the contrary, downregulation of JARID1B expression by applying shRNA or JARID1B inhibitor PBIT reversed these phenomena.
CONCLUSIONS: JARID1B worsens prognosis of NSCLC patients by promotion of tumor aggressiveness through multiple biological facets which were associated with activation of the c-Met signaling, and can be a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for NSCLC.
The development of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) specific for epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) with activating mutations has led to a new paradigm in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, most patients eventually develop resistance. Hypoxia is a key microenvironmental stress in solid tumors that is associated with poor prognosis due, in part, to acquired resistance to conventional therapy. This study documents that long-term, moderate hypoxia promotes resistance to the EGFR TKI, gefitinib, in the NSCLC cell line HCC827, which harbors an activating EGFR mutation. Following hypoxic growth conditions, HCC827 cells treated with gefitinib upregulated N-cadherin, fibronectin, and vimentin expression and downregulated E-cadherin, characteristic of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which prior studies have linked to EGFR TKI resistance. Mechanistically, knockdown of the histone demethylases, LSD1 and PLU-1, prevented and reversed hypoxia-induced gefitinib resistance, with inhibition of the associated EMT, suggesting that LSD1 and PLU-1 play key roles in hypoxia-induced gefitinib resistance and EMT. Moreover, hypoxia-treated HCC827 cells demonstrated more aggressive tumor growth
Shokri G, Doudi S, Fathi-Roudsari M, et al.Targeting histone demethylases KDM5A and KDM5B in AML cancer cells: A comparative view.
Leuk Res. 2018; 68:105-111 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epigenetic modifications play an important role in initiation and progression of cancers including acute myeloid leukemia. Among different epigenetic modifiers, lysine specific demethylases have been noticed as potential therapeutic targets. KDM5 family of histone demethylases which removes methyl marks from lysine residues of H3, are frequently found in the promoter region of transcriptionally active genes resulting in repression of expression. Here we have compared the effects of KDM5A and KDM5B downregulation on HL-60 cell line behavior. KDM5A/5B knockdown resulted in lower viability of HL-60 cells in addition to modified cell cycle distribution and sub-G1 accumulation. Induction of apoptosis was observed in both knockdown cells. But in spite of similarity in their role, downregulation of KDM5A showed more efficient anti-leukemic effects in comparison to KDM5B. Cells showed higher accumulation in sub-G1 and apoptosis occurred significantly higher and also earlier after KDM5A reduction. Expression analysis confirmed almost 5 and 4 fold increased expression for bax and caspase-3 after downregulation of KDM5A in comparison to KDM5B. Due to the present study we propose KDM5A as a potential target for therapeutic aspects of acute myeloid leukemia although further investigations are needed.
BACKGROUND: Histone demethylase JARID1B plays several context dependent roles in epigenetic regulation of cellular differentiation in normal development and is highly expressed in multiple human cancers. The protein is a strong transcriptional repressor capable of downregulating numerous genes. There are three splicing isoforms of JARID1B, however the links between the protein structure and function are not clear. The expression pattern of JARID1B in human melanoma seems to be different from observed in other cancers. Moreover, up to now no data on the impact of JARID1B expression in cutaneous melanoma on the patients' prognosis have been reported.
METHODS: We investigated immunohistochemically the association of intratumoral expression of total JARID1B protein and its RBP2-H1 isoform in primary and metastatic melanomas with prognosis for the patients.
RESULTS: Expression of both total JARID1B protein and its RBP2-H1 variant was found in all the melanomas investigated. Our results indicate, however, that only high (above 90% of the cells) intratumoral expression of RBP2-H1 can be considered prognostic factor associated with worse overall survival of the patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Such results if considered together with data demonstrating a switch to enhanced expression of RBP2-H1 at early stages of malignant transformation of melanocytes are in agreement with hypothetical crucial role of JARID1B in the course of melanoma development and progression and suggest that altered splicing of JARID1B may be important factor increasing melanoma aggressiveness.
JARID1 proteins are histone demethylases that both regulate normal cell fates during development and contribute to the epigenetic plasticity that underlies malignant transformation. This H3K4 demethylase family participates in multiple repressive transcriptional complexes at promoters and has broader regulatory effects on chromatin that remain ill-defined. There is growing understanding of the oncogenic and tumor suppressive functions of JARID1 proteins, which are contingent on cell context and the protein isoform. Their contributions to stem cell-like dedifferentiation, tumor aggressiveness, and therapy resistance in cancer have sustained interest in the development of JARID1 inhibitors. Here we review the diverse and context-specific functions of the JARID1 proteins that may impact the utilization of emerging targeted inhibitors of this histone demethylase family in cancer therapy.
Ahn A, Chatterjee A, Eccles MRThe Slow Cycling Phenotype: A Growing Problem for Treatment Resistance in Melanoma.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2017; 16(6):1002-1009 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Treatment resistance in metastatic melanoma is a longstanding issue. Current targeted therapy regimes in melanoma largely target the proliferating cancer population, leaving slow-cycling cancer cells undamaged. Consequently, slow-cycling cells are enriched upon drug therapy and can remain in the body for years until acquiring proliferative potential that triggers cancer relapse. Here we overview the molecular mechanisms of slow-cycling cells that underlie treatment resistance in melanoma. Three main areas of molecular reprogramming are discussed that mediate slow cycling and treatment resistance. First, a low microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) dedifferentiated state activates various signaling pathways. This includes WNT5A, EGFR, as well as other signaling activators, such as AXL and NF-κB. Second, the chromatin-remodeling factor Jumonji/ARID domain-containing protein 1B (JARID1B,
AIM: To determine the role of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx), HBx in regulating hepatic progenitor cell (HPC)-like features in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms.
METHODS: We used a retrovirus vector to introduce wild type HBx or empty vector into HepG2 cells. We then used these cells to analyze cell proliferation, senescence, transformation, and stem-like features. Gene expression profiling was carried out on Affymetrix GeneChip Human U133A2.0 ver.2 arrays according to the manufacturer's protocol. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis and Class Comparison analysis were performed by BRB-Array Tools software Version 4.2.2. A total of 238 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC patients' array data were used for analyzing clinical features.
RESULTS: The histone demethylase KDM5B was significantly highly expressed in HBV-related HCC cases (
CONCLUSION: HBx activates the histone demethylase KDM5B and induces HPC-like features in HCC. Histone demethylases KDM5B may be an important therapeutic target against HBV-related HCC cases.
ILEI (FAM3C) is a secreted factor that contributes to the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a cell biological process that confers metastatic properties to a tumor cell. Initially, we found that ILEI mRNA is highly expressed in melanoma metastases but not in primary tumors, suggesting that ILEI contributes to the malignant properties of melanoma. While melanoma is not an epithelial cell-derived tumor and does not undergo a traditional EMT, melanoma undergoes a similar process known as phenotype switching in which high (micropthalmia-related transcription factor) MITF expressing (MITF-high) proliferative cells switch to a low expressing (MITF-low) invasive state. We observed that MITF-high proliferative cells express low levels of ILEI (ILEI-low) and MITF-low invasive cells express high levels of ILEI (ILEI-high). We found that inducing phenotype switching towards the MITF-low invasive state increases ILEI mRNA expression, whereas phenotype switching towards the MITF-high proliferative state decreases ILEI mRNA expression. Next, we used in vitro assays to show that knockdown of ILEI attenuates invasive potential but not MITF expression or chemoresistance. Finally, we used gene expression analysis to show that ILEI regulates several genes involved in the MITF-low invasive phenotype including JARID1B, HIF-2α, and BDNF. Gene set enrichment analysis suggested that ILEI-regulated genes are enriched for JUN signaling, a known regulator of the MITF-low invasive phenotype. In conclusion, we demonstrate that phenotype switching regulates ILEI expression, and that ILEI regulates partial phenotype switching in MITF-low melanoma cell lines.
Wang W, Zheng K, Pei Y, Zhang XHistone Demethylase JARID1B Is Overexpressed in Osteosarcoma and Upregulates Cyclin D1 Expression via Demethylation of H3K27me3.
Oncol Res. 2018; 26(3):373-384 [PubMed
] Related Publications
JARID1B has been proven to be upregulated in many human malignancies and is correlated with tumor progression. However, its expression and clinical significance in osteosarcoma are still unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the effects of JARID1B in osteosarcoma tumorigenesis and development. In this study, we found that the expression levels of JARID1B in osteosarcoma tissues were significantly higher than those in corresponding noncancerous bone tissues. In addition, JARID1B upregulation occurred more frequently in osteosarcoma specimens from patients with a poor prognosis. After JARID1B transfection in osteosarcoma cells, cell proliferation was significantly promoted in vitro and in vivo. On the contrary, knockdown of JARID1B inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. JARID1B can also decrease the G
Daniunaite K, Dubikaityte M, Gibas P, et al.Clinical significance of miRNA host gene promoter methylation in prostate cancer.
Hum Mol Genet. 2017; 26(13):2451-2461 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Only a part of prostate cancer (PCa) patients has aggressive malignancy requiring adjuvant treatment after radical prostatectomy (RP). Biomarkers capable to predict biochemical PCa recurrence (BCR) after RP would significantly improve preoperative risk stratification and treatment decisions. MicroRNA (miRNA) deregulation has recently emerged as an important phenomenon in tumor development and progression, however, the mechanisms remain largely unstudied. In the present study, based on microarray profiling of DNA methylation in 9 pairs of PCa and noncancerous prostate tissues (NPT), host genes of miR-155-5p, miR-152-3p, miR-137, miR-31-5p, and miR-642a, -b were analyzed for promoter methylation in 129 PCa, 35 NPT, and 17 benign prostatic hyperplasia samples (BPH) and compared to the expression of mature miRNAs and their selected targets (DNMT1, KDM1A, and KDM5B). The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset was utilized for validation. Methylation of mir-155, mir-152, and mir-137 host genes was PCa-specific, and downregulation of miR-155-5p significantly correlated with promoter methylation. Higher KDM5B expression was observed in samples with methylated mir-155 or mir-137 promoters, whereas upregulation of KDM1A and DNMT1 was associated with mir-155 and mir-152 methylation status, respectively. Promoter methylation of mir-155, mir-152, and mir-31 was predictive of BCR-free survival in various Cox models and increased the prognostic value of clinicopathologic factors. In conclusion, methylated mir-155, mir-152, mir-137, and mir-31 host genes are promising diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers of PCa. Methylation status of particular miRNA host genes as independent variables or in combinations might assist physicians in identifying poor prognosis PCa patients preoperatively.
Tumber A, Nuzzi A, Hookway ES, et al.Potent and Selective KDM5 Inhibitor Stops Cellular Demethylation of H3K4me3 at Transcription Start Sites and Proliferation of MM1S Myeloma Cells.
Cell Chem Biol. 2017; 24(3):371-380 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Methylation of lysine residues on histone tail is a dynamic epigenetic modification that plays a key role in chromatin structure and gene regulation. Members of the KDM5 (also known as JARID1) sub-family are 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) and Fe
The complexity by which cells regulate gene and protein expression is multifaceted and intricate. Regulation of 3' untranslated region (UTR) processing of mRNA has been shown to play a critical role in development and disease. However, the process by which cells select alternative mRNA forms is not well understood. We discovered that the
Zhou Y, An Q, Guo RX, et al.miR424-5p functions as an anti-oncogene in cervical cancer cell growth by targeting KDM5B via the Notch signaling pathway.
Life Sci. 2017; 171:9-15 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIMS: Aberrant expression of miRNAs exert the critical roles in carcinogenesis, including cervical cancer. Recent study corroborated the down-regulation of miR424-5p in uterine cervix adenocarcinoma. This research aimed to investigate the function and underlying mechanisms of miR424-5p in cervical cancer cell growth.
MAIN METHODS: Tissues samples were collected from patients with cervical cancer and healthy control. The expression levels of miR424-5p were determined by qRT-PCR. After transfection with miR424-5p mimics or inhibitor, cervical cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by WST-1 and flow cytometry assay, respectively. The underlying mechanism involved in aforementioned processes was also explored.
KEY FINDINGS: Expression of miR424-5p was notably decreased in cervical cancer tissues and cells. Overexpression of miR424-5p restrained cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis, but with little function in miR424-5p inhibitor-treated groups. Furthermore, KDM5B was identified as a direct target of miR424-5p as the evidence that miR-424-5p inhibited KDM5B expression and luciferase activity of KDM5B 3'-UTR. Here, KDM5B elevation majorly reversed miR424-5p-triggered inhibition in cell proliferation and increase in cell apoptosis. Moreover, silencing KDM5B expression also restrained cell growth. Additionally, miR424-5p overexpression inhibited the expression of Notch1 and Notch2, which was obviously rescued after KDM5B up-regulation. Simultaneously, blocking KDM5B also attenuated the activation of Notch pathway. Importantly, treatment with Notch agonist Jagged1 antagonized miR424-5p-mediated suppression on cell growth.
SIGNIFICANCE: This research suggests that miR424-5p may act as a novel anti-oncogene in cervical cancer by blocking cell growth through targeting KDM5B-Notch pathway. Accordingly, our study will support a promising therapeutic strategy against cervical carcinoma.
Histone methylation is one of the most important chromatin posttranslational modifications. It has a range of influences on nuclear functions including epigenetic inheritance, transcriptional regulation and the maintenance of genome integrity. Changes in histone methylation status take part in various physiological and pathological processes. KDM5B (lysine demethylase 5B, also called JARID1B or PLU-1) encodes the histone H3 lysine4 (H3K4) demethylase and exhibits a strong transcriptional repression activity. KDM5B plays a role in cell differentiation, stem cell self-renewal and other developmental progresses. Recent studies showed that KDM5B expression was increased in breast, bladder, lung, prostate and many other tumors and promotes tumor initiation, invasion and metastasis. Given its association with tumor progression and prognosis of cancer patients, KDM5B was proposed to be a novel target for the prevention and treatment of human cancers. In this review, we will summarize recent advances in our understanding of the regulation and function of KDM5B in development and cancer.
Bao J, Zou JH, Li CY, Zheng GQmiR-194 inhibits gastric cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis by targeting KDM5B.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016; 20(21):4487-4493 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs play critical roles in regulating gene expression and various cellular processes in human cancer malignant progression. The aim of the present study was to examine the expression pattern of miR-194 in gastric cancer (GC) and its biological role in tumor progression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using quantitative RT-PCR, we detected miR-194 expression in GC cell lines and primary tumor tissues. The proliferation, migration, and invasion assays were performed to investigate the effect of miR-194 on the GC cells. The target of miR-194 was predicted by TargetScan and confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. KDM5B expression was detected by Western blot.
RESULTS: miR-194 was significantly down-regulated in GC tissues and cell lines. Over-expression of miRNA-194 could inhibit GC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. Also, miR-194 inhibited tumor growth and progression in vivo. Dual luciferase-based reporter assay indicated direct regulation of KDM5B by miR-194.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that miR-194 directly targeted KDM5B and thereby acted as a tumor promoter in GC progression.
The IKZF1 gene encodes the Ikaros protein, a zinc finger transcriptional factor that acts as a master regulator of hematopoiesis and a tumor suppressor in leukemia. Impaired activity of Ikaros is associated with the development of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with a poor prognosis. The molecular mechanisms that regulate Ikaros' function as a tumor suppressor and regulator of cellular proliferation are not well understood. We demonstrated that Ikaros is a substrate for Casein Kinase II (CK2), an oncogenic kinase that is overexpressed in ALL. Phosphorylation of Ikaros by CK2 impairs Ikaros' DNA-binding ability, as well as Ikaros' ability to regulate gene expression and function as a tumor suppressor in leukemia. Targeting CK2 with specific inhibitors restores Ikaros' function as a transcriptional regulator and tumor suppressor resulting in a therapeutic, anti-leukemia effect in a preclinical model of ALL. Here, we review the genes and pathways that are regulated by Ikaros and the molecular mechanisms through which Ikaros and CK2 regulate cellular proliferation in leukemia.
Background. While cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are restricted in postnatal tissues to testes and germ line-derived cells, their role in cancer development and the clinical significance of their expression still remain to be better defined. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of CTA expression in colon samples from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) in relation to patient clinical status. Methods. Forty-five patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer were included in the study. We selected a panel of 18 CTAs that were previously detected in CRC as well as some new gene candidates, and their expression was detected at the mRNA level by employing RQ-PCR. Additionally, we evaluated CTA expression in three colon cancer cell lines (CL-188, HTB-39, and HTB-37) after exposure to the DNA methylation-modifying drug 5-azacytidine. Results. We report that 6 out of 18 (33%) CTAs tested (MAGEA3, OIP5, TTK, PLU1, DKKL1, and FBXO39) were significantly (p < 0.05) overexpressed in tumor tissue compared with healthy colon samples isolated from the same patients. Conclusions. Moreover, we found that MAGEA3, PLU-1, and DKKL expression positively correlated with disease progression, evaluated according to the Dukes staging system. Finally, 5-azacytidine exposure significantly upregulated expression of CTAs on CRC cells, which indicates that this demethylation agent could be employed therapeutically to enhance the immune response against tumor cells.
Histone H3 (H3K4) demethylase JARID1B is aberrantly upregulated in many types of tumor and has been proposed to function as oncogene. Here we show that JARID1B is elevated in moderate and high-differentiated human hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPSCC) compared with low-differentiated HPSCC. Overexpression of JARID1B in FaDu cells increased epithelial differentiation marker K10 expression and inhibited cell proliferation. JARID1B and K10 mRNA expression is high correlated in HPSCC patients. Mechanistically, we found JARID1B directly bound to PI3K/AKT signaling inhibitor SHIP1 gene promoter and decreased SHIP1 gene expression. Activation of downstream AKT resulted in increased β-catenin signaling, by which promoted target genes Fra-1 and Jun, together with other AP-1 transcription factors, leading to K10 expression. Forced expression of SHIP1 rescued JARID1B-induced phenotypes on FaDu cell differentiation and proliferation. Taken together, our findings provide first evidence that elevated expression of JARID1B has a critical role in promoting HPSCC differentiation and inhibiting proliferation, suggesting JARID1B may function as a tumor suppressor in squamous cell cancers and implying a novel important therapeutic strategy of HPSCC.
The Kruppel-like transcription factor zinc finger protein (ZNF)217 (mouse homolog ZFP217) contributes to tumorigenesis by dysregulating gene expression programs. The newly discovered molecular function of ZFP217 in controlling N6-methyladenosine (m
Cui G, Liu D, Li W, et al.Original Research: miR-194 inhibits proliferation and invasion and promotes apoptosis by targeting KDM5B in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2017; 242(1):45-52 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increasing evidence suggests that miR-194 is down-regulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tumor tissue. However, the role and underlying mechanism of miR-194 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma have not been well defined. We used DIANA, TargetScan and miRanda to perform target prediction analysis and found KDM5B is a potential target of miR-194. Based on these findings, we speculated that miR-194 might play a role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma development and progression by regulation the expression of KDM5B. We detected the expression of miR-194 and KDM5B by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot assays, respectively, and found down-regulation of miR-194 and up-regulation of KDM5B existed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. By detecting proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of TE6 and TE14 cells transfected with miR-194 mimics or mimic control, miR-194 was found to inhibit proliferation and invasion and promote apoptosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells. miR-194 was further verified to regulate proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells by directly targeting KDM5B. Furthermore, animal studies were performed and showed that overexpression of miR-194 inhibited the growth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tumors in vivo. These results confirmed our speculation that miR-194 targets KDM5B to inhibit esophageal squamous cell carcinoma development and progression. These findings offer new clues for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma development and progression and novel potential therapeutic targets for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Khan MI, Dębski KJ, Dabrowski M, et al.Gene set enrichment analysis and ingenuity pathway analysis of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma cell line.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2016; 311(2):F424-36 [PubMed
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In recent years, genome-wide RNA expression analysis has become a routine tool that offers a great opportunity to study and understand the key role of genes that contribute to carcinogenesis. Various microarray platforms and statistical approaches can be used to identify genes that might serve as prognostic biomarkers and be developed as antitumor therapies in the future. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is a serious, life-threatening disease, and there are few treatment options for patients. In this study, we performed one-color microarray gene expression (4×44K) analysis of the mRCC cell line Caki-1 and the healthy kidney cell line ASE-5063. A total of 1,921 genes were differentially expressed in the Caki-1 cell line (1,023 upregulated and 898 downregulated). Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) approaches were used to analyze the differential-expression data. The objective of this research was to identify complex biological changes that occur during metastatic development using Caki-1 as a model mRCC cell line. Our data suggest that there are multiple deregulated pathways associated with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mccRCC), including integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling, leukocyte extravasation signaling, IGF-I signaling, CXCR4 signaling, and phosphoinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. The IPA upstream analysis predicted top transcriptional regulators that are either activated or inhibited, such as estrogen receptors, TP53, KDM5B, SPDEF, and CDKN1A. The GSEA approach was used to further confirm enriched pathway data following IPA.
Previous studies have suggested that jumonji AT-rich interactive domain 1B (JARID1B) plays an important role in the genesis of some types of cancer, and it is therefore considered to be an important drug target protein. Although the expression of JARID1B has been researched in some types of cancer, little is known about JARID1B expression in glioma and its function in the tumorigenesis of gliomas. In the present study, we examined the expression of JARID1B in glioma. In addition, RT-PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemical analysis were performed using glioma tissue samples and the results revealed that JARID1B expression increased according to the histological grade of glioma. However, in the normal brain tissue samples JARID1B expression was barely detected. Kaplan‑Meier analysis revealed that higher JARID1B expression in patients with glioma was associated with a poorer prognosis. The overexpression of JARID1B stimulated the proliferation and migration of glioma cells as well as sphere formation, whereas suppressing the expression of JARID1B produced opposite effects. The overexpression of JARID1B increased the tumorigenicity of glioma cells in vivo in a nude mouse xenograft model of glioma. Moreover, the activation of phosphorylated (p-)Smad2 contributes to JARID1B-induced oncogenic activities. These findings suggest that JARID1B is involved in the pathogenesis of glioma, and that the downregulation of JARID1B in glioma cells may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with glioma.
Despite significant advances in melanoma therapy, melanoma remains the deadliest form of skin cancer, with a 5-year survival rate of only 15%. Thus, novel treatments are required to address this disease. Notch and ERBB are evolutionarily conserved signaling cascades required for the maintenance of melanocyte precursors. We show that active Notch1 (Notch1(NIC)) and active (phosphorylated) ERBB3 and ERBB2 correlate significantly and are similarly expressed in both mutated and wild-type BRAF melanomas, suggesting these receptors are co-reactivated in melanoma to promote survival. Whereas blocking either pathway triggers modest effects, combining a ?-secretase inhibitor to block Notch activation and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor to inhibit ERBB3/2 elicits synergistic effects, reducing cell viability by 90% and hampering melanoma tumor growth. Specific inhibition of Notch1 and ERBB3 mimics these results, suggesting these are the critical factors triggering melanoma tumor expansion. Notch and ERBB inhibition blunts AKT and NF?B signaling. Constitutive expression of NF?B partially rescues cell death. Blockade of both Notch and ERBB signaling inhibits the slow cycling JARID1B-positive cell population, which is critical for long-term maintenance of melanoma growth. We propose that blocking these pathways is an effective approach to treatment of melanoma patients regardless of whether they carry mutated or wild-type BRAF.