Gene Summary

Gene:SKP2; S-phase kinase associated protein 2
Aliases: p45, FBL1, FLB1, FBXL1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbls class; in addition to an F-box, this protein contains 10 tandem leucine-rich repeats. This protein is an essential element of the cyclin A-CDK2 S-phase kinase. It specifically recognizes phosphorylated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B, also referred to as p27 or KIP1) predominantly in S phase and interacts with S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1 or p19). In addition, this gene is established as a protooncogene causally involved in the pathogenesis of lymphomas. Alternative splicing of this gene generates three transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:S-phase kinase-associated protein 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (17)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (5)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SKP2 (cancer-related)

Yang F, Xu J, Li H, et al.
FBXW2 suppresses migration and invasion of lung cancer cells via promoting β-catenin ubiquitylation and degradation.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1382 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
FBXW2 inhibits proliferation of lung cancer cells by targeting SKP2 for degradation. Whether and how FBXW2 regulates tumor invasion and metastasis is previously unknown. Here, we report that FBXW2 is an E3 ligase for β-catenin. FBXW2 binds to β-catenin upon EGF-AKT1-mediated phosphorylation on Ser

Xiang Y, Zhang L, Huang Y, et al.
Microarray-based data mining reveals key genes and potential therapeutic drugs for Cadmium-induced prostate cell malignant transformation.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2019; 68:141-147 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasing evidence showed that Cadmium (Cd) can accumulate in the body and damage cells, resulting in cancerigenesis of the prostate with complex mechanisms. In the present study, we aimed to explore the possible key genes, pathways and therapeutic drugs using bioinformatics methods. Microarray-based data were retrieved and analyzed to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Cd-treated prostate cells and controls. Then, functions of the DEGs were annotated and hub genes were screened. Next, key genes were selected from the hub genes via validation in a prostate cancer cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Afterward, potential drugs were further predicted. Consequently, a gene expression profile, GSE9951, was retrieved. Then, 361 up-regulated and 30 down-regulated DEGs were screened out, which were enriched in various pathways. Among the DEGs, seven hub genes (HSPA5, HSP90AB1, RHOA, HSPD1, MAD2L1, SKP2, and CCT2) were dysregulated in prostate cancer compared to normal controls, and two of them (HSPD1 and CCT2) might influence the prostate cancer prognosis. Lastly, ionomycin was predicted to be a potential agent reversing Cd-induced prostate cell malignant transformation. In summary, the present study provided novel evidence regarding the mechanisms of Cd-induced prostate cell malignant transformation, and identified ionomycin as a potential small molecule against Cd toxicity.

Wang L, Zhao S, Yu M
Mechanism of Low Expression of miR-30a-5p on Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Metastasis in Ovarian Cancer.
DNA Cell Biol. 2019; 38(4):341-351 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis of ovarian cancer is regulated by microRNAs. This study focused on the effects of miR-30a-5p on ovarian cancer migration and invasion. Our results showed that the miR-30a-5p and mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis are closely related to ovarian cancer, and that miR-30a-5p was downregulated in ovarian cancer cells. miR-30a-5p overexpression reduced cell viability and inhibited migration and invasion in HO-8910 and HO-8910PM cells. S phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2), B cell lymphoma 9 (BCL9), and NOTHC1 are direct target genes of miR-30a-5p. MTDH, SKP2, BCL9, and NOTCH1 genes were overexpressed in ovarian cancer cells, and they are direct target genes of miR-30a-5p. miR-30a-5p overexpression inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, while upregulation of SKP2, BCL9, and NOTCH1 gene expression levels reduced the inhibition of EMT process by miR-30a-5p. miR-30a-5p was lowly expressed in ovarian cancer, and such a phenomenon is related to ovarian cancer metastasis. miR-30a-5p might inhibit the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells by downregulating the expression of SKP2, BCL9, and NOTCH1 genes.

Li C, Du L, Ren Y, et al.
SKP2 promotes breast cancer tumorigenesis and radiation tolerance through PDCD4 ubiquitination.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) is an oncogene and cell cycle regulator that specifically recognizes phosphorylated cell cycle regulator proteins and mediates their ubiquitination. Programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) is a tumor suppressor gene that plays a role in cell apoptosis and DNA-damage response via interacting with eukaryotic initiation factor-4A (eIF4A) and P53. Previous research showed SKP2 may interact with PDCD4, however the relationship between SKP2 and PDCD4 is unclear.
METHODS: To validate the interaction between SKP2 and PDCD4, mass spectrometric analysis and reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) experiments were performed. SKP2 stably overexpressed or knockdown breast cancer cell lines were established and western blot was used to detect proteins changes before and after radiation. In vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to verify whether SKP2 inhibits cell apoptosis and promotes DNA-damage response via PDCD4 suppression. SMIP004 was used to test the effect of radiotherapy combined with SKP2 inhibitor.
RESULTS: We found that SKP2 remarkably promoted PDCD4 phosphorylation, ubiquitination and degradation. SKP2 promoted cell proliferation, inhibited cell apoptosis and enhanced the response to DNA-damage via PDCD4 suppression in breast cancer. SKP2 and PDCD4 showed negative correlation in human breast cancer tissues. Radiotherapy combine with SKP2 inhibitor SMIP004 showed significant inhibitory effects on breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: We identify PDCD4 as an important ubiquitination substrate of SKP2. SKP2 promotes breast cancer tumorigenesis and radiation tolerance via PDCD4 degradation. Radiotherapy combine with SKP2-targeted adjuvant therapy may improve breast cancer patient survival in clinical medicine.

Li Z, Qi DL, Singh HP, et al.
A novel thyroid hormone receptor isoform, TRβ2-46, promotes SKP2 expression and retinoblastoma cell proliferation.
J Biol Chem. 2019; 294(8):2961-2969 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/02/2020 Related Publications
Retinoblastoma is a childhood retinal tumor that develops from cone photoreceptor precursors in response to inactivating

Chae YC, Kim JY, Park JW, et al.
FOXO1 degradation via G9a-mediated methylation promotes cell proliferation in colon cancer.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2019; 47(4):1692-1705 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/02/2020 Related Publications
Posttranslational modifications of the Forkhead family transcription factor, FOXO1, have been known to have important regulatory implications in its diverse activities. Several types of modifications of FOXO1, including acetylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination, have been reported. However, lysine methylation of FOXO1 has not yet been identified. Here, we reported that FOXO1 is methylated by G9a at K273 residue in vitro and in vivo. Methylation of FOXO1 by G9a increased interaction between FOXO1 and a specific E3 ligase, SKP2, and decreased FOXO1 protein stability. In addition, G9a expression was increased by insulin and resulted in insulin-mediated FOXO1 degradation by K273 methylation. Tissue array analysis indicated that G9a was overexpressed and FOXO1 levels decreased in human colon cancer. Cell proliferation assays revealed that G9a-mediated FOXO1 methylation increased colon cancer cell proliferation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis indicated that apoptosis rates were higher in the presence of FOXO1 than in FOXO1 knock-out cells. Furthermore, we found that G9a protein levels were elevated and FOXO1 protein levels were decreased in human colon cancer patients tissue samples. Here, we report that G9a specific inhibitor, BIX-01294, can regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis by inhibiting G9a-mediated FOXO1 methylation.

Gao L, He RQ, Wu HY, et al.
Expression Signature and Role of miR-30d-5p in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: a Comprehensive Study Based on in Silico Analysis of Public Databases and in Vitro Experiments.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 50(5):1964-1987 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The purpose of this study was to probe the clinico-pathological significance and the underlying mechanism of miR-30d-5p expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
METHODS: We initially examined the level of miR-30d-5p expression in NSCLC and non-cancer tissues using RT-qPCR. Then, a series of validation analyses including a meta-analysis of data from microarray chips in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), data mining of the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) and an integrated meta-analysis incorporating GEO microarray chips, TCGA data, in-house RT-qPCR and literature studies were performed to examine the clinico-pathological value of miR-30d-5p expression in NSCLC. In vitro experiments were further conducted to investigate the impact of miR-30d-5p on NSCLC cell growth. The molecular mechanism by which miR-30d-5p regulates the pathogenesis of NSCLC was probed through a bioinformatics analysis of its target genes. Moreover, dual luciferase reporter assay was conducted to verify the targeting regulatory relationship between miR-30d-5p and CCNE2.
RESULTS: Based on results from RT-qPCR, GEO meta-analysis, TCGA data mining and the integrated meta-analysis incorporating GEO microarray chips, TCGA data, in-house RT-qPCR and literature studies, miR-30d-5p expression was decreased in NSCLC tissues, and patients with NSCLC who presented with lower miR-30d-5p expression tended to display an advanced clinical progression. Significant pathways including the Mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis pathway, cell cycle pathway and cysteine and methionine metabolism pathway (all P< 0.05) revealed potential roles of the target genes of miR-30d-5p in the oncogenesis of NSCLC. Results from in vitro experiments indicated that miR-30d-5p could attenuate proliferation and viability of NSCLC cells. Among the 12 identified hub genes, nine genes including E2F3, CCNE2, SKP2, CDK6, TFDP1, LDHA, GOT2, DNMT3B and ST6GALNAC1 were validated by Pearson's correlation test and the human protein atlas (HPA) database as targets of miR-30d-5p with higher probability. Specifically, dual luciferase reporter assay confirmed that CCNE2 was directly targeted by miR-30d-5p.
CONCLUSION: In summary, miR-30d-5p expression is decreased in NSCLC, and it might play the role as tumor suppressor in NSCLC by regulating target genes.

Wang X, Zhang T, Zhang S, Shan J
Prognostic values of F-box members in breast cancer: an online database analysis and literature review.
Biosci Rep. 2019; 39(1) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/02/2020 Related Publications

Huo J, Chen X, Zhang H, et al.
Bcl-3 promotes proliferation and chemosensitivity in BL1 subtype of TNBC cells.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2018; 50(11):1141-1149 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bcl-3 is an established oncogene in diverse malignant tumors. In this study, we investigated a dual role of Bcl-3 in BL1-subtype triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The BL1-subtype TNBC is featured by increasing cell cycle gene expression and the highest sensitivity to chemotherapy among all subtypes. Bcl-3 is associated with a better prognosis in BL1 patients. Bcl-3 knockdown in BL1 cell MDA-MB-468 induces the inhibition of cell proliferation and the G1/S transition arrest by promoting p27 and reducing the expressions of c-Myc and skp2 at mRNA and protein levels. Meanwhile, Bcl-3 enhances the sensitivity of MDA-MB-468 to chemotherapeutics ABX and PTX. Furthermore, the regulation mechanisms are restricted to BL1 cell and do not occur in SUM159PT, a typical MSL subtype of TNBC cell. These data suggest that Bcl-3 may be a potential clinical biomarker for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of patients with BL1-subtype TNBC.

Shi H, Li H, Yuan R, et al.
PCBP1 depletion promotes tumorigenesis through attenuation of p27
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):187 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Poly C Binding Protein 1 (PCBP1) is an RNA-binding protein that binds and regulates translational activity of subsets of cellular mRNAs. Depletion of PCBP1 is implicated in various carcinomas, but the underlying mechanism in tumorigenesis remains elusive.
METHODS: We performed a transcriptome-wide screen to identify novel bounding mRNA of PCBP1. The bind regions between PCBP1 with target mRNA were investigated by using point mutation and luciferase assay. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, tumorigenesis and cell apoptosis were also evaluated in ovary and colon cancer cell lines. The mechanism that PCBP1 affects p27 was analyzed by mRNA stability and ribosome profiling assays. We analyzed PCBP1 and p27 expression in ovary, colon and renal tumor samples and adjacent non-tumor tissues using RT-PCR, Western Blotting and immunohistochemistry. The prognostic significance of PCBP1 and p27 also analyzed using online databases.
RESULTS: We identified cell cycle inhibitor p27
CONCLUSION: Our results thereby indicate that loss of PCBP1 expression firstly attenuates p27 expression at post-transcriptional level, and subsequently promotes carcinogenesis. PCBP1 could be used as a diagnostic marker to cancer patients.

Meyer SE, Muench DE, Rogers AM, et al.
miR-196b target screen reveals mechanisms maintaining leukemia stemness with therapeutic potential.
J Exp Med. 2018; 215(8):2115-2136 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/02/2020 Related Publications
We have shown that antagomiR inhibition of miRNA miR-21 and miR-196b activity is sufficient to ablate MLL-AF9 leukemia stem cells (LSC) in vivo. Here, we used an shRNA screening approach to mimic miRNA activity on experimentally verified miR-196b targets to identify functionally important and therapeutically relevant pathways downstream of oncogenic miRNA in MLL-r AML. We found

Brough R, Gulati A, Haider S, et al.
Identification of highly penetrant Rb-related synthetic lethal interactions in triple negative breast cancer.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(43):5701-5718 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/02/2020 Related Publications
Although defects in the RB1 tumour suppressor are one of the more common driver alterations found in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), therapeutic approaches that exploit this have not been identified. By integrating molecular profiling data with data from multiple genetic perturbation screens, we identified candidate synthetic lethal (SL) interactions associated with RB1 defects in TNBC. We refined this analysis by identifying the highly penetrant effects, reasoning that these would be more robust in the face of molecular heterogeneity and would represent more promising therapeutic targets. A significant proportion of the highly penetrant RB1 SL effects involved proteins closely associated with RB1 function, suggesting that this might be a defining characteristic. These included nuclear pore complex components associated with the MAD2 spindle checkpoint protein, the kinase and bromodomain containing transcription factor TAF1, and multiple components of the SCF

Tan Y, Zhou G, Wang X, et al.
USP18 promotes breast cancer growth by upregulating EGFR and activating the AKT/Skp2 pathway.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(1):371-383 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies have suggested that ubiquitin-specific peptidase (USP)18 may act as an oncogene in various types of cancer. Although the role of USP18 in breast cancer cell lines has been elucidated, the underlying mechanisms and clinical role of USP18 in breast cancer are currently not well understood. The bioinformatics analysis and experimental results of the present study demonstrated that aberrant promoter methylation led to increased expression of USP18 in breast cancer. In addition, correlation analysis suggested that a negative correlation between methylation and USP18 mRNA expression was observed in The Cancer Genome Atlas database. USP18 promoted cell proliferation, colony formation and cell cycle progression in vitro. Furthermore, the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis results demonstrated that USP18 may be negatively associated with apoptosis in patients with breast cancer. Bioinformatics analysis results indicated that USP18 was also revealed to be associated with the protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway and mammary tumorigenesis in vivo. In addition, the results indicated that USP18 may promote the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-mediated EGF receptor (EGFR)/AKT/S‑phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) pathway by upregulating EGFR and Skp2 in a AKT/forkhead box O3-dependent manner in breast cancer. The results of bioinformatics analysis revealed that increased USP18 expression was associated with a higher TNM stage and unfavorable prognosis in clinical patients. USP18 was also significantly enhanced in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer; furthermore, Kaplan‑Meier curve demonstrated that combining USP18 and Skp2 expression improved prognostic capability in breast cancer. Taken together, these results suggested that USP18 may serve a key role in breast cancer development by upregulating EGFR and subsequently activating the AKT/Skp2 feedback loop pathway. The role of USP18 in breast cancer provides a novel insight into the clinical application of the USP18/AKT/Skp2 pathway.

Hu Q, Qin Y, Xiang J, et al.
dCK negatively regulates the NRF2/ARE axis and ROS production in pancreatic cancer.
Cell Prolif. 2018; 51(4):e12456 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Decreased deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) expression is a reported indicator of gemcitabine efficacy in pancreatic cancer, due to the impact of this kinase on gemcitabine metabolism. The transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (NRF2, also called Nfe2l2), a master regulator of redox homoeostasis, has been reported to tightly control the expression of numerous ROS-detoxification genes and participates in drug resistance. However, the contribution of dCK to the NRF2 signalling axis has seldom been discussed and needs investigation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: By overexpressing dCK in pancreatic cancer cells, we assessed the impact of dCK on NRF2 transcriptional activity. Furthermore, we measured the impact of dCK expression on the intracellular redox balance and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. By utilizing immunohistochemical staining and tissues from pancreatic cancer patients, we assessed the correlation between dCK and NRF2 expression. Through proliferation and metastasis assays, we examined the impact of dCK expression on cell proliferation and metastasis.
RESULTS: dCK negatively regulates NRF2 transcriptional activity, leading to the decreased expression of ARE-driven antioxidant genes. In addition, dCK negatively regulates intracellular redox homoeostasis and ROS production. Negative correlations between dCK and NRF2 levels in pancreatic cancer cell lines and patient samples were observed. In vitro cell line studies suggested that dCK negatively regulated proliferation and metastasis.
CONCLUSION: Decreased dCK expression promotes NRF2-driven antioxidant transcription, which further enhances gemcitabine treatment resistance, forming a feedback loop.

Ding L, Wang C, Cui Y, et al.
S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in methotrexate-resistant osteosarcoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 52(6):1841-1852 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/02/2020 Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS), a common worldwide primary aggressive bone malignancy, arises from primitive transformed cells of mesenchymal origin and usually attacks adolescents and young adults. Methotrexate (MTX) is the anti-folate drug used as a pivotal chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of OS. However, patients with OS often develop drug resistance, leading to poor treatment outcomes. In the present study, in order to explore the underlying mechanisms responsible for MTX resistance, we established MTX‑resistant OS cells using the U2OS and MG63 cell lines and examined whether MTX‑resistant OS cells underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by Transwell assay, wound healing assay, MTT assay, RT-PCR and western blot analysis. We found that the viability of the MTX‑resistant cells remained relatively unaltered following further treatment with MTX compared to the parental cells. The resistant cells appeared to possess a mesenchymal phenotype, with an elongated and more spindle‑like shape, and acquired enhanced invasive, migratory and attachment abilities. The measurement of EMT markers also supported EMT transition in the MTX‑resistant OS cells. Our result further demonstrated that the overexpression of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) was closely involved in the resistance of OS cells to MTX and in the acquirement of EMT properties. Thus, the pharmacological inhibition of Skp2 may prove to be a novel therapeutic strategy with which to overcome drug resistance in OS.

Singh K, Dong Q, TimiriShanmugam PS, et al.
Tetrandrine inhibits deregulated cell cycle in pancreatic cancer cells: Differential regulation of p21
Cancer Lett. 2018; 425:164-173 [PubMed] Related Publications
Current therapies in Pancreatic Cancer (PaCa) are ineffective due to deregulated cell cycle driven by landscape mutations. In this study, we show for the first time that tetrandrine (TET) inhibits proliferation of the PaCa cells and inhibits PaCa tumor growth. TET inhibits cell cycle transition at G1/S boundary. TET increased levels of p21

Shi C, Pan BQ, Shi F, et al.
Sequestosome 1 protects esophageal squamous carcinoma cells from apoptosis via stabilizing SKP2 under serum starvation condition.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(24):3260-3274 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the malignancies in digestive system, with a low 5-year survival rate. We previously revealed that Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1/p62) protein levels were upregulated in ESCC tissues. However, it is unclear about the function of p62 and the underlying mechanism. Here, we used immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of p62 in ESCC. Western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, colony formation assay, flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation and xenograft tumor assay were used to analyze the role of p62 in vitro and vivo. Here, we showed that p62 serves as a regulator of cell apoptosis under serum starvation condition in ESCC cells. Through activating the protein kinase C iota (PKCiota)-S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) signaling pathway, p62 enhances cell apoptosis resistance and colony formation in vitro and tumor growth in mouse models. Through interaction with the domains PB1, p62 upregulated the expression of PKCiota and then depressed the ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation of SKP2. p62-silencing combined with a PKCiota inhibitor ATM significantly enhanced cell apoptosis and inhibited cell survival. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a positive association between the expression of p62 and SKP2 in primary ESCC tissues. And importantly, p62 presented a markedly cytoplasmic translocation in cancerous cells, including in 16 (30.76%) tumors at stage T1, as compared with its nuclear location in normal esophageal epithelial cells. In summary, p62 plays an anti-apoptotic role in ESCC cells via stabilizing SKP2 under serum starvation condition. These data suggest that p62 might be an early biomarker and a candidate therapeutic target of ESCC.

Peeken JC, Jutzi JS, Wehrle J, et al.
Epigenetic regulation of NFE2 overexpression in myeloproliferative neoplasms.
Blood. 2018; 131(18):2065-2073 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/02/2020 Related Publications
The transcription factor "nuclear factor erythroid 2" (NFE2) is overexpressed in the majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). In murine models, elevated NFE2 levels cause an MPN phenotype with spontaneous leukemic transformation. However, both the molecular mechanisms leading to NFE2 overexpression and its downstream targets remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that the histone demethylase

Huang Y, Wang H, Lian Y, et al.
Upregulation of kinesin family member 4A enhanced cell proliferation via activation of Akt signaling and predicted a poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cell Death Dis. 2018; 9(2):141 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/02/2020 Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most frequent cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and the molecular pathogenesis and development of HCC are largely unknown. In the present study, we found that KIF4A expression was upregulated in HCC (678 samples, P = 2.03E-8) based on a meta-analysis of Oncomine database. We further confirmed that both KIF4A mRNA and protein expressions were overexpressed in human HCC tumour tissues as well as cancer cell lines. Higher KIF4A expression was correlated with poorer overall survival (P < 0.0001) and disease-free survival (P < 0.0337) in HCC patients. We constructed in vitro KIF4A overexpression and depletion HCC cell models. KIF4A overexpression significantly enhanced cellular proliferation and clonogenic abilities, whereas KIF4A depletion caused a dramatic increase of cells with abnormal chromosome segregation and subsequently resulted in augmentation of apoptosis in HCC cells. In addition, we demonstrated that KIF4A depletion was related to inhibition of Akt kinase activity and induction of intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathway. Taken together, KIF4A may act as a prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in human HCC.

Ren H, Zhang Y, Zhu H
MiR-339 depresses cell proliferation via directly targeting S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 mRNA in lung cancer.
Thorac Cancer. 2018; 9(3):408-414 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) takes great part in the development of multiple tumors. However, the post-transcriptional modulation mechanism of Skp2 remains unclear. Here, we present a new regulatory microRNA of Skp2, miR-339, which directly targets Skp2 to inhibit cell proliferation in lung cancer.
METHODS: The expression of miR-339 or Skp2 in lung cancer samples was tested by real time-PCR. The correlation between miR-339 and Skp2 in lung cancer samples was analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The effect of miR-339 or anti-miR-339 on Skp2 was evaluated by immunoblotting. The luciferase reporter gene assay was used to test the targeting of miR-339 on Skp2. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide and colony formation analysis were applied to examine the function of miR-339 targeting Skp2 in lung cancer cells.
RESULTS: The negative correlation of miR-339 with Skp2 was found in clinical human lung cancer tissues. Furthermore, Skp2 expression was obviously abated by miR-339 in lung cancer A549 cells. Mechanistically, we used bioinformatics to predict that miR-339 could target the 3'-untranslated region of Skp2 mRNA. Luciferase reporter gene assay demonstrated that miR-339 could decrease the luciferase activities of the 3'-untranslated region vector of Skp2. In terms of function, ectopic miR-339 expression significantly suppressed cell proliferation in lung cancer. Overexpressed Skp2 accelerated miR-339-bated proliferation of lung cancer cells. MiR-339 inhibitor promoted cell proliferation in lung cancer, but Skp2 RNA interference reversed miR-339 inhibitor-driven cell proliferation.
CONCLUSION: MiR-339 targets the 3'-untranslated region of Skp2 mRNA to depress the proliferation of lung cancer cells.

Li F, Dong X, Lin P, Jiang J
Regulation of Akt/FoxO3a/Skp2 Axis Is Critically Involved in Berberine-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(2) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/02/2020 Related Publications
The maintenance of ordinal cell cycle phases is a critical biological process in cancer genesis, which is a crucial target for anti-cancer drugs. As an important natural isoquinoline alkaloid from Chinese herbal medicine, Berberine (BBR) has been reported to possess anti-cancer potentiality to induce cell cycle arrest in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC). However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. In our present study, G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest was observed in berberine-treated Huh-7 and HepG2 cells. Mechanically, we observed that BBR could deactivate the Akt pathway, which consequently suppressed the S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) expression and enhanced the expression and translocation of Forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a) into nucleus. The translocated FoxO3a on one hand could directly promote the transcription of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p21

Shen L, Qu X, Li H, et al.
NDRG2 facilitates colorectal cancer differentiation through the regulation of Skp2-p21/p27 axis.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(13):1759-1774 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/02/2020 Related Publications
Poorly differentiated colorectal cancers (CRCs) are more aggressive and lack targeted therapies. We and others previously reported the predominant role of tumor-suppressor NDRG2 in promoting CRC differentiation, but the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that NDRG2 induction of CRC cell differentiation is dependent on the repression of E3 ligase Skp2 activity. In patients and Ndrg2 knockout mice, NDRG2 and Skp2 are negatively correlated and associated with cell differentiation stage. Further, NDRG2 suppression of Skp2 contributes to the inductions and stabilizations of p21 and p27, which are Skp2 target proteins for degradation. The reduction of either p21 or p27 levels by shRNA can decrease NDRG2-induced AKP activity and resume cell growth inhibition, thus both p21 and p27 are required for NDRG2 effect on the promotion of cell differentiation in CRCs. The mechanistic study shows that NDRG2 suppresses β-catenin nuclear translocation and decreases the occupancy of β-catenin/TCF complex on Skp2 promoter, potentially through dephosphorylating GSK-3β. By subjecting a series of NDRG2 deletion mutants to Skp2 expression, the loss of NH

Hölscher AS, Schulz WA, Pinkerneil M, et al.
Combined inhibition of BET proteins and class I HDACs synergistically induces apoptosis in urothelial carcinoma cell lines.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10:1 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/02/2020 Related Publications
Background: New efficient therapies for urothelial carcinoma (UC) are urgently required. Small-molecule drugs targeting chromatin regulators are reasonable candidates because these regulators are frequently mutated or deregulated in UC. Indeed, in previous work, Romidepsin, which targets class I histone deacetylases (HDAC), efficiently killed UC cells, but did not elicit canonical apoptosis and affected benign urothelial cells indiscriminately. Combinations of HDAC inhibitors with JQ1, an inhibitor of bromodomain-containing acetylation reader proteins like BRD4, which promote especially the transcription of pro-tumorigenic genes, have shown efficacy in several tumor types. We therefore investigated the effects of combined Romidepsin and JQ1 treatment on UC and benign urothelial control cells.
Results: JQ1 alone induced cell cycle arrest, but only limited apoptosis in eight UC cell lines with strongly varying IC
Conclusion: Our results demonstrate significant synergistic effects on induction of apoptosis in UC cells by the combination treatment with JQ1 and Romidepsin, but only minor effects in benign cells. Thus, this study established a promising new small-molecule combination therapy approach for UC.

Yang JS, Lee CY, Cho HC, et al.
ITR‑284 modulates cell differentiation in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(1):383-391 [PubMed] Related Publications
ITR‑284 is a carboxamide analog that can inhibit proliferation in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. To understand the effects and molecular mechanisms of ITR‑284 in human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia, we treated K562 cells with different concentrations of ITR‑284 (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 nM) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 µM) for 24 h. The IC50 of ITR‑284 was ~10 nM in K562 cells treated for 24 h as determined by MTT assay. May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining and nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) assays were used to determine cell morphology changes and differentiation after ITR‑284 and ATRA treatment. In addition, mRNA expression levels of hematopoietic factors, including GATA‑1, NF-E2 and GATA‑2, were elevated, while expression levels of BCR‑ABL were downregulated in K562 cells after 24 h of treatment with ITR‑284 as determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In addition, western blot analyses showed that FOXM1, GLI 1 and c-MYC protein levels were decreased by ITR‑284. Taken together, our data show that ITR‑284 induced K562 cell differentiation, which led to decreased tumorigenesis. Our findings suggest that ITR‑284 could be a potential candidate for treating chronic myelogenous leukemia.

Wang L, Zhang R, You X, et al.
The steady-state level of CDK4 protein is regulated by antagonistic actions between PAQR4 and SKP2 and involved in tumorigenesis.
J Mol Cell Biol. 2017; 9(5):409-421 [PubMed] Related Publications
CDK4 is crucial for G1-to-S transition of cell cycle. It is well established that ubiquitin-mediated degradations of CDK inhibitors and cyclins are pivotal for the timely and unidirectional progression of cell cycle. However, how CDK4 itself is modulated by ubiquitin-mediated degradation has been elusive. Here we report that the steady-state level of CDK4 is controlled by PAQR4, a member of the progestin and adipoQ receptor family, and SKP2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Knockdown of PAQR4 leads to reduction of cell proliferation, accompanied by reduced protein level of CDK4. PAQR4 reduces polyubiquitination and degradation of CDK4. PAQR4 interacts with the C-terminal lobe of CDK4. On the other hand, SKP2 also interacts with the C-terminal lobe of CDK4 and enhances polyubiquitination and degradation of CDK4. Importantly, PAQR4 and SKP2 bind to the same region in CDK4, and PAQR4 competes with SKP2 for the binding, thereby abrogating SKP2-mediated ubiquitination of CDK4. Using a two-stage DMBA/TPA-induced skin cancer model, we find that PAQR4-deleted mice are resistant to chemical carcinogen-induced tumor formation. Collectively, our findings reveal that the steady-state level of CDK4 is controlled by the antagonistic actions between PAQR4 and SKP2, contributing to modulation of cell proliferation and tumorigenesis.

Wang JY, Liu GZ, Wilmott JS, et al.
Skp2-Mediated Stabilization of MTH1 Promotes Survival of Melanoma Cells upon Oxidative Stress.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(22):6226-6239 [PubMed] Related Publications
MTH1 helps prevent misincorporation of ROS-damaged dNTPs into genomic DNA; however, there is little understanding of how MTH1 itself is regulated. Here, we report that MTH1 is regulated by polyubiquitination mediated by the E3 ligase Skp2. In melanoma cells, MTH1 was upregulated commonly mainly due to its improved stability caused by K63-linked polyubiquitination. Although Skp2 along with other components of the Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex was physically associated with MTH1, blocking the SCF function ablated MTH1 ubiquitination and expression. Conversely, overexpressing Skp2-elevated levels of MTH1 associated with an increase in its K63-linked ubiquitination. In melanoma cell lines and patient specimens, we observed a positive correlation of Skp2 and MTH1 expression. Mechanistic investigations showed that Skp2 limited DNA damage and apoptosis triggered by oxidative stress and that MAPK upregulated Skp2 and MTH1 to render cells more resistant to such stress. Collectively, our findings identify Skp2-mediated K63-linked polyubiquitination as a critical regulatory mechanism responsible for MTH1 upregulation in melanoma, with potential implications to target the MAPK/Skp2/MTH1 pathway to improve its treatment.

Wang Z, Song D, Huang P
MicroRNA‑340 inhibits tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(5):7649-7656 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRs) are short RNAs that serve a role in the origination and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). miR‑340 has been identified to be a novel tumor suppressor. The present study investigated the antitumor function of miR‑340 in HCC. In the present study, it was detected that miR‑340 was significantly decreased in HCC cancer tissues and human HCC cell lines using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Cell Counting kit‑8 and apoptosis assays demonstrated that miR‑340 reduced cell proliferation and induced cellular apoptosis in HCC cell lines. A Transwell invasion assay demonstrated that miR‑340 suppressed the migration and invasion of HCC cell lines. In addition, S‑phase kinase‑associated protein 2 (SKP2), which may be repressed by miR‑340 in HCC cell lines, was identified to be a potential target of miR‑340. The results of the present study revealed that miR‑340 serves a tumor suppressor role by influencing the proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of HCC cell lines, which may be explained by the downregulation of SKP2 by miR‑340.

Grey W, Ivey A, Milne TA, et al.
The Cks1/Cks2 axis fine-tunes Mll1 expression and is crucial for MLL-rearranged leukaemia cell viability.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2018; 1865(1):105-116 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/02/2020 Related Publications
The Cdc28 protein kinase subunits, Cks1 and Cks2, play dual roles in Cdk-substrate specificity and Cdk-independent protein degradation, in concert with the E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes SCF

Dayalan Naidu S, Dikovskaya D, Gaurilcikaite E, et al.
Transcription factors NRF2 and HSF1 have opposing functions in autophagy.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):11023 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/02/2020 Related Publications
Autophagy plays a critical role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis by degrading proteins, lipids and organelles. Autophagy is activated in response to stress, but its regulation in the context of other stress response pathways, such as those mediated by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (NRF2), is not well understood. We found that the Michael acceptor bis(2-hydoxybenzylidene)acetone (HBB2), a dual activator of NRF2 and HSF1, protects against the development of UV irradiation-mediated cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in mice. We further show that HBB2 is an inducer of autophagy. In cells, HBB2 increases the levels of the autophagy-cargo protein p62/sequestosome 1, and the lipidated form of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 isoform B. Activation of autophagy by HBB2 is impaired in NRF2-deficient cells, which have reduced autophagic flux and low basal and induced levels of p62. Conversely, HSF1-deficient cells have increased autophagic flux under both basal as well as HBB2-induced conditions, accompanied by increased p62 levels. Our findings suggest that NRF2 and HSF1 have opposing roles during autophagy, and illustrate the existence of tight mechanistic links between the cellular stress responses.

Bu W, Luo T
miR-1297 Promotes Cell Proliferation of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells: Involving in PTEN/Akt/Skp2 Signaling Pathway.
DNA Cell Biol. 2017; 36(11):976-982 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) is a lipid and protein phosphatase and possesses an antitumor effect in lung cancers. miRNAs are reportedly abnormally expressed in human lung cancers. However, whether miRNA contributes to PTEN expression in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) has not been clearly clarified. In the present study, we found that miR-1297 probably binds with 3'UTR sequence of PTEN and negatively regulated the levels of PTEN in NSCLC cells. First, the expression levels of PTEN and Skp2 were detected by western blotting in NSCLC specimens and paired normal tissue specimens. The results showed that decreased levels of PTEN were detected in NSCLC tissues, compared with paired control tissues (**p < 0.01). The expression levels of PTEN were conversely correlated with the levels of Skp2 in clinical NSCLC specimens and NSCLC cell line. Transfection with miR-1297 mimic significantly promoted cell viability of A549 cells and NCI-H460 cells by downregulating the level of PTEN and upregulating the expression of Skp2. Interestingly, knockdown of Skp2 did not affect the expression of PTEN in A549 cells. Thus, miR-1297 might work as an oncogene by regulating PTEN/Akt/Skp2 signaling pathway in NSCLC cells. PTEN and Skp2 might be the potential targets in the clinical therapy of lung cancers.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. SKP2, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 01 September, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999