Locus Summary

Gene:MIR122; microRNA 122
Aliases: MIR122A, MIRN122, mir-122, MIRN122A, miRNA122, miRNA122A, hsa-mir-122
Summary:microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products. The mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of the target mRNA. The RefSeq represents the predicted microRNA stem-loop. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
Databases:miRBase, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Apoptosis
  • Regression Analysis
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • beta Catenin
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • RT-PCR
  • Chromosome 18
  • Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • Risk Assessment
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • 3' Untranslated Regions
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway
  • Oleanolic Acid
  • Base Sequence
  • Tumor Burden
  • Cell Movement
  • ROC Curve
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Vietnam
  • Virus Replication
  • Liver
  • Hep G2 Cells
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Liver Cancer
  • Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Down-Regulation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Sirtuins
  • Virus Activation
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Oncogenes
  • MicroRNA miR-122
  • Silicon Dioxide
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • MicroRNAs
  • RNA Interference
  • Risk Factors
Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

MicroRNA Function

Numbers shown below represent number of publications held in OncomiRDB database for Oncogenic and Tumor-Suppressive MicroRNAs.

TissueTarget Gene(s)Regulator(s)MIR122 Function in CancerEffect
liver (14)
-hepatocellular carcinoma (12)
-HBV+ hepatocellular carcinoma (1)
-hepatocelluar carcinoma (1)
IGF1R (2)
NDRG3 (1)
ADAM10 (1)
ADAM17 (1)
CDK4 (1)
CCNG1 (1)
WNT1 (1)
CUX1 (1)
SRF (1)
BCL2L2 (1)
HBV (1)
HNF3B (1)
HNF3A (1)
HNF1A (1)
GSK3B (1)
inhibit cell growth (4)
inhibit cell migration (3)
inhibit cell invasion (3)
induce apoptosis (2)
induce doxorubicin-induced apoptosis (1)
inhibit in vivo tumorigenesis (1)
inhibit angiogenesis (1)
inhibit intrahepatic metastasis (1)
decrease clonogenic survival (1)
reduce cell invasion (1)
increase cell viability (1)
regulate mitochondrial metabolism (1)
promote cell apoptosis (1)
induce cell cycle G2/M arrest (1)
repress unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway (1)
promote drug-induced apoptosis (1)
inhibit cell proliferation (1)
inhibit HBV replication (1)
inhibit tumor agressiveness characteristics (1)
suppress cell proliferation (1)
reduce cell viability (1)
tumor-suppressive (12)
oncogenic (1)
breast (1)
-breast cancer (1)
IGF1R (1)
inhibit cell proliferation (1)
inhibit colony formation (1)
induce cell cycle G1 arrest (1)
reduce tumorigenicity (1)
tumor-suppressive (1)
blood (1)
-cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (1)
decrease chemotherapy-induced apoptosis (1)
activate Akt signaling (1)

Source: OncomiRDB Wang D. et al. Bioinformatics 2014, 30(15):2237-2238.

Latest Publications: MIR122 (cancer-related)

Wu W, Hu Q, Wang M, et al.
A PEGylated megamer-based microRNA delivery system activatable by stepwise microenvironment stimulation.
Chem Commun (Camb). 2019; 55(63):9363-9366 [PubMed] Related Publications
We developed a biodegradable, oncosensitive, megamer-based delivery system for miRNA therapy. The miRNA nanotherapeutics, activatable by stepwise stimulation of acidity and reduction mimicking tumor microenvironment, efficiently improve liver-specific miR-122 expression, increasing the possibility of translational application of miR-122 therapy against liver cancer.

Zhu XL, Ren LF, Wang HP, et al.
Plasma microRNAs as potential new biomarkers for early detection of early gastric cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2019; 25(13):1580-1591 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Early gastric cancer (EGC), compared with advanced gastric cancer (AGC), has a higher 5-year survival rate. However, due to the lack of typical symptoms and the difficulty in diagnosing EGC, no effective biomarkers exist for the detection of EGC, and gastroscopy is the only detection method.
AIM: To provide new biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity through analyzed the differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) in EGC and AGC and compared them with those in benign gastritis (BG).
METHODS: We examined the differentially expressed miRNAs in the plasma of 30 patients with EGC, AGC, and BG by miRNA chip analysis. Then, we analyzed and selected the significantly different miRNAs using bioinformatics. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) confirmed the relative transcription level of these miRNAs in another 122 patients, including patients with EGC, AGC,
RESULTS: Among the expression profiles of the miRNA chips in the three groups in the discovery set, of 117 aberrantly expressed miRNAs, 30 confirmed target prediction, whereas 14 were included as potential miRNAs. The RT-qPCR results showed that 14 potential miRNAs expression profiles in the two groups exhibited no differences in terms of
CONCLUSION: The differentially expressed circulatory plasma miR-425-5p, miR-1180-3p, miR-122-5p, miR-24-3p and miR-4632-5p can be regarded as a new potential biomarker panel for the diagnosis of EGC. The prediction and early diagnosis of EGC can be considerably facilitated by combining gastroscopy with the use of these miRNA biomarkers, thereby optimizing the strategy for effective detection of EGC. Nevertheless, larger-scale human experiments are still required to confirm our findings.

Szpechcinski A, Florczuk M, Duk K, et al.
The expression of circulating miR-504 in plasma is associated with EGFR mutation status in non-small-cell lung carcinoma patients.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019; 76(18):3641-3656 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, are grossly misregulated in some human cancers, including non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The aberrant expression of specific miRNAs results in the abnormal regulation of key components of signalling pathways in tumour cells. MiRNA levels and the activity of the gene targets, including oncogenes and tumour suppressors, produce feedback that changes miRNA expression levels and indicates the cell's genetic activity. In this study, we measured the expression of five circulating miRNAs (miR-195, miR-504, miR-122, miR-10b and miR-21) and evaluated their association with EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR) mutation status in 66 NSCLC patients. Moreover, we examined the discriminative power of circulating miRNAs for EGFR mutant-positive and -negative NSCLC patients using two different data normalisation approaches. We extracted total RNA from the plasma of 66 non-squamous NSCLC patients (31 of whom had tumours with EGFR mutations) and measured circulating miRNA levels using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The miRNA expression levels were normalised using two endogenous controls: miR-191 and miR-16. We found significant associations between the expression of circulating miR-504 and EGFR-activating mutations in NSCLC patients regardless of the normalisation approach used (p = 0.0072 and 0.0236 for miR-16 and miR-191 normalisation, respectively). The greatest discriminative power of circulating miR-504 was observed in patients with EGFR exon 19 deletions versus wild-type EGFR normalised to miR-191 (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.81, p < 0.0001). Interestingly, circulating miR-504 levels were significantly reduced in the v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS)-mutated subgroup compared to EGFR-mutated patients (p < 0.0030) and those with EGFR/KRAS wild-type tumours (p < 0.0359). Our study demonstrated the feasibility and potential diagnostic value of plasma miR-504 expression analysis to distinguish between EGFR-mutated and wild-type NSCLC patients. However, quality control and normalisation strategies are very important and have a major impact on the outcomes of circulating miRNA analyses.

Fan X, Wu X
MicroRNA-122-5p promotes the development of non-small cell lung cancer via downregulating p53 and activating PI3K-AKT pathway.
J BUON. 2019 Jan-Feb; 24(1):273-279 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the role of microRNA-122-5p in the pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its underlying mechanism.
METHODS: A total of 72 pairs of NSCLC tissues and paracancerous tissues were collected. The expression level of microRNA-122-5p in NSCLC tissues and paracancerous tissues were detected by qRT-PCR (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction). The relationship between microRNA-122-5p expression and the clinical prognosis of NSCLC patients was then analyzed. Bioinformatics prediction and luciferase activity assay were performed to validate the direct binding of microRNA-122-5p and p53. Cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis were detected after microRNA-122-5p knockdown in NSCLC cells. The regulatory effect of microRNA-122-5p on promoting NSCLC development was detected by Western blot.
RESULTS: MicroRNA-122-5p was more overexpressed in NSCLC tissues than in paracancerous tissues. MicroRNA-122-5p expression was negatively correlated with survival rate of NSCLC patients. Besides, microRNA-122-5p knockdown remarkably inhibited the proliferation and cell cycle advancement and increased apoptosis of NSCLC cells. Luciferase reporter gene assay and Western blot results indicated that microRNA-122-5p downregulated p53 and activated PI3K-AKT pathway, thereby promoting NSCLC development.
CONCLUSION: MicroRNA-122-5p is overexpressed in NSCLC. Overexpression of microRNA-122-5p promotes NSCLC development by downregulating p53 and activating PI3K-AKT pathway.

Zhang Y, Li Y, Jiang W, et al.
The clinical significance of microRNA-122 in predicting the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: A meta-analysis validated by the Cancer Genome Atlas dataset.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(13):e14810 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although the prognostic value of microRNA-122 (miR-122) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients have been evaluated by numerous studies, the results of them were not completely consistent. The present study aims to comprehensively evaluate the predicting value of miR-122 on the prognosis of patients with HCC based on all eligible literatures.
METHODS: Numerous electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and China Biology Medicine disc) were applied to retrieve relevant studies. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were used as primary endpoints. All statistical analyses were performed by RevMan software version 5.3.5 and STATA software version 14.1. In addition, the results of this meta-analysis were validated by an independent dataset from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).
RESULTS: A total of 11 studies containing 1124 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that low miR-122 expression in HCC tissues significantly associated with unfavorable OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-1.80, P < .001) and PFS (HR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.28-1.85, P < .001) in patients with HCC. However, the expression level of miR-122 in blood did not have the ability in predicting OS (HR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.44-1.28, P = .29) and PFS (HR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.58-1.20, P = .33) of HCC. Subgroup analysis further indicated that low expression of miR-122 in tumor tissues predicted poor OS in HCC patients who received curative liver resection (HR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.08-3.70, P = .03). Analysis using TCGA dataset suggested that low miR-122 expression in HCC tissues was significantly associated with OS (HR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.13-2.27, P = .008) other than PFS (HR = 1.30, 95% CI 0.96-1.75, P = .09).
CONCLUSION: Low miR-122 expression in HCC tissues was a reliable indicator for predicting the OS of HCC patients who underwent curative resection. Owing to the disagreement between this meta-analysis and the TCGA dataset, the predictive value of miR-122 in tissues for PFS needs to be verified by future well-designed studies with large sample size.

Liu H, Hou T, Ju W, et al.
MicroRNA‑122 downregulates Rho‑associated protein kinase 2 expression and inhibits the proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(5):3882-3888 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA‑122 (miR‑122) has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of several types of malignancies; however, its role in prostate carcinoma remains unknown. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the functionality of miR‑122 in prostate carcinoma. Clinical data of 54 patients with prostate carcinoma who were diagnosed and treated in Union Hospital (Wuhan, China) between January 2011 and January 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The expression levels of miR‑122 and Rho‑associated protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) in prostate tumor and adjacent healthy tissues of patients, as well as in the serum of prostate carcinoma patients and healthy controls, were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Receiver operating characteristic curve and survival curve analyses were used to examine the diagnostic and prognostic values of serum miR‑122 for prostate carcinoma. In addition, miR‑122 mimic was transfected into prostate carcinoma cells, and the effects on cell proliferation and ROCK2 expression were explored by Cell Counting Kit‑8 and western blot assays, respectively. It was observed that miR‑122 was downregulated and ROCK2 was upregulated in tumor tissues as compared with their levels in adjacent healthy tissues. miR‑122 level in the serum was also markedly lower in prostate carcinoma patients in comparison with that in healthy controls. Furthermore, a low serum level of miR‑122 was found to effectively distinguish the prostate carcinoma patients from healthy controls and to be an indicator of poor survival. In prostate carcinoma cells, miR‑122 overexpression inhibited the proliferation and the expression of ROCK2. Taken together, miR‑122 may inhibit the proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells possibly by downregulating ROCK2 expression.

Maruyama S, Furuya S, Shiraishi K, et al.
Inhibition of apoptosis by miR‑122‑5p in α‑fetoprotein‑producing gastric cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(4):2595-2600 [PubMed] Related Publications
α‑Fetoprotein (AFP)‑producing gastric cancer (AFPGC) is recognized as one of the most aggressive tumors with subsequent poor prognosis compared with common gastric cancer (GC) subtypes. However, the molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. We previously identified that miR‑122‑5p could be a useful biomarker in AFPGC patients. We examined herein the biological function of miR‑122‑5p and the molecular mechanism underlying tumor progression in AFPGC. We used the AFPGC cell line (FU97) and miR‑122‑5p inhibitor to examine the function of miR‑122‑5p. Moreover, we investigated the possible targets of miR‑122‑5p. The expression level of miR‑122‑5p was significantly increased in the FU97 cell line than in common GC cell lines. Also, suppression of miR‑122‑5p significantly reduced AFP levels and proliferation in AFPGC through an induction of apoptosis. Western blotting revealed that the expression of anti‑apoptotic protein (Bcl‑2) was decreased and that of pro‑apoptotic protein (caspase‑3) was increased in miR‑122‑5p suppression of FU97. Moreover, we revealed that FOXO3 was an important target of miR‑122‑5p in AFPGC, which inhibited apoptosis and subsequently manifested aggressiveness. In conclusion, miR‑122‑5p inhibited apoptosis and facilitated tumor progression by targeting FOXO3 in AFPGC, which indicates the possibility of miR‑122‑5p as a potential therapeutic target in AFPGC.

Ning Q, Liu YF, Ye PJ, et al.
Delivery of Liver-Specific miRNA-122 Using a Targeted Macromolecular Prodrug toward Synergistic Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2019; 11(11):10578-10588 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) poses a great threat to human health. The elegant combination of gene therapy and chemotherapy by nanocarriers has been repeatedly highlighted to realize enhanced therapeutic efficacy relative to monotreatment. However, the leading strategy to achieve the efficient codelivery of the gene and drug remains the electrostatic condensation with the nucleic acid and the hydrophobic encapsulation of drug molecules by the nanocarriers, which suffers substantially from premature drug leakage during circulation and severe off-target-associated side effects. To address these issues, we reported in this study the codelivery of liver-specific miRNA-122 and anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) using a macromolecular prodrug approach, that is, electrostatic condensation with miRNA-122 using galactosylated-chitosan-5-fluorouracil (GC-FU). The delivery efficacy was evaluated comprehensively in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, the biocompatibility of GC-FU/miR-122 nanoparticles (NPs) was assessed by hemolysis activity analysis, BSA adsorption test, and cell viability assay in both normal liver cells (L02 cells) and endothelial cells. The resulting codelivery systems showed enhanced blood and salt stability, efficient proliferation inhibition of HCC cells, and further induction apoptosis of HCC cells, as well as downregulated expression of ADAM17 and Bcl-2. The strategy developed herein is thus a highly promising platform for an effective codelivery of miRNA-122 and 5-Fu with facile fabrication and great potential for the clinical translation toward HCC synergistic therapy.

Liu H, Li PW, Yang WQ, et al.
Identification of non-invasive biomarkers for chronic atrophic gastritis from serum exosomal microRNAs.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):129 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Serum exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested as novel biomarkers for various diseases, especially gastric cancer (GC). But circulating biomarkers for Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) which is defined as precancrerous lesions of GC remain largely elusive. To investigate serum exosomal miRNAs that are differently expressed in CAG patients and Chronic nonatrophic gastritis (CNAG) may be helpful for its diagnosis and therapy.
METHODS: Patients were recruited according to the diagnosis and exclusioncriteria. RNA was extracted from serum exosomes of 30 CAG and 30 CNAG patients. The miRNA expression profiles were analyzed by next generation sequencing and were validated by qRT-PCR. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis has been used to evaluate the diagnostic value.
RESULTS: 30 CAG patients and 30 CNAG patients were recruited in our study. sRNA-seq results showed that hsa-miR-3591-3p, - 122-3p, and - 122-5p of the top 10 miRNAs (hsa-miR-148a-3p, - 122-3p, - 486-3p, -451a, - 122-5p, - 3591-3p, - 486-5p, -151a-3p, -92a-3p, -320a) were significantly upregulated in exosomes from CAG patients versus those from CNAG patients, but hsa-miR-451a, -151a-3p, and -92a-3p were significantly downregulated. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis confirmed that hsa-miR-122-5p and hsa-miR-122-3p were significantly upregulated in CAG samples, but hsa-miR-122-3p hadnot a steable expression. ROC curves showed that the AUC for hsa-miR-122-5p was 0.67 (95% CI 0.52-0.82, SE 62%, SP 86%). A sum of the four miRNAs (panel 1, hsa-miR-122-5p, -451a, -151a-3p, and -92a-3p) did not significantly improve the diagnostic potential (AUC 0.63, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.78). Correlation analysis showed that the expression of hsa-miR-122-5p differed significantly between patients based on atrophic (Moderate atrophic vs. Absent, P value was 0.036.) and IM (compare moderate-severe, absent and mild P values were 0.001 and 0.014, respectively). However, there were no differences between groups based on age, gender, dysplasia, or chronic or active inflammation.
CONCLUSION: These results suggested that hsa-miR-122-5p in serum exosomes might serve as a potential biomarker for CAG diagnosis.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registy ( ChiCTR-IOR-16008027 , Date of Registration:2016-03-01).

Bei C, Liu S, Yu X, et al.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:1540201 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNA may affect its expression and regulation of target genes, which may consequently alter individual susceptibility to cancer. In this study we aimed to investigate associations between

Salazar-Ruales C, Arguello JV, López-Cortés A, et al.
Salivary MicroRNAs for Early Detection of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case-Control Study in the High Altitude Mestizo Ecuadorian Population.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:9792730 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer with the highest incidence worldwide. HNSCC is often diagnosed at advanced stages, incurring significant high mortality and morbidity. The use of saliva, as a noninvasive tool for the diagnosis of cancer, has recently increased. Salivary microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a promising molecular tool for early diagnosis of HNSCC. The aim was to identify the differential expression of salivary miRNAs associated with HNSCC in the high altitude mestizo Ecuadorian population. Using PCR Arrays, miR-122-5p, miR-92a-3p, miR-124-3p, miR-205-5p, and miR-146a-5p were found as the most representative ones. Subsequently, miRNAs expression was confirmed in saliva samples from 108 cases and 108 controls. miR-122-5p, miR-92a-3p, miR-124-3p, and miR-146a-5p showed significant statistical difference between cases and controls with areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.73 (p < 0.001), 0.70 (p < 0.001), 0.71 (p = 0.002), and 0.66 (p = 0.008), respectively. miRNAs were also deregulated in between HNSCC localizations. A differentiated expression of miR-122-5p between oral cancer and oropharynx cancer (AUC of 0.96 p = 0.01) was found: miR-124-3p between larynx and pharynx (AUC = 0.97, p < 0.01) and miR-146a-5p between larynx, oropharynx, and oral cavity (AUC = 0.96, p = 0.01). Moreover, miR-122-5p, miR-124-3p, miR-205-5p, and miR-146a-5p could differentiate between HPV+ and HPV- (p=0.004). Finally, the expression profiles of the five miRNAs were evaluated to discriminate HNSCC patient's tumor stages (TNM 2-4). miR-122-5p differentiates TNM 2 and 3 (p = 0.002, AUC = 0.92), miR-124-3p TNM 2, 3, and 4 (p < 0.001, AUC = 98), miR-146a-5p TNM 2 and 3 (p < 0.001, AUC = 0.97), and miR-92a-3p TNM 3 (p < 0.001, AUC = 0.99). Taken together, these findings show that altered expression of miRNAs could be used as biomarkers for HNSCC diagnosis in the high altitude mestizo Ecuadorian population.

Valdmanis PN, Kim HK, Chu K, et al.
miR-122 removal in the liver activates imprinted microRNAs and enables more effective microRNA-mediated gene repression.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):5321 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
miR-122 is a highly expressed liver microRNA that is activated perinatally and aids in regulating cholesterol metabolism and promoting terminal differentiation of hepatocytes. Disrupting expression of miR-122 can re-activate embryo-expressed adult-silenced genes, ultimately leading to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we interrogate the liver transcriptome at various time points after genomic excision of miR-122 to determine the cellular consequences leading to oncogenesis. Loss of miR-122 leads to specific and progressive increases in expression of imprinted clusters of microRNAs and mRNA transcripts at the Igf2 and Dlk1-Dio3 loci that could be curbed by re-introduction of exogenous miR-122. mRNA targets of other abundant hepatic microRNAs are functionally repressed leading to widespread hepatic transcriptional de-regulation. Together, this reveals a transcriptomic framework for the hepatic response to loss of miR-122 and the outcome on other microRNAs and their cognate gene targets.

Cao F, Yin LX
miR-122 enhances sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma to oxaliplatin via inhibiting MDR1 by targeting Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2019; 106:34-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the primary causes of cancer-related death and resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy is the major cause of mortality in HCC patients. miR-122 is a liver specific miRNA and is found to be reduced in HCC, however, the function of miR-122 in HCC chemosensitivity remains elusive.
METHODS: We used qRT-PCR to measure expressions of miR-122, β-catenin and MDR1 in four HCC cell lines. And we assessed the effects of miR-122 or β-catenin on cell viability and apoptosis upon oxaliplatin (OXA) treatment by MTT assay and flow cytometry. In addition, we validated the interactions of miR-122/β-catenin and β-catenin/MDR1 by dual luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Western blotting was used to determine the protein levels of β-catenin, Wnt1 and MDR1. In the end, we verified the anti-tumor effect of miR-122 in vivo by using mouse tumor xenograft model.
RESULTS: We found that miR-122 was down-regulated in HCC cells. Up-regulation of miR-122 or inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling promoted HCC cells apoptosis and increased the sensitivity of HCC cells to OXA. On the molecular level, we showed that miR-122 directly targeted and suppressed Wnt/β-catenin pathway while β-catenin bound with MDR1 promoter and activated its transcription. Overexpression of miR-122 inhibited MDR1 expression via directly suppressing Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
CONCLUSION: Our study fully demonstrated that miR-122 inhibits MDR1 expression via suppression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, thereby enhancing HCC sensitivity to OXA. Therefore, miR-122 could serve as a novel potential therapeutic target for HCC.

Hua Y, Zhu Y, Zhang J, et al.
miR-122 Targets X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein to Sensitize Oxaliplatin-Resistant Colorectal Cancer Cells to Oxaliplatin-Mediated Cytotoxicity.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 51(5):2148-2159 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although oxaliplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs used to treat colorectal cancer (CRC), long-term administration usually induces acquired drug resistance during the course of treatment. Thus, there is an urgent need to explore novel strategies to improve the efficiency of cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of microRNA-122 (miR-122) on reversing oxaliplatin resistance in CRC.
METHODS: The expression of miR-122 in CRC cells was examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR. The cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin against CRC cells was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assays. Mitochondrial membrane potentials and cell apoptotic rates were measured by flow cytometry. Cellular protein expression and interactions were detected by western blot and co-immunoprecipitation.
RESULTS: Established oxaliplatin-resistant SW480 and HT29 cells (SW480/OR and HT29/OR) expressed significantly higher levels of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and lower levels of miR-122 compared with normal SW480 and HT29 cells, respectively. Our results showed that the downregulation of miR-122 was responsible for the overexpression of XIAP in these oxaliplatin-resistant CRC cells. We then found that the recovery of miR-122 expression can sensitize SW480/OR and HT29/OR cells to oxaliplatin-mediated apoptosis through the inhibition of XIAP expression.
CONCLUSION: Upregulation of XIAP in CRC cells is responsible for the acquired resistance to oxaliplatin. Furthermore, miR-122 reversed oxaliplatin resistance in CRC by targeting XIAP.

Li J, Zhao R, Fang R, Wang J
[miR-122-5p inhibits the proliferation of melanoma cells by targeting NOP14].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2018; 38(11):1360-1365 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression profile of miR-122-5p in melanoma tissues and the effect of miR-122-5p on the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of human melanoma cell lines SK-MEL-110 and A375.
METHODS: The expression profiles of miR-122-5p in melanoma and pigmented nevus tissues were detected using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). SK-MEL-110 and A375 cells transfected with miR-122-5p inhibitor or negative control inhibitor (NC) I were examined for miR-122- 5p expression using qRT-PCR and changes in cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis using MTT assay or flow cytometry. NOP14 mRNA and protein expressions in the cells were detected using qRT- PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm the identity of NOP14 as the direct target of miR-122-5p.
RESULTS: The relative expression of miR-122-5p in human pigmented nevus tissues and melanoma tissues was 1.23±0.270 and 7.65 ± 1.37, respectively. The relative expression of miR-122-5p in SK-MEL-110 and A375 cells transfected with miR-122-5p inhibitor was 0.21 ± 0.08 and 0.17 ± 0.05, respectively. miR-122-5p inhibitor obviously inhibited the cell proliferation and increased the percentage of cells in G1 stage in both SK-MEL-110 and A-375 cells, but did not cause obvious changes in the apoptosis of the two cells. miR-122-5p inhibitor did not significantly affect the expression level of NOP14 mRNA, but obviously increased the expression level of NOP14 protein. Luciferase reporter assay revealed a significantly lower luciferase activity in cells co-transfected with miR-122-5p mimics and wild-type psi-CHECK2-3'UTR plasmid than in the cells cotransfected with NC and wild-type psi-CHECK2-3'UTR plasmid (0.21 ± 0.14
CONCLUSIONS: miR-122-5p expression is upregulated in melanoma tissues, indicating its involvement in the development of melanoma. miR-122-5p inhibits the proliferation of SK-MEL-110 and A-375 cells possibly by affecting the cycle through NOP14.

Nie W, Ni D, Ma X, et al.
miR‑122 promotes proliferation and invasion of clear cell renal cell carcinoma by suppressing Forkhead box O3.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(2):559-571 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) serve an important role in renal cancer, but renal cancer miRNA expression data remains inconsistent. Therefore, there is a requirement for integrated analysis of these data. An increasing number of studies demonstrate that miR‑122 is dysregulated in numerous cancer types, including liver, lung and breast cancer, yet its role in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) remains unclear. In the present study, an integrated analysis of four ccRCC miRNAs expression datasets was performed and the expression of miR‑122 in the present cohort was validated. The effects of cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of ccRCC cells in vitro were assayed following transfection with miR‑122 mimics and inhibitor. The target gene of miR‑122 was confirmed using a luciferase reporter assay, and a xenograft mouse model was used to determine the effect of miR‑122 in ccRCC tumorigenicity in vivo. The present results demonstrated that patients with ccRCC with an increased miR‑122 level in tumor tissues had a shortened metastasis‑free survival time as indicated by The Cancer Genome Atlas‑Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma dataset and the present ccRCC cohort. Overexpression of miR‑122 in 786‑O cells improved cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion, while knockdown of miR‑122 in SN12‑PM6 cells inhibited cell growth, colony formation, migration and invasion. Western blot analysis and luciferase reporter assays were used to identify FOXO3 as a direct target of miR‑122. The present results indicate that miR‑122 serves a tumor‑promoting role by direct targeting FOXO3 in ccRCC.

Hirano D, Hayakawa F, Yasuda T, et al.
Chromosomal translocation-mediated evasion from miRNA induces strong MEF2D fusion protein expression, causing inhibition of PAX5 transcriptional activity.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(13):2263-2274 [PubMed] Related Publications
MEF2D fusion genes are newly discovered recurrent gene abnormalities that are detected in approximately 5% of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases. We previously demonstrated that the vector-driven expression of MEF2D fusion proteins was markedly stronger than that of wild-type MEF2D; however, the underlying mechanisms and significance of this expression have yet to be clarified. We herein showed that the strong expression of MEF2D fusion proteins was caused by the loss of the target site of miRNA due to gene translocation. We identified the target region of miRNA located in the coding region and selected miR-122 as a candidate of the responsible miRNA. Mutations at a putative binding site of miR-122 increased MEF2D expression, while the transfection of its miRNA mimic reduced the expression of wild-type MEF2D, but not MEF2D fusion proteins. We also found that MEF2D fusion proteins inhibited the transcriptional activity of PAX5, a B-cell differentiation regulator in a manner that depended on fusion-specific strong expression and an association with histone deacetylase 4, which may lead to the differentiation disorders of B cells. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying leukemia development by MEF2D fusion genes and the involvement of the deregulation of miRNA-mediated repression in cancer development.

Cheng C, Xiaohua W, Ning J, et al.
MiR-122 exerts anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2018; 64(13):21-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate the effects of microRNA-122 (miR-122) on the proliferation and apoptosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) HONE-1 cells, and its correlation with the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway. Human NPC cell line (HONE-1) was transfected with miR-122 inhibitor (anti-miR-122 group), negative controls (vector control group) via lipofectamines, and HONE-1 cell lines undergoing no transfection were selected (non-transfection group). The expression of miR-122, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and expressions of PI3K/AKT pathway and downstream target proteins in the three groups were determined using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), cell counting kit-8 (CCK8), immunofluorescence (IF) and Western blotting, respectively. The expression of miR-122 in the anti-miR-122 group was significantly lower than corresponding expressions in the non-transfection and vector control groups after 48h of transfection (p <0.05). The proliferation of cells in the anti-miR-122 group was significantly reduced with time after transfection (p <0.05). After 48h of transfection, the extent of apoptosis in the anti-miR-122 group (47.11 ± 1.95%) was significantly higher than that in normal control (7.37 ± 0.82%) and vector control group (8.54 ± 0.96%; p <0.05). There were no significant differences in the expressions of PI3K, AKT, mTOR protein, and the downstream signal proteins (p70S6K and 4E-BP1) in the three groups (p >0.05). However, the expressions of phosphorylated forms of these proteins were significantly lower in the anti-miR-122 group than in the non-transfection and vector control groups (p <0.05). IF results revealed that there were no significant differences in the fluorescence intensity value of PI3K and Akt among the three groups of patients (p>0.05). Inhibition of the expression of miR-122 in NPC suppresses the proliferation, and promotes their apoptosis through the PI3K/AKT signal transduction pathway.

Li CW, Chiu YK, Chen BS
Investigating Pathogenic and Hepatocarcinogenic Mechanisms from Normal Liver to HCC by Constructing Genetic and Epigenetic Networks via Big Genetic and Epigenetic Data Mining and Genome-Wide NGS Data Identification.
Dis Markers. 2018; 2018:8635329 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still high worldwide because liver diseases could develop into HCC. Recent reports indicate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD&NASH) and primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PBC&PSC) are significant of HCC. Therefore, understanding the cellular mechanisms of the pathogenesis and hepatocarcinogenesis from normal liver cells to HCC through NAFLD&NASH or PBC&PSC is a priority to prevent the progression of liver damage and reduce the risk of further complications. By the genetic and epigenetic data mining and the system identification through next-generation sequencing data and its corresponding DNA methylation profiles of liver cells in normal, NAFLD&NASH, PBC&PSC, and HCC patients, we identified the genome-wide real genetic and epigenetic networks (GENs) of normal, NAFLD&NASH, PBC&PSC, and HCC patients. In order to get valuable insight into these identified genome-wide GENs, we then applied a principal network projection method to extract the corresponding core GENs for normal liver cells, NAFLD&NASH, PBC&PSC, and HCC. By comparing the signal transduction pathways involved in the identified core GENs, we found that the hepatocarcinogenesis through NAFLD&NASH was induced through DNA methylation of

Fu X, Calin GA
miR-122 and hepatocellular carcinoma: from molecular biology to therapeutics.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 37:17-18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Qu A, Yang Y, Zhang X, et al.
Development of a preoperative prediction nomogram for lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer based on a novel serum miRNA signature and CT scans.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 37:125-133 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Preoperative prediction of lymph node (LN) status is of crucial importance for appropriate treatment planning in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we sought to develop and validate a non-invasive nomogram model to preoperatively predict LN metastasis in CRC.
METHODS: Development of the nomogram entailed three subsequent stages with specific patient sets. In the discovery set (n = 20), LN-status-related miRNAs were screened from high-throughput sequencing data of human CRC serum samples. In the training set (n = 218), a miRNA panel-clinicopathologic nomogram was developed by logistic regression analysis for preoperative prediction of LN metastasis. In the validation set (n = 198), we validated the above nomogram with respect to its discrimination, calibration and clinical application.
FINDINGS: Four differently expressed miRNAs (miR-122-5p, miR-146b-5p, miR-186-5p and miR-193a-5p) were identified in the serum samples from CRC patients with and without LN metastasis, which also had regulatory effects on CRC cell migration. The combined miRNA panel could provide higher LN prediction capability compared with computed tomography (CT) scans (P < .0001 in both the training and validation sets). Furthermore, a nomogram integrating the miRNA-based panel and CT-reported LN status was constructed in the training set, which performed well in both the training and validation sets (AUC: 0.913 and 0.883, respectively). Decision curve analysis demonstrated the clinical usefulness of the nomogram.
INTERPRETATION: Our nomogram is a reliable prediction model that can be conveniently and efficiently used to improve the accuracy of preoperative prediction of LN metastasis in patients with CRC.

Musaddaq G, Shahzad N, Ashraf MA, Arshad MI
Circulating liver-specific microRNAs as noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers of hepatic diseases in human.
Biomarkers. 2019; 24(2):103-109 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Hepatitis is an endemic disease worldwide leading to chronic and debilitating cancers. The viral agents and hepatotoxic substances lead to damage of hepatocytes and release of damage associated molecules in circulation. The lack of timely and rapid diagnosis of hepatitis results in chronic disease.
OBJECTIVE: The present review aimed to describe regulation, release and functions of microRNAs (miR) during human liver pathology and insights into their promising use as noninvasive biomarkers of hepatitis.
METHODS: Comprehensive data were collected from PubMed, ScienceDirect and the Web of Science databases utilizing the keywords "biomarkers", "microRNAs" and "hepatic diseases".
RESULTS: The miRs are readily released in the body fluids and blood during HBV/HCV associated hepatitis as well as metabolic, alcoholic, drug induced and autoimmune hepatitis. The liver-specific microRNAs including miR-122, miR-130, miR-183, miR-196, miR-209 and miR-96 are potential indicators of liver injury (mainly via apoptosis, necrosis and necroptosis) or hepatitis with their varied expression during acute/fulminant, chronic, liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepato-cellular carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: The liver-specific miRs can be used as rapid and noninvasive biomarkers of hepatitis to discern different stages of hepatitis. Blocking or stimulating pathways associated with miR regulation in liver could unveil novel therapeutic strategies in the management of liver diseases. Clinical significance Liver specific microRNAs interact with cellular proteins and signaling molecules to regulate the expression of various genes controlling biological processes. The circulatory level of liver specific microRNAs is indicator of severity of HBV and HCV infections as well as prognostic and therapeutic candidates. The expression of liver specific microRNAs is strongly associated with infectious, drug-induced, hepatotoxic, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases.

Cheng D, Deng J, Zhang B, et al.
LncRNA HOTAIR epigenetically suppresses miR-122 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma via DNA methylation.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 36:159-170 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA-122 (miR-122), a pivotal liver-specific miRNA, is frequently repressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and associated with poor prognosis. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) HOTAIR has been proved to function as an oncogene in multiple cancers including HCC. However, the relationship between HOTAIR and miR-122 in HCC remains largely unknown.
METHODS: We investigated the function of HOTAIR and miR-122 in HCC cell models and a xenograft mouse model. The regulatory network between HOTAIR and miR-122 was further detected following overexpression or knockdown of HOTAIR. DNA methylation status of miR-122 promoter region, as well as expression levels of DNMTs, EZH2 and Cyclin G1 were analyzed.
FINDINGS: In this study, we found that HOTAIR was highly expressed whereas miR-122 was suppressed in HCC, and HOTAIR negatively regulated miR-122 expression in HCC cells. Furthermore, knockdown of HOTAIR dramatically inhibited HCC cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in vitro and suppressed tumorigenicity in vivo by upregulating miR-122 expression. Mechanistically, a CpG island was located in the miR-122 promoter region. HOTAIR epigenetically suppressed miR-122 expression via DNMTs-mediated DNA methylation. Moreover, HOTAIR upregulated DNMTs expression via EZH2. In addition, suppression of miR-122 induced by HOTAIR directly reactivated oncogene Cyclin G1 expression. Collectively, our results suggest that HOTAIR epigenetically suppresses miR-122 expression via DNA methylation, leading to activation of Cyclin G1 and promotion of tumorigenicity in HCC, which provide new insight into the mechanism of HOTAIR-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis via suppressing miR-122.

Duan Y, Dong Y, Dang R, et al.
MiR-122 inhibits epithelial mesenchymal transition by regulating P4HA1 in ovarian cancer cells.
Cell Biol Int. 2018; 42(11):1564-1574 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is one of the most common gyneacologic malignancies, with high morbidity and high mortality. Hsa-miR-122-5p (miR-122) has been reported with tumor-suppressing roles in various cancers. In this study, miR-122 was overexpressed in ovarian cancer cells, and phenotypic experiments demonstrated that miR-122 inhibited migration and invasion in SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells. MiR-122 also suppressed epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), evidenced by expression changes of E-cadherin, vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2, and MMP14. Prolyl-4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 (P4HA1) was identified as a target of miR-122, and downregulated by miR-122. MiR-122-induced the elevation of migration, invasion, and EMT were recovered by P4HA1. Additionally, miR-122 restrained the tumor metastasis of SKOV3 cells in peritoneal cavity of nude mice. In summary, we demonstrated that miR-122 inhibited migration, invasion, EMT, and metastasis in peritoneal cavity of ovarian cancer cells by targeting P4HA1 for the first time, which shed lights on the discovery of miR-122 and P4HA1 as possible potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer.

Xu Z, Liu G, Zhang M, et al.
miR-122-5p Inhibits the Proliferation, Invasion and Growth of Bile Duct Carcinoma Cells by Targeting ALDOA.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 48(6):2596-2606 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bile duct cancer, although not among the most common tumors, still accounts for more and more worldwide deaths each year. By attempting to verify an overexpression of ALDOA in cholangiocarcinoma tissues and cells and explore the underlying molecular mechanism regulated by miR-122-5p, this study was designed to provide a potential molecular target in bile duct cancer treatment.
METHODS: Western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the ALDOA protein level in duct carcinoma tissues. The transfection efficiency was confirmed by western blot and/or RT-qPCR assay. The proliferation of bile duct carcinoma cells was determined by MTT and colony formation assay. The invasion ability of bile duct carcinoma cells was evaluated with Transwell invasion assay. Flow cytometry detected cell apoptosis of bile duct carcinoma cells. The miRNAs which modulate ALDOA were filtrated from bioinformatics software and clinical specimens. The target relationship was confirmed by dual luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, a xenograft model was completed to verify the impact of miRNA on inhibition growth of bile duct carcinoma cells.
RESULTS: ALDOA was found up-regulated in bile duct carcinoma tissues and cells. Knockdown of ALDOA promoted the apoptosis of cells and inhibited the proliferation and invasion of bile duct carcinoma cells. Bioinformatics and clinical specimens indicated the negative correlation and targeted regulation between miR-122-5p and ALDOA. By down-regulating ALDOA, overexpression of miR-122-5p appeared to promote cell apoptosis and significantly inhibit cell proliferation, invasion in vitro and suppress the tumor growth in vivo.
CONCLUSION: miR-122-5p inhibited proliferation and invasion of bile duct carcinoma cells and promoted cell apoptosis by targeting ALDOA expression.

Li J, Li Z, Jiang P, et al.
Circular RNA IARS (circ-IARS) secreted by pancreatic cancer cells and located within exosomes regulates endothelial monolayer permeability to promote tumor metastasis.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):177 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show that exosomes are involved in intercellular communication and that abundant circular RNAs (circRNAs) are present within exosomes. However, whether these exosomal circRNAs contribute to tumor invasion and metastasis remains unclear, as do their associated mechanisms.
METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression levels of circ-IARS in 85 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues, plasma exosomes, and Hs 766 T, Hs 766 T-L2 and human microvascular vein endothelial (HUVECs) cells. RhoA, ZO-1 and RhoA-GTP levels were detected by qRT-PCR and western blotting (WB); RhoA activity analysis was also performed. Transwell assays were performed to examine changes in endothelial monolayer permeability, and immunofluorescence and WB were employed to evaluate F-actin expression and focal adhesion. Finally, an animal experiment was performed to detect the contribution of circ-IARS to cancer metastasis.
RESULTS: circ-IARS expression was up-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissues and in plasma exosomes of patients with metastatic disease. Circ-IARS was found to enter HUVECs through exosomes and promote tumor invasion and metastasis. Circ-IARS expression was positively correlated with liver metastasis, vascular invasion, and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage and negatively correlated with postoperative survival time. Overexpression of circ-IARS significantly down-regulated miR-122 and ZO-1 levels, up-regulated RhoA and RhoA-GTP levels, increased F-actin expression and focal adhesion, enhanced endothelial monolayer permeability, and promoted tumor invasion and metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: circ-IRAS accesses HUVECs via exosomes derived from pancreatic cancer cells followed by increased endothelial monolayer permeability. Furthermore, this process promotes tumor invasion and metastasis. The results of this study suggest that the presence of circRNAs in exosomes may be important indicator for early diagnosis and prognostic prediction in PDAC.

Kincaid RP, Lam VL, Chirayil RP, et al.
RNA triphosphatase DUSP11 enables exonuclease XRN-mediated restriction of hepatitis C virus.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(32):8197-8202 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Seventy percent of people infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) will suffer chronic infection, putting them at risk for liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The full range of mechanisms that render some people more susceptible to chronic infection and liver disease is still being elucidated. XRN exonucleases can restrict HCV replication and may help to resolve HCV infections. However, it is unknown how 5' triphosphorylated HCV transcripts, primary products of the viral polymerase, become susceptible to attack by 5' monophosphate-specific XRNs. Here, we show that the 5' RNA triphosphatase DUSP11 acts on HCV transcripts, rendering them susceptible to XRN-mediated attack. Cells lacking DUSP11 show substantially enhanced HCV replication, and this effect is diminished when XRN expression is reduced. MicroRNA-122 (miR-122), a target of current phase II anti-HCV drugs, is known to protect HCV transcripts against XRNs. We show that HCV replication is less dependent on miR-122 in cells lacking DUSP11. Combined, these results implicate DUSP11 as an important component of XRN-mediated restriction of HCV.

Zhang J, Wang W, Chen S, et al.
Distinct non-invasive evaluation values of tumor-derived cell-free microRNAs, circulating microvesicles and exosomal microRNAs after renal carcinoma cryoablation.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 503(3):1278-1283 [PubMed] Related Publications
The detection of peripheral circulating tumor-derived components, such as cell-free microRNAs, circulating microvesicles, and exosomal microRNAs, has been shown as a promising noninvasive strategy. However, the different roles of these components in tumor therapy evaluations have remained largely undefined. In this paper, we employed an in vivo model of the human clear cell renal cell carcinoma line Caki-1-bearing mice to evaluate the therapeutic effects of cryoablation, which is a new minimally invasive treatment for renal cell carcinoma. At different times after cryoablation, we found that the levels of the cell-free microRNAs miR-122, miR-155 and miR-210 were first increased and then decreased. Additionally, the number of large-sized microvesicles was increased after cryoablation, but the number of small-sized circulating microvesicles did not change. Furthermore, the exosomal microRNAs miR-126-3p, miR-17-5p, and miR-21-3p rapidly decreased one day after cryoablation, an effect that was well correlated with the treatment degree. Therefore, we suggest that these circulating components may have different levels of importance in the evaluation of the efficacy of renal cell cryoablation, furthermore, exosomal microRNAs may be more suitable for the early postoperative judgment of tumor elimination effects, which are worth further exploration in clinical practice.

An Y, Gao S, Zhao WC, et al.
Novel serum microRNAs panel on the diagnostic and prognostic implications of hepatocellular carcinoma.
World J Gastroenterol. 2018; 24(24):2596-2604 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To determine a panel of serum microRNAs (miRNAs) that could be used as novel biomarkers for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: We initially screened 9 out of 754 serum miRNAs by TaqMan Low Density Array in two pooled samples respectively from 35 HCC and 35 normal controls, and then validated individually by RT-qPCR in another 114 patients and 114 controls arranged in two phases. The changes of the selected miRNAs after operation and their prognostic value were examined.
RESULTS: miR-375, miR-10a, miR-122 and miR-423 were found to be significantly higher in HCC than in controls (
CONCLUSION: The four serum miRNAs (miR-375, miR-10a, miR-122 and miR-423) could potentially serve as novel biomarkers for the diagnostic and prognostic of HCC.

Zhou X, Lu Z, Wang T, et al.
Plasma miRNAs in diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer: A miRNA expression analysis.
Gene. 2018; 673:181-193 [PubMed] Related Publications
The differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plasma of pancreatic cancer (PC) patients may act as a diagnostic biomarker. A four-stage study was performed to identify plasma miRNAs with potential in detecting PC. Exiqon panels (20 PC vs. 10 normal controls (NCs)) were applied in the screening phase to obtain miRNA profiling. The identified miRNAs were further assessed in the training (40 PC vs. 40 NCs) and testing stages (112 PC vs. 116 NCs) with qRT-PCR assays. A six-miRNA signature including up-regulated miR-122-5p, miR-125b-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-193b-3p, miR-221-3p and miR-27b-3p was identified. The signature could accurately discriminate PC patients from NCs with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.848, 0.833 and 0.937 for the training, testing and the external validation stage (41 PC vs. 50 NCs), respectively. The multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that down-regulated plasma miR-125b-5p could predict worse OS independent from late tumor stage and high CA19-9. All the six miRNAs except miR-122-5p showed high expression levels in PC tissues than those in matched normal tissues. MiR-122-5p and miR-193b-3p were up-regulated, while miR-221-3p was down-regulated in plasma exosomes from PC patients. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that the miRNAs might involve in several molecular pathways closely related with PC such as p53 signaling pathway, pancreatic cancer, TGF-beta signaling pathway and so on. In conclusion, we identified a six-miRNA signature in plasma which could act as a non-invasive biomarker in diagnosis and prognosis of PC. Plasma miR-125b-5p might act as an independent biomarker in predicting OS of PC patients.

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