Gene Summary

Gene:MMP11; matrix metallopeptidase 11
Aliases: ST3, SL-3, STMY3
Summary:Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. However, the enzyme encoded by this gene is activated intracellularly by furin within the constitutive secretory pathway. Also in contrast to other MMP's, this enzyme cleaves alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor but weakly degrades structural proteins of the extracellular matrix. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (12)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Cell Movement
  • Cancer RNA
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Messenger RNA
  • Risk Factors
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Metalloendopeptidases
  • Stromal Cells
  • Lung Cancer
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • MicroRNAs
  • Sp1 Transcription Factor
  • Gene Expression
  • Transcriptome
  • Young Adult
  • Chromosome 22
  • MMP11
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Wound Healing
  • Skin Cancer
  • Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator
  • Xenopus laevis
  • RT-PCR
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Breast Cancer
  • Receptors, Progesterone
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
  • RNA
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • Transcription
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 28S
  • Disease Progression
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Breast CancerMMP11 Expression in Breast CancerPrognostic
MMP11 (stromelysin 3) expression has been linked to prognosis in breast cancer. For example Ahmad et al (1998) found that MMP11 expression significant prognostic factor for disease-free survival in multivariate analysis of patients with node-positive invasive ductal carcinomas. Tetu et al (1998) found that 87% of 665 breast cancer cases (both node +ve and node -ve) expressed MMP11. High levels of MMP11 were associated with expression and a younger age, lymph node involvement, poor nuclear grade, ductal histology, aneuploidy, and HSP-27 expression. In this study MMP11 expression was a statistically significant prognostic factor in univariate analysis, but not in multivariate analysis.
View Publications19
Lung CancerMMP11 and Lung Cancer View Publications10
Uterine SarcomaMMP11 and Uterine Cancer View Publications3
Esophageal CancerMMP11 and Esophageal Cancer View Publications2
Skin CancerMMP11 and Skin Cancer View Publications1

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MMP11 (cancer-related)

Zeinali T, Mansoori B, Mohammadi A, Baradaran B
Regulatory mechanisms of miR-145 expression and the importance of its function in cancer metastasis.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 109:195-207 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional mediators of gene expression and regulation, which play influential roles in tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis. The expression of tumor suppressor miR-145 is reduced in various cancer cell lines, containing both solid tumors and blood malignancies. However, the responsible mechanisms of its down-regulation are a complicated network. miR-145 is potentially able to inhbit tumor cell metastasis by targeting of multiple oncogenes, including MUC1, FSCN1, Vimentin, Cadherin, Fibronectin, Metadherin, GOLM1, ARF6, SMAD3, MMP11, Snail1, ZEB1/2, HIF-1α and Rock-1. This distinctive role of miR-145 in the regulation of metastasis-related gene expression may introduce miR-145 as an ideal candidate for controlling of cancer metastasis by miRNA replacement therapy. The present review aims to discuss the current understanding of the different aspects of molecular mechanisms of miR-145 regulation as well as its role in r metastasis regulation.

Schultz S, Bartsch H, Sotlar K, et al.
Progression-specific genes identified in microdissected formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue containing matched ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal breast cancers.
BMC Med Genomics. 2018; 11(1):80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The transition from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive breast carcinoma (IBC) is an important step during breast carcinogenesis. Understanding its molecular changes may help to identify high-risk DCIS that progress to IBC. Here, we describe a transcriptomic profiling analysis of matched formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) DCIS and IBC components of individual breast tumours, containing both tumour compartments. The study was performed to validate progression-associated transcripts detected in an earlier gene profiling project using fresh frozen breast cancer tissue. In addition, FFPE tissues from patients with pure DCIS (pDCIS) were analysed to identify candidate transcripts characterizing DCIS with a high or low risk of progressing to IBC.
METHODS: Fifteen laser microdissected pairs of DCIS and IBC were profiled by Illumina DASL technology and used for expression validation by qPCR. Differential expression was independently validated using further 25 laser microdissected DCIS/IBC sample pairs. Additionally, laser microdissected epithelial cells from 31 pDCIS were investigated for expression of candidate transcripts using qPCR.
RESULTS: Multiple statistical calculation methods revealed 1784 mRNAs which are differentially expressed between DCIS and IBC (P < 0.05), of which 124 have also been identified in the gene profiling project using fresh frozen breast cancer tissue. Nine mRNAs that had been selected from the gene list obtained using fresh frozen tissues by applying pathway and network analysis (MMP11, GREM1, PLEKHC1, SULF1, THBS2, CSPG2, COL10A1, COL11A1, KRT14) were investigated in tissues from the same 15 microdissected specimens and the 25 independent tissue samples by qPCR. All selected transcripts were also detected in tumour cells from pDCIS. Expression of MMP11 and COL10A1 increased significantly from pDCIS to DCIS of DCIS/IBC mixed tumours.
CONCLUSION: We confirm differential expression of progression-associated transcripts in FFPE breast cancer samples which might mediate the transition from DCIS to IBC. MMP11 and COL10A1 may characterize pure DCIS with a high risk developing IDC.

Pei L, He X, Li S, et al.
KRAB zinc-finger protein 382 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and functions as a tumor suppressor, but is silenced by CpG methylation in gastric cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(3):961-972 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Several studies have recently reported that KRAB zinc finger protein 382 (ZNF382) is downregulated in multiple carcinoma types due to promoter methylation. The exact role of ZNF382 in gastric carcinogenesis, however, remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the alterations and functions of ZNF382 in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer (GC). Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative (real-time) PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry were carried out to detect the expression patterns of ZNF382 in GC cell lines and gastric tissue samples. Furthermore, its methylation status in GC cell lines, tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues was detected by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). We observed that ZNF382 was silenced due to promoter methylation in MKN45 and SGC7901 cell lines, and that its silencing could be reversed with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, indicating that its downregulation in GC is due to promoter methylation. In addition, the ectopic expression of ZNF382 significantly inhibited gastric tumor cell clonogenicity, proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through the induction of apoptosis. ZNF382 expression downregulated the expression of SNAIL, Vimentin, Twist, NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NOTCH3, NOTCH4, HES-1, JAG1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 and MMP11, as well as that of the stem cell markers, NANOG, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) and SOX2. ZNF382 also upregulated the expression of E-cadherin. On the whole, the findings of this study suggest that ZNF382 functions as a tumor suppressor in GC cells, but is frequently methylated in both GC cell lines and primary gastric tumors. ZNF382 can reverse the EMT process in GC cells through NOTCH signaling. Our findings further illustrate the molecular pathogenesis of GC and establish potential biomarkers for this type of cancer.

Jiang R, Zhao C, Gao B, et al.
Mixomics analysis of breast cancer: Long non-coding RNA linc01561 acts as ceRNA involved in the progression of breast cancer.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2018; 102:1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at finding the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), miRNA and mRNA which played critical roles in breast cancer (BrCa) by using mixOmics R package.
METHOD: The BrCa dataset were obtained from TCGA and then analyzed using "DESeq2" R package. Multivariate analyses were performed with the "mixOmics" R package and the first component of the stacked partial least-Squares discriminant analysis results were used for searching the interested lncRNA, miRNA and mRNA. qRT-PCR was applied to identify the bioinformatics results in four BrCa cell lines (MCF7, BT-20, ZR-75-1, and MX-1) and the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10 A. Then cells (MCF-1 and MX-1) were transfected with si-linc01561, miR-145-5p mimics and si-MMP11 to further investigate the effects of linc01561, miR-145-5p and MMP11 on the BrCa cells proliferation and apoptosis.
RESULTS: MixOmics results showed that linc01561, miR-145-5p and MMP11 might play important roles in BrCa. qRT-PCR results identified that in BrCa cell lines, linc01561 and MMP11 were higher expressed while miR-145-5p was lower expressed compared with those in epithelial cell line. The linc01561 inhibition elevated miR-145-5p expression and then suppressed MMP11 expression. Moreover, linc01561 inhibition suppressed the BrCa cells proliferation and promoted the apoptosis, which was realized by up-regulating expression of miR-145-5p and down-regulating expression of MMP11.
CONCLUSION: In summary, the findings of this study, based on ceRNA theory, combining the research foundation of miR-145-5p and MMP11, and taking linc01561 as a new study point, provide new insight into molecular-level reversing proliferation and apoptosis of BrCa.

Wang B, Hsu CJ, Lee HL, et al.
Impact of matrix metalloproteinase-11 gene polymorphisms upon the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Med Sci. 2018; 15(6):653-658 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a liver malignancy and a major cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Matrix metalloproteinase-11 (MMP-11), also known as stromelysin-3, plays a critical role during tumor migration, invasion and metastasis. Here, we report on the association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) - rs738791, rs2267029, rs738792, rs28382575, and rs131451 - of the

Panella M, Mosca N, Di Palo A, et al.
Mutual suppression of miR-125a and Lin28b in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 500(3):824-827 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA-125a exhibits an antiproliferative activity and is downregulated in several types of tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma where it targets sirtuin-7, matrix metalloproteinase-11, and c-Raf. Another target of miR-125a is Lin28, a pluripotency factor that is generally undetectable in differentiated cells but is often upregulated/reactivated in tumors where it acts as an oncogenic factor promoting cell proliferation and tumor progression. In this study we show that downregulation of Lin28b by miR-125a partially accounts for its antiproliferative activity toward hepatocellular carcinoma cells. We also found that Lin28b is able to bind a conserved GGAG motif of pre-miR-125a and to inhibit its maturation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Reciprocal inhibition between miR-125a and Lin28b reasonably generates a positive feedback loop where reactivation of Lin-28b inhibits the expression of both miR-125a and let-7, reinforcing its own expression and leading to a marked overexpression of the mitogenic targets of the two miRNAs. On the other hand, perturbation of these circuits by overexpression of miR-125a suppresses Lin28b leading to a decreased cell proliferation. Overall, these data support a tumor suppressive role for miR-125a and contribute to the elucidation of its molecular targets.

Wu SX, Huang J, Liu ZW, et al.
A Genomic-clinicopathologic Nomogram for the Preoperative Prediction of Lymph Node Metastasis in Bladder Cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 31:54-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Preoperative lymph node (LN) status is important for the treatment of bladder cancer (BCa). Here, we report a genomic-clinicopathologic nomogram for preoperatively predicting LN metastasis in BCa. In the discovery stage, 325 BCa patients from TCGA were involved and LN-status-related mRNAs were selected. In the training stage, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to developed a genomic-clinicopathologic nomogram for preoperative LN metastasis prediction in the training set (SYSMH set, n=178). In the validation stage, we validated the nomogram using two independent sample sets (SYSUCC set, n=142; RJH set, n=104) with respect to its discrimination, calibration and clinical usefulness. As results, we identified five LN-status-related mRNAs, including ADRA1D, COL10A1, DKK2, HIST2H3D and MMP11. Then, a genomic classifier was developed to classify patients into high- and low-risk groups in the training set. Furthermore, a nomogram incorporating the five-mRNA-based classifier, image-based LN status, transurethral resection (TUR) T stage, and TUR lymphovascular invasion (LVI) was constructed in the training set, which performed well in the training and validation sets. Decision curve analysis demonstrated the clinical value of our nomogram. Thus, our genomic-clinicopathologic nomogram shows favorable discriminatory ability and may aid in clinical decision-making, especially for cN-patients.

Ding X, Zhong T, Jiang L, et al.
miR-25 enhances cell migration and invasion in non-small-cell lung cancer cells via ERK signaling pathway by inhibiting KLF4.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 17(5):7005-7016 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) have gained increasing interest in cancer research. Increasing evidences demonstrated that miRNAs are important for tumor early detection and prognosis. The present study aimed to explore the function of miR‑25 in non‑small‑cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its underlying mechanisms. The expression levels of miR‑25 and Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) were assessed in 31 pairs of tissue from patients with NSCLC. In addition, the biological roles of miR‑25 in NSCLC were analyzed via a cell wound healing assay, Transwell invasion and migration assays. Target genes of miR‑25 were predicted using TargetScan and verified via a dual luciferase activity assay, western blotting and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The downstream signaling pathway was confirmed by western blot analysis. In the present study, miR‑25 was overexpressed in 31 NSCLC samples compared with in corresponding normal tissues. Overexpression of miR‑25 using miR‑25 mimics markedly promoted NSCLC cell migration and invasion, while inhibition of miR‑25 exerted the opposite effect. KLF4 was suggested to be a novel target gene of miR‑25 in NSCLC cells. Knockdown of KLF4 promoted the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells, whereas rescue of KLF4 expression reduced cell motion ability in miR‑25‑overexpressing NSCLC cells. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that miR‑25 activated the extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, which eventually led to increased vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase 11 and N‑cadherin levels, and the downregulation of E‑cadherin expression by inhibiting the expression of KLF4. In conclusion, miR‑25 was demonstrated to activate the ERK signaling pathway by directly targeting KLF4, promoting cell migration and invasion. The findings of the present study indicated that miR‑25 or KLF4 may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of NSCLC.

Eiro N, González L, Martínez-Ordoñez A, et al.
Cancer-associated fibroblasts affect breast cancer cell gene expression, invasion and angiogenesis.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2018; 41(4):369-378 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: It has been reported that stromal cell features may affect the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) represent one of the most abundant cell types within the breast cancer stroma. Here, we aimed to explore the influence of CAFs on breast cancer gene expression, as well as on invasion and angiogenesis.
METHODS: qRT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of several cancer progression related genes (S100A4, TGFβ, FGF2, FGF7, PDGFA, PDGFB, VEGFA, IL-6, IL-8, uPA, MMP2, MMP9, MMP11 and TIMP1) in the human breast cancer-derived cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, before and after co-culture with CAFs. Stromal mononuclear inflammatory cell (MIC) MMP11 expression was used to stratify primary tumors. In addition, we assessed the in vitro effects of CAFs on both MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion and endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation.
RESULTS: We found that the expression levels of most of the genes tested were significantly increased in both breast cancer-derived cell lines after co-culture with CAFs from either MMP11+ or MMP11- MIC tumors. IL-6 and IL-8 showed an increased expression in both cancer-derived cell lines after co-culture with CAFs from MMP11+ MIC tumors. We also found that the invasive and angiogenic capacities of, respectively, MDA-MB-231 and HUVEC cells were increased after co-culture with CAFs, especially those from MMP11+ MIC tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that tumor-derived CAFs can induce up-regulation of genes involved in breast cancer progression. Our data additionally indicate that CAFs, especially those derived from MMP11+ MIC tumors, can promote breast cancer cell invasion and angiogenesis.

Potenza N, Panella M, Castiello F, et al.
Molecular mechanisms governing microRNA-125a expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):10712 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNA-125a-5p (miR-125a) is a vertebrate homolog of lin-4, the first discovered microRNA, and plays a fundamental role in embryo development by downregulating Lin-28 protein. MiR-125a is also expressed in differentiated cells where it generally acts as an antiproliferative factor by targeting membrane receptors or intracellular transductors of mitogenic signals. MiR-125a expression is downregulated in several tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) where it targets sirtuin-7, matrix metalloproteinase-11, VEGF-A, Zbtb7a, and c-Raf. In this study, we have isolated the transcription promoter of human miR-125a and characterized its activity in HCC cells. It is a TATA-less Pol II promoter provided with an initiator element and a downstream promoter element, located 3939 bp upstream the genomic sequence of the miRNA. The activity of the promoter is increased by the transcription factor NF-kB, a master regulator of inflammatory response, and miR-125a itself was found to strengthen this activation through inhibition of TNFAIP3, a negative regulator of NF-kB. This finding contributes to explain the increased levels of miR-125a observed in the liver of patients with chronic hepatitis B.

Coppola N, de Stefano G, Panella M, et al.
Lowered expression of microRNA-125a-5p in human hepatocellular carcinoma and up-regulation of its oncogenic targets sirtuin-7, matrix metalloproteinase-11, and c-Raf.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(15):25289-25299 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human microRNA-125a-5p (miR-125a) is expressed in most tissues where it downregulates the expression of membrane receptors or intracellular transductors of mitogenic signals, thus limiting cell proliferation. Expression of this miRNA generally increases with cell differentiation whereas it is downregulated in several types of tumors, such as breast, lung, ovarian, gastric, colon, and cervical cancers, neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, glioblastoma, and retinoblastoma. In this study, we focused on hepatocellular carcinoma and used real-time quantitative PCR to measure miR-125a expression in 55 tumor biopsies and in matched adjacent non-tumor liver tissues. This analysis showed a downregulation of miR-125a in 80 % of patients, with a mean decrease of 4.7-fold. Comparison of miRNA downregulation with clinicopathological parameters of patients didn't yield significant correlations except for serum bilirubin. We then evaluated the expression of known targets of miR-125a and found that sirtuin-7, matrix metalloproteinase-11, and c-Raf were up-regulated in tumor tissue by 2.2-, 3-, and 1.7-fold, respectively. Overall, these data support a tumor suppressor role for miR-125a and encourage further studies aimed at the comprehension of the molecular mechanisms governing its expression, eventually leading to treatments to restore its expression in tumor cells.

Hsin CH, Chou YE, Yang SF, et al.
MMP-11 promoted the oral cancer migration and Fak/Src activation.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(20):32783-32793 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Matrix metalloproteinase-11 (MMP-11) has been observed in most invasive human carcinomas. The current study investigated the association between the clinicopathological characteristics and MMP-11 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was performed to assess MMP-11 expression in 279 patients with OSCC. In addition, the metastatic effects of the MMP-11 overexpression on the OSCC cells were also investigated. We found that MMP-11 expression was present in 118/279 (42.3%) cases and expression of MMP-11 was associated with higher incidence of lymph node metastasis and worse grade of tumor differentiation. Importantly, OSCC patients with strong expression of MMP-11 had a significantly lower survival rate (p=0.010). Furthermore, MMP-11 overexpression in OSCC cells increased in vitro cell migration. Mechanistically, MMP-11 increased the cell motility of OSCC cells through focal adhesion kinase/Src kinase (FAK/Src) pathway. In conclusion, our results revealed that the MMP-11 expression in OSCC samples can predict the progression, especially lymph node metastasis, and the survival of OSCC patients in Taiwan.

Han J, Choi YL, Kim H, et al.
MMP11 and CD2 as novel prognostic factors in hormone receptor-negative, HER2-positive breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017; 164(1):41-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: More accurate prediction of patient outcome based on molecular subtype is required to identify patients who will benefit from specific treatments.
METHODS: We selected novel 16 candidate prognostic genes, including 10 proliferation-related genes (p-genes) and 6 immune response-related genes (i-genes), from the gene list identified in our previous study. We then analyzed the association between their expression, measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, and clinical outcome in 819 breast cancer patients according to molecular subtype.
RESULTS: The prognostic significance of clinical and gene variables varied according to the molecular subtype. Univariate analysis showed that positive lymph node status was significantly correlated with the increased risk of distant metastasis in all subtypes except the hormone receptor-negative, HER2-positive (HR-/HER2+) subtype. Most p-genes were significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with the HR+/HER2- subtype, whereas i-genes correlated with a favorable outcome in patients with HR-/HER2+ breast cancer. In HR-/HER2+ breast cancer, four genes (three i-genes BTN3A2, CD2, and TRBC1 and the p-gene MMP11) were significantly associated with distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). A new prognostic model for HR-/HER2+ breast cancer based on the expression of MMP11 and CD2 was developed and the DMFS for patients in the high-risk group according to our model was significantly lower than that for those in the low-risk group. Multivariate analyses revealed that our risk score is an independent prognostic factor for DMFS. Moreover, C-index showed that our risk score has a superior prognostic performance to traditional clinicopathological factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Our new prognostic model for HR-/HER2+ breast cancer provides more accurate information on the risk of distant metastasis than traditional clinical prognostic factors and may be used to identify patients with a good prognosis in this aggressive subtype of breast cancer.

Pinheiro M, Drigo SA, Tonhosolo R, et al.
HABP2 p.G534E variant in patients with family history of thyroid and breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(25):40896-40905 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Familial Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC) has been described as a hereditary predisposition cancer syndrome associated with mutations in candidate genes including HABP2. Two of 20 probands from families with history of PTC and breast carcinoma (BC) were evaluated by whole exome sequencing (WES) revealing HABP2 p.G534E. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the involvement of this variant in three families (F1: 7 relatives; F2: 3 and F3: 3). The proband and his sister (with no malignant tumor so far) from F1 were homozygous for the variant whereas one relative with PTC from F2 was negative for the variant. Although the proband of the F3 with PTC was HABP2 wild type, three relatives presented the variant. Five of 170 healthy Brazilian individuals with no family history of BC or PTC and three of 50 sporadic PTC presented the p.G534E. These findings suggested no association of this variant with our familial PTC cases. Genes potentially associated with deregulation of the extracellular matrix organization pathway (CTSB, TNXB, COL4A3, COL16A1, COL24A1, COL5A2, NID1, LOXL2, MMP11, TRIM24 and MUSK) and DNA repair function (NBN and MSH2) were detected by WES, suggesting that other cancer-associated genes have pathogenic effects in the risk of familial PTC development.

Colden M, Dar AA, Saini S, et al.
MicroRNA-466 inhibits tumor growth and bone metastasis in prostate cancer by direct regulation of osteogenic transcription factor RUNX2.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(1):e2572 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key players in cancer progression and metastatic initiation yet their importance in regulating prostate cancer (PCa) metastasis to bone has begun to be appreciated. We employed multimodal strategy based on in-house PCa clinical samples, publicly available TCGA cohorts, a panel of cell lines, in silico analyses, and a series of in vitro and in vivo assays to investigate the role of miR-466 in PCa. Expression analyses revealed that miR-466 is under-expressed in PCa compared to normal tissues. Reconstitution of miR-466 in metastatic PCa cell lines impaired their oncogenic functions such as cell proliferation, migration/invasion and induced cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis compared to control miRNA. Conversely, attenuation of miR-466 in normal prostate cells induced tumorigenic characteristics. miR-466 suppressed PCa growth and metastasis through direct targeting of bone-related transcription factor RUNX2. Overexpression of miR-466 caused a marked downregulation of integrated network of RUNX2 target genes such as osteopontin, osteocalcin, ANGPTs, MMP11 including Fyn, pAkt, FAK and vimentin that are known to be involved in migration, invasion, angiogenesis, EMT and metastasis. Xenograft models indicate that miR-466 inhibits primary orthotopic tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis to bone. Receiver operating curve and Kaplan-Meier analyses show that miR-466 expression can discriminate between malignant and normal prostate tissues; and can predict biochemical relapse. In conclusion, our data strongly suggests miR-466-mediated attenuation of RUNX2 as a novel therapeutic approach to regulate PCa growth, particularly metastasis to bone. This study is the first report documenting the anti-bone metastatic role and clinical significance of miR-466 in prostate cancer.

Pires BR, Mencalha AL, Ferreira GM, et al.
NF-kappaB Is Involved in the Regulation of EMT Genes in Breast Cancer Cells.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(1):e0169622 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The metastatic process in breast cancer is related to the expression of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition transcription factors (EMT-TFs) SNAIL, SLUG, SIP1 and TWIST1. EMT-TFs and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation have been associated with aggressiveness and metastatic potential in carcinomas. Here, we sought to examine the role of NF-κB in the aggressive properties and regulation of EMT-TFs in human breast cancer cells. Blocking NF-κB/p65 activity by reducing its transcript and protein levels (through siRNA-strategy and dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin [DHMEQ] treatment) in the aggressive MDA-MB-231 and HCC-1954 cell lines resulted in decreased invasiveness and migration, a downregulation of SLUG, SIP1, TWIST1, MMP11 and N-cadherin transcripts and an upregulation of E-cadherin transcripts. No significant changes were observed in the less aggressive cell line MCF-7. Bioinformatics tools identified several NF-κB binding sites along the promoters of SNAIL, SLUG, SIP1 and TWIST1 genes. Through chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays, the NF-κB/p65 binding on TWIST1, SLUG and SIP1 promoter regions was confirmed. Thus, we suggest that NF-κB directly regulates the transcription of EMT-TF genes in breast cancer. Our findings may contribute to a greater understanding of the metastatic process of this neoplasia and highlight NF-κB as a potential target for breast cancer treatment.

Potenza N, Mosca N, Zappavigna S, et al.
MicroRNA-125a-5p Is a Downstream Effector of Sorafenib in Its Antiproliferative Activity Toward Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.
J Cell Physiol. 2017; 232(7):1907-1913 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sorafenib is an antitumor drug for treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It acts as a multikinase inhibitor suppressing cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Human microRNA-125a-5p (miR-125a) is endowed with similar activities and is frequently downregulated in HCC. Looking for a potential microRNA-based mechanism of action of the drug, we found that sorafenib increases cellular expression of miR-125a in cultured HuH-7 and HepG2 HCC cells. Upregulation of the microRNA inhibited cell proliferation by suppression of sirtuin-7, a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, and p21/p27-dependent cell cycle arrest in G1. Later, recruitment of miR-125a in the antiproliferative activity of sorafenib was inquired by modulating its expression in combination with the drug treatment. This analysis showed that intracellular delivery of miR-125a had no additive effect on the antiproliferative activity of sorafenib, whereas a miR-125a inhibitor could counteract it. Finally, evaluation of other oncogenic targets of miR-125a revealed its ability to interfere with the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-11, Zbtb7a proto-oncogene, and c-Raf, possibly contributing to the antiproliferative activity of the drug. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1907-1913, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Eiro N, Fernandez-Gomez J, Sacristán R, et al.
Stromal factors involved in human prostate cancer development, progression and castration resistance.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(2):351-359 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To detect new predictive markers from the prostate cancer tissue, to study the expression by cultured cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) of stromal factors implicated in prostate carcinogenesis, and to compare their expressions in localized, metastatic, castration-sensitive (CSCP), castration-resistant prostate tumors (CRCP) as well as in fibroblasts from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The genomic expression of 20 stroma-derived factors, including the androgen receptor (AR), growth factors (FGF2, FGF7, FGF10, HGF, TGFβ, PDGFB), protein implicated in invasion (MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-11), inflammation (IL-6, IL-17, STAT-3 and NFκB), stroma/epithelium interaction (CDH11, FAP, CXCL12 and CXCL14) and chaperones (HPA1A and HSF1), was evaluated in cultured fibroblasts both from BHP and prostate carcinomas (PCa). After isolation and culture of fibroblasts by biopsy specimens, RNA was isolated and genomic studies performed.
RESULTS: Finally, 5 BPH and 37 PCa specimens were selected: clinically localized (19), metastatic (5), CSCP (7) and CRPC (6). Interleukin-17 receptor (IL-17RB) was highly expressed in CAFs compared with fibroblasts from BPH. However, metalloproteinase-2 and chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14) were expressed at higher levels by fibroblasts from BPH. The fibroblastic growth factor-7 was highly expressed by CAFs from localized tumors, but metalloproteinase-11 in metastatic tumors. MMP-11, androgen receptor (AR) and heat-shock-70kda-protein-1A (HSPA1A) expressions were significantly higher in CAFs from CRPC.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate a CAFs heterogeneity among prostate carcinomas with regard to some molecular profile expressions that may be relevant in tumor development (IL-17RB), progression (MMP-11) and castration resistance (AR, MMP-11 and HSPA1A).

Zuo ZG, Zhang XF, Ye XZ, et al.
Bioinformatic analysis of RNA-seq data unveiled critical genes in rectal adenocarcinoma.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016; 20(14):3017-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: RNA-seq data of rectal adenocarcinoma (READ) were analyzed with bioinformatics tools to unveil potential biomarkers in the disease.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: RNA-seq data of READ were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Differential analysis was performed with package edgeR. False discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 and |log2 (fold change)|>1 were set as cut-off values to screen out differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene coexpression network was constructed with package Ebcoexpress. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis was performed for the DEGs in the gene coexpression network with DAVID online tool. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis was also performed for the genes with KOBASS 2.0.
RESULTS: A total of 620 DEGs, 389 up-regulated genes, and 231 down-regulated genes, were identified from 163 READ samples and 9 normal controls. A gene coexpression network consisting of 71 DEGs and 253 edges were constructed. Genes were associated with ribosome and focal adhesion functions. Three modules were identified, in which genes were involved in muscle contraction, negative regulation of glial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix organization functions, respectively. Several critical hub genes were disclosed, such as RPS2, MMP1, MMP11 and FAM83H. Thirteen relevant small molecule drugs were identified, such as scriptaid and spaglumic acid. A total of 8 TFs and 5 miRNAs were acquired, such as MYC, NFY, STAT5A, miR-29, miR-200 and miR-19.
CONCLUSIONS: Several critical genes and relevant drugs, TFs and miRNAs were revealed in READ. These findings could advance the understanding about the disease and benefit therapy development.

Tang L, Wei D, Yan F
MicroRNA-145 functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting matrix metalloproteinase 11 and Rab GTPase family 27a in triple-negative breast cancer.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2016; 23(8):258-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although increasing evidence has documented that microRNA-145 (miR-145) acts as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer, its exact role in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains poorly defined. In this study, the expression of miR-145 in human TNBC cells and samples from 30 patients was analyzed by stem-loop real-time PCR. We found that miR-145 was significantly downregulated in TNBC tissues and cells. Upregulating miR-145 in HCC1937 cells dramatically suppressed cell proliferation and induced G1-phase arrest, whereas MDA-MB-231 cells did not show growth inhibition. MiR-145 exhibited an inhibitory role in cell invasion through the post-transcriptional regulation of the novel targets MMP11 and Rab27a in TNBC cells. Additionally, miR-145 silencing could be reversed by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC). These results demonstrated that miR-145 has an inhibitory role in TNBC malignancy by targeting MMP11 and Rab27a, which might be potential therapeutic and diagnostic targets for TNBC.

Yonemori M, Seki N, Yoshino H, et al.
Dual tumor-suppressors miR-139-5p and miR-139-3p targeting matrix metalloprotease 11 in bladder cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(9):1233-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our recent study of the microRNA (miRNA) expression signature of bladder cancer (BC) by deep-sequencing revealed that two miRNA, microRNA-139-5p/microRNA-139-3p were significantly downregulated in BC tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional roles of these miRNA and their modulation of cancer networks in BC cells. Functional assays of BC cells were performed using transfection of mature miRNA or small interfering RNA (siRNA). Genome-wide gene expression analysis, in silico analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assays were applied to identify miRNA targets. The associations between the expression of miRNA and its targets and overall survival were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Gain-of-function studies showed that miR-139-5p and miR-139-3p significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion by BC cells. The matrix metalloprotease 11 gene (MMP11) was identified as a direct target of miR-139-5p and miR-139-3p. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that higher expression of MMP11 predicted shorter survival of BC patients (P = 0.029). Downregulated miR-139-5p or miR-139-3p enhanced BC cell migration and invasion in BC cells. MMP11 was directly regulated by these miRNA and might be a good prognostic marker for survival of BC patients.

Lee JY, Park K, Lee E, et al.
Gene Expression Profiling of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:28623 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The biology of breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM) is poorly understood. We aimed to explore genes that are implicated in the process of brain metastasis of primary breast cancer (BC). NanoString nCounter Analysis covering 252 target genes was used for comparison of gene expression levels between 20 primary BCs that relapsed to brain and 41 BCBM samples. PAM50-based intrinsic subtypes such as HER2-enriched and basal-like were clearly over-represented in BCBM. A panel of 22 genes was found to be significantly differentially expressed between primary BC and BCBM. Five of these genes, CXCL12, MMP2, MMP11, VCAM1, and MME, which have previously been associated with tumor progression, angiogenesis, and metastasis, clearly discriminated between primary BC and BCBM. Notably, the five genes were significantly upregulated in primary BC compared to BCBM. Conversely, SOX2 and OLIG2 genes were upregulated in BCBM. These genes may participate in metastatic colonization but not in primary tumor development. Among patient-matched paired samples (n = 17), a PAM50 molecular subtype conversion was observed in eight cases (47.1%), with a trend toward unfavorable subtypes in patients with the distinct gene expression. Our findings, although not conclusive, reveal differentially expressed genes that might mediate the brain metastasis process.

Wan X, Pu H, Huang W, et al.
Androgen-induced miR-135a acts as a tumor suppressor through downregulating RBAK and MMP11, and mediates resistance to androgen deprivation therapy.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(32):51284-51300 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The main challenge in the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) is that the majority of patients inevitably develop resistance to androgen deprivation. However, the mechanisms involved in hormone independent behavior of PCa remain unclear. In the present study, we identified androgen-induced miR-135a as a direct target of AR. Functional studies revealed that overexpression of miR-135a could significantly decrease cell proliferation and migration, and induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PCa. We identified RBAK and MMP11 as direct targets of miR-135a in PCa by integrating bioinformatics analysis and experimental assays. Mechanistically, miR-135a repressed PCa migration through downregulating MMP11 and induced PCa cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by suppressing RBAK. Consistently, inverse correlations were also observed between the expression of miR-135a and RBAK or MMP11 in PCa samples. In addition, low miR-135a and high RBAK and MMP11 expression were positively correlated with PCa progression. Also, PI3K/AKT pathway was confirmed to be an upstream regulation signaling of miR-135a in androgen-independent cell lines. Accordingly, we reported a resistance mechanism to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) mediated by miR-135a which might be downregulated by androgen depletion and/or PI3K/AKT hyperactivation, in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), thus promoting tumor progression. Taken together, miR-135a may represent a new diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker for castration-resistant PCa.

Waresijiang N, Sun J, Abuduaini R, et al.
The downregulation of miR‑125a‑5p functions as a tumor suppressor by directly targeting MMP‑11 in osteosarcoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(6):4859-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is one of the most common primary malignant bone cancers in juveniles and adults. Increasingly, reports indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) may provide novel therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of miR‑125a‑5p and to identify its functional significance in osteosarcoma. This indicated that miR‑125a‑5p was downregulated in osteosarcoma tissue and cell lines using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Following transfection with miR‑125a‑5p mimics or the negative control, cell migration, invasion and epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) assays were conducted in osteosarcoma cells. These results indicated that the overexpression of miR‑125a‑5p resulted in inhibited osteosarcoma cell migration, invasion and EMT in vitro. Furthermore, mechanistic studies showed that matrix metallopeptidase‑11 (MMP‑11), was a direct target of miR‑125a‑5p in osteosarcoma. Taken together, the data demonstrate that miR‑125a‑5p functions as a tumor suppressor gene and serves an important role in inhibiting osteosarcoma cell migration, invasion and EMT by targeting MMP‑11.

Iwasaki M, Zhao H, Jaffer T, et al.
Volatile anaesthetics enhance the metastasis related cellular signalling including CXCR2 of ovarian cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(18):26042-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The majority of ovarian cancer patients relapse after surgical resection. Evidence is accumulating regarding the role of surgery in disseminating cancer cells; in particular anaesthesia may have an impact on cancer re-occurrence. Here, we have investigated the metastatic potential of volatile anaesthetics isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane on ovarian cancer cells. Human ovarian carcinoma cells (SKOV3) were exposed to isoflurane (2%), sevoflurane (3.6%) or desflurane (10.3%) for 2 hours. Metastatic related gene expression profiles were measured using the Tumour Metastasis PCR Array and qRT-PCR. Subsequently vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2) proteins expression were determined using immunofluorescent staining. The migratory capacities of SK-OV3 cells were assessed with a scratch assay and the potential role of CXCR2 in mediating the effects of volatile anaesthetics on cancer cell biology were further investigated with CXCR2 knockdown by siRNA. All three volatile anaesthetics altered expression of 70 out of 81 metastasic related genes with significant increases in VEGF-A, MMP-11, CXCR2 and TGF-β genes and protein expression with a magnitude order of desflurane (greatest), sevoflurane and isoflurane. Scratch analysis revealed that exposure to these anesthetics increased migration, which was abolished by CXCR2 knockdown. Volatile anaesthetics at clinically relevant concentrations have strong effects on cancer cell biology which in turn could enhance ovarian cancer metastatic potential. This work raises the urgency for further in vivo studies and clinical trials before any conclusions can be made in term of the alteration of clinical practice.

Zhang X, Huang S, Guo J, et al.
Insights into the distinct roles of MMP-11 in tumor biology and future therapeutics (Review).
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(5):1783-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
The biological processes of cancer cells such as tumorigenesis, proliferation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and invasion are greatly influenced by the surrounding microenvironment. The ability of solid malignant tumors to alter the microenvironment represents an important characteristic through which tumor cells are able to acquire specific functions necessary for their malignant biological behaviors. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases with the capacity of remodeling extracellular matrix (ECM) by degrading almost all ECM proteins, which plays essential roles during the invasion and metastasis process of solid malignant tumors, including allowing tumor cells to modify the ECM components and release cytokines, ultimately facilitating protease-dependent tumor progression. MMP-11, also named stromelysin-3, is a member of the stromelysin subgroup belonging to MMPs superfamily, which has been detected in cancer cells, stromal cells and adjacent microenvironment. Differently, MMP-11 exerts a dual effect on tumors. On the one hand MMP-11 promotes cancer development by inhibiting apoptosis as well as enhancing migration and invasion of cancer cells, on the other hand MMP-11 plays a negative role against cancer development via suppressing metastasis in animal models. Overexpression of MMP-11 was discovered in sera of cancer patients compared with normal control group as well as in multiple tumor tissue specimens, such as gastric cancer, breast cancer, and pancreatic cancer. At present, some evidence supports that MMP-11 may work as a significant tumor biomarker for early detection of cancer, tumor staging, prognostic analysis, monitoring recurrence during follow-up and also a potential target for immunotherapy against cancer. In view of the importance of MMP-11 in modifying tumor microenvironment and potent antitumoral effects on solid tumors, there is an urgent need for a deeper understanding of how MMP-11 modulates tumor progression, and exploring its potential clinical application.

Li WM, Wei YC, Huang CN, et al.
Matrix metalloproteinase-11 as a marker of metastasis and predictor of poor survival in urothelial carcinomas.
J Surg Oncol. 2016; 113(6):700-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Urothelial carcinomas (UC) of urinary bladder (UB) and upper urinary tract (UT) are heterogeneous diseases with high morbidity and mortality. We looked for genes with metalloendopeptidase activity in a published UBUC transcriptomic database (GSE31684):MMP-11 was the most significant, showing stepwise up-regulation. We analyzed MMP-11 expression and association with clinicopathologic factors and survival in our well-characterized cohort of UCs.
METHODS: We determined MMP-11 expression in 295 UBUCs and 340 UTUCs with immunohistochemistry, evaluated by H-score. In a retrospective study, MMP-11 expression was correlated with clinicopathologic features and with disease-specific survival (DSS) and metastasis-free survival (MeFS). The statistical significance was evaluated with univariate and multivariate analyses.
RESULTS: High MMP-11 expression was significantly associated with advanced pT status, nodal metastasis, high histological grade, vascular and perineural invasion, and frequent mitoses. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, which adjusted for standard clinicopathologic characteristics, MMP-11 expression was independently associated with cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR] in UTUC:3.027, P = 0.005; in UBUC: 2.631, P = 0.010) and with metastasis development (HR in UTUC:2.261, P = 0.018; in UBUC:1.801, P = 0.026).
CONCLUSIONS: MMP-11 overexpression is associated with aggressive tumor phenotype and unfavorable clinical outcome in UTUC and UBUC, suggesting it may serve as a novel prognostic and therapeutic target. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:700-707. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

González L, Eiro N, Fernandez-Garcia B, et al.
Gene expression profile of normal and cancer-associated fibroblasts according to intratumoral inflammatory cells phenotype from breast cancer tissue.
Mol Carcinog. 2016; 55(11):1489-1502 [PubMed] Related Publications
The biological heterogeneity of breast cancer leads to the need for finding new approaches to understand the mechanisms implicated in breast cancer progression. The tumor stroma appears as a key in the progression of solid tumors towards a malignant phenotype. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) may orchestrate a functional "corrupted" stroma which in turn helps metastatic spread. In this study, we investigated by real-time PCR, the expression of 19 factors by normal breast-associated fibroblasts (NAFs) and CAFs, which were implicated in several actions promoting tumor growth, such as extracellular matrix remodeling, inflammation and invasion. Also, we explored the influence of inflammatory cells phenotypes (MMP11 status) and breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) on the molecular profile of CAFs. If we consider that one of the major sources of CAFs are resident NAFs, the transition of NAFs into CAFs is associated with molecular changes involving the overexpression of some molecular factors of biological importance in tumor progression. In addition, the characterization of the tumor stroma regarding to the MMP11 status by MICs reflects a type of fibroblasts which contribute even more to tumor progression. Moreover, different patterns in the induction of the expression of factors by CAFs were observed, depending on the tumor cell line which they were co-cultured with. Furthermore, CAFs influence TGFβ expression in both cancer cell lines. Therefore, this study can help to a better characterization of tumor stroma in order to improve the prognostic evaluation, as well as to define the different populations of CAFs as potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Fu J, Khaybullin R, Zhang Y, et al.
Gene expression profiling leads to discovery of correlation of matrix metalloproteinase 11 and heparanase 2 in breast cancer progression.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:473 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In order to identify biomarkers involved in breast cancer, gene expression profiling was conducted using human breast cancer tissues.
METHODS: Total RNAs were extracted from 150 clinical patient tissues covering three breast cancer subtypes (Luminal A, Luminal B, and Triple negative) as well as normal tissues. The expression profiles of a total of 50,739 genes were established from a training set of 32 samples using the Agilent Sure Print G3 Human Gene Expression Microarray technology. Data were analyzed using Agilent Gene Spring GX 12.6 software. The expression of several genes was validated using real-time RT-qPCR.
RESULTS: Data analysis with Agilent GeneSpring GX 12.6 software showed distinct expression patterns between cancer and normal tissue samples. A group of 28 promising genes were identified with ≥ 10-fold changes of expression level and p-values < 0.05. In particular, MMP11 and HPSE2 were closely examined due to the important roles they play in cancer cell growth and migration. Real-time RT-qPCR analyses of both training and testing sets validated the gene expression profiles of MMP11 and HPSE2.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identified these 2 genes as a novel breast cancer biomarker gene set, which may facilitate the diagnosis and treatment in breast cancer clinical therapies.

Hsin CH, Chen MK, Tang CH, et al.
High level of plasma matrix metalloproteinase-11 is associated with clinicopathological characteristics in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e113129 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinase-11 (MMP-11) is reported to be overexpressed in several cancers and may contribute to tumorigenesis. The current study investigated the association between the clinicopathological characteristics and plasma level of MMP-11 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients.
METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The plasma MMP-11 concentration was determined by ELISA on 330 male OSCC patients. In addition, the metastatic effects of the MMP-11 knockdown on the oral cancer cells were investigated by cell migration assay. Our results showed that the plasma MMP-11 levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced T status (p = 0.001), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.006) and higher TNM stages (p<0.001). Moreover, treatment with the MMP-11 shRNA exerted an inhibitory effect on migration in SCC9 oral cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: Our study showed that plasma level of MMP-11 may be useful for assessment of the disease progression, especially lymph node metastasis, in patients with OSCC.

Further References

Têtu B, Brisson J, Lapointe H, Bernard P
Prognostic significance of stromelysin 3, gelatinase A, and urokinase expression in breast cancer.
Hum Pathol. 1998; 29(9):979-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that the expression of proteases essentially produced by reactive stromal cells (stromelysin-3 [ST3], gelatinase A [GELA], and urokinase [uPA]) is predictive of prognosis in patients with breast cancer. This was a study of patients with node-positive and node-negative breast cancer diagnosed from 1980 to 1986 and with an average of 10 years follow-up. ST3 (665 cases), GELA, and uPA (575 cases each) expression was obtained by in situ hybridization on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material using mRNA antisense probes. ST3 was expressed by 86.6% of the cases; GELA, 77.7%; and uPA, 64.7%. A significant correlation (P < .05) was found between high (more than 10%) ST3 expression and a younger age, lymph node involvement, poor nuclear grade, ductal histology, aneuploidy, and HSP-27 expression. High GELA expression was significantly associated with c-erbB2, ductal histology, and HSP-27 expression. High uPA expression correlated with poor nuclear grade, ductal histology, lack of estrogen and progesterone receptors, and p53 protein accumulation. High level of expression of all three proteases correlated significantly with each other and with cathepsin D expression by reactive stromal cells. By univariate analysis, both ST3 and uPA expression significantly predicted a shorter recurrence-free survival (ST3, P = .0199; uPA, P = .0269). By multivariate analyses, the prognostic significance was lost, most particularly at longer term. This study adds support to the concept that protease expression by reactive stromal cells is related to cancer cell characteristics but that their contribution to cancer progression is marginal.

Ahmad A, Hanby A, Dublin E, et al.
Stromelysin 3: an independent prognostic factor for relapse-free survival in node-positive breast cancer and demonstration of novel breast carcinoma cell expression.
Am J Pathol. 1998; 152(3):721-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Stromelysin 3 (ST3) is a matrix metalloproteinase implicated in mammary carcinoma progression. To date, localization of ST3 expression in breast cancer by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry has shown that the expression of the enzyme is limited to only the stromal fibroblasts surrounding the cancer cells. We have immunostained a large group of ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive breast carcinomas using a monoclonal antibody (5ST-4A9) raised against the hemopexin-like domain of human ST3. We show that invasive lobular carcinomas express significantly less ST3 than invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) (P = 0.002). We also show, for the first time, that certain breast carcinoma cells that have undergone a degree of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, the so-called metaplastic carcinomas, can express ST3 mRNA and protein, which may in part explain the increased metastatic propensity seen in a number of these tumors. In addition, patients with IDC who had moderate to strong ST3 levels had significantly shorter disease-free survival than those with negative or weak ST3 levels (P = 0.02). Furthermore, in node-positive IDC patients, multivariate analysis revealed that ST3 level was a strong, independent prognostic parameter for disease-free survival (P = 0.005).

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