Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: JAZF1 (cancer-related)
Dickson BC, Lum A, Swanson D, et al.Novel EPC1 gene fusions in endometrial stromal sarcoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(11):598-603 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Endometrial stromal sarcoma encompasses a heterogeneous group of uterine mesenchymal neoplasms, which are currently divided into low-grade and high-grade subtypes. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma is morphologically bland; molecularly, these tumors frequently contain JAZF1-SUZ12, JAZF1-PHF1, and EPC1-PHF1 fusions. In contrast, high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma is characterized by morphologically undifferentiated neoplasms with high-grade nuclear features; these tumors likewise appear to be genetically diverse with YWHAE-NUTM2 and ZC3H7B-BCOR representing the most frequent gene fusions. Herein, we describe two novel EPC1 fusion genes in endometrial stromal sarcoma: EPC1-SUZ12 and EPC1-BCOR. Both tumors were characterized be an aggressive clinical course.
Uterine leiomyosarcoma (u-LMS) and endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) are among the most frequent soft tissue sarcomas, which, in adults, lead to fatal lung metastases and patients have an extremely poor prognosis. Due to their rarity and heterogeneity, there are no suitable biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis, although some biomarker candidates have appeared. In 2017, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network's work on u-LMS has confirmed mutations and deletions in RB1, TP53 and PTEN. In addition, whole-exome sequencing of u-LMS has confirmed and demonstrated frequent alterations in TP53, RB1, α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) and mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12). MED12 is a useful biomarker to diagnose uterine-derived LMS and tumors arising from (LM) with a relatively favorable prognosis. TP53 and ATRX mutations can be important mechanisms in the pathogenesis of u-LMS and are correlated with a poor prognosis. In an update based on the 2014 WHO classification, low-grade ESS is often associated with gene rearrangement bringing about the JAZF 1-SUZ12 (formerly JAZF1-JJAZ1) fusion gene, whereas high-grade ESS is associated with the YWHAE-NUTM fusion gene. Low-grade ESS with JAZF1 rearrangement may correlate with metastasis. However, high-grade ESS with metastasis with YWHAE rearrangement shows a relatively favorable prognosis. The genetic/molecular genetic aberrations in u-LMS and ESS are reviewed, focusing on molecular biomarkers for these primary and metastatic tumors.
Agaimy A, Moskalev EA, Weisser W, et al.Low-grade Endometrioid Stromal Sarcoma of the Paratestis: A Novel Report With Molecular Confirmation of JAZF1/SUZ12 Translocation.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(5):695-700 [PubMed
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Tumors with Müllerian-like serous or mucinous phenotypes originating in the testis and its adnexa are rare neoplasms that have been increasingly recognized in recent years. Cystadenomas with or without ovarian-type stroma, borderline tumors, and adenocarcinomas are the main documented types. Although a handful cases of putative endometrioid adenocarcinomas have been reported, to our knowledge no case of endometrial stromal-type neoplasm has ever been reported in the literature. A 59-year-old man presented with a 2 cm left intrascrotal mass that was found on sonographic examination to arise from the epididymal tail with prominent vascularization. He was otherwise healthy without significant clinical history, endocrinopathy, or external hormone therapy. His testicular tumor markers (beta-HCG, AFP) were normal. Histologic examination of the resection showed a multinodular tumor closely associated with the epididymis and composed of monotonous rounded to ovoid cells with scanty cytoplasm and prominent spiral-like arterioles and capillaries. Mitotic activity was high. No other tumor component was seen. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong and diffuse expression of vimentin, CD10, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. Molecular examination (performed on paraffin-embedded tumor tissue using a 517 gene fusion next-generation sequencing assay) showed a JAZF1/SUZ12 translocation, which was then confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These findings are consistent with a low-grade endometrioid stromal sarcoma originating in the paratestis. This report represents a novel addition to the growing spectrum of Müllerian-analog testicular adnexal neoplasms.
Hoang L, Chiang S, Lee CHEndometrial stromal sarcomas and related neoplasms: new developments and diagnostic considerations.
Pathology. 2018; 50(2):162-177 [PubMed
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Our understanding of endometrial stromal sarcomas has evolved dramatically since their earliest descriptions from over a century ago. Initial studies focused on establishing the relationship between histological appearances of endometrial stromal sarcomas and their clinical outcomes. Studies performed in the last decade have uncovered several recurrent cytogenetic aberrations occurring in low- and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas bear close histopathological resemblance to proliferative-type endometrial stroma, and approximately half harbour t(7;17)(p15;q21) resulting in JAZF1-SUZ12 gene fusion. Less common JAZF1-PHF1, EPC1-PHF1, MEAF6-PHF1, and MBTD1-CXorf67 fusions have also been reported. The term 'high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma' was recently re-introduced in the classification of endometrial stromal tumours after the discovery of t(10;17)(q22;p13) resulting in YWHAE-NUTM2A/B fusion and is associated with distinct morphological characteristics. This review highlights the evolution of endometrial stromal sarcoma classification schemes over time and describes the salient clinicopathological and molecular features of endometrial stromal nodule, low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma. It also describes the recent characterisation of endometrial stromal sarcoma with t(X;22)(p11;q13) resulting in ZC3H7B-BCOR fusion, a noteworthy entity due to its close histological resemblance to myxoid leiomyosarcoma. We also provide insights into common challenging scenarios encountered when assessing endometrial stromal lesions in daily surgical pathology practice.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading cancer among men in the United States, with genetic factors contributing to ∼42% of the susceptibility to PCa. We analyzed a PCa risk region located at 7p15.2 to gain insight into the mechanisms by which this noncoding region may affect gene regulation and contribute to PCa risk. We performed Hi-C analysis and demonstrated that this region has long-range interactions with the HOXA locus, located ∼873 kb away. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, we deleted a 4-kb region encompassing several PCa risk-associated SNPs and performed RNA-seq to investigate transcriptomic changes in prostate cells lacking the regulatory element. Our results suggest that the risk element affects the expression of HOXA13 and HOTTIP, but not other genes in the HOXA locus, via a repressive loop. Forced expression of HOXA13 was performed to gain further insight into the mechanisms by which this risk element affects PCa risk.
Aisagbonhi O, Harrison B, Zhao L, et al.YWHAE Rearrangement in a Purely Conventional Low-grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma that Transformed Over Time to High-grade Sarcoma: Importance of Molecular Testing.
Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2018; 37(5):441-447 [PubMed
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Low and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS) can be distinguished on a morphologic basis. Low-grade ESS is composed of oval cells that resemble normal proliferative-phase endometrial stroma, while the well-known high-grade ESS is composed of round cells growing in nests separated by delicate sinusoidal vasculature. Recurrent JAZF1 rearrangements have been reported to be most frequent in low-grade stromal sarcomas (up to 60%), while YWHAE rearrangements are characteristic of high-grade ESS. Herein, we report a case of a 45-yr-old woman with stage IA typical low-grade ESS who developed multiple abdominopelvic recurrences and lung metastases 15 mo after her primary tumor was resected. The unusual morphology (without high-grade areas) as well as the aggressive behavior of the tumor prompted molecular testing which showed YWHAE rearrangement in her abdominopelvic recurrence and her primary tumor. Five years after her primary tumor was resected, she developed scalp metastases with a typical morphology of a high-grade ESS associated with t(10;17) and died of her disease. Our case highlights the potential value of molecular testing in all low-grade ESS at time of initial diagnosis to stratify patients at higher risk for developing high-grade ESS with the goal of offering closer follow-up for early detection and treatment if transformation occurs.
We present a new endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS)-associated genomic rearrangement involving chromosome arms 5p and 6p and leading to the formation of a BRD8-PHF1 fusion gene. The PHF1 (PHD finger protein 1) gene, from 6p21, is known to be rearranged in ESS in a promiscuous way inasmuch as it has been shown to recombine with JAZF1, EPC1, MEAF6, and now also with BRD8, in tumors of this type. In all rearrangements of PHF1, including the present one, a recurrent theme is that the entire coding part of PHF1 constitutes the 3' end of the fusion. BRD8 (bromodomain containing 8) encodes a protein which is involved in regulation of protein acetylation and/or histone acetyl transferase activity. All the genetic fusions identified so far in ESS appear to recombine genes involved in transcriptional regulation, that is, polycomb group complex-mediated and aberrant methylation/acetylation genes. This adds to the likelihood that the new BRD8-PHF1 shares the same pathogenetic mechanism as the other ESS-specific rearrangements.
Hanley KZ, Birdsong GG, Mosunjac MBRecent Developments in Surgical Pathology of the Uterine Corpus.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2017; 141(4):528-541 [PubMed
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There have been several updates recently on the classification of uterine tumors. Endometrial carcinomas have traditionally been divided into 2 types, but some are difficult to classify and do not fit readily into either of the currently recognized categories. The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network has recently defined 4 new categories of endometrial cancer on the basis of mutational spectra, copy number alteration, and microsatellite instability, which might provide independent prognostic information beyond established risk factors. The Society of Gynecologic Oncology, moreover, now recommends systematic screening of every patient with endometrial cancer for Lynch syndrome. The new definition of high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma disregards the number of mitotic figures as a primary diagnostic criterion and instead specifies moderate atypia still resembling stromal origin but lacking the pleomorphism of undifferentiated uterine sarcoma; these tumors also harbor a JAZF1-SUZ12 gene rearrangement. Mitotic count, atypia, and coagulative necrosis are the main histologic criteria that define leiomyosarcoma. Determining the type of necrosis can be very challenging in patients receiving various treatment modalities for symptomatic fibroids before myomectomy, since key histologic features of ischemic-type necrosis are often absent. Ancillary stains including p16, p53, MIB-1, trichrome, and reticulin may be helpful in tumors harboring necrosis that is difficult to classify. Minimally invasive gynecologic surgeries have introduced histologic artifacts that complicate the diagnosis. It is essential to recognize these as procedure-related artifacts to avoid upstaging tumors and triggering unnecessary adjuvant treatment.
The Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which contains three core proteins EZH2, EED and SUZ12, controls chromatin compaction and transcription repression through trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone 3. The (7;17)(p15;q21) chromosomal translocation present in most cases of endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs) results in the in-frame fusion of the JAZF1 and SUZ12 genes. We have investigated whether and how the fusion protein JAZF1-SUZ12 functionally alters PRC2. We found that the fusion protein exists at high levels in ESS containing the t(7;17). Co-transient transfection assay indicated JAZF1-SUZ12 destabilized PRC2 components EZH2 and EED, resulting in decreased histone methyl transferase (HMT) activity, which was confirmed by in vitro studies using reconstituted PRC2 and nucleosome array substrates. We also demonstrated the PRC2 containing the fusion protein decreased the binding affinity to target chromatin loci. In addition, we found that trimethylation of H3K27 was decreased in ESS samples with the t(7;17), but there was no detectable change in H3K9 in these tissues. Moreover, re-expression of SUZ12 in Suz12 (-/-) ES cells rescued the neuronal differentiation while the fusion protein failed to restore this function and enhanced cell proliferation. In summary, our studies reveal that JAZF1-SUZ12 fusion protein disrupts the PRC2 complex, abolishes HMT activity and subsequently activates chromatin/genes normally repressed by PRC2. Such dyesfunction of PRC2 inhibits normal neural differentiation of ES cell and increases cell proliferation. Related changes induced by the JAZF-SUZ12 protein in endometrial stromal cells may explain the oncogenic effect of the t(7;17) in ESS.
Hodge JC, Bedroske PP, Pearce KE, Sukov WRMolecular Cytogenetic Analysis of JAZF1, PHF1, and YWHAE in Endometrial Stromal Tumors: Discovery of Genetic Complexity by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization.
J Mol Diagn. 2016; 18(4):516-26 [PubMed
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Diagnosis of endometrial stromal tumors (ESTs) can be challenging, particularly endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs) because of variable histologic appearance, long latency to recurrence, frequent metastases with unknown primary, and overlap with endometrial stromal nodules and undifferentiated uterine sarcomas. To enhance EST diagnosis, a break-apart strategy fluorescence in situ hybridization panel to detect JAZF1, PHF1, and YWHAE rearrangements was applied to a cohort of primary or metastatic endometrial stromal nodules, ESSs, or undifferentiated uterine sarcomas (36 cases for JAZF1, 24 of which were also assessed for PHF1 and YWHAE), 24 myometrium/endometrium controls, and 37 non-ESTs in the differential diagnosis. JAZF1 was the most frequently altered gene and occurred in all EST types, JAZF1 and/or PHF1 were mutually exclusive from YWHAE involvement, and uterine and extrauterine ESTs have a shared pathogenesis. We further defined frequency of these rearrangements and provided a resource demonstrating the signal complexity that can manifest when evaluating JAZF1. Rearrangement of JAZF1 occurred in 47% of ESTs, most (70%) of which had atypical patterns representing multiple structural alterations and/or more than one clone. YWHAE and PHF1 rearrangements each occurred in 8% of ESTs. An exceptional case was an ESS without JAZF1 or MEAF6 disruption that further disputes correlation of PHF1 involvement with the sex cord-like variant. These results expand our understanding of the genetic heterogeneity that defines ESTs.
Li X, Anand M, Haimes JD, et al.The application of next-generation sequencing-based molecular diagnostics in endometrial stromal sarcoma.
Histopathology. 2016; 69(4):551-9 [PubMed
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AIMS: Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs) are divided into low-grade and high-grade subtypes, with the latter showing more aggressive clinical behaviour. Although histology and immunophenotype can aid in the diagnosis of these tumours, genetic studies can provide additional diagnostic insights, as low-grade ESSs frequently harbour fusions involving JAZF1/SUZ12 and/or JAZF1/PHF1, whereas high-grade ESSs are defined by YWHAE-NUTM2A/B fusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based assay in identifying ESS fusions in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour samples.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We applied an NGS-based fusion transcript detection assay (Archer FusionPlex Sarcoma Panel) that targets YWHAE and JAZF1 fusions in a series of low-grade ESSs (n = 11) and high-grade ESSs (n = 5) that were previously confirmed to harbour genetic rearrangements by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and/or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses. The fusion assay identified junctional fusion transcript sequences that corresponded to the known FISH/RT-PCR results in all cases. Four low-grade ESSs harboured JAZF1-PHF1 fusions with different junctional sequences, and all were correctly identified because of the open-ended nature of the assay design, using anchored multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Seven non-ESS sarcomas were also included as negative controls, and no strong ESS fusion candidates were identified in these cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate good sensitivity and specificity of an NGS-based gene fusion assay in the detection of ESS fusion transcripts.
Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs) belong to the rarest uterine malignancies (prevalence category <1-9/1,000,000). According to the new 2014 World Health Organisation (WHO) classification, they are separated into four categories; benign endometrial stromal nodules (ESNs), low grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (LG-ESSs), high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (HG-ESSs) and undifferentiated uterine sarcomas (UUSs). Due to heterogeneous histopathologic appearance these tumors still represent diagnostic challenge, even for experienced pathologists. ESSs are genetically very heterogeneous and several chromosomal translocations and gene fusions have so far been identified in these malignancies. To date the JAZF1/SUZ12 gene fusion is by far the most frequent and seems to be the cytogenetic hallmark of ESN and LG-ESS. Based on present literature data this gene fusion is present in approximately 75% of ESN, 50% of LG-ESS and 15% of HG-ESS cases. The frequency of JAZF1/SUZ12 appearance varies between classic ESS and different morphologic variants. This gene fusion is suggested to become a specific diagnostic tool, especially in difficult borderline cases. In combination with the recently described YWHAE/FAM22 gene fusion the JAZF1/SUZ12 fusion could be used to differentiate between LG-ESS and HG-ESS. The purpose of this review is to summarize literature data published in last two and a half decades about this gene fusion, as a contribution to our understanding of ESS genetics and pathogenesis.
Schoolmeester JK, Sciallis AP, Greipp PT, et al.Analysis of MDM2 Amplification in 43 Endometrial Stromal Tumors: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall.
Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2015; 34(6):576-83 [PubMed
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MDM2 amplification is known to occur in a variety of neoplasms and its detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization is helpful in distinguishing well-differentiated and dedifferentated liposarcoma from classic lipoma. We recently evaluated a mesenteric mass initially diagnosed as dedifferentiated liposarcoma, largely due to the neoplasm's myxoid morphology and MDM2 expression by immunohistochemistry, from a 46-yr-old woman with a history of uterine low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS) with a JAZF1 rearrangement. Our workup of the mesenteric mass revealed a JAZF1 rearrangement and a revised diagnosis of metastatic LG-ESS with myxoid change was rendered. Retrospective testing of the mesenteric mass was negative for MDM2 amplification, an uncommon, but known diagnostic pitfall in MDM2 expression by immunohistochemistry. As MDM2 amplification is not specific for the diagnosis of liposarcoma, we investigated its occurrence in 43 cases of endometrial stromal tumors: 14 uterine LG-ESS, 11 metastatic or recurrent uterine LG-ESS, 8 undifferentiated uterine sarcomas, 5 endometrial stromal nodules, and 4 high-grade ESS with YHWAE rearrangement. In addition, 40 of the 43 cases had previously undergone fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of JAZF1, PHF1, and YHWAE. Two of the 43 cases (5%) had MDM2 amplification: one was a uterine LG-ESS (JAZF1 rearrangement) and the other was a undifferentiated uterine sarcoma (polysomy intact JAZF1, PHF1, and YHWAE), both metastatic to the lung. Both cases positive for MDM2 amplification showed MDM2 expression by immunohistochemistry. At last follow-up, both patients had died of disease (19 and 60 mo). Our study is the first to demonstrate MDM2 amplification in endometrial stromal tumor. Awareness of MDM2 amplification in endometrial stromal tumor is critical; particularly in locations more common to liposarcoma, to avoid diagnostic errors.
Although recurrent gene fusions such as JAZF1-JJAZ1 are considered driver events for endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) development, other genomic alterations remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing, transcriptome sequencing and copy number profiling for five ESSs (three low-grade ESS (LG-ESS) and two undifferentiated uterine sarcomas (UUSs)). All three LG-ESSs exhibited either one of JAZF1-SUZ12, JAZF1-PHF1 and MEAF6-PHF1 fusions, whereas the two UUSs did not. All ESSs except one LG-ESS exhibited copy number alterations (CNAs), many of which encompassed cancer-related genes. In UUSs, five CNAs encompassing cancer-related genes (EZR, CDH1, RB1, TP53 and PRKAR1A) accompanied their expressional changes, suggesting that they might stimulate UUS development. We found 81 non-silent mutations (35 from LG-ESSs and 46 from UUSs) that included 15 putative cancer genes catalogued in cancer-related databases, including PPARG and IRF4 mutations. However, they were non-recurrent and did not include any well-known mutations, indicating that point mutations may not be a major driver for ESS development. Our data show that gene fusions and CNAs are the principal drivers for LG-ESS and USS, respectively, but both may require additional genomic alterations including point mutations. These differences may explain the different biologic behaviors between LG-ESS and UUS. Our findings suggest that ESS development requires point mutations and CNAs as well as the gene fusions.
Lin H, Zhang M, Yu H, et al.Analysis of differentially expressed genes between endometrial carcinosarcomas and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma by bioinformatics.
Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2016; 293(5):1073-9 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of endometrial carcinosarcomas (ECS) and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC) by bioinformatics analysis.
METHODS: Gene expression profile GSE33723 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus. A total of 15 ECS and 23 EEC samples were used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by significance analysis of microarrays. After construction of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, Gene Ontology (GO) functional and pathway enrichment analyses of DEGs were performed, followed by network module analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 49 DEGs were identified between EEC and ECS samples. In the PPI network, TP53 (tumor protein p53) was selected as the highest degree, hub centrality and betweenness. The top 10 enriched GO terms including regulation of cell death and top 10 significant pathways including cell cycle were selected. After network module analysis, PIK3R1 (phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1) and AKT2 (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 2) were selected as the co-expressed genes in the states of ECS while STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and JAZF (JAZF zinc finger 1) were selected as the co-expressed genes in the states of EEC.
CONCLUSIONS: The DEGs, such as TP53, PIK3R1 and AKT2 may be used for targeted diagnosis and treatment of ECS while STAT3 and JAZF1 may be served as a target for EEC.
Ueyama M, Nishida N, Korenaga M, et al.The impact of PNPLA3 and JAZF1 on hepatocellular carcinoma in non-viral hepatitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
J Gastroenterol. 2016; 51(4):370-9 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an established independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). T2DM is associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is a major cause of non-HBV and non-HCV-related HCC; nevertheless, it has been difficult to identify those patients with T2DM who have a high risk of developing HCC. The aim of this study was to identify genetic determinants that predispose T2DM patients to HCC by genotyping T2DM susceptibility loci and PNPLA3.
METHODS: We recruited 389 patients with T2DM who satisfied the following three criteria: negative for HBs-Ag and anti-HCV Ab, alcohol intake <60 g/day, and history of T2DM >10 years. These patients were divided into two groups: T2DM patients with HCC (DM-HCC, n = 59) or those without HCC (DM-non-HCC, n = 330). We genotyped 51 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously reported as T2DM or NASH susceptibility loci (PNPLA3) compared between the DM-HCC and DM-non-HCC groups with regard to allele frequencies at each SNP.
RESULTS: The SNP rs738409 located in PNPLA3 was the greatest risk factor associated with HCC. The frequency of the PNPLA3 G allele was significantly higher among DM-HCC individuals than DM-non-HCC individuals (OR 2.53, p = 1.05 × 10(-5)). Among individuals homozygous for the PNPLA3 G allele (n = 115), the frequency of the JAZF1 rs864745 G allele was significantly higher among DM-HCC individuals than DM-non-HCC individuals (OR 3.44, p = 0.0002).
CONCLUSIONS: PNPLA3 and JAZF1 were associated with non-HBV and non-HCV-related HCC development among Japanese patients with T2DM.
Conklin CM, Longacre TAEndometrial stromal tumors: the new WHO classification.
Adv Anat Pathol. 2014; 21(6):383-93 [PubMed
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Endometrial stromal tumors are rare uterine mesenchymal neoplasms that have intrigued pathologists for years, not only because they commonly pose diagnostic dilemmas, but also because the classification and pathogenesis of these tumors has been widely debated. The current World Health Organization recognizes 4 categories of endometrial stromal tumor: endometrial stromal nodule (ESN), low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS), high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (HG-ESS), and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma (UUS). uterine sarcoma. These categories are defined by the presence of distinct translocations as well as tumor morphology and prognosis. Specifically, the JAZF1-SUZ12 (formerly JAZF1-JJAZ1) fusion identifies a large proportion of ESN and LG-ESSs, whereas the YWHAE-FAM22 translocation identifies HG-ESSs. The latter tumors appear to have a prognosis intermediate between LG-ESS and UUS, which exhibits no specific translocation pattern. This review (1) presents the clinicopathologic features of endometrial stromal tumors; (2) discusses their immunophenotype; and (3) highlights the recent advances in molecular genetics which explain their pathogenesis and lend support for a new classification system.
Ali RH, Al-Safi R, Al-Waheeb S, et al.Molecular characterization of a population-based series of endometrial stromal sarcomas in Kuwait.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(12):2453-62 [PubMed
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Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs) frequently harbor genetic fusions, including JAZF1-SUZ12 and equivalent fusions in low-grade ESS (LGESS) and YWHAE-NUTM2 in high-grade ESS (HGESS). This study aims to classify a population-based series of ESSs in Kuwait based on the 2014 World Health Organization classification system and to assess the diagnostic use of interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) immunomarker for ESSs. Twenty ESSs including 19 LGESSs and 1 HGESS treated during the period between 2002 and 2013 were identified, and the cases were reviewed and characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies. Thirteen (81.3%) of 16 LGESSs with interpretable results showed JAZF1 and/or PHF1 genetic rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the only HGESS in the series showed YWHAE genetic rearrangement. All LGESSs with interpretable results showed positive immunostaining for CD10 compared with 11 (61%) of 18 that showed positive immunostaining for IFITM1; 4 of 7 IFITM1-negative LGESSs showed JAZF1 and/or PHF1 rearrangements. A series of uterine leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas, adenosarcomas, and carcinosarcomas were included for comparison, and positive IFITM1 staining was found in 1 of 10 leiomyomas, 3 of 13 leiomyosarcomas, 3 of 4 adenosarcomas, and 3 of 8 carcinosarcomas, compared to 0 of 10 leiomyomas, 9 of 13 leiomyosarcomas, 3 of 4 adenosarcomas, and 5 of 8 carcinosarcomas that were positive for CD10. Our results demonstrated characteristic genetic rearrangements in a high percentage of LGESSs in this Middle Eastern population, and IFITM1 antibody appears to be less sensitive than CD10 for LGESS.
Neslund-Dudas C, Levin AM, Beebe-Dimmer JL, et al.Gene-environment interactions between JAZF1 and occupational and household lead exposure in prostate cancer among African American men.
Cancer Causes Control. 2014; 25(7):869-79 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: A single nucleotide polymorphism, rs10486567, in JAZF1 has consistently been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. The physical interaction of zinc finger proteins, such as JAZF1, with heavy metals may play a role in carcinogenesis. This study assessed potential gene-environment statistical interactions (G×E) between rs10486567 and heavy metals in prostate cancer.
METHODS: In a case-only study of 228 African American prostate cancer cases, G×E between rs10486567 and sources of cadmium and lead (Pb) were assessed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate interaction odds ratios (IORs), and generalized estimating equations were used for models containing nested data. Case-control validation of IORs was performed, using 82 controls frequency matched to cases on age-race.
RESULTS: Among cases, a potential G×E interaction was observed between rs10486567 CC genotype and living in a Census tract with a high proportion of housing built before 1950, a proxy for household Pb exposure, when compared to CT or TT carriers (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.04-3.16; p = 0.036). A stronger G×E interaction was observed when both housing and occupational Pb exposure were taken into account (OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.03-6.68; p = 0.04). Case-control stratified analyses showed the odds of being a CC carrier were higher in cases compared to controls among men living in areas with older housing (OR 2.03; CI 0.99-4.19; p = 0.05) or having high occupational Pb exposure (OR 2.50; CI 1.01-6.18; p = 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: In African American men, the association between JAZF1 rs10486567 and prostate cancer may be modified by exposure to heavy metals such as Pb.
Tokinaga A, Furuya M, Niino H, et al.Colonic low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma and orthotopic endometrial stromal tumor with limited infiltration sharing the JAZF1-SUZ12 gene fusion.
Pathol Int. 2014; 64(4):178-82 [PubMed
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Endometrial stromal tumors (ESTs) are composed of cells resembling endometrial stroma, and are divided into benign and malignant types based on morphology. Endometrial stromal nodule (ESN) is a benign localized tumor, and endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is an infiltrative and potentially metastatic neoplasm. A series of genetic aberrations contribute to pathological diagnosis of ESTs. At present, subsets of ESN and ESS-low grade (ESS-LG) are characterized as JAZF1-SUZ12/JJAZ1 gene fusion. The ESTs that show higher grade atypia but lack nuclear pleomorphism include YWHAE-FAM22 ESS. Here we report an unusual case of ESTs. Sudden colonic perforation occurred to the patient, and emergency surgery was performed. Pathological findings suggested metastatic ESS. Thorough medical examination of the genital organs detected a 1 cm-sized well-demarcated uterine tumor. Microscopically, the tumor lacked infiltrative features, conforming to the definition of ESN. Both lesions demonstrated identical cytology and shared JAZF1-SUZ12 gene fusion. Endometriosis was not found in any areas of the resected organs, strongly suggesting that the uterine orthotopic tumor metastasized. The current case uncovered the problems of differential diagnosis between ESN and ESS-LG. We demonstrate detailed pathological features of the two lesions, and discuss the possibility of orthotopic EST with limited infiltration to develop into ESS-LG.
Uterine tumors with sex cord-like elements are divided in two groups; uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCT), and endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements (ESTSCLE). UTROSCT is currently defined as the neoplasm predominantly or exclusively composed of sex cord-like elements, and generally behaves in a benign fashion. We studied two unusual cases of UTROSCT with metastasis. One case was a 38-year-old multiparous woman presented with hypermenorrhea. The tumor grew as an intramural mass, and metastasized to a pelvic lymph node. Another case was a 57-year-old woman presented with genital bleeding. The tumor grew as a submucosal exophytic mass, and metastasized to the epiploic appendix. Microscopic examination of the 2 cases revealed that they were composed of sex cord-like cells, epithelioid cells and spindle cells. They exhibited solid pattern in predominance. Both solid and sex cord-like elements showed similar immunoreactivities for more than 3 sex cord markers, but simultaneously showed different staining patterns for some other markers. Characteristic features of endometrial stroma such as tongue-like infiltration and spiral arteries-like arterioles were not observed. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the absence of JAZF1-SUZ12 gene fusion, supporting the histopathological diagnosis of UTROSCT rather than ESTSCLE. The current cases warned the potential risk of UTROSCT whose biological behavior is still uncertain. We discuss histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings of UTROSCT with metastasis.
Micci F, Gorunova L, Gatius S, et al.MEAF6/PHF1 is a recurrent gene fusion in endometrial stromal sarcoma.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 347(1):75-8 [PubMed
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The chimeric transcripts described in endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS) are JAZF1/SUZ12, YWHAE/FAM22, ZC3H7/BCOR, MBTD1/CXorf67, and recombinations of PHF1 with JAZF1, EPC1, and MEAF6. The MEAF6/PHF1 fusion had hitherto been identified in only one tumor. We present two more ESS with MEAF6/PHF1 detected by transcriptome sequencing (case 1) and RT-PCR (case 2), proving that this fusion is recurrent in ESS. The transcript of both cases was an in-frame fusion between exon 5 of MEAF6 and exon 2 of PHF1. Both genes are involved in epigenetic modification, and this may well be their main pathogenetic theme also in ESS tumorigenesis.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revolutionized the field of cancer genetics, but the causal links between increased genetic risk and onset/progression of disease processes remain to be identified. Here we report the first step in such an endeavor for prostate cancer. We provide a comprehensive annotation of the 77 known risk loci, based upon highly correlated variants in biologically relevant chromatin annotations--we identified 727 such potentially functional SNPs. We also provide a detailed account of possible protein disruption, microRNA target sequence disruption and regulatory response element disruption of all correlated SNPs at r(2) ≥ 0.88%. 88% of the 727 SNPs fall within putative enhancers, and many alter critical residues in the response elements of transcription factors known to be involved in prostate biology. We define as risk enhancers those regions with enhancer chromatin biofeatures in prostate-derived cell lines with prostate-cancer correlated SNPs. To aid the identification of these enhancers, we performed genomewide ChIP-seq for H3K27-acetylation, a mark of actively engaged enhancers, as well as the transcription factor TCF7L2. We analyzed in depth three variants in risk enhancers, two of which show significantly altered androgen sensitivity in LNCaP cells. This includes rs4907792, that is in linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.91) with an eQTL for NUDT11 (on the X chromosome) in prostate tissue, and rs10486567, the index SNP in intron 3 of the JAZF1 gene on chromosome 7. Rs4907792 is within a critical residue of a strong consensus androgen response element that is interrupted in the protective allele, resulting in a 56% decrease in its androgen sensitivity, whereas rs10486567 affects both NKX3-1 and FOXA-AR motifs where the risk allele results in a 39% increase in basal activity and a 28% fold-increase in androgen stimulated enhancer activity. Identification of such enhancer variants and their potential target genes represents a preliminary step in connecting risk to disease process.
BACKGROUND: Screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is hampered by an inability to predict who has the potential to develop fatal disease and who has indolent cancer. Studies have identified multiple genetic risk loci for PCa incidence, but it is unknown whether they could be used as biomarkers for PCa-specific mortality (PCSM).
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of 47 established PCa risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with PCSM.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We included 10 487 men who had PCa and 11 024 controls, with a median follow-up of 8.3 yr, during which 1053 PCa deaths occurred.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The main outcome was PCSM. The risk allele was defined as the allele associated with an increased risk for PCa in the literature. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate the hazard ratios of each SNP with time to progression to PCSM after diagnosis. We also used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios for each risk SNP, comparing fatal PCa cases to controls.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Among the cases, we found that 8 of the 47 SNPs were significantly associated (p<0.05) with time to PCSM. The risk allele of rs11672691 (intergenic) was associated with an increased risk for PCSM, while 7 SNPs had risk alleles inversely associated (rs13385191 [C2orf43], rs17021918 [PDLIM5], rs10486567 [JAZF1], rs6465657 [LMTK2], rs7127900 (intergenic), rs2735839 [KLK3], rs10993994 [MSMB], rs13385191 [C2orf43]). In the case-control analysis, 22 SNPs were associated (p<0.05) with the risk of fatal PCa, but most did not differentiate between fatal and nonfatal PCa. Rs11672691 and rs10993994 were associated with both fatal and nonfatal PCa, while rs6465657, rs7127900, rs2735839, and rs13385191 were associated with nonfatal PCa only.
CONCLUSIONS: Eight established risk loci were associated with progression to PCSM after diagnosis. Twenty-two SNPs were associated with fatal PCa incidence, but most did not differentiate between fatal and nonfatal PCa. The relatively small magnitudes of the associations do not translate well into risk prediction, but these findings merit further follow-up, because they may yield important clues about the complex biology of fatal PCa.
PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we assessed whether established PCa risk variants could predict PCSM. We found eight risk variants associated with PCSM: One predicted an increased risk of PCSM, while seven were associated with decreased risk. Larger studies that focus on fatal PCa are needed to identify more markers that could aid prediction.
Antonescu CR, Sung YS, Chen CL, et al.Novel ZC3H7B-BCOR, MEAF6-PHF1, and EPC1-PHF1 fusions in ossifying fibromyxoid tumors--molecular characterization shows genetic overlap with endometrial stromal sarcoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(2):183-93 [PubMed
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PHF1 gene rearrangements have been recently described in around 50% of ossifying fibromyxoid tumors (OFMT) including benign and malignant cases, with a small subset showing EP400-PHF1 fusions. In the remaining cases no alternative gene fusions have been identified. PHF1-negative OFMT, especially if lacking S100 protein staining or peripheral ossification, are difficult to diagnose and distinguish from other soft tissue mimics. In seeking more comprehensive molecular characterization, we investigated a large cohort of 39 OFMT of various anatomic sites, immunoprofiles and grades of malignancy. Tumors were screened for PHF1 and EP400 rearrangements by FISH. RNA sequencing was performed in two index cases (OFMT1, OFMT3), negative for EP400-PHF1 fusions, followed by FusionSeq data analysis, a modular computational tool developed to discover gene fusions from paired-end RNA-seq data. Two novel fusions were identified ZC3H7B-BCOR in OFMT1 and MEAF6-PHF1 in OFMT3. After being validated by FISH and RT-PCR, these abnormalities were screened on the remaining cases. With these additional gene fusions, 33/39 (85%) of OFMTs demonstrated recurrent gene rearrangements, which can be used as molecular markers in challenging cases. The most common abnormality is PHF1 gene rearrangement (80%), being present in benign, atypical and malignant lesions, with fusion to EP400 in 44% of cases. ZC3H7B-BCOR and MEAF6-PHF1 fusions occurred predominantly in S100 protein-negative and malignant OFMT. As similar gene fusions were reported in endometrial stromal sarcomas, we screened for potential gene abnormalities in JAZF1 and EPC1 by FISH and found two additional cases with EPC1-PHF1 fusions.
Lee CH, Hoang LN, Yip S, et al.Frequent expression of KIT in endometrial stromal sarcoma with YWHAE genetic rearrangement.
Mod Pathol. 2014; 27(5):751-7 [PubMed
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Endometrial stromal sarcomas with the YWHAE-NUTM2A/B genetic fusion characteristically contain high-grade round to epithelioid cell component that is strongly and diffusely cyclin D1-positive and it may or may not show an associated low-grade fibroblastic/myxoid cell component. They are clinically more aggressive than endometrial stromal sarcomas with the JAZF1-SUZ12 genetic fusion and frequently demonstrate extrauterine extension at initial clinical presentation. In this setting, the tumor may be misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumor. This study examines the expression of KIT and ANO1 in 14 YWHAE-NUTM2A/B tumors by immunohistochemistry. Staining localization was determined as membranous and/or cytoplasmic, and the staining intensity was assessed (negative, weak, moderate and strong). Of the 14 tumors, 6 contained only a high-grade round cell component, 2 only a low-grade fibroblastic component and 6 had both components in the slides evaluated. The high-grade round cell component displayed moderate to strong membranous/cytoplasmic KIT staining in all tumors (12 of 12). The low-grade fibroblastic cell component showed only weak cytoplasmic KIT staining in 3 of 8 tumors. In contrast, ANO1 was negative in all 14 neoplasms, irrespective of the component evaluated. Sanger sequencing analysis (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17) and Ampliseq Cancer Panel mutation screen (Ion Torrent) demonstrated no KIT mutations in three KIT-positive YWHAE-NUTM2A/B tumors. This study shows that the high-grade round cell component of YWHAE-NUTM2A/B endometrial stromal sarcoma consistently expresses KIT but lacks KIT hotspot mutations. KIT expression may represent a potential diagnostic pitfall in the evaluation of YWHAE-NUTM2A/B endometrial stromal sarcoma presenting with pelvic/abdominal mass, particularly in situations where its uterine origin is not definitive, and thus a panel of antibodies that includes ANO1 and cyclin D1 is necessary.
Fang LT, Lee S, Choi H, et al.Comprehensive genomic analyses of a metastatic colon cancer to the lung by whole exome sequencing and gene expression analysis.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(1):211-21 [PubMed
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We performed whole exome sequencing and gene expression analysis on a metastatic colon cancer to the lung, along with the adjacent normal tissue of the lung. Whole exome sequencing uncovered 71 high-confidence non‑synonymous mutations. We selected 16 mutation candidates, and 13 out of 16 mutations were validated by targeted deep sequencing using the Ion Torrent PGM customized AmpliSeq panel. By integrating mutation, copy number and gene expression microarray data, we identified a JAZF1 mutation with a gain-of-copy, suggesting its oncogenic potential for the lung metastasis from colon cancer. Our pathway analyses showed that the identified mutations closely reflected characteristics of the metastatic site (lung) while mRNA gene expression patterns kept genetic information of its primary tumor (colon). The most significant gene expression network was the 'Colorectal Cancer Metastasis Signaling', containing 6 (ADCY2, ADCY9, APC, GNB5, K-ras and LRP6) out of the 71 mutated genes. Some of these mutated genes (ADCY9, ADCY2, GNB5, K-ras, HDAC6 and ARHGEF17) also belong to the 'Phospholipase C Signaling' network, which suggests that this pathway and its mutated genes may contribute to a lung metastasis from colon cancer.
Dewaele B, Przybyl J, Quattrone A, et al.Identification of a novel, recurrent MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion in low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 134(5):1112-22 [PubMed
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Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of rare uterine neoplasms that are commonly driven by recurrent gene rearrangements. In conventional low-grade ESS, JAZF1-SUZ12, PHF1-JAZF1, EPC1-PHF1 and MEAF6-PHF1, and recently described ZC3H7-BCOR chimeric fusions have been reported in > 50% of cases. Conversely, oncogenic t(10;17)(q22;p13) translocation yields YWHAE-FAM22A/B chimeric proteins that are associated with histologically high-grade and clinically more aggressive ESS. Integrating whole-transcriptome paired-end RNA sequencing with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and banding cytogenetics, we identified MBTD1 (malignant brain tumor domain-containing 1) and CXorf67 (chromosome X open reading frame 67) as the genes involved in the novel reciprocal t(X;17)(p11.2;q21.33) translocation in two independent low-grade ESS of classical histology. The presence of the MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion transcript was validated in both cases using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by Sanger sequencing. A specific FISH assay was developed to detect the novel t(X;17) translocation in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material, and resulted in identification of an additional low-grade ESS case positive for the MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion among 25 uterine stromal tumors [14 ESS and 11 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas (UESs)] that were negative for JAZF1 and YWHAE rearrangements. Gene expression profiles of seven ESS (including three with YWHAE and two with JAZF1 rearrangements) and four UES without specific chromosomal aberrations indicated clustering of tumors with MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion together with low-grade JAZF1-associated ESS. The chimeric MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion identifies yet another cytogenetically distinct subgroup of low-grade ESS and offers the opportunity to shed light on the functions of two poorly characterized genes.
Schoolmeester JK, Sukov WR, Maleszewski JJ, et al.JAZF1 rearrangement in a mesenchymal tumor of nonendometrial stromal origin: report of an unusual ossifying sarcoma of the heart demonstrating JAZF1/PHF1 fusion.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2013; 37(6):938-42 [PubMed
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Rearrangements of JAZF1 are a frequent genetic aberration in endometrial stromal tumors. We report a distinct primary cardiac ossifying sarcoma that harbored a JAZF1/PHF1 fusion. The patient was a 70-year-old man with a history of a 6.8 cm calcific intramural left ventricular mass. Six years after his initial evaluation, the patient developed multiple lung metastases and ultimately died of disease-related complications. Histologically, the cardiac tumor and lung metastases demonstrated an infiltrative, malignant spindle cell neoplasm that grew in short fascicles with areas of bone formation, nuclear palisading, and necrosis. The neoplastic cells were relatively monomorphic in a background of an amorphous collagenous matrix. Immunohistochemical analysis was positive for vimentin and negative for wide-spectrum cytokeratins, S100 protein, desmin, smooth muscle actin, and CD34. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using a dual-color, single-fusion probe set identified the JAZF1/PHF1 fusion. The unique morphology and the presence of a JAZF1/PHF1 rearrangement suggest that this distinctive ossifying sarcoma is not part of a currently established diagnostic entity, representing instead a novel primary cardiac sarcoma. This case also represents the first description of a JAZF1 fusion in a tumor outside the spectrum of endometrial stromal neoplasms.
Croce S, Hostein I, Ribeiro A, et al.YWHAE rearrangement identified by FISH and RT-PCR in endometrial stromal sarcomas: genetic and pathological correlations.
Mod Pathol. 2013; 26(10):1390-400 [PubMed
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Endometrial stromal sarcomas represent the second most common mesenchymal uterine tumor. The 2003 WHO classification distinguishes low-grade and undifferentiated endometrial stromal sarcomas with different prognoses. Endometrial stromal sarcomas are a genetically heterogeneous group of sarcomas harboring different cytogenetic anomalies. Recently, a fusion between the YWHAE and FAM22A/B genes subsequent to a t(10;17) (q22;p13) has been described in endometrial sarcomas with high-grade histology. We examined YWHAE rearrangements by FISH break-apart and RT-PCR in a series of 27 undifferentiated uterine stromal sarcoma without JAZF1 rearrangements. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was carried out with a panel of antibodies (estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors, CD10, Cyclin D1, β-catenin, p53, and Ki-67). We identified a subgroup of endometrial sarcomas with high-grade histology and uniform morphology harboring YWHAE rearrangements. FISH break-apart was interpretable in 20 cases (74%). Twelve cases (60%) showed <10% of tumor cells with a YWHAE rearrangement, 4 cases (20%) showed between 10 and ≤20%, and 4 (20%) >20%. RT-PCR was tested on 24/27 cases (88%) and 19 cases were interpretable (79%). Five cases (26%) showed a specific fusion transcript YWHAE-FAM22A/B sequence. The best concordance rate between FISH and RT-PCR (94%) was obtained with the threshold of 20% of cells with a YWHAE rearrangement. The YWHAE-rearranged cases showed high-grade morphology with uniform appearance, spindle or round epithelioid cells, low ER and PR, CD10 expression, and a high and diffuse positivity for Cyclin D1, p53, and nuclear β-catenin negativity. Cyclin D1 was the most sensitive marker for high-grade endometrial sarcomas with YWHAE rearrangement. All undifferentiated uterine sarcomas with pleomorphic appearances did not harbor any YWHAE rearrangements, except for one case. Overall, for endometrial sarcoma cases with high-grade morphology we recommend to test for YWHAE rearrangements by FISH break-apart, a cost- and time-efficient method, and to complete the investigation by RT-PCR in borderline cases.