Gene Summary

Gene:POLD1; DNA polymerase delta 1, catalytic subunit
Aliases: CDC2, MDPL, POLD, CRCS10
Summary:This gene encodes the 125-kDa catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase delta. DNA polymerase delta possesses both polymerase and 3' to 5' exonuclease activity and plays a critical role in DNA replication and repair. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA polymerase delta catalytic subunit
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Latest Publications: POLD1 (cancer-related)

Liu S, Han Z, Trivett AL, et al.
Cryptotanshinone has curative dual anti-proliferative and immunotherapeutic effects on mouse Lewis lung carcinoma.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(7):1059-1071 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer-related mortality with very limited effective therapy. Screening of a variety of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) for their capacity to inhibit the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells and to induce the in vitro maturation of human DCs led to the identification of cryptotanshinone (CT), a compound purified from the TCM Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Here, CT was shown to inhibit the proliferation of mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells by upregulating p53, downregulating cyclin B1 and Cdc2, and, consequently, inducing G2/M cell-cycle arrest of LLC cells. In addition, CT promoted maturation of mouse and human DCs with upregulation of costimulatory and MHC molecules and stimulated DCs to produce TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-12p70, but not IL-10 in vitro. CT-induced maturation of DCs depended on MyD88 and also involved the activation of NF-κB, p38, and JNK. CT was effective in the treatment of LLC tumors and, when used in combination with low doses of anti-PD-L1, cured LLC-bearing mice with the induction of subsequent anti-LLC long-term specific immunity. CT treatment promoted T-cell infiltration and elevated the expression of genes typical of Th1 polarization in LLC tumor tissue. The therapeutic effect of CT and low doses of anti-PD-L1 was reduced by depletion of CD4 and CD8 T cells. This paper provides the first report that CT induces immunological antitumor activities and may provide a new promising antitumor immunotherapeutic.

Piao J, Zhu L, Sun J, et al.
High expression of CDK1 and BUB1 predicts poor prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Gene. 2019; 701:15-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death. Increasing evidence suggests that cell cycle dysregulation is one of the hallmarks of cancer. In this study, by using the GEO database, we predicted the cell cycle-related protein CDK1 and BUB1 to be significantly overexpressed in PDAC tissues. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the clinical pathological significance of CDK1 and BUB1 in PDAC.
METHODS: To explore the role of CDK1 and BUB1 in PDAC progression and evaluate their prognostic value, we investigated the expression patterns of CDK1 and BUB1 by using immunohistochemical staining in 99 PDAC and 71 normal pancreatic tissues with complete pathological parameters and survival data.
RESULTS: CDK1 and BUB1 were significantly overexpressed in PDAC tissues. The expression of CDK1 was correlated with tumor size and histological grade, and the expression of BUB1 was correlated with the tumor size of PDAC. With regard to survival, a high expression of either CDK1 or BUB1 was correlated with a short survival of PDAC patients. Additionally, PDAC patients with a concurrent high expression of CDK1 and BUB1 showed the shortest survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that CDK1 and BUB1 may play a role in PDAC progression and could be prognostic biomarkers for PDAC patients.

Jonsson M, Fjeldbo CS, Holm R, et al.
Mitochondrial Function of CKS2 Oncoprotein Links Oxidative Phosphorylation with Cell Division in Chemoradioresistant Cervical Cancer.
Neoplasia. 2019; 21(4):353-362 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CDK regulatory subunit 2 (CKS2) has a nuclear function that promotes cell division and is a candidate biomarker of chemoradioresistance in cervical cancer. The underlying mechanisms are, however, not completely understood. We investigated whether CKS2 also has a mitochondrial function that augments tumor aggressiveness. Based on global gene expression data of two cervical cancer cohorts of 150 and 135 patients, we identified a set of genes correlated with CKS2 expression. Gene set enrichment analysis showed enrichment of mitochondrial cellular compartments, and the hallmarks oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and targets of the MYC oncogene in the gene set. By in situ proximity ligation assay, we showed that CKS2 formed complex with the positively correlated MYC target, mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein SSBP1, in the mitochondrion of cervix tumor samples and HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cell lines, indicating a role in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and thereby OXPHOS. CDK1 was found to be part of the complex. Flow cytometry analyses of HeLa cells showed cell cycle regulation of the CKS2-SSBP1 complex consistent with mtDNA replication activity. Moreover, repression of mtDNA replication and OXPHOS by acute hypoxia decreased CKS2-SSBP1 complex abundance and expression of MYC targets. By immunohistochemistry, cytoplasmic CKS2 expression was found to add to the prognostic impact of nuclear CKS2 expression in patients, suggesting that the mitochondrial function promotes tumor aggressiveness. Our study uncovers a novel link between regulation of cell division by nuclear pathways and OXPHOS in the mitochondrion that involves CKS2 and promotes chemoradioresistance of cervical cancer.

Liu Y, Wang Y, Yu S, et al.
The Role and Mechanism of CRT0066101 as an Effective Drug for Treatment of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2019; 52(3):382-396 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Breast cancer is clinically classified into three main subtypes: estrogen receptor-positive (ER
METHODS: The expression level of PRKDs was analyzed in breast cancer samples and breast cancer cell lines. The effects of inhibiting PRKD activity with CRT0066101 on TNBC cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and tumor growth were studied by Cell Counting Kit8 assay, cell cycle assay, propidium iodide/annexin-V assay, and a xenograft mouse model, respectively. To uncover the molecular mechanism of CRT0066101 in TNBC, comparative phosphoproteomic analysis using iTRAQ was employed.
RESULTS: We found that PRKD2 and PRKD3 were preferentially expressed in breast cancers. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the overexpression of PRKD2 and PRKD3 in TNBC. CRT0066101, which inhibited the activity of PRKDs, dramatically inhibited proliferation, increased apoptosis and the G1-phase population of TNBC cells in vitro, and reduced breast tumor volume in vivo. Comparative phosphoproteomic analysis between breast cancer cells with and without CRT0066101 treatment revealed that the anti-breast cancer effects involved regulation of a complex network containing multiple enriched pathways and several hub-nodes contributing to multiple cancer-related processes, thus explaining the described effects of CRT0066101 on TNBC in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we validated several targets of PRKD inhibition by treatment with CRT0066101 and small interfering RNAs against PRKD2 and PRKD3 (siPRKD2 and siPRKD3), including p-MYC(T58/ S62), p-MAPK1/3(T202/Y204), p-AKT(S473), p-YAP(S127), and p-CDC2(T14).
CONCLUSION: PRKD inhibitor CRT0066101 exhibits anti-TNBC effects via modulating a phosphor-signaling network and inhibiting the phosphorylation of many cancer-driving factors, including MYC, MAPK1/3, AKT, YAP, and CDC2, providing insight into the important roles as well as the molecular mechanism of CRT0066101 as an effective drug for TNBC.

Elsayed FA, Tops CMJ, Nielsen M, et al.
Low frequency of POLD1 and POLE exonuclease domain variants in patients with multiple colorectal polyps.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(4):e00603 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Germline mutations affecting the exonuclease domains of POLE and POLD1 predispose to colorectal adenomas and carcinoma. Here, we aimed to screen the exonuclease domains to find the genetic causes of multiple colorectal polyps in unexplained cases.
METHODS: Using a custom next-generation sequencing panel, we sequenced the exonuclease domains of POLE and POLD1 in 332 index patients diagnosed with multiple colorectal polyps without germline alteration in colorectal polyposis predisposing genes.
RESULTS: We identified two variants of unknown significance. One germline POLD1 c.961G>A, p.(Gly321Ser) variant was found in two cases. The first patient was diagnosed with multiple polyps at age 35 and colorectal cancer (CRC) at age 37, with no known family history of CRC. The second patient was diagnosed with CRC at age 44 and cumulatively developed multiple polyps; this patient had two sisters with endometrial cancer who did not carry the variant. Furthermore, we identified a novel POLD1 c.955 T>G, p.(Cys319Gly) variant in a patient diagnosed with multiple colorectal adenomas at age 40. Co-segregation analysis showed that one sister who cumulatively developed multiple adenomas from age 34, and another sister who developed CRC at age 38 did not carry the variant. We did not identify pathogenic variants in POLE and POLD1.
CONCLUSION: This study confirms the low frequency of causal variants in these genes in the predisposition for multiple colorectal polyps, and also establishes that these genes are a rare cause of the disease.

Bai H, Chang Y, Li B, et al.
Effects of lentivirus-mediated astrocyte elevated gene-1 overexpression on proliferation and apoptosis of human retinoblastoma cells.
Acta Ophthalmol. 2019; 97(3):e397-e402 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) overexpression on the biological behaviour of human retinoblastoma (RB) cells and its possible mechanism.
METHODS: Three human RB cell lines (SO-RB50, Y79 and WERI-RB1) were infected with AEG-1-GFP recombinant lentiviral vectors to induce AEG-1 overexpression, while the cells infected with negative lentiviral vectors and cells without any intervention formed control groups.
RESULTS: All three RB cell lines showed an overexpression of AEG-1 after lentivirus infection (p < 0.001 for all three cell lines). The survival rate of RB cells increased (all p < 0.001) in the AEG-1 overexpressed groups when compared with the control groups. There was a decrease in G0/G1 cell cycle phase arrest and an accumulation in G2/M cell cycle phase in all three RB cell lines (p < 0.001), with an induction in the S phase in WERI-RB1 cells. It was paralleled by a downregulation of p21 and p27 proteins and an upregulation of the Cdc2 protein. The apoptosis rate of RB cells declined (p < 0.001) when AEG-1 was overexpressed, in association with an upregulation of Bcl-2 protein and a downregulation of Bax protein and cleaved caspase-3 proteins.
CONCLUSIONS: A lentivirus-mediated AEG-1 overexpression in RB cells led in vitro to a growth promotion and an apoptosis inhibition of human RB cells, associated with an upregulation of the Bcl-2 protein, a downregulation of the Bax protein and of cleaved caspase-3 proteins, and with alterations of the cell cycle. AEG-1 may be involved in the development and progression of RB.

Mohanta S, Sekhar Khora S, Suresh A
Cancer Stem Cell based molecular predictors of tumor recurrence in Oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Arch Oral Biol. 2019; 99:92-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the cancer stem cell specific biomarkers that can be effective candidate prognosticators of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
DESIGN: Microarray-based meta-analysis derived transcriptional profile of head and neck cancers was compared with the Cancer Stem Cell database to arrive at a subset of markers. This subset was further co-related with clinico-pathological parameters, recurrence and survival of oral cancer patients (n = 313) in The Cancer Genome Atlas database and in oral cancer (n = 28) patients.
RESULTS: Meta-analysis in combination with database comparison identified a panel of 221 genes specific to head and neck cancers. Correlation of expression levels of these markers in the oral cancer cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 313) with treatment outcome identified 54 genes (p < 0.05 or fold change >2) associated with disease recurrence, 8 genes (NQO1, UBE2C, EDNRB, FKBP4, STAT3, HOXA1, RIT1, AURKA) being significant with high fold change. Assessment of the efficacy of the subset (n = 54) as survival predictors identified an additional 4 genes (CDK1, GINS2, PHF5 A, ERBB2) that co-related with poor disease-free survival (p < 0.05). CDK1 showed a significant association with the clinical stage, margin status and with advanced pathological parameters. Initial patient validation indicated that CDK1 and NQO1 significantly co-related with the poor disease-free and overall survival (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: This panel of oral cancer specific, cancer stem cell associated markers identified in this study, a subset of which was validated, will be of clinical benefit subject to large scale validation studies.

Chen S, Zhao Y, Shen F, et al.
Introduction of exogenous wild‑type p53 mediates the regulation of oncoprotein 18/stathmin signaling via nuclear factor‑κB in non‑small cell lung cancer NCI‑H1299 cells.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(3):2051-2059 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous studies demonstrated that high expression of oncoprotein 18 (Op18)/stathmin promotes malignant transformation of non‑small cell lung cancer NCI‑H1299 cells. Investigation of the cellular settings determined that NCI‑H1299 cells were genetically p53 deficient. In order to determine whether p53 deficiency is associated with Op18/stathmin‑mediated high levels of malignancy, exogenous wild‑type p53 (p53wt) was introduced into NCI‑H1299 cells in the present study to observe Op18/stathmin signaling changes and malignant behaviors. The results indicated that p53 downregulated Op18/stathmin expression and phosphorylation at the Ser25 and Ser63 sites in NCI‑H1299 cells, and the abilities of proliferation, colony formation and migration in multi‑dimensional spaces were simultaneously reduced. Introduction of p53wt inhibited the expression of the transcription factor nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB), and the activities of the Op18/stathmin upstream kinases cyclin‑dependent 2 (CDC2) and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, blocking of NF‑κB signaling decreased CDC2 and ERK activation. Additionally, p53 intervention attenuated the secretion and protein expression of the immune inhibitory cytokine interleukin‑10, which was in accordance with the effect of NF‑κB signaling inhibition. Further experiments validated that p53 enhanced the sensitivity of NCI‑H1299 cells to Taxol through initiating the caspase‑3 and ‑9 intrinsic death pathways, and resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phases. These data indicated that exogenous p53wt mediates the regulation of Op18/stathmin signaling through the p53‑NF‑κB‑CDC2/ERK‑Op18/stathmin pathway, and that p53 deficiency is associated with high malignancy levels of NCI‑H1299 cells.

Zhang X, Pan Y, Fu H, Zhang J
Nucleolar and Spindle Associated Protein 1 (NUSAP1) Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Enhances Susceptibility to Epirubicin In Invasive Breast Cancer Cells by Regulating Cyclin D Kinase (CDK1) and DLGAP5 Expression.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:8553-8564 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of IBC were selected from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) chip data: GSE21422 and GSE21974. Network analysis of the DEGs and IBC-related genes was performed in STRING database to find the core gene. Thus, this study aimed to determine the role of NUSAP1 in invasive breast cancer (IBC) and to investigate its effect on drug susceptibility to epirubicin (E-ADM). MATERIAL AND METHODS The mRNA expression of NUSAP1 was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). The protein expression was detected by Western blotting. Cell growth and growth cycle were detected by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Cell migration and invasion were tested by Transwell assay. RESULTS Through use of gene network analysis, we found that NUSAP1 interacts with IBC-related genes. NUSAP1 presented high expression in IBC tissue samples and MCF-7 cells. NUSAP1 overexpression promoted the growth, migration, and invasion of MCF-7 cells. While NUSAP1 gene silencing downregulated the expression of genes associated with cell cycle progression in G2/M phase, cyclin D kinase (CDK1) and DLGAP5 arrested cells in G2/M phase and significantly inhibited the growth, migration, and invasion of MCF-7 cells. si-NUSAP1 increased the susceptibility of MCF-7 cells to E-ADM-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS Our study provides evidence that downregulation of NUSAP1 can inhibit the proliferation, migration, and invasion of IBC cells by regulating CDK1 and DLGAP5 expression and enhances the drug susceptibility to E-ADM.

Chen M, Yin X, Lu C, et al.
Mahanine induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, inhibition of cell migration, invasion and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway in glioma cells and inhibits tumor growth in vivo.
Chem Biol Interact. 2019; 299:1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gliomas are among the most frequent types of primary malignancies in the central nervous system. The main treatment for glioma includes surgical resection followed by a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Despite the availability of several treatments, the average survival for patients with glioma at advanced stages still remains 16 months only. Therefore, there is an urgent need to look for novel and more efficient drug candidates for the treatment of glioma. In the current study the anticancer activity of Mahanine was evaluated against a panel of glioma cells. The results revealed that Mahanine exerted significant anticancer effects on the glioma HS 683 cells with an IC

Guo XX, Li XP, Zhou P, et al.
Evodiamine Induces Apoptosis in SMMC-7721 and HepG2 Cells by Suppressing NOD1 Signal Pathway.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(11) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is a lethal malignancy with poor prognosis and easy recurrence. There are few agents with minor toxic side effects that can be used for treatment of HCC. Evodiamine (Evo), one of the major bioactive components derived from fructus

Greenleaf AL
Human CDK12 and CDK13, multi-tasking CTD kinases for the new millenium.
Transcription. 2019; 10(2):91-110 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
As the new millennium began, CDK12 and CDK13 were discovered as nucleotide sequences that encode protein kinases related to cell cycle CDKs. By the end of the first decade both proteins had been qualified as CTD kinases, and it was emerging that both are heterodimers containing a Cyclin K subunit. Since then, many studies on CDK12 have shown that, through phosphorylating the CTD of transcribing RNAPII, it plays critical roles in several stages of gene expression, notably RNA processing; it is also crucial for maintaining genome stability. Fewer studies on CKD13 have clearly shown that it is functionally distinct from CDK12. CDK13 is important for proper expression of a number of genes, but it also probably plays yet-to-be-discovered roles in other processes. This review summarizes much of the work on CDK12 and CDK13 and attempts to evaluate the results and place them in context. Our understanding of these two enzymes has begun to mature, but we still have much to learn about both. An indicator of one major area of medically-relevant future research comes from the discovery that CDK12 is a tumor suppressor, notably for certain ovarian and prostate cancers. A challenge for the future is to understand CDK12 and CDK13 well enough to explain how their loss promotes cancer development and how we can intercede to prevent or treat those cancers. Abbreviations: CDK: cyclin-dependent kinase; CTD: C-terminal repeat domain of POLR2A; CTDK-I: CTD kinase I (yeast); Ctk1: catalytic subunit of CTDK-I; Ctk2: cyclin-like subunit of CTDK-I; PCAP: phosphoCTD-associating protein; POLR2A: largest subunit of RNAPII; SRI domain: Set2-RNAPII Interacting domain.

Xie D, Song H, Wu T, et al.
MicroRNA‑424 serves an anti‑oncogenic role by targeting cyclin‑dependent kinase 1 in breast cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(6):3416-3426 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to define the function of microRNA‑424‑5p (miR‑424) in breast cancer cells. The present study investigated the level and the potential function of miR‑424 in breast cancer by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. miR‑424 expression was decreased in the majority of human breast cancer specimens and cell lines used in the present study. The MTT assay, plate colony formation assay and flow cytometry analyses were used to characterize the function of miR‑424 in two types of breast cancer cell lines. Upregulation of miR‑424 inhibited cellular proliferation and regulated the cell cycle by arresting cells in the G2/M cell phase. The dual‑luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm the direct association between miR‑424 and cyclin‑dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). Silencing of CDK1 expression by CDK1 short interfering RNA also significantly suppressed cell proliferation and arrested cells in the G2/M cell phase. The results of the present study indicated that miR‑424 can suppress cell proliferation and arrest cells in G2/M cell phase by negatively regulating CDK1 mRNA in human breast cancer, possibly through the Hippo pathway and the extracellular signal‑regulated kinase pathway. The results of the present study provided novel evidence for the role of miR‑424 in breast cancer.

Kalimutho M, Sinha D, Jeffery J, et al.
CEP55 is a determinant of cell fate during perturbed mitosis in breast cancer.
EMBO Mol Med. 2018; 10(9) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
The centrosomal protein, CEP55, is a key regulator of cytokinesis, and its overexpression is linked to genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer. However, the mechanism by which it mediates genomic instability remains elusive. Here, we showed that CEP55 overexpression/knockdown impacts survival of aneuploid cells. Loss of CEP55 sensitizes breast cancer cells to anti-mitotic agents through premature CDK1/cyclin B activation and CDK1 caspase-dependent mitotic cell death. Further, we showed that CEP55 is a downstream effector of the MEK1/2-MYC axis. Blocking MEK1/2-PLK1 signaling therefore reduced outgrowth of basal-like syngeneic and human breast tumors in

Kucherlapati M
Examining transcriptional changes to DNA replication and repair factors over uveal melanoma subtypes.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):818 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled replication is a process common to all cancers facilitated by the summation of changes accumulated as tumors progress. The aim of this study was to examine small groups of genes with known biology in replication and repair at the transcriptional and genomic levels, correlating alterations with survival in uveal melanoma tumor progression. Selected components of Pre-Replication, Pre-Initiation, and Replisome Complexes, DNA Damage Response and Mismatch Repair have been observed.
METHODS: Two groups have been generated for selected genes above and below the average alteration level and compared for expression and survival across The Cancer Genome Atlas uveal melanoma subtypes. Significant differences in expression between subtypes monosomic or disomic for chromosome 3 have been identified by Fisher's exact test. Kaplan Meier survival distribution based on disease specific survival has been compared by Log-rank test.
RESULTS: Genes with significant alteration include MCM2, MCM4, MCM5, CDC45, MCM10, CIZ1, PCNA, FEN1, LIG1, POLD1, POLE, HUS1, CHECK1, ATRIP, MLH3, and MSH6. Exon 4 skipping in CIZ1 previously identified as a cancer variant, and reportedly used as an early serum biomarker in lung cancer was found. Mismatch Repair protein MLH3 was found to have splicing variations with deletions to both Exon 5 and Exon 7 simultaneously. PCNA, FEN1, and LIG1 had increased relative expression levels not due to mutation or to copy number variation.
CONCLUSION: The current study proposes changes in relative and differential expression to replication and repair genes that support the concept their products are causally involved in uveal melanoma. Specific avenues for early biomarker identification and therapeutic approach are suggested.

Rosner G, Gluck N, Carmi S, et al.
POLD1 and POLE Gene Mutations in Jewish Cohorts of Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer and of Multiple Colorectal Adenomas.
Dis Colon Rectum. 2018; 61(9):1073-1079 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in the DNA polymerase genes POLD1 and POLE confer high risk for multiple colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer. However, prevalence and the clinical phenotype of mutation carriers are still not fully characterized.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of germline mutations and to describe the genotype-phenotype correlation in POLD1 and POLE genes in Jewish subjects with multiple colorectal adenomas and/or early-onset mismatch repair proficient colorectal cancers.
DESIGN: This study is a comparison of genetic and clinical data from affected and control groups.
SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a high-volume tertiary referral center.
PATIENTS: The study cohort included 132 subjects: 68 with multiple colorectal adenomas and 64 with early-onset mismatch repair proficient colorectal cancers. The control group included 5685 individuals having no colorectal cancer or colorectal adenomas.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Study and control subjects were tested for POLD1 and POLE mutations and a clinical correlation was assessed.
RESULTS: Eleven of the 132 study subjects (8.3%) carried either a POLD1 or a POLE mutation: 7 of 68 (10.3%) subjects with multiple colorectal adenomas and 4 of 64 (6.2%) subjects with early-onset mismatch repair proficient colorectal cancer. Three mutations were detected, showing statistical significance in frequency between study and control groups (p < 0.001). Eight of the 11 mutation carriers were Ashkenazi Jews carrying the same POLD1 mutation (V759I), implicating it as a possible low-to-moderate risk founder mutation. Phenotype of mutation carriers was notable for age under 50 at diagnosis, a propensity toward left-sided colorectal cancer, and extracolonic tumors (64%, 100%, and 27% of cases).
LIMITATIONS: The study cohort was limited by its relatively small size.
CONCLUSIONS: Germline mutations in POLD1 and POLE were found to be relatively frequent in our Jewish cohorts. Further studies are needed to clarify the importance of POLD1 and POLE mutations and to define the most suitable surveillance program for Jewish and other POLD1 and POLE mutation carriers. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A658.

Wang Y, Yang L, Zhang J, et al.
Radiosensitization by irinotecan is attributed to G2/M phase arrest, followed by enhanced apoptosis, probably through the ATM/Chk/Cdc25C/Cdc2 pathway in p53-mutant colorectal cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(4):1667-1680 [PubMed] Related Publications
Irinotecan, an analog of camptothecin, which is an inhibitor of topoisomerase I, is currently used in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Camptothecin derivatives have been demonstrated to exert radiosensitizing effects on several types of cancer cells. However, to date, at least to the best of our knowledge, few studies have examined these effects in colorectal cancer cell lines. In the present study, we examined the radiosensitizing effects of irinotecan on the p53-mutant colorectal cancer cell lines, HT29 and SW620, and explored the potential underlying mechanisms. Drug cytotoxicity tests revealed that the 24 h half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of irinotecan as a single agent were 39.84 µg/ml (HT29 95% CI, 38.27-41.48) and 96.86 µg/ml (SW620 95% CI, 89.04-105.4); finally, concentrations <2 µg/ml were used in the subsequent experiments. Clonogenic assays revealed that irinotecan exerted radiosensitizing effects on the HT29 and SW620 cells, and the sensitivity enhancement ratios (SERs) at 2 Gy increased with increasing concentrations (SER at 2 Gy, 1.41 for the HT29 cells, 1.87 for the SW620 cells; with irinotecan at 2 µg/ml). Subsequently, the cells were divided into 4 groups: The control group, irinotecan group, radiation group and combination group. Compared with the control, irinotecan and radiation groups, the combination group had the slowest cell growth rate and the most obvious foci of Ser139p‑γH2AX. Combined treatment resulted in a firstly decreased and then increased M phase arrest and led to the most significant G2/M phase arrest, followed by the most significant increase in apoptosis. The results of western blot analysis indicated that the expression levels of proteins related to the DNA damage response system (Ser1981p‑ATM, Ser345p‑Chk1, Thr68p‑Chk2 and Ser139p‑γH2AX) and the cell cycle (Tyr15p‑Cdc2 and cyclin B1) exhibited the greatest increase in the combined group. In addition, the expression of Ser216p‑Cdc25C was also increased in the combined group, indicating that irinotecan likely radiosensitized the p53-mutant HT29 and SW620 cells through the ATM/Chk/Cdc25C/Cdc2 pathway.

Dong Z, Zhang H, Zhan T, Xu S
Integrated analysis of differentially expressed genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using bioinformatics.
Neoplasma. 2018; 65(4):523-531 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a deadly disease. To identify key genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, we followed a strategy utilizing the laiurger microarray dataset (GSE38129) as the training set and another independent microarray dataset (GSE20347) as the validation set. Following quality control, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained using R software. Functional enrichment analysis was performed using DAVID database and the DEG co-expression network was established with Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) and visualized by Cytoscape. The prognosis-related hub genes were then identified by Kaplan-Meier analysis based on the TCGA database. A total of 188 DEGs were obtained; 88 up-regulated genes and 100 down-regulated. The up-regulated DEGs were significantly associated with extracellular matrix organization and disassembly while down-regulated DEGs were significantly related to keratinocyte differentiation. Blue and turquoise co-expression modules were established and 18 hub genes were identified. The blue module was associated with mitotic nuclear division, cell division and mitotic cytokinesis and the turquoise module was associated with collagen catabolic process, extracellular matrix organization and keratinocyte differentiation. We established that the TPX2, CDK1 and CEP55 blue module hub genes were associated with relapse-free survival, and our overall results not only identify key genes but also provide potential novel biomarkers for ESCC diagnosis and treatment.

Gupta S, Silveira DA, Mombach JCM
Modeling the role of microRNA-449a in the regulation of the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint in prostate LNCaP cells under ionizing radiation.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0200768 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
Recent studies showed that induced microRNA-449a (miR-449a) enhances a G2/M cell cycle checkpoint arrest in prostate cancer (LNCaP) and lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. In the case of LNCaP cells, upregulated miR-449a directly downregulates c-Myc that is required to induce the cell cycle regulators Cdc25A and Cdc2/CyclinB whose inactivation blocks G2 to M phase transition. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are yet unclear, although in other prostate cancer cells the interactions among p53, miR-449a and Sirt-1 can affect the induction of the G2/M arrest. In order to clarify these molecular mechanisms, in this work we propose a boolean model of the G2/M checkpoint arrest regulation contemplating the influence of miR-449a. The model shows that the cell fate determination between two cellular phenotypes: G2/M-Arrest for DNA repair and G2/M-induced apoptosis is stochastic and influenced by miR-449a state of activation. The results were compared with experimental data available presenting agreement. We also found that several feedback loops are involved in this cell fate regulation and we indicate, through in silico gain or loss of function perturbations of genes, which of these feedback loops are more efficient to favor a specific phenotype.

Zhao XM, Hu WX, Wu ZF, et al.
Tetrandrine Enhances Radiosensitization in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines.
Radiat Res. 2018; 190(4):385-395 [PubMed] Related Publications
The goal of this study was to determine whether tetrandrine enhanced radiosensitization in different hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and to elucidate the potential mechanism. We also tested whether PA28γ was regulated by tetrandrine. The human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG2 and LM3 were divided into six groups: control; low-dosage (0.5 or 5 μg/ml) tetrandrine alone; high-dosage (1.0 or 10 μg/ml) tetrandrine alone; irradiation alone; irradiation with low-dosage (0.5 μg/ml or 5 μg/ml) tetrandrine; and irradiation with high-dosage (1.0 μg/ml or 10 μg/ml) tetrandrine. Colony-forming assays were performed. Expression of cyclin and apoptosis-related proteins, including cyclin B1, phosphorylated cyclin-dependent kinase 1 [phospho-CDC2 (Tyr15)], Bax and caspase-3, as well as PA28γ expression, were evaluated using Western blot analysis. Apoptosis rate and cell cycle distribution were examined using flow cytometry analysis. Tetrandrine enhanced radiosensitivity in HepG2 and LM3 cells, as characterized by a narrower shoulder area and steeper linear area, and the enhanced radiosensitization increased with tetrandrine dosage. After tetrandrine treatment, the apoptosis rate significantly increased, whereas the proportion of cells in the G

Tang L, Deng L, Bai HX, et al.
Reduced expression of DNA repair genes and chemosensitivity in 1p19q codeleted lower-grade gliomas.
J Neurooncol. 2018; 139(3):563-571 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lower-grade gliomas (LGGs, defined as WHO grades II and III) with 1p19q codeletion have increased chemosensitivity when compared to LGGs without 1p19q codeletion, but the mechanism is currently unknown.
METHODS: RNAseq data from 515 LGG patients in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were analyzed to compare the effect of expression of the 9 DNA repair genes located on chromosome arms 1p and 19q on progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) between patients who received chemotherapy and those who did not. Chemosensitivity of cells with DNA repair genes knocked down was tested using MTS cell proliferation assay in HS683 cell line and U251 cell line.
RESULTS: The expression of 9 DNA repair genes on 1p and 19q was significantly lower in 1p19q-codeleted tumors (n = 175) than in tumors without the codeletion (n = 337) (p < 0.001). In LGG patients who received chemotherapy, lower expression of LIG1, POLD1, PNKP, RAD54L and MUTYH was associated with longer PFS and OS. This difference between chemotherapy and non-chemotherapy groups in the association of gene expression with survival was not observed in non-DNA repair genes located on chromosome arms 1p and 19q. MTS assays showed that knockdown of DNA repair genes LIG1, POLD1, PNKP, RAD54L and MUTYH significantly inhibited recovery in response to temozolomide when compared with control group (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that reduced expression of DNA repair genes on chromosome arms 1p and 19q may account for the increased chemosensitivity of LGGs with 1p19q codeletion.

Selvan LDN, Danda R, Madugundu AK, et al.
Phosphoproteomics of Retinoblastoma: A Pilot Study Identifies Aberrant Kinases.
Molecules. 2018; 23(6) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
Retinoblastoma is a malignant tumour of the retina which most often occurs in children. Earlier studies on retinoblastoma have concentrated on the identification of key players in the disease and have not provided information on activated/inhibited signalling pathways. The dysregulation of protein phosphorylation in cancer provides clues about the affected signalling cascades in cancer. Phosphoproteomics is an ideal tool for the study of phosphorylation changes in proteins. Hence, global phosphoproteomics of retinoblastoma (RB) was carried out to identify signalling events associated with this cancer. Over 350 proteins showed differential phosphorylation in RB compared to control retina. Our study identified stress response proteins to be hyperphosphorylated in RB which included H2A histone family member X (H2AFX) and sirtuin 1. In particular, Ser140 of H2AFX also known as gamma-H2AX was found to be hyperphosphorylated in retinoblastoma, which indicated the activation of DNA damage response pathways. We also observed the activation of anti-apoptosis in retinoblastoma compared to control. These observations showed the activation of survival pathways in retinoblastoma. The identification of hyperphosphorylated protein kinases including Bromodomain containing 4 (BRD4), Lysine deficient protein kinase 1 (WNK1), and Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) in RB opens new avenues for the treatment of RB. These kinases can be considered as probable therapeutic targets for RB, as small-molecule inhibitors for some of these kinases are already in clinical trials for the treatment other cancers.

He Z, Deng W, Jiang B, et al.
Hsa-let-7b inhibits cell proliferation by targeting PLK1 in HCC.
Gene. 2018; 673:46-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies have shown that high levels of PLK1 are expressed in HCC, and PLK1 inhibitors are being tested in clinical trials. However, the mechanisms, which regulate PLK1 expression in HCC, have not been clarified. Here, we show that induction of let-7b over-expression inhibits the PLK1-regulated luciferase activity in HEK-293T cells, and decreases the levels of PLK1 expression in HCC cells. Furthermore, the levels of let-7b expression were negatively correlated with PLK1 expression in HCC tissues. Let-7b over-expression inhibited the proliferation of HCC cells and promoted their apoptosis, which were partially rescued by increased PLK1 expression. Let-7b over-expression decreased the levels of PLK1, CDC25C and Survivin phosphorylation and CDC2, β-catenin, TCF-4 expression, which were mitigated by increased PLK1 expression in MHCC-97H cells. Let-7b over-expression inhibited the development and growth of implanted HCC tumors in mice by decreasing PLK1 and Survivin expression in the tumors. Together, our data indicated that let-7b targeted PLK1 to inhibit HCC growth and induce their apoptosis by attenuating the PLK1-mediated Survivin phosphorylation. Our findings may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of HCC.

Zhang Y, Xia Q, Lin J
Identification of the potential oncogenes in glioblastoma based on bioinformatic analysis and elucidation of the underlying mechanisms.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(2):715-725 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a common malignant tumour in the human brain, but its molecular mechanisms have not been systematically evaluated. The aim of this study was to identify potential key oncogenes associated with the progression of GBM and to elucidate their mechanisms. The gene expression profile of GSE50161, selected from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, was analysed to find cancer‑associated genes and gene functions in GBM. In total, 486 differentially expressed genes, including 128 upregulated genes, were identified. The function and pathway enrichment of these genes were analysed through Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses. Survival analysis for three selected partially upregulated genes, CDK1, CCNB1 and CDC20, showed that their high expression was significantly associated with poor survival in GBM. CDK1 was selected for validation of its function and molecular mechanism in GBM. This gene was significantly overexpressed in GBM cancer tissues and cells compared with normal control cells. In addition, knockdown of CDK1 clearly inhibited GBM cell proliferation. Notably, we demonstrated that CDK1 was involved in the Akt signalling pathway, where it promotes the process involved in GBM malignancy.

Zhao YY, Wu Q, Wu ZB, et al.
Microwave hyperthermia promotes caspase‑3-dependent apoptosis and induces G2/M checkpoint arrest via the ATM pathway in non‑small cell lung cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(2):539-550 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
Post-operative microwave (MW) hyperthermia has been applied as an important adjuvant therapy to enhance the efficacy of traditional cancer treatment. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of MW hyperthermia may provide guided and further information on clinical hyperthermia treatment. In this study, we examined the effects of MW hyperthermia on non‑small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells in vitro, as well as the underlying mechanisms. In order to mimic clinical treatment, we developed special MW heating equipment for this study. Various NSCLC cells (H460, PC-9 and H1975) were exposed to hyperthermia treatment using a water bath or MW heating system. The results revealed that MW hyperthermia significantly inhibited cell growth compared with the water bath heating system. Furthermore, MW hyperthermia increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and induced caspase‑3 dependent apoptosis. It also induced G2/M phase arrest through the upregulation of the expression of phosphorylated (p‑) ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), p‑checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) and p21, and the downregulation of the expression of cdc25c, cyclin B1 and cdc2. On the whole, the findings of this study indicate that the exposure of NSCLC cells to MW hyperthermia promotes caspase‑3 dependent apoptosis and induces G2/M cell cycle arrest via the ATM pathway. This preclinical study may help to provide laboratory-based evidence for MW hyperthermia treatment in clinical practice.

Ishikawa C, Senba M, Mori N
Mitotic kinase PBK/TOPK as a therapeutic target for adult T‑cell leukemia/lymphoma.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(2):801-814 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adult T‑cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a disorder involving human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV‑1)-infected T‑cells characterized by increased clonal neoplastic proliferation. PDZ-binding kinase (PBK) [also known as T‑lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK)] is a serine/threonine kinase expressed in proliferative cells and is phosphorylated during mitosis. In this study, the expression and phosphorylation of PBK/TOPK were examined by western blot analysis and RT‑PCR. We found that PBK/TOPK was upregulated and phosphorylated in HTLV‑1-transformed T‑cell lines and ATLL‑derived T‑cell lines. Notably, CDK1/cyclin B1, which phosphorylates PBK/TOPK, was overexpressed in these cells. HTLV‑1 infection upregulated PBK/TOPK expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in co-culture assays. The potent PBK/TOPK inhibitors, HI‑TOPK‑032, and fucoidan from brown algae, decreased the proliferation and viability of these cell lines in a dose‑dependent manner. By contrast, the effect of HI‑TOPK‑032 on PBMCs was less pronounced. Treatment with HI‑TOPK‑032 resulted in G1 cell cycle arrest, and decreased CDK6 expression and pRb phosphorylation, which are critical determinants of progression through the G1 phase. In addition, HI‑TOPK‑032 induced apoptosis, as evidenced by morphological changes, the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase with the activation of caspase‑3, -8 and -9, and an increase in the sub‑G1 cell population and APO2.7-positive cells. Moreover, HI‑TOPK‑032 inhibited the expression of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (c-IAP2), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), survivin and myeloid cell leukemia‑1 (Mcl‑1), and induced the expression of Bak and interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFIT)1, 2 and 3. It is noteworthy that the use of this inhibitor led to the inhibition of the phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK)α, IKKβ, IκBα, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and Akt, and to the decreased protein expression of JunB and JunD, suggesting that PBK/TOPK affects the nuclear factor-κB, Akt and activator protein‑1 signaling pathways. In vivo, the administration of HI‑TOPK‑032 suppressed tumor growth in an ATLL xenograft model. Thus, on the whole, this study on the identification and functional analysis of PBK/TOPK suggests that this kinase is a promising molecular target for ATLL treatment.

Ma S, Rong X, Gao F, et al.
TPX2 promotes cell proliferation and migration via PLK1 in OC.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 22(3):443-451 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2) is a microtubule-associated proteinrequired for mitosis and spindle assembly. It has been revealed that TPX2 is overexpressedin various human cancers and promotes cancer progression.
METHODS: The expression of TPX2 was examined in ovarian cancer (OC) tissues and by Western blotting, quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. The effects of TPX2 on proliferation and migration of two OC cell lines SKOV3and RMG1 were analyzed using the methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry and transwell assay. The mechanisms underlying the effects of TPX2 on OC cells were explored by qRT-PCR and Western blot.
RESULTS: In this study, we found that TPX2 was upregulated in OC tissues. We observed knockdown of TPX2 inhibited the expression of Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), which has an important role in the regulation of M phase of the cell cycle, and the activity of Cdc2, induced cell arrested at the G2/M phase and decreased proliferation. Moreover, our data revealed that the levels of PLK1, β-catenin, MMP7 and MMP9 were inhibited following TPX2 knockdown, leading to decrease of cell migration. Finally, we showed that the restoration of PLK1 expression attenuated the anti-proliferation and anti-migration effects of TPX2 knockdown in OC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: TPX2 promotes the proliferation and migration of human OC cells by regulating PLK1 expression.

Duan M, Du X, Ren G, et al.
Obovatol inhibits the growth and aggressiveness of tongue squamous cell carcinoma through regulation of the EGF‑mediated JAK‑STAT signaling pathway.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(2):1651-1659 [PubMed] Related Publications
Migration and invasion are the most important characteristics of human malignancies which limit cancer drug therapies in the clinic. Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is one of the rarest types of cancer, although it is characterized by a higher incidence, rapid growth and greater potential for metastasis compared with other oral neoplasms worldwide. Studies have demonstrated that the phenolic compound obovatol exhibits anti‑tumor effects. However, the potential mechanisms underlying obovatol‑mediated signaling pathways have not been completely elucidated in TSCC. The present study investigated the anti‑tumor effects and potential molecular mechanisms mediated by obovatol in TSCC cells and tissues. The results of the present study demonstrated that obovatol exerted cytotoxicity in SCC9 TSCC cells, and inhibited their migration and invasion. In addition, obovatol induced apoptosis in SCC9 TSCC cells by increasing caspase 9/3 and apoptotic protease enhancing factor 1 expression levels. Western blot analysis demonstrated that obovatol inhibited the expression of pro‑epidermal growth factor (EGF), Janus kinase (JAK), and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) in SCC9 TSCC cells. A study of the molecular mechanisms demonstrated that depletion of EGF reversed the obovatol‑mediated inhibition of SCC9 TSCC cell growth and aggressiveness. Animal experiments indicated that obovatol significantly inhibited TSCC tumor growth and increased the number of apoptotic cells in tumor tissues. In conclusion, the results of the present study provided scientific evidence that obovatol inhibited TSCC cell growth and aggressiveness through the EGF‑mediated JAK‑STAT signaling pathway, suggesting that obovatol may be a potential anti‑TSCC agent.

Yang CA, Huang HY, Yen JC, Chang JG
Prognostic Value of
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(6) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
The nucleotide degrading enzyme gene

Xu Y, Qin Q, Chen R, et al.
SIRT1 promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of breast cancer cell line MCF-7 by upregulating DNA polymerase delta1 (POLD1).
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 502(3):351-357 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), class III histone deacetylase, plays an important character in cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, energy metabolism and DNA repair. In recent years, researchers have attached increasing attention on the role of SIRT1 in tumorigenesis, development and drug resistance. The effect of SIRT1 on breast cancer is still controversial and its exact role remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the significant role of SIRT1 in breast cancer by exploring the effect of SIRT1 on DNA polymerase delta1 (POLD1), the gene coding for DNA polymerase δ catalytic subunit p125. Immunohistochemistry showed that the protein expression level of SIRT1 was higher in breast cancer tissues relative to adjacent normal tissues. Knockdown of SIRT1 by shRNA decreased the proliferation, migration, and invasion of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, while the overexpression of SIRT1 promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of MCF-7 cells. Clinically, the immunohistochemistry results revealed that the expression of SIRT1 was positively correlated with p125. Further analysis demonstrated that silencing of SIRT1 increased the expression of p53, while the expression level of POLD1/p125 decreased, and the result by overexpressing SIRT1 was opposite. Collectively, these data suggest that SIRT1 is an oncogenic factor in breast cancer cells and can be involved in the progression of breast cancer by inhibiting p53 and activating POLD1. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanisms of breast cancer.

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