Research IndicatorsGraph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (3)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: CYP2D6 (cancer-related)
Bezerra LS, Santos-Veloso MAO, Bezerra Junior NDS, et al.Impacts of Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) Genetic Polymorphism in Tamoxifen Therapy for Breast Cancer.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2018; 40(12):794-799 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Tamoxifen (TMX) is the main drug used both in pre and postmenopausal women as adjuvant treatment for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. An important barrier to the use of TMX is the development of drug resistance caused by molecular processes related to genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, such as the actions of cytochrome P450 2D6 (
BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen treatment greatly reduces a woman's risk of developing a second primary breast cancer. There is, however, substantial variability in treatment response, some of which may be attributed to germline genetic variation. CYP2D6 is a key enzyme in the metabolism of tamoxifen to its active metabolites, and variants in this gene have been associated with reduced tamoxifen metabolism. The impact of variation on risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) is unknown.
METHODS: Germline DNA from 1514 CBC cases and 2203 unilateral breast cancer controls was genotyped for seven single nucleotide polymorphisms, one three-nucleotide insertion-deletion, and a full gene deletion. Each variant has an expected impact on enzyme activity, which in combination allows for the classification of women as extensive, intermediate, and poor metabolizers (EM, IM, and PM respectively). Each woman was assigned one of six possible diplotypes and a corresponding CYP2D6 activity score (AS): EM/EM (AS = 2), EM/IM (AS = 1.5), EM/PM (AS = 1), IM/IM (AS = 0.75), IM/PM (AS = 0.5), and PM/PM (AS = 0). We also collapsed categories of the AS to generate an overall phenotype (EM, AS ≥ 1; IM, AS = 0.5-0.75; PM, AS = 0). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between tamoxifen treatment and risk of CBC in our study population were estimated using conditional logistic regression, stratified by AS.
RESULTS: Among women with AS ≥ 1 (i.e., EM), tamoxifen treatment was associated with a 20-55% reduced RR of CBC (AS = 2, RR = - 0.81, 95% CI 0.62-1.06; AS = 1.5, RR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.30-0.68; and AS = 1, RR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.40-0.74). Among women with no EM alleles and at least one PM allele (i.e., IM and PM), tamoxifen did not appear to impact the RR of CBC in this population (AS = 0.5, RR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.59-1.96; and AS = 0, RR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.58-2.35) (p for homogeneity = - 0.02).
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the CYP2D6 phenotype may contribute to some of the observed variability in the impact of tamoxifen treatment for a first breast cancer on risk of developing CBC.
Drögemöller BI, Wright GEB, Shih J, et al.CYP2D6 as a treatment decision aid for ER-positive non-metastatic breast cancer patients: a systematic review with accompanying clinical practice guidelines.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 173(3):521-532 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Tamoxifen is one of the principal treatments for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Unfortunately, between 30 and 50% of patients receiving this hormonal therapy relapse. Since CYP2D6 genetic variants have been reported to play an important role in survival outcomes after treatment with tamoxifen, this study sought to summarize and critically appraise the available scientific evidence on this topic.
METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify studies investigating associations between CYP2D6 genetic variation and survival outcomes after tamoxifen treatment. Critical appraisal of the retrieved scientific evidence was performed, and recommendations were developed for CYP2D6 genetic testing in the context of tamoxifen therapy.
RESULTS: Although conflicting literature exists, the majority of the current evidence points toward CYP2D6 genetic variation affecting survival outcomes after tamoxifen treatment. Of note, review of the CYP2D6 genotyping assays used in each of the studies revealed the importance of comprehensive genotyping strategies to accurately predict CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotypes.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Critical appraisal of the literature provided evidence for the value of comprehensive CYP2D6 genotyping panels in guiding treatment decisions for non-metastatic ER-positive breast cancer patients. Based on this information, it is recommended that alternatives to standard tamoxifen treatments may be considered in CYP2D6 poor or intermediate metabolizers.
Pharmacogenetics, a major component of individualized or precision medicine, relies on human genetic diversity. The remarkable developments in sequencing technologies have revealed that the number of genetic variants modulating drug action is much higher than previously thought and that a true personalized prediction of drug response requires attention to rare mutations (minor allele frequency, MAF<1%) in addition to polymorphisms (MAF>1%) in pharmacogenes. This has major implications for the conceptual development and clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics. Drugs used in cancer treatment have been major targets of pharmacogenetics studies, encompassing both germline polymorphisms and somatic variants in the tumor genome. The present overview, however, has a narrower scope and is focused on germline cancer pharmacogenetics, more specifically, on drug/gene pairs for which pharmacogenetics-informed prescription guidelines have been published by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium and/or the Dutch Pharmacogenetic Working Group, namely, thiopurines/TPMT, fluoropyrimidines/UGT1A1, irinotecan/UGT1A1 and tamoxifen/CYP2D6. I begin by reviewing the general principles of pharmacogenetics-informed prescription, pharmacogenetics testing and the perceived barriers to the adoption of routine pharmacogenetics testing in clinical practice. Then, I highlight aspects of the pharmacogenetics testing of the selected drug-gene pairs and finally present pharmacogenetics data from Brazilian studies pertinent to these drug-gene pairs. I conclude with the notion that pharmacogenetics testing has the potential to greatly benefit patients by enabling precision medicine applied to drug therapy, ensuring better efficacy and reducing the risk of adverse effects.
Guo XG, Wang ZH, Dong W, et al.Specific CYP450 Genotypes in the Chinese Population Affect Sorafenib Toxicity in HBV/HCV-associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients.
Biomed Environ Sci. 2018; 31(8):586-595 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to screen for frequencies of different CYP450 genotypes in the Chinese population and explore the relationship between sorafenib toxicity and CYP450 polymorphism.
METHODS: A total of 600 peripheral blood samples were obtained from two groups for this study. The first group of 300 samples were from Chinese patients with HBV/HCV-associated HCC, while the remaining 300 samples were from a healthy population of recruited subjects. Allele-specific PCR and long-fragment gene sequencing was used to identify the frequencies of CYP450 polymorphism. Aflatoxin-induced HCC rat models expressing CYP3A4*1, CYP3A5*3, CYP2C19*2, and CYP2D6*10 were established and treated with sorafenib at certain time points. Hepatic and renal function, along with plasma concentration of sorafenib, were monitored regularly.
RESULTS: The most common forms of CYP mutations in the Chinese population were identified. The levels of sorafenib plasma concentration, as well as damage to hepatic and renal function in aflatoxin-induced HCC rat models varied significantly across the different CYP genotypes.
CONCLUSION: The mutational frequencies of CYP3A5, CYP3A4, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 genotypes varied among different ethnic groups and populations. Individuals with CYP3A5*3 demonstrated minimal sorafenib metabolism, which led to severe hepatic and renal damage. Inter-individual variability in sorafenib-toxicity may be interpreted by CYP450 genetic polymorphisms, suggesting that identification of CYP polymorphism within a certain population should be considered in sorafenib therapy.
Cytochromes P450s (CYPs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the metabolism of drugs and other
substances. Endogenous substrates of CYPs include eicosanoids, estradiol, arachidonic acids, cholesterol, vitamin D
and neurotransmitters. Exogenous substrates of CYPs include the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and about 80% of
currently used drugs. Some isoforms can activate procarcinogens to ultimate carcinogens. Genetic polymorphisms of
CYPs may affect the enzyme catalytic activity and have been reported among different populations to be associated
with various diseases and adverse drug reactions. With regard of drug metabolism, phenotypes for CYP polymorphism
range from ultrarapid to poor metabolizers. In this review, we discuss some of the most clinically important CYPs
isoforms (CYP2D6, CYP2A6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP1B1 and CYP1A2) with respect to gene polymorphisms and
drug metabolism. Moreover, we review the role of CYPs in renal, lung, breast and prostate cancers and also discuss
their significance for atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
PURPOSE: Tamoxifen has a wide inter-variability. Recently, two SNPs in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the SULT1A1 gene, rs6839 and rs1042157, have been associated with decreased SULT1A1 activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the rs6839 and rs1042157 on tamoxifen metabolism and relapse-free survival (RFS) in women diagnosed with early-breast cancer receiving tamoxifen.
METHODS: Samples from 667 patients collected in the CYPTAM study (NTR1509) were used for genotyping (CYP2D6, SULT1A1 rs6839 and rs1042157) and measurements of tamoxifen and metabolites. Patients were categorized in three groups depending on the decreased SULT1A1 activity due to rs6839 and rs1042157: low activity group (rs6839 (GG) and rs1042157 (TT)); high activity group (rs6839 (AA) and rs1042157 (CC)); and medium activity group (all the other combinations of rs6839 and rs1042157). Associations between SULT1A1 phenotypes and clinical outcome (RFS) were explored.
RESULTS: In the low SULT1A1 activity group, higher endoxifen and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen concentrations were found, compared to the medium and high activity group (endoxifen: 31.23 vs. 30.51 vs. 27.00, p value: 0.016; 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen: 5.55 vs. 5.27 vs. 4.94, p value:0.05). In terms of relapse, the low activity group had a borderline better outcome compared to the medium and high SULT1A1 activity group (adjusted Hazard ratio: 0.297; 95% CI 0.088-1.000; p value: 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that rs6839 and rs1042157 SNPs have a minor effect on the concentrations and metabolic ratios of tamoxifen and its metabolites, and RFS in women receiving adjuvant tamoxifen.
BACKGROUND: Genistein (5,7-Dihydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) is the most abundant isoflavone in soybean, which has been associated with a lower risk of development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Of particular interest regarding cancer preventive properties of flavonoids is their interaction with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs). However, contradictory data report the effect of genistein on expression of СYPs enzymes.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of genistein on cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene expression levels in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2/C3A) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) cells.
METHODS: Real-time RT-PCR was used to examine the expression of genes families involved in xenobiotic metabolism, such as CYP1 (CYP1A1, CYP1B1), CYP2 (CYP2E1, CYP2D6), CYP3 (CYP3A4); and of a family involved in the catabolism of the all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), CYP26 (CYP26A1, CYP26B1).
RESULTS: RT-qPCR data analysis showed that after 12 h of exposure of HepG2/C3A cells to genistein (5 and 50 µM) there was an upregulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and downregulation of CYP2D6, CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 mRNA levels. There was no change in the mRNA levels of CYP P450 genes in HT29 cells.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that treatment with genistein in non-toxic concentrations may impact the expression level of CYPs involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics and drug metabolizing enzymes. Moreover, the downregulation of ATRA metabolism-related genes opens a new research path for the study of genistein as retinoic acid metabolism blocking agent for treating cancer and other pathologies.
Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Tamoxifen (TAM), a selective
estrogen receptor modulator, is widely used in its treatment. TAM is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes,
including CYP2D6, CYP3A5 and CYP2C19, whose genetic variations may have clinicopathological importance.
However, reports on the association of various P450 polymorphisms with certain cancers are contradictory. Methods:
We here investigated whether the prevalence of the four most common polymorphism in the CYP2D6*4 (G1934A),
CYP2D6*10 (C188T), CYP3A5*3 and CYP2C19*2 alleles has any link with breast cancer using genomic DNA and
polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Results: Prevalences of
CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*10 and CYP2C19*2 genotypes were differed significantly (P = 0.01 and P = 0.004) between
breast cancer patients and controls. The CYP3A5*3 genotype did not demonstrate statistically significant variation.
Conclusion: Polymorphisms in CYP2 appear to be associated with breast cancer risk. Our data taken together with
other reports indicates that drug resistance gene polymorphisms might be indicators of response to tamoxifen therapy
in breast cancer cases.
Despite evidence that pharmacogenetics can improve tamoxifen pharmacotherapy, there are few studies with American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) people. We examined variation in cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes (CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9) and tamoxifen biotransformation in AIAN patients with breast cancer (n = 42) from the Southcentral Foundation in Alaska and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes in Montana. We tested for associations between CYP diplotypes and plasma concentrations of tamoxifen and metabolites. Only the CYP2D6 variation was significantly associated with concentrations of endoxifen (P = 0.0008) and 4-hydroxytamoxifen (P = 0.0074), tamoxifen's principal active metabolites, as well as key metabolic ratios. The CYP2D6 was also the most significant predictor of active metabolites and metabolic ratios in a multivariate regression model, including all four genes as predictors, with minor roles for other CYP genes. In AIAN populations, CYP2D6 is the largest contributor to tamoxifen bioactivation, illustrating the importance of validating pharmacogenetic testing for therapy optimization in an understudied population.
Ferri GM, Guastadisegno CM, Intranuovo G, et al.Maternal Exposure to Pesticides, Paternal Occupation in the Army/Police Force, and CYP2D6*4 Polymorphism in the Etiology of Childhood Acute Leukemia.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2018; 40(4):e207-e214 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epidemiologic studies have suggested that parental occupations, pesticide use, environmental factors, and genetic polymorphism are involved in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia (CAL). In total, 116 cases of CAL and 162 controls were recruited and submitted to blood drawing to assess the presence of genetic polymorphisms. Parental occupations, pesticides exposure, and other potential determinants were investigated. Increased risk for CAL was associated with prenatal maternal use of insecticides/rodenticides (odds ratio [OR]=1.87; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.04-3.33), with subjects living <100 m from pesticide-treated fields (OR=3.21; 95% CI, 1.37-7.53) and with a paternal occupation as traffic warden/policeman (OR=4.02; 95% CI, 1.63-9.87). Associations were found between CAL and genetic polymorphism of CYP2D6*4 for homozygous alleles (mutant type/mutant type: OR=6.39; 95% CI, 1.17-34.66). In conclusion, despite the small sample size, maternal prenatal exposure to pesticides, paternal occupation as a traffic warden/police officer, and CYP2D6*4 polymorphism could play a role in the etiology of CAL.
Lan B, Ma F, Zhai X, et al.The relationship between the CYP2D6 polymorphisms and tamoxifen efficacy in adjuvant endocrine therapy of breast cancer patients in Chinese Han population.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(1):184-189 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Variants of the CYP2D6 gene may lead to a poor prognosis of tamoxifen (TAM)-treated patients. Our study validated the association between the CYP2D6 genotype and outcomes of patients receiving TAM in adjuvant endocrine therapy. A total of 778 breast cancer patients who received adjuvant TAM (n = 325) or aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (n = 453) at the National Cancer Center were analyzed. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYP2D6 gene were selected from online databases. The associations of each SNP genotype with disease-free survival (DFS) and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. A total of 167 (21.5%) patients carried the CYP2D6*10 (c.100C>T) T/T genotype. Among the 325 patients who received TAM, the 5-year DFS rate was considerably lower in CYP2D6*10 T/T genotype patients than C/C or C/T patients (54.9% vs. 70.9%, p = 0.007). The T/T genotype for CYP2D6*10 was a significant prognostic marker for DFS in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio = 1.87; p = 0.006). The CYP2D6*10 genotype in women who received AIs was not significantly associated with DFS (p = 0.332). Other SNPs were not related to the survival of patients who received TAM. Our finding showed patients with CYP2D6*10 T/T received less benefit from TAM adjuvant treatment. This conclusion may optimize the individualized treatments for this subgroup of patients.
Endo-Tsukude C, Sasaki JI, Saeki S, et al.Population Pharmacokinetics and Adverse Events of Erlotinib in Japanese Patients with Non-small-cell Lung Cancer: Impact of Genetic Polymorphisms in Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2018; 41(1):47-56 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Determinants of interindividual variability in erlotinib pharmacokinetics (PK) and adverse events remain to be elucidated. This study with 50 Japanese non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with oral erlotinib at a standard dose of 150 mg aimed to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms affect erlotinib PK and adverse events. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, UGT1A1, UGT2B7, GSTM1, and GSTT1) or efflux transporters (ABCB1, and ABCG2) were analyzed as covariates in a population PK model. The ABCB1 1236C>T (rs1128503) polymorphism, not ABCB1*2 haplotype (1236TT-2677TT-3455TT, rs1128503 TT-rs2032582 TT-rs1045642 TT), was a significant covariate for the apparent clearance (CL/F), with the TT genotype showing a 29.4% decrease in CL/F as compared with the CC and the CT genotypes. A marginally higher incidence of adverse events (mainly skin rash) was observed in the TT genotype group; however, patients with high plasma erlotinib exposure did not always experience skin rash. None of the other SNPs affected PK or adverse events. The ABCB1 genotype is a potential predictor for erlotinib adverse events. Erlotinib might be used with careful monitoring of adverse events in patients with ABCB1 polymorphic variants.
Despite current advances in antiemetic treatments, between 30% to and 60% of oncology patients experience chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN) and 13% to 33% report chemotherapy-induced vomiting (CIV). Inter-individual differences are observed in the occurrence and severity of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). This review summarizes and critiques studies on associations between occurrence and severity of CINV and polymorphisms in serotonin receptor, drug metabolism, and drug transport pathway genes. Sixteen studies evaluated the associations between the occurrence and/or severity of CINV and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Across these studies, three SNPs in 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HT3R) genes, two alleles of the cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily D member 6 (CYP2D6) gene, and three SNPs in ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) gene were associated with the occurrence and severity of CINV. Given the limited number of polymorphisms evaluated, additional research is warranted to identify new mechanisms to develop more targeted therapies.
Tashiro M, Naito T, Kagawa Y, Kawakami JInfluence of cytochrome P450 genotype on the plasma disposition of prochlorperazine metabolites and their relationships with clinical responses in cancer patients.
Ann Clin Biochem. 2018; 55(3):385-393 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Background Oral prochlorperazine, a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, is largely metabolized to sulphoxide, 7-hydroxylate and N-desmethylate by cytochrome P450s (CYPs). This study evaluated the influence of CYP genotype on the plasma dispositions of prochlorperazine and its metabolites and their relationships with antiemetic efficacy and prolactin elevation in cancer patients. Methods Forty-eight cancer patients treated with oral prochlorperazine were enrolled. Plasma prochlorperazine and its metabolites concentrations and serum prolactin concentration were determined at 12 h after the evening dosing. The genotypes of CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 and the incidences of nausea and vomiting were investigated. Results The plasma concentrations of the prochlorperazine metabolites were weakly correlated with that of the parent drug. The CYP genotypes did not affect the plasma concentrations of prochlorperazine and its metabolites. The plasma concentrations of prochlorperazine and its metabolites were not associated with the incidences of nausea and vomiting. The incidence of vomiting was significantly higher in females than in males. The serum prolactin concentration was weakly correlated with the plasma concentrations of prochlorperazine and its metabolites. The plasma concentrations of prochlorperazine metabolites rather than the parent drug had a weaker relation to serum prolactin concentration. Conclusions The CYP genotypes did not affect the plasma dispositions of prochlorperazine and its metabolites. The prochlorperazine metabolites did not have a strong effect on antiemetic efficacy, while they were slightly associated with prolactin secretion in cancer patients.
Feki-Tounsi M, Khlifi R, Louati I, et al.Polymorphisms in XRCC1, ERCC2, and ERCC3 DNA repair genes, CYP1A1 xenobiotic metabolism gene, and tobacco are associated with bladder cancer susceptibility in Tunisian population.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017; 24(28):22476-22484 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Other than the established environmental risk factors associated with bladder cancer (BC), little is known about the genetic variations determining the individual susceptibility of this complex disease. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of BC with environmental agents and polymorphisms in XRCC1, ERCC2, and ERCC3 DNA repair genes and CYP1A1, CYP2D6, NAT1, and NAT2 xenobiotic metabolism genes through a hospital-based case-control study in Tunisia. The selection of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs25487, rs 13181, rs415407, rs446421, rs1058172, rs4921880, and rs1208) was performed using the dbSNP database. DNA genotyping was determined by PCR-RFLP after DNA extraction from whole blood. The risks of BC associated with every polymorphism as well as the studied environmental factors were estimated by multivariate-adjusted logistic regression using R software. In addition, gene-gene interactions were analyzed using generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) methods. Results showed that tobacco smoking and chewing parameters were significantly associated with BC risk. Single-gene variant analysis showed significant associations of the TT genotype of CYP1A1 and the rare GG genotype of ERCC2 with bladder cancer susceptibility (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.22-1.40, P < 0.0001). According to GMDR analysis, our findings indicated a significant association between BC and gene-gene interaction among the CYP1A1, ERCC3, and XRCC1. The present results suggest a potential role of XRCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, and CYP1A1 besides tobacco intake in susceptibility to BC.
Damkier P, Kjærsgaard A, Barker KA, et al.CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17 variants and effect of tamoxifen on breast cancer recurrence: Analysis of the International Tamoxifen Pharmacogenomics Consortium dataset.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):7727 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The role of cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes in the efficacy of tamoxifen treatment of breast cancer is subject to substantial interest and controversy. CYP2D6 have been intensively studied, but the role of CYP2C19 is less elucidated, and we studied the association of CYPC19 genotype and recurrence of breast cancer. We used outcome and genotyping data from the large publicly available International Tamoxifen Pharmacogenomics Consortium (ITPC) dataset. Cox regression was used to compute the hazard ratios (HRs) for recurrence. CYP2C19 genotype data was available for 2 423 patients and the final sample cohort comprised 2 102 patients. CYP2C19*2 or *19 alleles did not influence DFS. For the CYP2C19*2 allele, the HR was 1.05 (CI 0.78-1.42) and 0.79 (CI 0.32-1.94) for hetero- and homozygote carriers, respectively. The corresponding HR for hetero- and homozygote carriers of the CYP2C19*17 allele were 1.02 (CI 0.71-1.46) and 0.57 (CI 0.26-1.24), respectively. Accounting for CYP2D6 genotype status did not change these estimates. We found no evidence to support a clinically meaningful role of CYP2C19 polymorphisms and response to tamoxifen in breast cancer patients and, consequently, CYP2C19 genotype status should not be included in clinical decisions on tamoxifen treatment.
Hertz DL, Kidwell KM, Hilsenbeck SG, et al.CYP2D6 genotype is not associated with survival in breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen: results from a population-based study.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017; 166(1):277-287 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: A number of studies have tested the hypothesis that breast cancer patients with low-activity CYP2D6 genotypes achieve inferior benefit from tamoxifen treatment, putatively due to lack of metabolic activation to endoxifen. Studies have provided conflicting data, and meta-analyses suggest a small but significant increase in cancer recurrence, necessitating additional studies to allow for accurate effect assessment. We conducted a retrospective pharmacogenomic analysis of a prospectively collected community-based cohort of patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer to test for associations between low-activity CYP2D6 genotype and disease outcome in 500 patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen monotherapy and 500 who did not receive any systemic adjuvant therapy.
METHODS: Tumor-derived DNA was genotyped for common, functionally consequential CYP2D6 polymorphisms (*2, *3, *4, *6, *10, *41, and copy number variants) and assigned a CYP2D6 activity score (AS) ranging from none (0) to full (2). Patients with poor metabolizer (AS = 0) phenotype were compared to patients with AS > 0 and in secondary analyses AS was analyzed quantitatively. Clinical outcome of interest was recurrence free survival (RFS) and analyses using long-rank test were adjusted for relevant clinical covariates (nodal status, tumor size, etc.).
RESULTS: CYP2D6 AS was not associated with RFS in tamoxifen treated patients in univariate analyses (p > 0.2). In adjusted analyses, increasing AS was associated with inferior RFS (Hazard ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.00-2.04, p = 0.05). In patients that did not receive tamoxifen treatment, increasing CYP2D6 AS, and AS > 0, were associated with superior RFS (each p = 0.0015).
CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study does not support the hypothesis that patients with diminished CYP2D6 activity achieve inferior tamoxifen benefit. These contradictory findings suggest that the association between CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen treatment efficacy is null or near null, and unlikely to be useful in clinical practice.
Zeng Y, Huang K, Huang WThe effect analysis of CYP2D6 gene polymorphism in the toremifene and tamoxifen treatment in patient with breast cancer.
Pak J Pharm Sci. 2017; 30(3(Special)):1095-1098 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The purpose of the present research work was to study the CYP2D6 gene polymorphism survival outcome after breast cancer patient received the toremifene and tamoxifen treatment. Seventy-eight patients who received radical mastectomy and toremifene and tamoxifen treatment after operation were divided into three groups: CYP2D6*1/*1 group (13 cases), CYP2D6*1/*10 group (28cases) and CYP2D6*10/*10 group (35 cases), according to the gene polymorphism of blood serum CYP2D6. The results of treatment of three groups were compared. After operation the content of blood serum CA125, CA153, VEGF, IGF-1 were all lower than before. The content of CYP2D6*10/*10 group was higher than those of CYP2D6*1/*1 group and CYP2D6*1/*10 group. The content of CYP2D6*1/*1 group had no difference with that of CYP2D6*1/*10 group. All patients were followed up for a median duration of 30.5 months. Progression-free survival (PFS) of CYP2D6*10/*10 was shortened. The recurrence rate increased and the survival rate reduced. There were no obvious differences between CYP2D6*1/*1group and CYP2D6*1/*10 group. In summary, CYP2D6 gene polymorphism relates with the effect of toremifene and tamoxifen treatment in patient with ER positive breast cancer and null allele homozygote CYP2D6*10/*10 can lead to a poor prognosis.
Baatjes KJ, Conradie M, Apffelstaedt JP, Kotze MJPharmacogenetics of Aromatase Inhibitors in Endocrine Responsive Breast Cancer: Lessons Learnt from Tamoxifen and CYP2D6 Genotyping.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2017; 17(13):1805-1813 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetics play a significant role in drug metabolism of endocrine therapy of breast cancer. These aspects have been studied extensively in patients on tamoxifen, but the pharmacogenetics of aromatase inhibitors are less established. In contrast to the protective effect of tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors are linked with an increased risk for bone loss and fractures.
OBJECTIVE: This review outlines key issues in the implementation of pharmacogenetics of cytochrome P450 and tamoxifen as a model for optimal use of aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer.
METHODS: Lessons learnt from the association between tamoxifen and CYP2D6 genotyping were applied to identify polymorphisms with the potential to change clinical decision-making in patients on aromatase inhibitors. The ability of next generation sequencing to supersede single-gene analysis was furthermore evaluated in a subset of breast cancer patients on aromatase inhibitors selected from a central genomics database.
RESULTS: Methodological flaws in major randomised controlled trials and continued referral to incorrect results in expert consensus statements are important factors delaying the implementation of CYP2D6 pharmacogenetics in tamoxifen treatment. This highlighted the importance of a clinical pipeline including comprehensive genotyping, to define the target population most likely to benefit from aromatase inhibitor pharmacogenetics.
CONCLUSION: The clinical utility of CYP2D6 genotyping is well-established in patients at increased risk of tamoxifen resistance due to cumulative risk. The pharmacogenetics of CYP19A1 requires further clarification in terms of bone risk assessment for appropriate use in the treatment algorithm of high-risk patients at the onset of aromatase inhibitors.
Bhat GA, Bhat AB, Lone MM, Dar NAAssociation of Genetic Variants of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk in Northern India, Kashmir.
Nutr Cancer. 2017 May-Jun; 69(4):585-592 [PubMed
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Genetic polymorphism in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) is associated with various malignancies. However, the association of esophageal cancer with XMEs is mixed. The current study was aimed to explore the association of genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome (CYP) 2C19 and CYP2D6 genotypes with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk in Kashmir, India. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequencing methods were used for genotyping of 492 ESCC cases and equal number of individually matched controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. Increased ESCC risk was observed in subjects with variant genotypes of CYP2C19 (OR = 3.3) or CYP2D6 (OR = 2.1) and risk was higher (OR = 4.6) in subjects who harbored both the genotypes. Almost same but higher risk turned when subjects were smokers and carried a variant genotype of CYP2C19 (OR = 4.4) or CYP2D6 (OR = 4.7). Risk was appreciably increased in subjects who had family history of any cancer and also harbored a variant genotype of either CYP2C19 (OR = 15.5) or CYP2D6 (OR = 9.7). Subjects harboring a variant genotype of CYP2D6 showed an added risk when they used biomass as fuel (OR = 4.6). In conclusion, variant genotypes of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 are associated with an increased risk of ESCC.
Biazi BI, Zanetti TA, Baranoski A, et al.Cis-Nerolidol Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Cell Death in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells through Extensive CYP2C19 and CYP1A2 Oxidation.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2017; 121(4):334-341 [PubMed
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Of late, many studies are attempting to find new molecules with anticancer properties, especially those with the capability to inhibit cell growth. The aim of this work was to evaluate nerolidol, a plant-based compound, as its cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, antiproliferative and apoptotic induction, cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential and RT-qPCR of transcripts related to those pathways in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2/C3A). Only cis-nerolidol (C-NER) demonstrated cytotoxicity (100-250 μM) activity and was selected to conduct the following experiments. C-NER did not show genotoxic activity, but altered the mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle in G1 phase and induced cell death. RT-qPCR showed that C-NER down-regulated genes related to apoptosis (BAK1, BAX, CAPN1, CASP8, CASP9, PARP1 and TP53), cell cycle (CCND1, CCNE1, CDK1 and CDK2), xenobiotic metabolism (CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) and paraptosis (IGF1R receptor). Up-regulation was seen in case of genes related to cell survival (BBC3 and MYC) and reticulum stress protein response (EIF2AK3 and ERN1) and xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A2 and CYP2C19). We deduced that the antiproliferative activity of C-NER is attributable to its modulation of the cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases as these proteins are necessary for G1/S phase transition. EIF2AK3, ERN1, CYP2C19 and CYP1A2 up-regulation suggests that endoplasmic reticulum stress was induced owing to the increased activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Caspase-independent cell death was also observed, indicating that another type of cell death, paraptosis, was triggered. Our results indicate that C-NER has considerable potential in anticancer therapy because it modulates important molecular targets of cell survival and proliferation.
In this study, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by genome-wide association study (GWAS) (MAP3K1, FGFR2, TNRC9, HCN1, and 5p12), and SNPs involved in the metabolism of estrogen (CYP19, COMT, ESR1, and UGT1A1), tamoxifen (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, and CYP2D6), and chemotherapeutic agents (ABCB1, ALDH3A1, and CYP2B6) are associated with the prognoses of 414 hormone receptor (HR)-positive early breast cancers with negative or 1 to 3 nodal metastases. At a median follow-up period of 10.6 years, 363 patients were alive, and 51 (12.3%) had died. Multiple-adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals for distant disease-free survival (DDFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) in association with the genotypes of 34 SNPs from the above-mentioned 16 genes were evaluated, using the stepwise selection Cox model. We found that the SNP, ESR1-codon325 rs1801132 (G/G+G/C), was associated with a longer DDFS, whereas UGT1A1 rs4148323 (A/A+A/G), and HCN1 rs981782 (A/A+A/C) were significantly associated with poorer DDFS. MAP3K1 rs889312 (C/C) and CYP2B6 rs3211371 (T/C) were significantly associated with poor DFS, DDFS and OS. Among premenopausal women, MAP3K1 rs889312 (C/C), CYP2B6 rs3211371 (T/C), CYP2B6 rs4802101 (T/T), ABCB1 rs2032582 (C/C), and ALDH3A1 rs2231142 (G/G) were significantly associated with poor DDFS, DFS, or OS. Our results provide additional evidence that genetic polymorphisms observed in SNPs are associated with the prognoses of patients with HR-positive breast cancers; this may indicate different treatment strategies for these patients.
Ahern TP, Hertz DL, Damkier P, et al.Cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) Genotype and Breast Cancer Recurrence in Tamoxifen-Treated Patients: Evaluating the Importance of Loss of Heterozygosity.
Am J Epidemiol. 2017; 185(2):75-85 [PubMed
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Tamoxifen therapy for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer reduces the risk of recurrence by approximately one-half. Cytochrome P-450 2D6, encoded by the polymorphic cytochrome P-450 2D6 gene (CYP2D6), oxidizes tamoxifen to its most active metabolites. Steady-state concentrations of endoxifen (4-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen), the most potent antiestrogenic metabolite, are reduced in women whose CYP2D6 genotypes confer poor enzyme function. Thirty-one studies of the association of CYP2D6 genotype with breast cancer survival have yielded heterogeneous results. Some influential studies genotyped DNA from tumor-infiltrated tissues, and their results may have been susceptible to germline genotype misclassification from loss of heterozygosity at the CYP2D6 locus. We systematically reviewed 6 studies of concordance between genotypes obtained from paired nonneoplastic and breast tumor-infiltrated tissues, all of which showed excellent CYP2D6 genotype agreement. We applied these concordance data to a quantitative bias analysis of the subset of the 31 studies that were based on genotypes from tumor-infiltrated tissue to examine whether genotyping errors substantially biased estimates of association. The bias analysis showed negligible bias by discordant genotypes. Summary estimates of association, with or without bias adjustment, indicated no clinically important association between CYP2D6 genotype and breast cancer survival in tamoxifen-treated women.
Cavic M, Krivokuca A, Boljevic I, et al.Pharmacogenetics in cancer therapy - 8 years of experience at the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia.
J BUON. 2016 Sept-Oct; 21(5):1287-1295 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Pharmacogenetics is a study of possible mechanism by which an individual's response to drugs is genetically determined by variations in their DNA sequence. The aim of pharmacogenetics is to identify the optimal drug and dose for each individual based on their genetic constitution, i.e. to individualize drug treatment. This leads to achieving the maximal therapeutic response for each patient, while reducing adverse side effects of therapy and the cost of treatment. A centralized pharmacogenetics service was formed at the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia (IORS) with the aim to provide a personalized approach to cancer treatment of Serbian patients.
METHODS: Analyses of KRAS mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer, EGFR mutations in advanced non-small cell lung cancer, CYP2D6 polymorphism in breast cancer, DPD polymorphism in colorectal cancer and MTHFR polymorphism in osteosarcoma have been performed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).
RESULTS: Mutation testing analyses were successful for 1694 KRAS samples and 1821 EGFR samples, while polymorphism testing was successful for 9 CYP2D6 samples, 65 DPD samples and 35 MTHFR samples.
CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacogenetic methods presented in this paper provide cancer patients in Serbia the best possible choice of treatment at the moment.
Novillo A, Romero-Lorca A, Gaibar M, et al.Tamoxifen metabolism in breast cancer treatment: Taking the focus off the CYP2D6 gene.
Pharmacogenomics J. 2017; 17(2):109-111 [PubMed
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Tamoxifen has been successfully used for treating breast cancer and preventing cancer recurrence. Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) plays a key role in the process of metabolizing tamoxifen to its active moiety, endoxifen. Patients with variants of the CYP2D6 gene may not receive the full benefit of tamoxifen treatment. The CYP2D6*10 variant (the most common variant in Asians) was analyzed to optimize the prescription of tamoxifen in China. To ensure referring clinicians have accurate information for genotype-guided tamoxifen treatment, the Chinese National Center for Clinical Laboratories (NCCL) organized a national proficiency testing (PT) to evaluate the performance of laboratories providing CYP2D6*10 genotyping. Ten genomic DNA samples with CYP2D6 wild-type or CYP2D6*10 variants were validated by PCR-sequencing and sent to 28 participant laboratories. The genotyping results and pharmacogenomic test reports were submitted and evaluated by NCCL experts. Additional information regarding the number of samples tested, the accreditation/certification status, and detecting technology was also requested. Thirty-one data sets were received, with a corresponding analytical sensitivity of 98.2% (548/558 challenges; 95% confidence interval: 96.7-99.1%) and an analytic specificity of 96.5% (675/682; 95% confidence interval: 97.9-99.5%). Overall, 25/28 participants correctly identified CYP2D6*10 status in 10 samples; however, two laboratories made serious genotyping errors. Most of the essential information was included in the 20 submitted CYP2D6*10 test reports. The majority of Chinese laboratories are reliable for detecting the CYP2D6*10 variant; however, several issues revealed in this study underline the importance of PT schemes in continued external assessment and provision of guidelines.
Kang G, Kim KR, Shim HJ, et al.Effect of the allelic variants of ABCB1, CYP2D6 and HTR3B on response of ramosetron to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in Korean cancer patients.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2017; 13(1):53-60 [PubMed
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AIM: Despite appropriate use of antiemetics including 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT
METHODS: We conducted a clinical trial on patients who underwent FOLFOX combination chemotherapy. The participants were randomized into three groups of ramosetron: 0.3 mg (standard dose), 0.45 mg and 0.6 mg. Rhodes index of nausea, vomiting and retching were measured at 1, 6 h, day 1, day 2 and day 7 after the administration of ramosetron as a clinical parameter of CINV and polymorphism was analyzed from genomic DNA.
RESULTS: There was a dose-dependent decrease in the nausea and vomiting scores at day 1 and day 2, not statistically significant. The Rhodes index of nausea, vomiting and retching score at day 1 in participants with HTR3B-100_-102delAAG deletion variants was significantly higher than wild type participants, regardless of dosages. However, the polymorphisms including ABCB1, CYP2D6 and other HTR3B genes did not affect response to ramosetron after chemotherapy.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the -AAG deletion variant of the 5-HT
Kykalos S, Mantas D, Charalampoudis P, et al.Incidence of inactive allele CYP2D6*4 among Greek women suffering from hormone-sensitive breast cancer.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2016; 37(4):504-510 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The incidence of CYP2D6*4 among Caucasians is estimated up to 27%, while it is present in up to 90% of all poor metabolizers within the Caucasian population. The hypothesis under question is whether the presence of one or two non-functioning (null) alleles predicts an inferior outcome in postmenopausal women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen. The aim of the present study is to estimate the incidence of CYP2D6*4, in the Greek population and more precisely among females suffering from breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty unrelated mainland Greek female volunteers suffering from hormone-sensitive breast cancer were recruited during their primary handling or follow-up examination in order to provide samples for purification and polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of genomic DNA derived from buccal swabs.
RESULTS: The incidence of individuals with at least one present allele*4 within the Hellenic population was estimated to be as high as 30% (n = 24/80), with a 95% confidence interval of 20% to 40%. From the statistical point of view, it can be securely stated that incidence of *4 among Greek women is over 20%. The incidence of homozygous carriers of *4 in the present sample occurred in 8.75%, while the incidence of allele*4 haplo-type occurred in 19.4% (n=160).
CONCLUSION: Although the outcoming results for Greek women are actually in line with existing data for other European nations, it should be noted, that a routine CYP2D6 testing of women suffering from breast cancer is formally not recommended, as the clinical significance of CYP2D6 phenotype in treatment and outcome of breast cancer remains unclear.