Gene Summary

Gene:CEACAM3; CEA cell adhesion molecule 3
Aliases: CEA, CGM1, W264, W282, CD66D
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the family of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs), which are used by several bacterial pathogens to bind and invade host cells. The encoded transmembrane protein directs phagocytosis of several bacterial species that is dependent on the small GTPase Rac. It is thought to serve an important role in controlling human-specific pathogens by the innate immune system. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
CEACAM3 is implicated in:
- integral to membrane
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CEACAM3 (cancer-related)

Shao K, Wang Y, Xue Q, et al.
Clinicopathological features and prognosis of ciliated muconodular papillary tumor.
J Cardiothorac Surg. 2019; 14(1):143 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUNDS: The pulmonary ciliated muconodular papillary tumor (CMPT) is a very rare tumor with only several case reports in published literatures, and its clinicopathological features, standard treatment methods and prognosis has not been well defined.
METHODS: Two cases of CMPT diagnosed and treated in our hospital and 39 cases reported in the published literature were analyzed retrospectively.
RESULTS: The cohort of 41 CMPT patients comprised of 20 males and 21 females, aged 9-84 years. The diameter of the primary tumor was 0.3-4.5 cm. Most of these lesions were subsolid nodules, as observed on computed tomography and easily misdiagnosed as early lung adenocarcinoma. Tumors of 26 patients were stained by immunohistochemistry method, which revealed that CK7, CEA, and TTF-1 were positive and CK20 was negative in most patients. The results of gene alternation demonstrated mutations in EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF and ALK rearrangements in CMPT. All the patients underwent surgical treatment and did not receive postoperative adjuvant therapy. The follow-up duration was 0-120 months, and no case of tumor recurrence was found until the final follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of CMPT was low and rate of image misdiagnosis high. Immunohistochemistry is helpful for accurate diagnosis of CMPT. Sub-lobectomy may be proper and adjuvant treatment should be avoided since the disease is now prone to benign lesions. Furthermore, since the biological behavior of this tumor is not yet fully elucidated, additional case data are essential for accurate conclusions.

Ali H, AbdelMageed M, Olsson L, et al.
Utility of G protein-coupled receptor 35 expression for predicting outcome in colon cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2019; 41(6):1010428319858885 [PubMed] Related Publications
The utility of mRNA and protein determinations of G protein-coupled receptor 35, that is, GPR35a (GPR35 V1) and GPR35b (GPR35 V2/3), as indicators of outcome for colon cancer patients after curative surgery was investigated. Expression levels of V1 and V2/3 GPR35, carcinoembryonic antigen and CXCL17 mRNAs were assessed in primary tumours and regional lymph nodes of 121 colon cancer patients (stage I-IV), colon cancer cell lines and control colon epithelial cells using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Expression of G protein-coupled receptor 35 was investigated by two-colour immunohistochemistry and immunomorphometry. GPR35 V2/3 mRNA, but not V1 mRNA, was expressed in colon cancer cell lines, primary colon tumours and control colon epithelial cells. Haematoxylin and eosin positive (H&E(+)), but not H&E(-), lymph nodes expressed high levels of GPR35 V2/3 mRNA (

Wei J, Tang D, Nie Y, et al.
Clinical characteristics and prognosis of nonsurgically treated patients with pneumonic-type adenocarcinoma.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(18):e15420 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pneumonic-type adenocarcinoma (P-ADC) is a subtype of lung adenocarcinoma with high mortality, which often requires lobectomy surgery. Nonsurgically treated P-ADC patients usually have more advanced or complex conditions, which remain poorly understood and pose a major challenge in clinical management. We aimed to describe the clinical profiles and prognosis of non-surgically treated P-ADC patients. We enrolled 71 patients with pathologically proven P-ADC from a university hospital in China. Clinical and laboratory data were retrieved from medical record. Their median age was 62 years, including 45% men and 35% smokers. Clinical manifestations were dominated by cough, sputum, and dyspnea. Main chest imaging features included nodules, shadow, consolidation, and air bronchogram. Nearly half or more of patients showed higher levels of inflammation and cancer biomarkers including cytokeratin-19-fragment (CYFRA 21-1) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Majority of patients were classified at the stage IIIB or IV. Palliative care was the most popular treatment option but provided a shorter overall survival compared to tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, standard chemotherapy, and sequential therapy while there were no significant differences in the survival among the latter 3 options. Higher serum CEA was associated with longer survival and better prognosis while higher serum CYFRA 21-1 could predict a poor prognosis. Detailed understanding the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in nonsurgically treated P-ADC may allow the identification of patients with particular risk factors and initiation of early and specific treatment in order to optimize outcomes.

Keller M, Dubois F, Teulier S, et al.
NDR2 kinase contributes to cell invasion and cytokinesis defects induced by the inactivation of RASSF1A tumor-suppressor gene in lung cancer cells.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):158 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: RASSF1A, a tumor suppressor gene, is frequently inactivated in lung cancer leading to a YAP-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Such effects are partly due to the inactivation of the anti-migratory RhoB GTPase via the inhibitory phosphorylation of GEF-H1, the GDP/GTP exchange factor for RhoB. However, the kinase responsible for RhoB/GEF-H1 inactivation in RASSF1A-depleted cells remained unknown.
METHODS: NDR1/2 inactivation by siRNA or shRNA effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion, xenograft formation and growth in SCID-/- Beige mice, apoptosis, proliferation, cytokinesis, YAP/TAZ activation were investigated upon RASSF1A loss in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC).
RESULTS: We demonstrate here that depletion of the YAP-kinases NDR1/2 reverts migration and metastatic properties upon RASSF1A loss in HBEC. We show that NDR2 interacts directly with GEF-H1 (which contains the NDR phosphorylation consensus motif HXRXXS/T), leading to GEF-H1 phosphorylation. We further report that the RASSF1A/NDR2/GEF-H1/RhoB/YAP axis is involved in proper cytokinesis in human bronchial cells, since chromosome proper segregation are NDR-dependent upon RASSF1A or GEF-H1 loss in HBEC.
CONCLUSION: To summarize, our data support a model in which, upon RASSF1A silencing, NDR2 gets activated, phosphorylates and inactivates GEF-H1, leading to RhoB inactivation. This cascade induced by RASSF1A loss in bronchial cells is responsible for metastasis properties, YAP activation and cytokinesis defects.

Bae SU, Park WJ, Jeong WK, et al.
Prognostic impact of telomeric repeat-containing RNA expression on long-term oncologic outcomes in colorectal cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(14):e14932 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Telomeres are transcribed into long, noncoding telomeric repeat-containing RNAs (TERRA) that have been implicated in the regulation of telomerase, the enzyme that lengthens telomeres, in heterochromatin formation at telomeres, and in telomere stability. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between TERRA expression and long-term oncologic outcomes in colorectal cancer (CRC).We evaluated 18p TERRA expression and telomere length using quantitative real-time PCR in 60 patients who underwent surgical resection for CRC between June 2008 and November 2010.Patients were grouped according to 18p TERRA expression, with 29 (48.3%) and 31 (51.7%) patients in the low and high TERRA expression groups, respectively. The median follow-up period was 80 months (range 2-103). The 18p TERRA expression was marginally significantly associated with preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA; P = .082) and was significantly associated with telomere length (P < .05). Multivariate analysis revealed that preoperative CEA (hazard ratio [HR], 2.728; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.832-8.944, P = .098) and 18p TERRA expression (HR, 0.113; 95% CI, 0.011-1.126, P = .071) were marginally significant independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS), whereas preoperative CEA (HR, 4.254; 95% CI, 1.394-12.985, P = .011) and 18p TERRA expression (HR, 0.108; 95% CI, 0.011-1.037, P = .054) were significant independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS). According to our prognostic model with 2 prognostic factors, the OS and DFS rate increased to 76.2% and 80.63%, respectively, in patients with high 18p TERRA expression and CEA levels ≤5 (P = .178, P = .057, respectively).18p TERRA expression was marginally significantly associated with preoperative CEA and significantly associated with telomere length, rendering it a potential prognostic factor for long-term oncologic outcomes in CRC.

Wang G, Fu S, Li D, Chen Y
Expression and clinical significance of serum NT5E protein in patients with colorectal cancer.
Cancer Biomark. 2019; 24(4):461-468 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the expression level and clinical significance of serum NT5E protein (ecto-5'-nucleotidase) in patients with colorectal cancer.
METHODS: The expression level of serum NT5E protein in 232 patients with colorectal cancer and 158 normal controls was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, the relationship between the expression level of serum NT5E and the clinicopathological features of colorectal cancer was analyzed.
RESULTS: The expression level of serum NT5E in patients with colorectal cancer was significantly higher compared with that in normal controls (P< 0.05). The expression level of serum NT5E in patients with colorectal cancer closely correlated with the family history of tumors (P= 0.001), expression level of CA19-9 (P= 0.031), lymph node metastasis (P= 0.001), distant metastasis (P= 0.010), nerve invasion (P= 0.049), degree of differentiation (P= 0.013), and TNM staging (P= 0.001), but not with gender, age, smoking and drinking histories, expression level of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tumor locations, vascular tumor thrombus, cancer nodules, and pathological type (P> 0.05). Moreover, the overall survival rate of patients with colorectal cancer was significantly lower in the NT5E high-expression group, with statistical significance (χ2= 11.184, P= 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The expression level of serum NT5E increased in patients with colorectal cancer, and closely correlated with the malignant evolution and clinical prognosis of colorectal cancer. NT5E might serve as a serological indicator for molecular diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal cancer clinically.

Izumi D, Gao F, Toden S, et al.
A genomewide transcriptomic approach identifies a novel gene expression signature for the detection of lymph node metastasis in patients with early stage gastric cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 41:268-275 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although identification of lymph node (LN) metastasis is a well-recognized strategy for improving outcomes in patients with gastric cancer (GC), currently there is lack of availability of adequate molecular biomarkers that can identify such metastasis. Herein we have developed a robust gene-expression signature for detecting LN metastasis in early stage GC by using a transcriptome-wide biomarker discovery and subsequent validation in multiple clinical cohorts.
METHODS: A total of 532 patients with pathological T1 and T2 GC from 4 different cohorts were analyzed. Two independent datasets (n = 96, and n = 188) were used to establish a gene signature for the identification of LN metastasis in GC patients. The diagnostic performance of our gene-expression signature was subsequently assessed in two independent clinical cohorts using qRT-PCR assays (n = 101, and n = 147), and subsequently compared against conventional tumor markers and image-based diagnostics.
FINDINGS: We established a 15-gene signature by analyzing multiple high throughput datasets, which robustly distinguished LN status in both training (AUC = 0.765, 95% CI 0.667-0.863) and validation cohorts (AUC = 0.742, 95% CI 0.630-0.852). Notably, the 15-gene signature was significantly superior compared to the conventional tumor markers, CEA (P = .04) and CA19-9 (P = .005), as well as computed tomography-based imaging (P = .04).
INTERPRETATION: We have established and validated a 15-gene signature for detecting LN metastasis in GC patients, which offers a robust diagnostic tool for potentially improving treatment outcomes in gastric cancer patients. FUND: NIH: CA72851, CA181572, CA14792, CA202797, CA187956; CPRIT: RP140784: Baylor Sammons Cancer Center polot grants (AG), VPRT: 9610337, CityU 21101115, 11102317, 11103718; JCYJ20170307091256048 (XW).

Li S, Cao L, Wang X, et al.
Neuron-Specific Enolase Is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Resected Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients with Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Gene Rearrangements.
Med Sci Monit. 2019; 25:675-690 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND An extensive body of research reveals the clinical value of serum tumor markers in lung cancer patients, including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA), cytokeratin-19 fragments (Cyfra21-1), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), but little is known about the clinical properties of these serum tumor markers in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive lung cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively analyzed 54 patients harboring ALK rearrangements and 520 patients without ALK rearrangements, and all these patients were treated exclusively by surgery between 2011 and 2016. RESULTS NSE level (P=0.007 for OS) was identified as an independent prognostic factor among patients with resected ALK-positive adenocarcinoma of the lung. CONCLUSIONS A high level of NSE is associated with worse outcome among resected lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring ALK rearrangements.

Desjobert C, Carrier A, Delmas A, et al.
Demethylation by low-dose 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine impairs 3D melanoma invasion partially through miR-199a-3p expression revealing the role of this miR in melanoma.
Clin Epigenetics. 2019; 11(1):9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Efficient treatments against metastatic melanoma dissemination are still lacking. Here, we report that low-cytotoxic concentrations of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a DNA demethylating agent, prevent in vitro 3D invasiveness of metastatic melanoma cells and reduce lung metastasis formation in vivo.
RESULTS: We unravelled that this beneficial effect is in part due to MIR-199A2 re-expression by promoter demethylation. Alone, this miR showed an anti-invasive and anti-metastatic effect. Throughout integration of micro-RNA target prediction databases with transcriptomic analysis after 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatments, we found that miR-199a-3p downregulates set of genes significantly involved in invasion/migration processes. In addition, analysis of data from melanoma patients showed a stage- and tissue type-dependent modulation of MIR-199A2 expression by DNA methylation.
CONCLUSIONS: Thus, our data suggest that epigenetic- and/or miR-based therapeutic strategies can be relevant to limit metastatic dissemination of melanoma.

Gao XH, Yu GY, Hong YG, et al.
Clinical significance of multiple gene detection with a 22-gene panel in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of 207 colorectal cancer patients.
Int J Clin Oncol. 2019; 24(2):141-152 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Simultaneous detection of multiple molecular biomarkers is helpful in the prediction of treatment response and prognosis for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients.
METHODS: A 22-gene panel consisting of 103 hotspot regions was utilized in the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples of 207 CRC patients, using the next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based multiplex PCR technique. Those 22 genes included AKT1, ALK, BRAF, CTNNB1, DDR2, EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB4, FBXW7, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, KRAS, MAP2K1, MET, NOTCH1, NRAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, SMAD4, STK11, and TP53.
RESULTS: Of the 207 patients, 193 had one or more variants, with 170, 20, and 3 having one, two, and three mutated genes, respectively. Of the total 414 variants identified in this study, 384, 25, and 5 were single-nucleotide variants, deletion, and insertion. The top four frequently mutated genes were TP53, KRAS, PIK3CA, and FBXW7. There was high consistency between the results of NGS-PCR technique and routine ARMS-PCR in KRAS and BRAF mutation detection. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that advanced TNM stage, elevated serum CEA, total variants number ≥ 2, AKT1 and PTEN mutation were independent predictors of shorter DFS; poor differentiation, advanced TNM stage, total variants number ≥ 2, BRAF, CTNNB1 and NRAS mutation were independent predictors of shorter OS.
CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to detect multiple gene mutations with a 22-gene panel in FFPE CRC specimens. TNM stage and total variants number ≥ 2 were independent predictors of DFS and OS. Detection of multiple gene mutations may provide additional prognostic information to TNM stage in CRC patients.

Bayard Q, Meunier L, Peneau C, et al.
Cyclin A2/E1 activation defines a hepatocellular carcinoma subclass with a rearrangement signature of replication stress.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):5235 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cyclins A2 and E1 regulate the cell cycle by promoting S phase entry and progression. Here, we identify a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) subgroup exhibiting cyclin activation through various mechanisms including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) insertions, enhancer hijacking and recurrent CCNA2 fusions. Cyclin A2 or E1 alterations define a homogenous entity of aggressive HCC, mostly developed in non-cirrhotic patients, characterized by a transcriptional activation of E2F and ATR pathways and a high frequency of RB1 and PTEN inactivation. Cyclin-driven HCC display a unique signature of structural rearrangements with hundreds of tandem duplications and templated insertions frequently activating TERT promoter. These rearrangements, strongly enriched in early-replicated active chromatin regions, are consistent with a break-induced replication mechanism. Pan-cancer analysis reveals a similar signature in BRCA1-mutated breast and ovarian cancers. Together, this analysis reveals a new poor prognosis HCC entity and a rearrangement signature related to replication stress.

Lao Y, Li Q, Li N, et al.
Long noncoding RNA ENST00000455974 plays an oncogenic role through up-regulating JAG2 in human DNA mismatch repair-proficient colon cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2019; 508(2):339-347 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA mismatch repair-proficient colon cancer is the most common type of colon cancer, but its initiation and progression are still unknown. Our previous study has revealed that a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) ENST00000455974 was significantly associated with TNM stage and distant metastasis in patients with DNA mismatch repair-proficient (pMMR) colon cancer (CC). Here, firstly, we observed that ENST00000455974 was gradual increased across colon normal-adenoma-carcinoma-metastasis sequence by quantitative real-time PCR. Secondly, ENST00000455974 showed a better sensitivity and specificity than CEA and CA19-9 in the diagnosis of pMMR CC by drawing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Thirdly, a higher level of ENST00000455974 was associated with a poorer patient survival. Furthermore, Knockdown of ENST00000455974 led to reduced proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells. Mechanistically, ENST00000455974 was mainly located in the nucleus of colon cancer cells and it promoted the growth and metastasis of pMMR CC cells through up-regulating JAG2.

Jardillier R, Chatelain F, Guyon L
Bioinformatics Methods to Select Prognostic Biomarker Genes from Large Scale Datasets: A Review.
Biotechnol J. 2018; 13(12):e1800103 [PubMed] Related Publications
With the increased availability of survival datasets, that comprise both molecular information (e.g., gene expression), and clinical information (e.g., patient survival), numerous genes are proposed as prognostic biomarkers. Despite efforts and money invested, very few of these biomarkers have been clinically validated and are used routinely. A high false discovery rate is assumed to be largely responsible for this, in particular as the number of tested genes is extremely high relative to the number of patients followed. Here, after describing the historical methodologies on which recent developments have often been based, this review describes studies that have been performed in the last few years. The concepts will be illustrated for a renal cancer dataset, and the corresponding scripts are provided (Supporting Information). These new developments belong to three main fields of applications. First, variable selection concerns various improvements to lasso penalization. Second, accurate definition of p-values and control of the false discovery rate have also been the subject of many studies. Third, the incorporation of biological knowledge, often through the form of networks or pathways, can be used as an a priori and/or to reduce dimensionality. These new and promising developments deserve benchmarking by independent groups not involved in their development, with various independent datasets. Further work on the methodologies is also still required.

González-Torres A, Bañuelos-Villegas EG, Martínez-Acuña N, et al.
MYPT1 is targeted by miR-145 inhibiting viability, migration and invasion in 2D and 3D HeLa cultures.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 507(1-4):348-354 [PubMed] Related Publications
The miR-143/145 cluster is down-regulated in cervical tumor cells suggesting a role in tumorigenesis including cytoskeleton remodeling, a key event for tumor progression. The aim of the present work was to determine the role of miR-143/145 in the modulation of the myosin regulator phospho-myosin light chain (pMLC). HeLa monolayer and tridimensional cultures were transfected with miR-143 or miR-145 mimics inhibiting cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion, mainly through miR-145. MiR-145 transfection increased pMLC levels by targeting the MYPT1 subunit of the regulatory myosin phosphatase. MYPT1 knockdown by siRNAs reproduced miR-145 effects suggesting miR-145 as a tumor suppressor through MYPT1 targeting, leading to a subsequent increase of pMLC levels with implications for cervical cell viability, migration and invasion.

Castel D, Philippe C, Kergrohen T, et al.
Transcriptomic and epigenetic profiling of 'diffuse midline gliomas, H3 K27M-mutant' discriminate two subgroups based on the type of histone H3 mutated and not supratentorial or infratentorial location.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2018; 6(1):117 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Diffuse midline glioma (DMG), H3 K27M-mutant, is a new entity in the updated WHO classification grouping together diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas and infiltrating glial neoplasms of the midline harboring the same canonical mutation at the Lysine 27 of the histones H3 tail.Two hundred and fifteen patients younger than 18 years old with centrally-reviewed pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG) were included in this study. Comprehensive transcriptomic (n = 140) and methylation (n = 80) profiling was performed depending on the material available, in order to assess the biological uniqueness of this new entity compared to other midline and hemispheric pHGG.Tumor classification based on gene expression (GE) data highlighted the similarity of K27M DMG independently of their location along the midline. T-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (tSNE) analysis of methylation profiling confirms the discrimination of DMG from other well defined supratentorial tumor subgroups. Patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) and thalamic DMG exhibited a similarly poor prognosis (11.1 and 10.8 months median overall survival, respectively). Interestingly, H3.1-K27M and H3.3-K27M primary tumor samples could be distinguished based both on their GE and DNA methylation profiles, suggesting that they might arise from a different precursor or from a different epigenetic reorganization.These differences in DNA methylation profiles were conserved in glioma stem-like cell culture models of DIPG which mimicked their corresponding primary tumor. ChIP-seq profiling of H3K27me3 in these models indicate that H3.3-K27M mutated DIPG stem cells exhibit higher levels of H3K27 trimethylation which are correlated with fewer genes expressed by RNAseq. When considering the global distribution of the H3K27me3 mark, we observed that intergenic regions were more trimethylated in the H3.3-K27M mutated cells compared to the H3.1-K27M mutated ones.H3 K27M-mutant DMG represent a homogenous group of neoplasms compared to other pediatric gliomas that could be further separated based on the type of histone H3 variant mutated and their respective epigenetic landscapes. As these characteristics drive different phenotypes, these findings may have important implication for the design of future trials in these specific types of neoplasms.

Lee CH, Im EJ, Moon PG, Baek MC
Discovery of a diagnostic biomarker for colon cancer through proteomic profiling of small extracellular vesicles.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1058 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Small extracellular vesicles (small-EVs) are membranous vesicles that contain unique information regarding the condition of cells and contribute to the recruitment and reprogramming of components associated with the tumor environment. Therefore, many researchers have suggested that small-EV proteins are potential biomarkers for diseases such as cancer. Colon cancer (CC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Biomarkers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) show low sensitivity (~ 40%), and thus the demand for novel biomarkers for CC diagnosis is increasing.
METHODS: In this study, we identified biomarkers for diagnosing CC through proteomic analysis of small-EVs from CC cell lines. These small-EVs were characterized by western blot analysis, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and transmission electron microscopy and analyzed using mass spectrometry.
RESULTS: Five selected proteins were found to be upregulated in CC by western blot analysis. Among the candidate proteins, tetraspanin 1 (TSPAN1) was found to be upregulated in plasma EVs from CC patients compared to those from healthy controls (HCs) with 75.7% sensitivity.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that TSPAN1 is a potent non-invasive biomarker for CC detection. Our experimental strategy provides useful insights into the identification of cancer-specific non-invasive biomarkers.

Schüler-Toprak S, Weber F, Skrzypczak M, et al.
Estrogen receptor β is associated with expression of cancer associated genes and survival in ovarian cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):981 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In ovarian cancer, the role of estrogen receptors (ERs), particularly of ERβ, being suggested as tumor suppressor in breast and prostate cancer, remains unclear. We examined the expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic ERβ in ovarian cancer and correlated it with expression of ovarian cancer markers CA125, CEA and CA72-4, steroid hormone receptors ERα and PR, cancer-associated genes EGFR, p53, HER2 and proliferation marker Ki-67. Additionally we examined to what extent expression of ERβ and the other proteins affects survival of ovarian cancer patients.
METHODS: We established a tissue microarray from 171 ovarian cancer patients and performed immunohistochemical analyses of the mentioned proteins.
RESULTS: Nuclear ERβ was detected in 47.31% of the ovarian cancer tissues and cytoplasmic expression of this receptor was observed in 23.08%. Nuclear expression of ERβ was significantly decreased in the G3 subgroup compared to better differentiated cancers (p <  0.01) and correlated with ovarian cancer markers CEA (95% CI 0.1598-0.4465; p <  0.0001) and CA72-4 (95% CI 0.05953-0.3616; p <  0.01). Cytoplasmic ERβ expression correlated with EGFR levels (95% CI 0.1059-0.4049; p <  0.001). ERα expression was associated with expression of CA125 and PR. Overall survival of patients with tumors expressing cytoplasmic ERβ was significant longer compared to those with ERβ-negative ovarian cancer (chi-square statistic of the log-rank, p < 0.05). Progression-free survival was dependent on expression of PR (chi-square statistic of the log-rank, p < 0.05) and Ki-67 (p = 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest an important, but distinct role of nuclear and cytoplasmic ERβ expression in ovarian cancer and encourage further studies on its role in this cancer entity.

Pan Q, Law COK, Yung MMH, et al.
Novel RNA aptamers targeting gastrointestinal cancer biomarkers CEA, CA50 and CA72-4 with superior affinity and specificity.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(10):e0198980 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer is the third most common cause of death from cancer in the world and it remains difficult to cure in Western countries, primarily because most patients present with advanced disease. Currently, CEA, CA50 and CA72-4 are commonly used as tumor markers for gastric cancer by immunoassays. However, the drawback and conundrum of immunoassay are the unceasing problem in standardization of quality of antibodies and time/effort for the intensive production. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of a standardized assay to detect gastric cancer at the early stage. Aptamers are DNA or RNA oligonucleotides with structural domain which recognize ligands such as proteins with superior affinity and specificity when compared to antibodies. In this study, SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment) technique was adopted to screen a random 30mer RNA library for aptamers targeting CEA, CA50 and CA72-4 respectively. Combined with high-throughput sequencing, we identified 6 aptamers which specifically target for these three biomarkers of gastrointestinal cancer. Intriguingly, the predicted secondary structures of RNA aptamers from each antigen showed significant structural similarity, suggesting the structural recognition between the aptamers and the antigens. Moreover, we determined the dissociation constants of all the aptamers to their corresponding antigens by fluorescence spectroscopy, which further demonstrated high affinities between the aptamers and the antigens. In addition, immunostaining of gastric adenocarcinoma cell line AGS using CEA Aptamer probe showed positive fluorescent signal which proves the potential of the aptamer as a detection tool for gastric cancer. Furthermore, substantially decreased cell viability and growth were observed when human colorectal cell line LS-174T was transfected with each individual aptamers. Taking together, these novel RNA aptamers targeting gastrointestinal cancer biomarker CEA, CA50 and CA72-4 will aid further development and standardization of clinical diagnostic method with better sensitivity and specificity, and potentially future therapeutics development of gastric cancer.

Girard E, Eon-Marchais S, Olaso R, et al.
Familial breast cancer and DNA repair genes: Insights into known and novel susceptibility genes from the GENESIS study, and implications for multigene panel testing.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(8):1962-1974 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 only explain the underlying genetic cause of about 10% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families. Because of cost-effectiveness, multigene panel testing is often performed even if the clinical utility of testing most of the genes remains questionable. The purpose of our study was to assess the contribution of rare, deleterious-predicted variants in DNA repair genes in familial breast cancer (BC) in a well-characterized and homogeneous population. We analyzed 113 DNA repair genes selected from either an exome sequencing or a candidate gene approach in the GENESIS study, which includes familial BC cases with no BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and having a sister with BC (N = 1,207), and general population controls (N = 1,199). Sequencing data were filtered for rare loss-of-function variants (LoF) and likely deleterious missense variants (MV). We confirmed associations between LoF and MV in PALB2, ATM and CHEK2 and BC occurrence. We also identified for the first time associations between FANCI, MAST1, POLH and RTEL1 and BC susceptibility. Unlike other associated genes, carriers of an ATM LoF had a significantly higher risk of developing BC than carriers of an ATM MV (OR

Sarun KH, Lee K, Williams M, et al.
Genomic Deletion of
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a deadly cancer that is caused by asbestos exposure and that has limited treatment options. The current standard of MPM diagnosis requires the testing of multiple immunohistochemical (IHC) markers on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue to differentiate MPM from other lung malignancies. To date, no single biomarker exists for definitive diagnosis of MPM due to the lack of specificity and sensitivity; therefore, there is ongoing research and development in order to identify alternative biomarkers for this purpose. In this study, we utilized primary MPM cell lines and tested the expression of clinically used biomarker panels, including CK8/18, Calretinin, CK 5/6, CD141, HBME-1, WT-1, D2-40, EMA, CEA, TAG72, BG8, CD15, TTF-1, BAP1, and Ber-Ep4. The genomic alteration of

Li N, Jilisihan B, Wang W, et al.
Soluble LAG3 acts as a potential prognostic marker of gastric cancer and its positive correlation with CD8+T cell frequency and secretion of IL-12 and INF-γ in peripheral blood.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 23(3):341-351 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Gastric cancer (GC) is the second most common lethal cancer worldwide and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3) as a therapeutic target for cancers has been investigated. Herein, our study is to clarify the value of peripheral blood (PB) soluble LAG-3 (sLAG3) in GC.
METHODS: Peripheral serum samples of GC patients and healthy people were collected for the measurement of serum levels of sLAG3, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), IL-12 and IFN-γ. Additionally, ROC and Kaplan-Meier curves were adopted to identify the diagnostic and prognostic values of sLAG-3 in patients with GC. Then, GC-bearing mice were treated with recombinant sLAG3. The tumor volume was measured, and CD8+T cell frequency was detected in PB and tumor-ininfiltrating area. Additionally, the expression of IL-12 and IFN-γ in T cells was assayed and the overall survival of mice was analyzed.
RESULTS: sLAG3 in PB was poorly expressed and its expression was positively correlated with IL-12 and IFN-γ expression in GC patients. sLAG3 was proved to have a higher diagnostic value than CEA in GC. Moreover, high sLAG-3 expression is found in relation to a better prognosis in GC. The in vivo experiments indicated that sLAG-3 might inhibit the tumor growth, and promote the secretion of CD8+T cells, IL-12 and IFN-γ. Furthermore, sLAG-3 was able to prolong overall survival and increase survival rate of GC-bearing mice.
CONCLUSION: Based on these findings, we conclude that sLAG3 positively regulates CD8+T cells, IL-12 and IFN-γ, and function as a prognostic marker for GC, which might be a potential target in the treatment of GC.

Zhang W, Jia S, Xiang Y, et al.
Factors associated with misdiagnosis of frozen section of mucinous borderline ovarian tumor.
J Int Med Res. 2019; 47(1):96-104 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of frozen section (FS) of mucinous borderline ovarian tumors (mBOTs) and the diagnostic value of various risk factors for misdiagnosis.
METHODS: Patients with either an FS or permanent pathologic diagnosis of mBOT were included. Optimum cut-off values for serum tumor markers and maximal tumor diameter were determined, and risk factors for underdiagnosis of mucinous malignant ovarian tumors (mMOTs) were evaluated. The sensitivity, specificity, Youden's index, and diagnostic odds ratio of the risk factors were assessed to determine their diagnostic value for mMOTs.
RESULTS: Of 121 included patients, 97 were diagnosed with mBOTs by FS. Relatively abnormal cancer antigen 125 (CA125), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels; bilateral tumors; and specific pathological features showed significant associations with underdiagnosis of mMOTs in the univariate analysis. The presence of specific pathological features was the only significant risk factor in the multivariate analysis. The CA125, CA19-9, and CEA levels and specific pathological features demonstrated certain diagnostic value in detecting malignant cases among FS-diagnosed mBOTs.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with FS-diagnosed mBOT, significant predictors of malignancy were relatively higher CA125, CA19-9, and CEA levels; bilateral tumors; and tumors with specific pathological features.

Vulin A, Sedkaoui M, Moratille S, et al.
Severe PATCHED1 Deficiency in Cancer-Prone Gorlin Patient Cells Results in Intrinsic Radiosensitivity.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018; 102(2):417-425 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Gorlin syndrome (or basal-cell nevus syndrome) is a cancer-prone genetic disease in which hypersusceptibility to secondary cancer and tissue reaction after radiation therapy is debated, as is increased radiosensitivity at cellular level. Gorlin syndrome results from heterozygous mutations in the PTCH1 gene for 60% of patients, and we therefore aimed to highlight correlations between intrinsic radiosensitivity and PTCH1 gene expression in fibroblasts from adult patients with Gorlin syndrome.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: The radiosensitivity of fibroblasts from 6 patients with Gorlin syndrome was determined by cell-survival assay after high (0.5-3.5 Gy) and low (50-250 mGy) γ-ray doses. PTCH1 and DNA damage response gene expression was characterized by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. DNA damage and repair were investigated by γH2AX and 53BP1 foci assay. PTCH1 knockdown was performed in cells from healthy donors by using stable RNA interference. Gorlin cells were genotyped by 2 complementary sequencing methods.
RESULTS: Only cells from patients with Gorlin syndrome who presented severe deficiency in PATCHED1 protein exhibited a significant increase in cellular radiosensitivity, affecting cell responses to both high and low radiation doses. For 2 of the radiosensitive cell strains, heterozygous mutations in the 5' end of PTCH1 gene explain PATCHED1 protein deficiency. In all sensitive cells, DNA damage response pathways (ATM, CHK2, and P53 levels and activation by phosphorylation) were deregulated after irradiation, whereas DSB repair recognition was unimpaired. Furthermore, normal cells with RNA interference-mediated PTCH1 deficiency showed reduced survival after irradiation, directly linking this gene to high- and low-dose radiosensitivity.
CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we show an inverse correlation between PTCH1 expression level and cellular radiosensitivity, suggesting an explanation for the conflicting results previously reported for Gorlin syndrome and possibly providing a basis for prognostic screens for radiosensitive patients with Gorlin syndrome and PTCH1 mutations.

Wu X, Kabalane H, Kahli M, et al.
Developmental and cancer-associated plasticity of DNA replication preferentially targets GC-poor, lowly expressed and late-replicating regions.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(19):10157-10172 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The spatiotemporal program of metazoan DNA replication is regulated during development and altered in cancers. We have generated novel OK-seq, Repli-seq and RNA-seq data to compare the DNA replication and gene expression programs of twelve cancer and non-cancer human cell types. Changes in replication fork directionality (RFD) determined by OK-seq are widespread but more frequent within GC-poor isochores and largely disconnected from transcription changes. Cancer cell RFD profiles cluster with non-cancer cells of similar developmental origin but not with different cancer types. Importantly, recurrent RFD changes are detected in specific tumour progression pathways. Using a model for establishment and early progression of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), we identify 1027 replication initiation zones (IZs) that progressively change efficiency during long-term expression of the BCR-ABL1 oncogene, being twice more often downregulated than upregulated. Prolonged expression of BCR-ABL1 results in targeting of new IZs and accentuation of previous efficiency changes. Targeted IZs are predominantly located in GC-poor, late replicating gene deserts and frequently silenced in late CML. Prolonged expression of BCR-ABL1 results in massive deletion of GC-poor, late replicating DNA sequences enriched in origin silencing events. We conclude that BCR-ABL1 expression progressively affects replication and stability of GC-poor, late-replicating regions during CML progression.

Bhangu JS, Beer A, Mittlböck M, et al.
Circulating Free Methylated Tumor DNA Markers for Sensitive Assessment of Tumor Burden and Early Response Monitoring in Patients Receiving Systemic Chemotherapy for Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastasis.
Ann Surg. 2018; 268(5):894-902 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (neoCTx) followed by hepatic resection is the treatment of choice for patients with colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CLM). Treatment response is generally assessed using radiologic imaging after several cycles of chemotherapy. However, earlier assessment of response would be desirable since nonresponders could be switched early to an alternative chemotherapy regimen. Recent evidence suggests that circulating free methylated tumor DNA is a highly sensitive biomarker and may more accurately reflect tumor burden and treatment response than conventional markers for CRC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients with CLM who received neoCTx prior to intended hepatic resection were included in this prospective nonrandomized study. Peripheral blood plasma was collected at baseline and before each cycle of neoCTx and was then analyzed for aberrant methylation of 48 CRC-associated genes. Methylation marker levels were correlated with baseline tumor volume and treatment response and compared with the standard tumor markers CEA and CA 19-9.
RESULTS: The methylation markers SEPT9, DCC, BOLL, and SFRP2 were present in all patients at baseline and displayed a stronger correlation with tumor volume than CEA and CA 19-9. Serial measurement of these methylation markers allowed for discrimination between operated and nonoperated patients already after 1 cycle of neoCTx with high sensitivity and specificity. The early dynamic changes of SEPT9 and DCC also seemed to correlate with pathohistological response.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that serial measurements of CRC-associated methylation markers could be a particularly valuable tool for early response assessment in patients receiving neoCTx for CLM.

Shiozawa M, Chang CH, Huang YC, et al.
Pharmacologically upregulated carcinoembryonic antigen-expression enhances the cytolytic activity of genetically-modified chimeric antigen receptor NK-92MI against colorectal cancer cells.
BMC Immunol. 2018; 19(1):27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The natural killer cell line, NK-92MI, is cytotoxic against various types of cancer. The aim of this study was to develop chimeric antigen receptor-modified (CAR) NK-92MI cells targeting carcinoembryonic antigen-expressing (CEA) tumours and increase killing efficacy by pharmacologically modifying CEA-expression.
RESULT: We generated anti-CEA-CAR NK-92MI cells by retroviral vector transduction. This genetically-modified cell line recognised and lysed high CEA-expressing tumour cell lines (LS174T) at 47.54 ± 12.60% and moderate CEA-expressing tumour cell lines (WiDr) at 31.14 ± 16.92% at a 5:1 effector: target (E/T) ratio. The cell line did not lyse low CEA-expressing tumour cells (HCT116) as they did their parental cells (NK-92MI cells). The histone deacetylase-inhibitor (HDAC) sodium butyrate (NaB) and the methylation-inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-AZA), as epigenetic modifiers, induced CEA-expression in HCT116 and WiDr cells. Although the IC
CONCLUSIONS: This data indicates that the effector-ability of anti-CEA-CAR NK-92MI increased in a CEA-dependent manner. The combination of epigenetic-modifiers like HDAC-inhibitors, methylation-inhibitors, and adoptive-transfer of ex vivo-expanded allogeneic-NK cells may be clinically applicable to patients with in 5-FU resistant condition.

Norouzi Z, Salimi A, Halabian R, Fahimi H
Nisin, a potent bacteriocin and anti-bacterial peptide, attenuates expression of metastatic genes in colorectal cancer cell lines.
Microb Pathog. 2018; 123:183-189 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the world which genetic and environmental agents are responsible for cancer. When cells detach from the tumor and invade surrounding tissues, the tumor is malignant and may form secondary tumors at other locations in a process called metastasis. Probiotics are the largest group of inhabitation bacteria in the colon. Gut microbiota has a central role in prevented the risk colon cancer. Probiotics are beneficial microorganisms, like Lactic acid bacteria and Lactobacilli bacteria which are using in the dairy industry. Probiotics nisin are having the most important category of safe usage. In this study LS180, SW48, HT29 and Caco2 was cultured and treated with different dose of nisin. Cell proliferation was assayed with MTT. The expression of CEA, CEAM6 and MMP2F genes was analyzed with Real-time PCR. Protein expression of CEA was evacuated with ELISA. Our result was shown that the 40-50 IU/mL nisin could suppress proliferation of LS180. Cell proliferation of SW48, HT29, Caco2 cells was decreased in 250-350 IU/mL concentration of nisin. The gene expression of CEA, CEAM6, MMP2F was significantly down-regulated with nisin treatment (p < 0.001, p < 0.01). Also, after cells treated with nisin, CEA protein expression was down regulated (p < 0.01). In conclusion, nisin could suppressed metastatic process via down-regulation of CEA, CEAM6, MMP2F, MMP9F genes. We suggested the new treatment strategies beyond Probiotics, which play a role in the prevention local tumor invasion, metastasis and recurrence.

Li Q, Li Y, Li J, et al.
FBW7 suppresses metastasis of colorectal cancer by inhibiting HIF1α/CEACAM5 functional axis.
Int J Biol Sci. 2018; 14(7):726-735 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBW7) functions as a major tumor suppressor by targeting oncoproteins for degradations. FBW7 has been reported to be one of the most frequently mutated genes in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its roles and possible mechanisms in the development of CRC are still unclear. In the present study, we adopted immunohistochemistry staining in tissue microarray (TMA), consisting of 276 samples from stage I-IV CRC patients, and analyzed the correlation between FBW7 expression and clinicopathological parameters, as well as overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). The impact of FBW7 on migration was further validated

Al-Salameh A, Baudry C, Cohen R
Update on multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 1 and 2.
Presse Med. 2018; 47(9):722-731 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is a rare genetic syndrome, characterized by the co-occurrence, in the same individual or in related individuals of the same family, of hyperparathyroidism, duodenopancraetic neuroendocrine tumors, pituitary adenomas, adrenocortical tumors, and neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids) in the thymus, the bronchi, or the stomach. Multiple endocrine neoplastic type 2 is a rare genetic syndrome, characterized by the familial occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma either isolated or associated with pheochromocytoma, primary hyperparathyroidism, or typical features (Marfanoid habitus, mucosal neuromas). Subjects with clinical MEN1 and those who carry a mutation in the MEN1 gene should be offered biochemical and imaging screening in order to detect tumors and evaluate their progression over time. Children with mutation in the RET gene should have prophylactic total thyroidectomy according to the category of aggressiveness of the detected mutation whereas those with clinical MEN2 should be operated on upon diagnosis. In MEN1 patients, special attention should be paid to evaluate the progression duodenopancraetic neuroendocrine tumors because of their malignant potential. Also, thymic neuroendocrine tumors should be detected as soon as possible because they represent the most lethal tumor. In MEN2, calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) serve as excellent tumor markers for medullary thyroid carcinoma. Their preoperative levels are correlated with tumor size and predict postoperative cure. Moreover, calcitonin or CEA doubling time has important prognostic value. In both MEN syndromes, multidisciplinary approaches are very important in the care of affected patients. Moreover, those patients should be comprehensively informed and enabled to participate in the decision-making procedure. In addition to multidisciplinary approaches, every effort should be made to follow the recommendations and guidelines issued by national (the French Group of Endocrine Tumors) and international groups.

Bonaventure A, Orsi L, Rudant J, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms of Th2 interleukins, history of asthma or eczema and childhood acute lymphoid leukaemia: Findings from the ESCALE study (SFCE).
Cancer Epidemiol. 2018; 55:96-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the putative role of allergy in the aetiology of childhood leukaemia have reported contradictory results. The present study aimed to analyse the relation between a medical history of asthma or eczema and childhood acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL) in light of potential candidate gene-environment interactions.
METHODS: Analyses were based on a subset of 434 cases of ALL and 442 controls successfully genotyped and of European ancestry children enrolled in a French population-based case-control study conducted in 2003-2004. Information about medical history was obtained during a standardized interview with the mothers. Candidate polymorphisms in genes of the Th2 cytokines IL4, IL10, IL13 and IL4-receptor, were genotyped or imputed.
RESULTS: None of the variant alleles were directly associated with childhood acute lymphoid leukaemia. A medical history of asthma or eczema was reported more often in the control group (OR = 0.7 [0.5-1.0]). This association was mostly seen in the group of children not carrying the IL13-rs20541 variant allele (Interaction Odds Ratio IOR 1.9, p-interaction = 0.07) and in those carrying the IL10 triple variant haplotype (IOR 0.5, p-interaction = 0.04). No interaction was observed with the candidate polymorphisms in IL4 and IL4R.
CONCLUSION: This study provides a new insight into the relationship between allergic symptoms and childhood acute lymphoid leukaemia, by suggesting this inverse association could be limited to children carrying certain genetic polymorphisms. If confirmed, these results could help better understand the biological mechanisms involved in the development of childhood acute lymphoid leukaemia.

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