Gene Summary

Gene:TIMP1; TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1
Summary:This gene belongs to the TIMP gene family. The proteins encoded by this gene family are natural inhibitors of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a group of peptidases involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix. In addition to its inhibitory role against most of the known MMPs, the encoded protein is able to promote cell proliferation in a wide range of cell types, and may also have an anti-apoptotic function. Transcription of this gene is highly inducible in response to many cytokines and hormones. In addition, the expression from some but not all inactive X chromosomes suggests that this gene inactivation is polymorphic in human females. This gene is located within intron 6 of the synapsin I gene and is transcribed in the opposite direction. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:metalloproteinase inhibitor 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (21)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TIMP1 (cancer-related)

Afshar E, Hashemi-Arabi M, Salami S, et al.
Screening of acetaminophen-induced alterations in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-related expression of microRNAs in a model of stem-like triple-negative breast cancer cells: The possible functional impacts.
Gene. 2019; 702:46-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Current protocols for therapy inefficiently targets triple negative breast cancer and barely eradicate cancer stem cells. Elucidation of the pleiotropic effect of clinically proven therapeutics on cancer cells shed light on novel application of old friends. The pleiotropic effect of acetaminophen (APAP) on breast cancer was previously reported. In a cell model of triple negative breast cancer with stem-like CD44

Guo H, Sun Z, Wei J, et al.
Expressions of Matrix Metalloproteinases-9 and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 in Pituitary Adenomas and Their Relationships with Prognosis.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2019; 34(1):1-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in pituitary adenomas (PAs), and to analyze the relationship of the expressions of the two with the prognosis of patients.
METHODS: A total of 108 patients with PAs diagnosed in our hospital from May 2010 to May 2012 were selected and divided into the invasive PA (IPA) group (n = 58) and the non-IPA group (n = 50) according to the invasiveness of PAs. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to observe the pathological state of patients. The expression levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were measured by immunohistochemistry and western blotting at protein level and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction at gene level, respectively. The expression levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in serum of patients before operation were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and patients with PAs after operation were followed up.
RESULT: The positive expression rate of MMP-9 in IPAs was significantly higher than that in non-IPAs, whereas that of TIMP-1 was relatively high in non-IPAs, and the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). At both protein and gene levels, MMP-9 was highly expressed in IPAs, whereas TIMP-1 was highly expressed in non-IPAs, and the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05 in all comparisons). Before operation, the expression level of MMP-9 in serum of patients with IPAs was relatively high, whereas that of TIMP-1 in serum of patients with non-IPAs was relatively high, and the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05 in all comparisons).
CONCLUSION: The postoperative survival rate of patients with highly expressed MMP-9 was relatively low, whereas that of patients with highly expressed TIMP-1 was relatively high. The abnormal expressions of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 play important roles in the invasion process of PAs. The prognoses of patients with low expression MMP-9 and high expression TIMP-1 are more positive.

Lv J, Guo L, Wang JH, et al.
Biomarker identification and trans-regulatory network analyses in esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett's esophagus.
World J Gastroenterol. 2019; 25(2):233-244 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is an aggressive disease with high mortality and an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 20%. Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the only known precursor of EAC, and patients with BE have a persistent and excessive risk of EAC over time. Individuals with BE are up to 30-125 times more likely to develop EAC than the general population. Thus, early detection of EAC and BE could significantly improve the 5-year survival rate of EAC. Due to the limitations of endoscopic surveillance and the lack of clinical risk stratification strategies, molecular biomarkers should be considered and thoroughly investigated.
AIM: To explore the transcriptome changes in the progression from normal esophagus (NE) to BE and EAC.
METHODS: Two datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) in NCBI Database (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/) were retrieved and used as a training and a test dataset separately, since NE, BE, and EAC samples were included and the sample sizes were adequate. This study identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using the R/Bioconductor project and constructed trans-regulatory networks based on the Transcriptional Regulatory Element Database and Cytoscape software. Enrichment of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) terms was identified using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) Bioinformatics Resources. The diagnostic potential of certain DEGs was assessed in both datasets.
RESULTS: In the GSE1420 dataset, the number of up-regulated DEGs was larger than that of down-regulated DEGs when comparing EAC
CONCLUSION: After the construction and analyses of the trans-regulatory networks in EAC and BE, the results indicate that COL1A1 and MMP1 could be potential biomarkers for EAC and BE, respectively.

Chen L, Lu D, Sun K, et al.
Identification of biomarkers associated with diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal cancer patients based on integrated bioinformatics analysis.
Gene. 2019; 692:119-125 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to identify potential diagnostic and prognostic gene biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) based on the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset.
METHODS: Microarray data of gene expression profiles of CRC from GEO and RNA-sequencing dataset of CRC from TCGA were downloaded. After screening overlapping differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by R software, functional enrichment analyses of the DEGs were performed using the DAVID database. Then, the STRING database and Cytoscape were used to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and identify hub genes. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were conducted to assess the diagnostic values of the hub genes. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to screen the potential prognostic genes. Kaplan-Meier curve and the time-dependent ROC curve were used to assess the prognostic values of the potential prognostic genes for CRC patients.
RESULTS: Integrated analysis of GEO and TCGA databases revealed 207 common DEGs in CRC. A PPI network consisted of 70 nodes and 170 edges were constructed and top 10 hub genes were identified. The area under curve (AUC) of the ROC curves of the hub genes were 0.900, 0.927, 0.869, 0.863, 0.980, 0.682, 0.903, 0.790, 0.995, and 0.989 for CCL19, CXCL1, CXCL5, CXCL11, CXCL12, GNG4, INSL5, NMU, PYY, and SST, respectively. A prognostic gene signature consisted of 9 genes including SLC4A4, NFE2L3, GLDN, PCOLCE2, TIMP1, CCL28, SCGB2A1, AXIN2, and MMP1 was constructed with a good performance in predicting overall survivals of CRC patients. The AUC of the time-dependent ROC curve was 0.741 for 5-year survival.
CONCLUSION: The results in this study might provide some directive significance for further exploring the potential biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis prediction of CRC patients.

Jiang B, Liu J, Lee MH
Targeting a Designer TIMP-1 to the Cell Surface for Effective MT1-MMP Inhibition: A Potential Role for the Prion Protein in Renal Carcinoma Therapy.
Molecules. 2019; 24(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Renal carcinoma cells express Membrane Type 1-Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, MMP-14) to degrade extracellular matrix components and a range of bioactive molecules to allow metastasis and cell proliferation. The activity of MT1-MMP is modulated by the endogenous inhibitors, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases (TIMPs). In this study, we describe a novel strategy that would enable a "designer" TIMP-1 tailored specifically for MT1-MMP inhibition (V4A/P6V/T98L;

Kochurova EV
Comparative Role of Matrixins in Diagnostics of Parotid Gland Tumors.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2019; 166(3):383-385 [PubMed] Related Publications
The benign and malignant neoplasms in parotid gland have similar clinical presentations despite different tumor growth rates. The study compared the clinical and morphological data as well as the results of ELISA for MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in salivary fluid yielded during primary examination of the patients with pleomorphic adenoma and adenocarcinoma of parotid gland. The examined biomarkers detected in salivary fluid in patients with various cancer types differed significantly (p≤0.05). The correlations between clinical identification of adenoma or adenocarcinoma, on the one hand, and the levels of MMP-8, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, on the other hand, makes it possible to use the latter as biomarkers for early detection and comprehensive noninvasive differential diagnostics of these neoplasms.

Abdullah ML, Hafez MM, Al-Hoshani A, Al-Shabanah O
Anti-metastatic and anti-proliferative activity of eugenol against triple negative and HER2 positive breast cancer cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018; 18(1):321 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Eugenol is a natural phenolic compound and possesses anticancer and antibacterial activities. Breast cancer is a major global health problem, and most of the chemotherapeutic agents are highly toxic with long-term side effects. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the possibility of using eugenol as an anti-metastatic and anti-proliferative agent against MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells.
METHODS: Breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 were treated with eugenol and cell proliferation was measured using a real-time cell electronic sensing system. Annexin V analysis with flow cytometry was used to detect the effect of eugenol on cell death. In MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells, metastatic potential after eugenol treatment was examined using a wound-healing assay. Real-time PCR was used to study the effect of eugenol on the expression of anti-metastatic genes such as MMP2, MMP9, and TIMP-1, and genes involved in apoptosis including Caspase3, Caspase7, and Caspase9.
RESULTS: Treatment with 4 μM and 8 μM eugenol for 48 h significantly inhibited cell proliferation of MDA-MB-231, with an inhibition rate of 76.4%, whereas 5 μM and 10 μM of eugenol for 48 h significantly inhibited the proliferation of SK-BR-3 cells with an inhibition rate of 68.1%. Eugenol-treated cells showed significantly decreased MMP2 and MMP9 expression and an insignificant increase in TIMP1 expression in HER2 positive and triple negative breast cancer cells. Eugenol significantly increased the proportion of MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells in late apoptosis and increased the expression of Caspase3, Caspase7, and Caspase9.
CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to describe the anti-metastatic effect of eugenol against MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell lines.

Lee YS, Lee CH, Bae JT, et al.
Inhibition of skin carcinogenesis by suppression of NF-κB dependent ITGAV and TIMP-1 expression in IL-32γ overexpressed condition.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):293 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-32 (IL-32) has been associated with various diseases. Previous studies have shown that IL-32 inhibited the development of several tumors. However, the role of IL-32γ, an isotype of IL-32, in skin carcinogenesis remains unknown.
METHODS: We compared 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (DMBA/TPA)-induced skin carcinogenesis in wild type (WT) and IL-32γ-overexpressing mice to evaluate the role of IL-32γ. We also analyzed cancer stemness and NF-κB signaling in skin cancer cell lines with or without IL-32γ expression by western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis.
RESULTS: Carcinogen-induced tumor incidence in IL-32γ mice was significantly reduced in comparison to that in WT mice. Infiltration of inflammatory cells and the expression levels of pro-inflammatory mediators were decreased in the skin tumor tissues of IL-32γ mice compared with WT mice. Using a genome-wide association study analysis, we found that IL-32 was associated with integrin αV (ITGAV) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), which are critical factor for skin carcinogenesis. Reduced expression of ITGAV and TIMP-1 were identified in DMBA/TPA-induced skin tissues of IL-32γ mice compared to that in WT mice. NF-κB activity was also reduced in DMBA/TPA-induced skin tissues of IL-32γ mice. IL-32γ decreased cancer cell sphere formation and expression of stem cell markers, and increased chemotherapy-induced cancer cell death. IL-32γ also downregulated expression of ITGAV and TIMP-1, accompanied with the inhibition of NF-κB activity. In addition, IL-32γ expression with NF-κB inhibitor treatment further reduced skin inflammation, epidermal hyperplasia, and cancer cell sphere formation and downregulated expression levels of ITGAV and TIMP-1.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that IL-32γ suppressed skin carcinogenesis through the inhibition of both stemness and the inflammatory tumor microenvironment by the downregulation of TIMP-1 and ITGAV via inactivation of NF-κB signaling.

Zhang K, Liu J, Li C, et al.
Identification and validation of potential target genes in papillary thyroid cancer.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2019; 843:217-225 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thyroid cancer (TC) is one of the most common endocrine malignancies, and the incidence of TC has almost tripled over the past three decades. This increase may partially own to overdiagnosis and approximately 15-30% of cytological indeterminate thyroid nodules cannot be evaluated by means of fine-needle aspiration. The present study aimed to identify potential crucial genes of PTC and provide new sights into improving the diagnosis of thyroid lesions for future study. We adopted an integrated analysis of Gene expression profiles of PTC patients and adjacent normal controls and data from The Cancer Genome Atlas databases (TCGA). The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using the Limma package in R software. Connectivity Map (CMap) was used to predict potential drugs for PTC. STRING and Cytoscape software were employed to perform GO, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and module analysis for DEGs. RT-qPCR was used to validate hub genes screened using module analysis. A total of 218 DEGs were screened, including 55 down-regulated and 163 up-regulated DEGs. GO analysis showed that these DEGs were primary enriched in cell adhesion, extracellular region and glycosaminoglycan binding. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that DEGs primarily participated in ECM-receptor interaction. PPI network and module analysis identified seven-hub genes, including FN1, SERPINA1, ECM1, MMRN1, PROS1, CFD, TIMP1. RT-qPCR results validated that the expression levels of seven-hub genes were consistent with the bioinformatics analysis. These findings have identified seven-hub genes which may helpful for the development of gene panel for thyroid nodules diagnosis.

Meng C, Yin X, Liu J, et al.
TIMP-1 is a novel serum biomarker for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0207039 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is a glycoprotein involved in cell survival and tumorigenesis. There have been some promising results regarding the diagnostic value of TIMP-1 for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of serum TIMP-1 in CRC patients through meta-analysis.
METHODS: A systematic search of online databases was performed to collect eligible studies. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and summary receiver operator characteristic (SROC) curve were generated from accuracy data using the random-effects model. Fagan's nomogram and the likelihood matrix were applied to estimate the clinical utility of TIMP-1.
RESULTS: A total of 9 eligible studies with 1886 patients were included. Among the patients, 819 were pathologically diagnosed with CRC, whereas 1067 did not have adenomas or other cancers. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and DOR of TIMP-1 for the diagnosis of CRC were 0.65 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-0.72), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.76-0.94), and 12.73 (95% CI 5.71-28.38), respectively. The area under the SROC was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.73-0.81), suggesting the potential diagnostic value of TIMP-1 in CRC patients. Among patients with a pretest CRC probability of 20%, posttest probabilities were 56% and 9% for positive and negative TIMP-1 results, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: TIMP-1 expression exhibits an upper moderate diagnostic value in CRC, and TIMP-1 assessment may be useful as a noninvasive screening tool for CRC in clinical practice.

Qiu J, Zhang W, Zang C, et al.
Identification of key genes and miRNAs markers of papillary thyroid cancer.
Biol Res. 2018; 51(1):45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: In this study, crucial genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with the progression, staging, and prognosis of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) were identified.
METHODS: Four PTC datasets, including our own mRNA-sequencing (mRNA-seq) dataset and three public datasets downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas, were used to analyze differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and miRNAs (DEMs) between PTC tumor tissues and paired normal tissues (control). Gene ontology (GO) terms and pathways associated with these DEGs were identified, and protein-protein interactions (PPIs) were analyzed. Additionally, an miRNA-mRNA regulatory network was constructed and the functions of DEMs were explored. Finally, miRNAs/mRNAs associated with tumor staging and prognosis were identified. The expression levels of several key genes and miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR.
RESULTS: Numerous DEGs and DEMs were identified between tumor and control groups in four datasets. The DEGs were significantly enriched in cell adhesion and cancer-related GO terms and pathways. In the constructed PPI network, ITGA2, FN1, ICAM1, TIMP1 and CDH2 were hub proteins. In the miRNA-mRNA negative regulatory networks, miR-204-5p regulated the largest number of target genes, such as TNFRSF12A. miR-146b, miR-204, miR-7-2, and FN1 were associated with tumor stage in PTC, and TNFRSF12A and CLDN1 were related to prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested the important roles of ITGA2, FN1, ICAM1, TIMP1 and CDH2 in the progression of PTC. miR-204-5p, miR-7-2, and miR-146b are potential biomarkers for PTC staging and FN1, CLDN1, and TNFRSF12A may serve as markers of prognosis in PTC.

Li CW, Chiu YK, Chen BS
Investigating Pathogenic and Hepatocarcinogenic Mechanisms from Normal Liver to HCC by Constructing Genetic and Epigenetic Networks via Big Genetic and Epigenetic Data Mining and Genome-Wide NGS Data Identification.
Dis Markers. 2018; 2018:8635329 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still high worldwide because liver diseases could develop into HCC. Recent reports indicate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD&NASH) and primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PBC&PSC) are significant of HCC. Therefore, understanding the cellular mechanisms of the pathogenesis and hepatocarcinogenesis from normal liver cells to HCC through NAFLD&NASH or PBC&PSC is a priority to prevent the progression of liver damage and reduce the risk of further complications. By the genetic and epigenetic data mining and the system identification through next-generation sequencing data and its corresponding DNA methylation profiles of liver cells in normal, NAFLD&NASH, PBC&PSC, and HCC patients, we identified the genome-wide real genetic and epigenetic networks (GENs) of normal, NAFLD&NASH, PBC&PSC, and HCC patients. In order to get valuable insight into these identified genome-wide GENs, we then applied a principal network projection method to extract the corresponding core GENs for normal liver cells, NAFLD&NASH, PBC&PSC, and HCC. By comparing the signal transduction pathways involved in the identified core GENs, we found that the hepatocarcinogenesis through NAFLD&NASH was induced through DNA methylation of

Ivanovic RF, Viana NI, Morais DR, et al.
miR-618: possible control over TIMP-1 and its expression in localized prostate cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):992 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The imbalance between the action of the tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is one component of metastasis physiology. TIMP-1 overrides MMP-9 activity in cancer and might be regulated by miR-618. The aims of this study were to clarify whether TIMP-1 expression is modified by miR-618 and to clarify the effect of miR-618 expression on the invasion of prostate cancer cells. We also studied miR-618 expression in surgical specimens of patients with localized prostate cancer submitted to open radical prostatectomy.
METHODS: After transfection of miR-618 or its antagonist in DU145 cells, qRT-PCR for TIMP-1/MMP-9 and both ELISA and zymography for MMP-9 were performed. Total miRNA was extracted from surgical specimens of PCa, and miR-618 expression was examined for correlations with Gleason score, pathological status and biochemical recurrence.
RESULTS: DU145 cells transfected with miR-618 had a 76% reduction in TIMP-1 expression relative to control cells (p = 0.003). miR-618 inhibition reduced MMP-9 expression by 31% (p = 0.032) and MMP-9 absorbance evaluated with ELISA assay (p = 0.06).Zymography suggested higher MMP-9 activity in DU145 cells transfected with miR-618 than those transfected with miR-618 inhibitor, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.55). However, miR-618 expression was lower in surgical specimens of patients with Gleason score > 7 (p = 0.08) and more advanced disease (p = 0.07).
CONCLUSIONS: In vitro, miR-618 overexpression decreases TIMP-1 and miR-618 inhibition decreases MMP-9, suggesting that miR-618 might be an oncomiR. However, the analysis of clinical samples of localized prostate cancer revealed an inconsistent pattern, as increased miR-618 expression was associated with lower Gleason score and pathological status. Further studies are needed to address whether miR-618 is a context-dependent miRNA.

Song N, Zhong J, Hu Q, et al.
FGF18 Enhances Migration and the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer by Regulating Akt/GSK3β/Β-Catenin Signaling.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 49(3):1019-1032 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their high-affinity receptors contribute to autocrine and paracrine growth stimulation in several human malignant tumors, including breast cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the carcinogenic actions of FGF18 remain unclear.
METHODS: The transcription level of FGF18 under the hypoxic condition was detected with quantitative PCR (qPCR). A wound-healing assay was performed to assess the role of FGF18 in cell migration. A clonogenicity assay was used to determine whether FGF18 silencing affected cell clonogenicity. Western blotting was performed to investigate Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway protein expression. Binding of β-catenin to the target gene promoter was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays.
RESULTS: FGF18 promoted the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration in breast cancer cells through activation of the Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway. FGF18 increased Akt-Ser473 and -Thr308 phosphorylation, as well as that of GSK3β-Ser9. FGF18 also enhanced the transcription of proliferation-related genes (CDK2, CCND2, Ki67), metastasis-related genes (TGF-β, MMP-2, MMP-9), and EMT markers (Snail-1, Snail-2, N-cadherin, vimentin, TIMP1). β-catenin bound to the target gene promoter on the ChIP assay.
CONCLUSION: FGF18 contributes to the migration and EMT of breast cancer cells following activation of the Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway. FGF18 expression may be a potential prognostic therapeutic marker for breast cancer.

Xie W, Stopsack KH, Drouin SJ, et al.
Association of genetic variation of the six gene prognostic model for castration-resistant prostate cancer with survival.
Prostate. 2019; 79(1):73-80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We previously identified a blood RNA transcript-based model consisting of six immune or inflammatory response genes (ABL2, SEMA4D, ITGAL, C1QA, TIMP1, and CDKN1A) that was prognostic for survival in cohorts of men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We investigated whether inherited variation in these six genes was associated with overall survival (OS) in men with CRPC.
METHODS: The test cohort comprised 600 patients diagnosed with CRPC between 1996 and 2011 at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Genotyping of 66 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the six genes was performed on blood derived DNAs. For the top four SNPs (P < 0.05), validation was conducted in an independent cohort of 223 men diagnosed with CRPC between 2000 and 2014. Multivariable Cox regression adjusting for known prognostic factors estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the association of genetic variants with OS.
RESULTS: Two thirds of patients in both cohorts had metastases at CRPC diagnosis. Median OS from CRPC diagnosis was 3.6 (95%CI 3.3-4.0) years in the test cohort and 4.6 (95%CI 3.8-5.2) years in the validation cohort. Fifty-nine SNPs in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were analyzed. The major alleles of rs1318056 and rs1490311 in ABL2, and the minor alleles of rs2073917 and rs3764322 in ITGAL were associated with increased risk of death in the test cohort (adjusted-HRs 1.27-1.39; adjusted-p <0.05; false discovery rate <0.35). In the validation cohort, a similar association with OS was observed for rs1318056 in ABL2 (adjusted-HR 1.44; 95%CI 0.89-2.34) and rs2073917 in ITGAL (adjusted-HR 1.41; 95%CI 0.82-2.42). The associations did not reach statistical significance most likely due to the small sample size of the validation cohort (adjusted-p = 0.142 and 0.209, respectively). Additional eQTL analysis indicated that minor alleles of rs1318056 and rs1490311 in ABL2 are associated with a lower ABL2 expression in blood.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings corroborate our initial work on the RNA expression of genes involved in immunity and inflammation from blood and clinical outcome and suggest that germline polymorphisms in ABL2 and ITGAL may be associated with the risk of death in men with CRPC. Further studies are needed to validate these findings and to explore their functional mechanisms.

Omar OM, Soutto M, Bhat NS, et al.
TFF1 antagonizes TIMP-1 mediated proliferative functions in gastric cancer.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(11):1577-1587 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1) is one of four identified members of the TIMP family. We evaluated the role of TIMP1 in gastric cancer using human and mouse tissues along with gastric organoids and in vitro cell models. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we detected significant overexpression of TIMP1 in the human gastric cancer samples, as compared to normal stomach samples (P < 0.01). We also detected overexpression of Timp1 in neoplastic gastric lesions of the Tff1-knockout (KO) mice, as compared to normal stomach tissues. Reconstitution of TFF1 in human gastric cancer cell lines led to a significant decrease in the mRNA expression level of TIMP1 (P < 0.05). In vitro analysis demonstrated that TIMP1 mRNA expression is induced by TNF-α and activation of NF-κB whereas inhibition of NF-κB using BAY11-7082 led to inhibition of NF-κB and downregulation of TIMP1. Western blot analysis confirmed the decrease in TIMP1 protein level following reconstitution of TFF1. By using immunofluorescence, we showed nuclear localization of NF-κB and expression of TIMP1 in gastric organoids established from the Tff1-KO stomach where reconstitution of Tff1 using recombinant protein led to a notable reduction in the expression of both NF-κB and TIMP1. Using EDU assay, as a measure of proliferating cells, we found that TIMP1 promotes cellular proliferation whereas TFF1 reconstitution leads to a significant decrease in cellular proliferation (P < 0.05). In summary, our findings demonstrate overexpression of TIMP1 in mouse and human gastric cancers through NF-kB-dependent mechanism. We also show that TFF1 suppresses NF-κB and inhibits TIMP1-mediated proliferative potential in gastric cancer.

Yuan J, Xiao C, Lu H, et al.
Effects of various treatment approaches for treatment efficacy for late stage breast cancer and expression level of TIMP-1 and MMP-9.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 23(1):1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is one common female specific malignant tumor and has gradually increased incidence. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMMP-9) and its inhibitor TIMP-1 participate in tumor invasion and metastasis. This study analyzed the effect of various treatment approaches on TIMP-1 and MMP-9 levels in terminal stage breast cancer. Post-op breast cancer patients including chemo-radio therapy group, radio-chemo therapy group and simultaneously chemo- and radio-therapy group were compared for efficacy, along with assays for TIMP-1 and MMP-9 levels for analyzing their correlation with clinical-pathological features of breast cancer. Chemo + radio-therapy group had lower focal recurrence and distal metastasis than the other two groups, plus higher 5-year survival rates (p<0.05). After treatment, all patients showed lower serum MMP-9 level, activity and higher TIMP-1 levels than those before treatment (p< 0.05). Concurrent radio + chemo-therapy group showed lower serum MMP-9 level, activity and higher TIMP-1 levels (p< 0.05 compared to the other two groups). Serum MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels after treatment are correlated with patient age, pathological grade, tumor size and lymph node metastasis (p< 0.05). Simultaneous chemo- and radio-therapy on breast cancer patients after surgery could reduce focal recurrent rate or distal metastasis rate, thus improving 5-year survival rate. MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels are correlated with age, pathological grade, tumor size and lymph node metastasis of breast cancer patients.

Shi B, Yan W, Liu G, Guo Y
MicroRNA-488 inhibits tongue squamous carcinoma cell invasion and EMT by directly targeting ATF3.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2018; 23:28 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Background: It has been reported that the expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is closely associated with both microRNA (miRNA) processing and the progress of many cancers. Our study aimed to explore the interaction between ATF3 and miR-488 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC).
Methods: Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to detect the levels of ATF3 and miR-488 in TSCC tissues and cell lines. Cell invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were assessed to determine the biological functions of miR-488 and ATF3 in TSCC cells. The mRNA and protein levels of ATF3 were measured using quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. Luciferase assays were performed to validate ATF3 as an miR-488 target in TSCC cells.
Results: We found that the level of miR-488 significantly decreased and the expression of ATF3 significantly increased in TSCC tissues and cell lines. A low level of miR-488 was closely associated with increased expression of ATF3 in TSCC tissues. Introducing miR-488 significantly inhibited the invasion and EMT of TSCC cells, and knockdown of miR-488 promoted both processes. The bioinformatics analysis predicted that ATF3 is a potential target gene of miR-488. The luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-488 could directly target ATF3. ATF3 silencing had similar effects to miR-488 overexpression on TSCC cells. Overexpression of ATF3 in TSCC cells partially reversed the inhibitory effects of the miR-488 mimic.
Conclusion: miR-488 inhibited cell invasion and EMT of TSCC cells by directly downregulating ATF3 expression.

Li T, Gao X, Han L, et al.
Identification of hub genes with prognostic values in gastric cancer by bioinformatics analysis.
World J Surg Oncol. 2018; 16(1):114 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is a prevalent malignant cancer of digestive system. To identify key genes in GC, mRNA microarray GSE27342, GSE29272, and GSE33335 were downloaded from GEO database.
METHODS: Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained using GEO2R. DAVID database was used to analyze function and pathways enrichment of DEGs. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was established by STRING and visualized by Cytoscape software. Then, the influence of hub genes on overall survival (OS) was performed by the Kaplan-Meier plotter online tool. Module analysis of the PPI network was performed using MCODE. Additionally, potential stem loop miRNAs of hub genes were predicted by miRecords and screened by TCGA dataset. Transcription factors (TFs) of hub genes were detected by NetworkAnalyst.
RESULTS: In total, 67 DEGs were identified; upregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in biological process (BP) related to angiogenesis and extracellular matrix organization and the downregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in BP related to ion transport and response to bacterium. KEGG pathways analysis showed that the upregulated DEGs were enriched in ECM-receptor interaction and the downregulated DEGs were enriched in gastric acid secretion. A PPI network of DEGs was constructed, consisting of 43 nodes and 87 edges. Twelve genes were considered as hub genes owing to high degrees in the network. Hsa-miR-29c, hsa-miR-30c, hsa-miR-335, hsa-miR-33b, and hsa-miR-101 might play a crucial role in hub genes regulation. In addition, the transcription factors-hub genes pairs were displayed with 182 edges and 102 nodes. The high expression of 7 out of 12 hub genes was associated with worse OS, including COL4A1, VCAN, THBS2, TIMP1, COL1A2, SERPINH1, and COL6A3.
CONCLUSIONS: The miRNA and TFs regulation network of hub genes in GC may promote understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of gastric cancer and provide potential targets for GC diagnosis and treatment.

Jarzabek MA, Proctor WR, Vogt J, et al.
Interrogation of transcriptomic changes associated with drug-induced hepatic sinusoidal dilatation in colorectal cancer.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0198099 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Drug-related sinusoidal dilatation (SD) is a common form of hepatotoxicity associated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy used prior to resection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Recently, hepatic SD has also been associated with anti-delta like 4 (DLL4) cancer therapies targeting the NOTCH pathway. To investigate the hypothesis that NOTCH signaling plays an important role in drug-induced SD, gene expression changes were examined in livers from anti-DLL4 and oxaliplatin-induced SD in non-human primate (NHP) and patients, respectively. Putative mechanistic biomarkers of bevacizumab (bev)-mediated protection against oxaliplatin-induced SD were also investigated. RNA was extracted from whole liver sections or centrilobular regions by laser-capture microdissection (LCM) obtained from NHP administered anti-DLL4 fragment antigen-binding (F(ab')2 or patients with CRLM receiving oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy with or without bev. mRNA expression was quantified using high-throughput real-time quantitative PCR. Significance analysis was used to identify genes with differential expression patterns (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05). Eleven (CCL2, CCND1, EFNB2, ERG, ICAM1, IL16, LFNG, NOTCH1, NOTCH4, PRDX1, and TGFB1) and six (CDH5, EFNB2, HES1, IL16, MIK67, HES1 and VWF) candidate genes were differentially expressed in the liver of anti-DLL4- and oxaliplatin-induced SD, respectively. Addition of bev to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy resulted in differential changes in hepatic CDH5, HEY1, IL16, JAG1, MMP9, NOTCH4 and TIMP1 expression. This work implicates NOTCH and IL16 pathways in the pathogenesis of drug-induced SD and further explains the hepato-protective effect of bev in oxaliplatin-induced SD observed in CRLM patients.

Abraham V, Cao G, Parambath A, et al.
Involvement of TIMP-1 in PECAM-1-mediated tumor dissemination.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(2):488-502 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule‑1 (PECAM‑1) is expressed on the vascular endothelium and has been implicated in the late progression of metastatic tumors. The activity of PECAM‑1 appears to be mediated by modulation of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and promotion of tumor cell proliferation, rather than through the stimulation of tumor angiogenesis. The present study aimed to extend those initial findings by indicating that the presence of functional PECAM‑1 on the endothelium promotes a proliferative tumor cell phenotype in vivo, as well as in tumor cell (B16‑F10 melanoma and 4T1 breast cancer cell lines) co‑culture assays with mouse endothelial cells (ECs) or a surrogate EC line (REN‑MP). The pro‑proliferative effects were mediated by soluble endothelial‑derived factors that were dependent on PECAM‑1 homophilic ligand interactions, but which were independent of PECAM‑1‑dependent signaling. Further analysis of the conditioned media obtained from tumor/EC and tumor/REN‑MP co‑cultures identified TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor‑1 (TIMP‑1) as a PECAM‑1‑regulated factor, the targeting of which in the tumor cell/REN‑MP system inhibited tumor cell proliferation. In addition, TIMP‑1 expression was decreased in metastatic tumors from the lungs of PECAM‑1‑null mice, thus providing evidence of the in vivo significance of co‑culture studies. Taken together, these studies indicated that endothelial PECAM‑1, through PECAM‑1‑dependent homophilic binding interactions, may induce release of TIMP‑1 from the endothelium into the TME, thus leading to increased tumor cell proliferation.

Pucci A, Mattioli C, Matteucci M, et al.
Cell differentiation in cardiac myxomas: confocal microscopy and gene expression analysis after laser capture microdissection.
Heart Vessels. 2018; 33(11):1403-1410 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cardiac myxomas are rare tumors with a heterogeneous cell population including properly neoplastic (lepidic), endothelial and smooth muscle cells. The assessment of neoplastic (lepidic) cell differentiation pattern is rather difficult using conventional light microscopy immunohistochemistry and/or whole tissue extracts for mRNA analyses. In a preliminary study, we investigated 20 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cardiac myxomas by means of conventional immunohistochemistry; in 10/20 cases, cell differentiation was also analyzed by real-time RT-PCR after laser capture microdissection of the neoplastic cells, whereas calretinin and endothelial antigen CD31 immunoreactivity was localized in 4/10 cases by double immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Gene expression analyses of α-smooth muscle actin, endothelial CD31 antigen, alpha-cardiac actin, matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP2) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloprotease-1 (TIMP1) was performed on cDNA obtained from either microdissected neoplastic cells or whole tumor sections. We found very little or absent CD31 and α-Smooth Muscle Actin expression in the microdissected cells as compared to the whole tumors, whereas TIMP1 and MMP2 genes were highly expressed in both ones, greater levels being found in patients with embolic phenomena. α-Cardiac Actin was not detected. Confocal microscopy disclosed two different signals corresponding to calretinin-positive myxoma cells and to endothelial CD31-positive cells, respectively. In conclusion, the neoplastic (lepidic) cells showed a distinct gene expression pattern and no consistent overlapping with endothelial and smooth muscle cells or cardiac myocytes; the expression of TIMP1 and MMP2 might be related to clinical presentation; larger series studies using also systematic transcriptome analysis might be useful to confirm the present results.

Bruno A, Bassani B, D'Urso DG, et al.
Angiogenin and the MMP9-TIMP2 axis are up-regulated in proangiogenic, decidual NK-like cells from patients with colorectal cancer.
FASEB J. 2018; 32(10):5365-5377 [PubMed] Related Publications
NK cells are effector lymphocytes involved in tumor immunosurveillance; however, in patients with solid malignancies, NK cells have compromised functions. We have previously reported that lung tumor-associated NK cells (TANKs; peripheral blood) and tumor-infiltrating NK cells (TINKs) show proangiogenic, decidual NK-like (dNK) phenotype. In this study, we functionally and molecularly investigated TINKs and TANKs from blood and tissue samples of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), a neoplasm in which inflammation and angiogenesis have clinical relevance, and compared them to NK cells from controls and patients with nononcologic inflammatory bowel disease. CRC TINKs/TANKs showed decreased expression for the activatory marker NKG2D, impaired degranulation activity, a decidual-like NK polarization toward the CD56

Sawaki K, Kanda M, Miwa T, et al.
Troponin I2 as a Specific Biomarker for Prediction of Peritoneal Metastasis in Gastric Cancer.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2018; 25(7):2083-2090 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although peritoneal metastasis is a serious concern in patients with gastric cancer, no acceptable and specific biomarker is available. We aimed to identify a candidate biomarker to predict peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer.
METHODS: Metastatic pathway-specific transcriptome analysis was conducted by comparison of patient groups with no recurrence and with peritoneal, hepatic, and nodal recurrence. Fifteen cell lines and 262 pairs of surgically resected gastric tissues were subjected to messenger RNA (mRNA) expression analysis. Polymerase chain reaction array analysis was performed to explore coordinately expressed cancer-related genes. To evaluate the in situ protein localization and expression patterns, immunohistochemical staining was performed.
RESULTS: From transcriptome data, troponin I2 (TNNI2) was identified as a candidate molecule specifically overexpressed in gastric cancer prone to peritoneal metastasis. TNNI2 mRNA was expressed at differential levels, independent of differentiated phenotype of cell lines. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition-related genes, tumor inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), and vacuolar protein sorting 13 homolog A (VPS13A) were expressed with TNNI2 at correlation coefficient > 0.7. The optimal cutoff of TNNI2 expression was determined as 0.00017. High TNNI2 expression was significantly and specifically associated with peritoneal metastasis and served as an independent risk marker for peritoneal recurrence after curative gastrectomy. Prevalence of peritoneal recurrence increased in parallel with staining intensity of TNNI2.
CONCLUSIONS: TNNI2 expression in gastric tissues may serve as a specific biomarker for prediction of peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer and contribute to improvement of patient management.

Sadowski SM, Pusztaszeri M, Brulhart-Meynet MC, et al.
Identification of Differential Transcriptional Patterns in Primary and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018; 103(6):2189-2198 [PubMed] Related Publications
Context: Hyperparathyroidism is associated with hypercalcemia and the excess of parathyroid hormone secretion; however, the alterations in molecular pattern of functional genes during parathyroid tumorigenesis have not been unraveled. We aimed at establishing transcriptional patterns of normal and pathological parathyroid glands (PGs) in sporadic primary (HPT1) and secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT2).
Objective: To evaluate dynamic alterations in molecular patterns as a function of the type of PG pathology, a comparative transcript analysis was conducted in subgroups of healthy samples, sporadic HPT1 adenoma and hyperplasia, and HPT2.
Design: Normal, adenomatous, HPT1, and HPT2 hyperplastic PG formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples were subjected to NanoString analysis. In silico microRNA (miRNA) analyses and messenger RNA-miRNA network in PG pathologies were conducted. Individual messenger RNA and miRNA levels were assessed in snap-frozen PG samples.
Results: The expression levels of c-MET, MYC, TIMP1, and clock genes NFIL3 and PER1 were significantly altered in HPT1 adenoma compared with normal PG tissue when assessed by NanoString and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RET was affected in HPT1 hyperplasia, whereas CaSR and VDR transcripts were downregulated in HPT2 hyperplastic PG tissue. CDH1, c-MET, MYC, and CaSR were altered in adenoma compared with hyperplasia. Correlation analyses suggest that c-MET, MYC, and NFIL3 exhibit collective expression level changes associated with HPT1 adenoma development. miRNAs, predicted in silico to target these genes, did not exhibit a clear tendency upon experimental validation.
Conclusions: The presented gene expression analysis provides a differential molecular characterization of PG adenoma and hyperplasia pathologies, advancing our understanding of their etiology.

Nguyen EV, Centenera MM, Moldovan M, et al.
Identification of Novel Response and Predictive Biomarkers to Hsp90 Inhibitors Through Proteomic Profiling of Patient-derived Prostate Tumor Explants.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018; 17(8):1470-1486 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Inhibition of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) chaperone is a promising therapeutic strategy to target expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and other oncogenic drivers in prostate cancer cells. However, identification of clinically-relevant responses and predictive biomarkers is essential to maximize efficacy and treatment personalization. Here, we combined mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analyses with a unique patient-derived explant (PDE) model that retains the complex microenvironment of primary prostate tumors. Independent discovery and validation cohorts of PDEs (

Eiro N, González L, Martínez-Ordoñez A, et al.
Cancer-associated fibroblasts affect breast cancer cell gene expression, invasion and angiogenesis.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2018; 41(4):369-378 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: It has been reported that stromal cell features may affect the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) represent one of the most abundant cell types within the breast cancer stroma. Here, we aimed to explore the influence of CAFs on breast cancer gene expression, as well as on invasion and angiogenesis.
METHODS: qRT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of several cancer progression related genes (S100A4, TGFβ, FGF2, FGF7, PDGFA, PDGFB, VEGFA, IL-6, IL-8, uPA, MMP2, MMP9, MMP11 and TIMP1) in the human breast cancer-derived cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, before and after co-culture with CAFs. Stromal mononuclear inflammatory cell (MIC) MMP11 expression was used to stratify primary tumors. In addition, we assessed the in vitro effects of CAFs on both MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion and endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation.
RESULTS: We found that the expression levels of most of the genes tested were significantly increased in both breast cancer-derived cell lines after co-culture with CAFs from either MMP11+ or MMP11- MIC tumors. IL-6 and IL-8 showed an increased expression in both cancer-derived cell lines after co-culture with CAFs from MMP11+ MIC tumors. We also found that the invasive and angiogenic capacities of, respectively, MDA-MB-231 and HUVEC cells were increased after co-culture with CAFs, especially those from MMP11+ MIC tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that tumor-derived CAFs can induce up-regulation of genes involved in breast cancer progression. Our data additionally indicate that CAFs, especially those derived from MMP11+ MIC tumors, can promote breast cancer cell invasion and angiogenesis.

Li S, Chen P, Zheng K, et al.
β-Alanine mediated inhibition of PTHR1suppresses the proliferation, invasion and tumorigenesis in metastatic human osteosarcoma U2OS cells.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2018; 111:1255-1263 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of β-alanine mediated inhibition of parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTHR1), suppresses the proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis in metastatic human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Cell survival rate was reduced 96.54, 91.23, 84.62, 76.42 and 69.72% following incubation of β-alanine at 50-250 mM respectively. Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) staining showed a reduced level of viable cells (71.37%) at 250 mM of β-alanine. U2OS cell proliferation, adhesion, invasion, and migration were decreased following incubation with β-alanine. Matrix metalloproteinases-2/9 (MMP-2/9) mRNA expression was reduced, whereas tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases-1/2 (TIMP-1/2) mRNA expression was increased remarkably. The mRNA and protein of PTHR1 were reduced in the cells following incubation with β-alanine. Vacuole membrane protein 1 (Vmp1) mRNA and protein were increased in the cells following incubation with β-alanine. In tunel assay, the number of PTHR1 positive cells was 67, 34 and 17 following incubation with β-alanine at 150, 200 and 250 mM respectively. Taking all these data together, it is concluded that β-alanine mediated inhibition of PTHR1 reduced the U2OS cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the results indicated that the β-alanine induced expression of PTHR1 has a positive relationship with invasion and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells.

Tyszka-Czochara M, Lasota M, Majka M
Caffeic Acid and Metformin Inhibit Invasive Phenotype Induced by TGF-β1 in C-4I and HTB-35/SiHa Human Cervical Squamous Carcinoma Cells by Acting on Different Molecular Targets.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(1) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
During the progression of epithelial cancer, the cells may lose epithelial markers and gain mesenchymal phenotype via Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Such transformation of epithelial cancer cells to mesenchymal-like characteristic benefits plasticity and supports their ability to migrate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of natural compound Caffeic Acid (CA) alone and in combination with antidiabetic drug Metformin (Met) on metastatic progression of two human cervical squamous cell cancer lines, C-4I and HTB-35/SiHa cells. EMT program was triggered by exposition of both epithelial cell lines to TGF-β1. Gene expression patterns related to epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype were evaluated by Real-Time PCR analysis and the protein amount was detected by western blot. The treatment of human squamous cancer cells with CA and with Met, suppressed the motility of cells and the effect depended on a particular cell line. Both compounds regulated the EMT process in C4-I and HTB-35 cells by interfering with different molecular targets. In TGF-β1-stimulated C4-I cells, CA suppressed the expression of mesenchymal transcription factor SNAI1 which resulted in enhanced expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, Occludin and Claudin. Additionally, CA blocked

Neoh CA, Wu WT, Dai GF, et al.
Flaccidoxide-13-Acetate Extracted from the Soft Coral Cladiella kashmani Reduces Human Bladder Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion through Reducing Activation of the FAK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway.
Molecules. 2017; 23(1) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Metastasis of cancer is the cause of the majority of cancer deaths. Active compound flaccidoxide-13-acetate, isolated from the soft coral

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. TIMP1, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/TIMP1.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 29 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999