Gene Summary

Gene:MALAT1; metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1
Aliases: HCN, NEAT2, PRO2853, LINC00047, NCRNA00047
Summary:This gene produces a precursor transcript from which a long non-coding RNA is derived by RNase P cleavage of a tRNA-like small ncRNA (known as mascRNA) from its 3' end. The resultant mature transcript lacks a canonical poly(A) tail but is instead stabilized by a 3' triple helical structure. This transcript is retained in the nucleus where it is thought to form molecular scaffolds for ribonucleoprotein complexes. It may act as a transcriptional regulator for numerous genes, including some genes involved in cancer metastasis and cell migration, and it is involved in cell cycle regulation. Its upregulation in multiple cancerous tissues has been associated with the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MALAT1 (cancer-related)

Hong CH, Lin SH, Lee CH
CCL21 Induces mTOR-dependent MALAT1 Expression, Leading to Cell Migration in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma.
In Vivo. 2019 May-Jun; 33(3):793-800 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mycosis fungoides (MF) is indolent, but may disseminate to leukemia. We reported that C-C motif chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21) is associated with MF invasion and progression. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a long noncoding RNA, is associated with several cancer types, however, how it interacts with CCL21 to regulate MF progression, remains unclear.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of long noncoding RNAs MALAT1, antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL), Hox antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), highly up-regulated in liver cancer RNA (HULC), and leukemia-associated non-coding insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor activator RNA 1 (LUNAR1) in tissues from MF was studied using polymerase chain reaction and RNA interference in MF cell line MyLa were used to address this question.
RESULTS: Expression of MALAT1 was selectively increased in MF tissues. C-C Chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) expression was found to be increased in MyLa cells. CCL21 was found not only to mediate migration, but also to enhance MALAT1 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation in MyLa cells. Knockdown of MALAT1 abrogated CCL21-mediated migration, but not mTOR activation. In contrast, mTOR inhibition reduced CCL21-mediated migration and MALAT1 expression.
CONCLUSION: CCL21 induced mTOR activation in MyLa cells, followed by expression of MALAT1, causing cell migration. MALAT1 and mTOR are potential therapeutic targets for MF.

Xie JJ, Li WH, Li X, et al.
LncRNA MALAT1 promotes colorectal cancer development by sponging miR-363-3p to regulate EZH2 expression.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2019 Mar-Apr; 33(2):331-343 [PubMed] Related Publications
LncRNA MALAT1 is reported to play a potential role in human cancers. Hence, we investigated the effects of MALAT1 on colorectal cancer

Liu J, Tian W, Zhang W, et al.
MicroRNA-142-3p/MALAT1 inhibits lung cancer progression through repressing β-catenin expression.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 114:108847 [PubMed] Related Publications
MALAT1 is well documented to be highly expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its overexpression closely associates the malignant phenotype of NSCLC cells and poor prognosis of NSCLC patients. MALAT1 is also identified to enhance β-catenin expression and under the negative regulation of miR-142-3p. However, the role of miR-142-3p/MALAT1/β-catenin in the occurrence and development of NSCLC remains unclear. The objective of this study was to explore it. The results showed that miR-142-3p expression was reduced in NSCLC tissues, while β-catenin and MALAT1 expression levels were elevated. MTT, transwell chamber, flow cytometry assays demonstrated that up-regulation of miR-142-3p with mimic transfection significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and promoted the apoptosis of NSCLC H1299 cells, and induced a G0/G1 phase arrest and S phase reduction. Besides, miR-142-3p negatively decreased MALAT1 expression as detected by RT-PCR and luciferase reporter assays. Moreover, up-regulation of miR-142-3p decreased β-catenin expression through down-regulating MALAT1 in H1299 cells. And in vivo experiment showed that miR-142-3p up-regulation, as well as the knockdown of either β-catenin or MALAT1 significantly reduced the tumorigenesis of NSCLC cells. Taken together, our study makes clear that miR-142-3p functions as a tumor suppressor in NSCLC progression through inhibiting MALAT1/β-catenin signaling.

Mishra S, Verma SS, Rai V, et al.
Long non-coding RNAs are emerging targets of phytochemicals for cancer and other chronic diseases.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019; 76(10):1947-1966 [PubMed] Related Publications
The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are the crucial regulators of human chronic diseases. Therefore, approaches such as antisense oligonucleotides, RNAi technology, and small molecule inhibitors have been used for the therapeutic targeting of lncRNAs. During the last decade, phytochemicals and nutraceuticals have been explored for their potential against lncRNAs. The common lncRNAs known to be modulated by phytochemicals include ROR, PVT1, HOTAIR, MALAT1, H19, MEG3, PCAT29, PANDAR, NEAT1, and GAS5. The phytochemicals such as curcumin, resveratrol, sulforaphane, berberine, EGCG, and gambogic acid have been examined against lncRNAs. In some cases, formulation of phytochemicals has also been used. The disease models where phytochemicals have been demonstrated to modulate lncRNAs expression include cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The regulation of lncRNAs by phytochemicals can affect multi-steps of tumor development. When administered in combination with the conventional drugs, phytochemicals can also produce synergistic effects on lncRNAs leading to the sensitization of cancer cells. Phytochemicals target lncRNAs either directly or indirectly by affecting a wide variety of upstream molecules. However, the potential of phytochemicals against lncRNAs has been demonstrated mostly by preclinical studies in cancer models. How the modulation of lncRNAs by phytochemicals produce therapeutic effects on cancer and other chronic diseases is discussed in this review.

Yang T, Li H, Chen T, et al.
LncRNA MALAT1 Depressed Chemo-Sensitivity of NSCLC Cells through Directly Functioning on miR-197-3p/p120 Catenin Axis.
Mol Cells. 2019; 42(3):270-283 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study was aimed to explore if lncRNA MALAT1 would modify chemo-resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells by regulating miR-197-3p and p120 catenin (p120-ctn). Within this investigation, we totally recruited 326 lung cancer patients, and purchased 4 NSCLC cell lines of A549, H1299, SPC-A-1 and H460. Moreover, cisplatin, adriamycin, gefitinib and paclitaxel were arranged as chemotherapies, and half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were calculated to evaluate the chemo-resistance of the cells. Furthermore, mice models of NSCLC were also established to assess the impacts of MALAT1, miR-197-3p and p120-ctn on tumor growth. Our results indicated that MALAT1 and miR-197-3p were both over-expressed within NSCLC tissues and cells, when compared with normal tissues and cells (

Mahmoudian-Sani MR, Jalali A, Jamshidi M, et al.
Long Non-Coding RNAs in Thyroid Cancer: Implications for Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Therapy.
Oncol Res Treat. 2019; 42(3):136-142 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thyroid cancer is a rare malignancy and accounts for less than 1% of malignant neoplasms in humans; however, it is the most common cancer of the endocrine system and responsible for most deaths from endocrine cancer. Long non-coding (Lnc)RNAs are defined as non-coding transcripts that are more than 200 nucleotides in length. Their expression deregulation plays an important role in the progress of cancer. These molecules are involved in physiologic cellular processes, genomic imprinting, inactivation of chromosome X, maintenance of pluripotency, and the formation of different organs via changes in chromatin, transcription, and translation. LncRNAs can act as a tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. Several studies have shown that these molecules can interact with microRNAs and prevent their binding to messenger RNAs. Research has shown that these molecules play an important role in tumorigenicity, angiogenesis, proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and differentiation. In thyroid cancer, several lncRNAs (MALAT1, H19, BANCR, HOTAIR) have been identified as contributing factors to cancer development, and can be used as novel biomarkers for early diagnosis or even treatment. In this article, we study the newest lncRNAs and their role in thyroid cancer.

Zhuang M, Zhao S, Jiang Z, et al.
MALAT1 sponges miR-106b-5p to promote the invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer via SLAIN2 enhanced microtubules mobility.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 41:286-298 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The low expression of miR93/25 (members of miR-106b~25 cluster) promoted the invasion and metastasis of colon cancer cells, which predicted poor survival. However, the role of miR-106b-5p, the member of miR-106b~25 cluster, in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear.
METHODS: Bioinformatics methods were used to predict the potential pairs of lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA. In situ hybridization and qPCR were used to evaluate the expression of MALAT1 and miR-106b-5p in the paraffin-embedded normal and CRC tissues. Kaplan-Meier analysis with the log-rank test was used for survival analyses. Immunohistochemistry staining was applied to investigate the expression of SLAIN2. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assay was applied to observe the microtubule (MT) mobility. In vitro and in vivo invasion and metastasis assays were used to explore the function of MALAT1/miR-106b-5p/SLAIN2 in the progression of CRC.
FINDINGS: miR-106b-5p was identified as a suppressor in CRC. Functionally, ectopic or silencing the expression of miR-106b-5p inhibited or promoted the invasion and metastasis of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. The long non-coding RNA MALAT1 regulated the miR-106b-5p expression and further mediated the mobility of SLAIN2-related MTs by functioning as a competing endogenous RNA in vitro and in vivo, which resulted in the progression of CRC. Clinically, low miR-106b-5p expression predicted poor survival of CRC patients, especially in combination with high MALAT1/ SLAIN2 expression.
INTERPRETATION: miR-106b-5p served as a suppressor in combination with MALAT1/miR-106b-5p/SLAIN2, which might be a group of potential prognostic biomarkers in the prognosis of CRC. FUND: This work was supported by National Program Project for Precision Medicine in National Research and Development Plan of China (2016YFC0905300), National Natural Science Foundation of China (81572930), National Key Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2016YFC0905303, 2016YFC1303200), Beijing Science and Technology Program (D17110002617004), Non-profit Central Research Institute Fund of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (2018PT32012), CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (CIFMS) (2016-I2M-1-001), Incentive Fund for Academic Leaders of Oncology Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (RC2016003), and Beijing Hope Run Special Fund from Cancer Foundation of China (LC2017A19). The project of Shanghai Jiaotong Univversity (YG2017QN30).

Sun Z, Zhang T, Chen B
Long Non-Coding RNA Metastasis-Associated Lung Adenocarcinoma Transcript 1 (MALAT1) Promotes Proliferation and Metastasis of Osteosarcoma Cells by Targeting c-Met and SOX4 via miR-34a/c-5p and miR-449a/b.
Med Sci Monit. 2019; 25:1410-1422 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a functional long non-coding RNA involved in many biologic processes. The study was aimed to explore the functional roles of MALAT1 in osteosarcoma progression. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 76 osteosarcoma tissues and paired adjacent non-tumor tissues were collected from surgical resection. MALAT1, miRNAs, and genes mRNA expression levels were detected using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Protein expression level, cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were assessed using western blot, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), wound-healing assay, and Matrigel invasion assay respectively. The target relationships among miRNAs, MALAT1, and mRNA were detected via dual-luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS We found that MALAT1 was frequently upregulated in osteosarcoma samples and cell lines and a high level of MALAT1 predicted poor overall survival in osteosarcoma patients. Knockdown of MALAT1 inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of osteosarcoma cells. Further study showed a positive correlation between MALAT1 and c-Met or SOX4 expression. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that MALAT1, as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA), regulated osteosarcoma proliferation and metastasis through competitively binding to miR-34a/c-5p and miR-449a/b. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, our study illustrates a new regulatory mechanism for MALAT1 and may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

Wang Y, Liang Z, Li H, et al.
NSPc1 polycomb protein complex binds and cross‑talks to lncRNAs in glioma H4 cells.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(4):2575-2584 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, emerging evidence shows that a number of long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) recruit polycomb group (PcG) proteins to specific chromatin loci to silence relevant gene expression. In the present study, we provided evidence that lncRNA candidates, selected by bioinformatic analysis and nervous system polycomb 1 (NSPc1), a key polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) member, were highly expressed in glioma H4 cells in contrast to that noted in non‑cancerous cells. RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays demonstrated that metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), SOX2 overlapping transcript (SOX2OT) and maternally expressed 3 (MEG3) among the 8 candidates bound to the NSPc1 protein complex in glioma H4 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of NSPc1 caused a decrease in the expression of MALAT1 and MEG3 and increased expression of SOX2OT, while NSPc1 downregulation caused the levels of all three genes to increase. Meanwhile, suppression of the expression of MALAT1 increased the expression levels of mRNA and protein of NSPc1, whereas downregulation of the expression of SOX2OT decreased NSPc1 expression. Moreover, a significant decrease in cell growth and increased cell apoptosis were observed in the transfected H4 cells by MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. The results showed that the reduced co‑expression between NSPc1 and MALAT1/SOX2OT decreased the proliferation and promoted the death of H4 cells more obviously than the respectively decrease in expression of NSPc1, MALAT1 and SOX2OT. Remarkably, the influence of a simultaneously decreased expression of NSPc1 and SOX2OT on promoting cell apoptosis was more obvious than the total effect of the separate downregulation of NSPc1 and SOX2OT on accelerating cell death. However, that impact was partially counteracted in the silencing of the co‑expression of MALAT1 and NSPc1. Furthermore, they cooperated to affect transcription of p21 and OCT4.Briefly, these data suggest NSPc1 polycomb protein complex binding and cross‑talk to lncRNAs in glioma H4 cells, offering new insight into the important function of polycomb protein complex and lncRNA interactions in glioma cells and provide a novel view of potential biomarkers and targets for the diagnosis and therapy of glioma.

Dai X, Liu L, Liang Z, et al.
Silencing of lncRNA MALAT1 inhibits cell cycle progression via androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer cells.
Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(4):712-721 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men with high morbidity and mortality. Androgen receptor (AR) signaling plays a crucial role in occurrence and development of prostate cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that lncRNA metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) was increased in prostate cancer cells after androgen stimulation, as well as AR. The silencing of MALAT1 inhibited dihydrotestosterone (DHT) administration-induced acceleration of proliferation and cell cycle progression, and increase of AR expression in prostate cancer cells. MALAT1 bound to miR-320b and negatively regulated its expression, and vice versa. AR is a target of miR-320b. The phenotypic changes induced by silencing of MALAT1 were abolished by miR-320b inhibition or AR overexpression. Additionally, MALAT1 knockdown also suppressed the tumorigenesis of prostate cancer cells in nude mice. In summary, the silencing of MALAT1 inactivated AR signaling by sponging miR-320b, and inhibited proliferation and cell cycle progression in prostate cancer cells, suggesting that MALAT1 may be a new target in diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer in clinic.

Pouyanrad S, Rahgozar S, Ghodousi ES
Dysregulation of miR-335-3p, targeted by NEAT1 and MALAT1 long non-coding RNAs, is associated with poor prognosis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Gene. 2019; 692:35-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most prevalent cancer among children, and multidrug efflux mediated by overexpression of ABC transporters is the major impediment to successful chemotherapy in this malignancy. The goal of this study is to identify the non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) which may affect the expression levels of ABCA3; the previously identified prognostic biomarker for multidrug resistance (MDR) in childhood ALL (cALL). Bone marrow samples from 64 cALLs, including 46 de novo and 18 relapsed patients, in addition to 30 non-cancer controls were collected, and ncRNAs were nominated using in silico studies. Quantitative RT-PCR showed low expression profiles of miR-335-3p in cALLs compared with the control group (P = 0.018). Inverse correlation was determined between the miR-335-3p and ABCA3 mRNA expression profiles in cALL patients (r = 0.5019, P = 0.002). Moreover, it was shown that the expression levels of miR-335-3p was downregulated in the drug-resistant samples (MDR group) compared with the drug-sensitive patients (mrd- group), (P = 0.0005, AUC = 0.801). On the other hand, negative correlations were identified between the expression levels of miR-335-3p and the selected LncRNAs, NEAT1 and MALAT1, in the MDR group compared with the mrd- patients (P = 0.009), suggesting a sponge effect for these LncRNAs. The current study showed a potential regulatory role for miR-335-3p in ABCA3 expression targeted by NEAT1 and MALAT1 long non-coding RNAs. This negative impact may possibly contribute to the development of chemoresistance in childhood ALL, and provide an exceptional insight to new therapeutic approaches.

Lin J, Hu Y, Zhao JJ
Repression of Multiple Myeloma Cell Growth In Vivo by Single-wall Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT)-delivered MALAT1 Antisense Oligos.
J Vis Exp. 2018; (142) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) is a new type of nanoparticle, which has been used to deliver multiple kinds of drugs into cells, such as proteins, oligonucleotides, and synthetic small-molecule drugs. The SWCNT has customizable dimensions, a large superficial area, and can flexibly bind with drugs through different modifications on its surface; therefore, it is an ideal system to transport drugs into cells. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a cluster of noncoding RNA longer than 200 nt, which cannot be translated to protein but play an important role in biological and pathophysiological processes. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a highly conserved lncRNA. It was demonstrated that higher MALAT1 levels are related to the poor prognosis of various cancers, including multiple myeloma (MM). We have revealed that MALAT1 regulates DNA repair and cell death in MM; thus, MALAT1 can be considered as a therapeutic target for MM. However, the efficient delivery of the antisense oligo to inhibit/knockdown MALAT1 in vivo is still a problem. In this study, we modify the SWCNT with PEG-2000 and conjugate an anti-MALAT1 oligo to it, test the delivery of this compound in vitro, inject it intravenously into a disseminated MM mouse model, and observe a significant inhibition of MM progression, which indicates that SWCNT is an ideal delivery shuttle for anti-MALAT1 gapmer DNA.

Zheng T, Ma G, Tang M, et al.
IL-8 Secreted from M2 Macrophages Promoted Prostate Tumorigenesis via STAT3/MALAT1 Pathway.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 20(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major health problem in males. Metastasis-associated with lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1 (MALAT1), which is overexpressed in PCa tissue, is associated with physiological and pathological conditions of PCa. M2 macrophages are major immune cells abundant in the tumor microenvironment. However, it remains unknown whether M2 macrophages are involved in the effects or not, and molecular mechanisms of MALAT1 on PCa progression have not yet been comprehensively explored. Here we reported that, M2 macrophages (PMA/IL-4 treated THP1) induced MALAT1 expression in PCa cell lines. Knockdown MALAT1 expression level in PCa cell lines inhibited cellular proliferation, invasion, and tumor formation. Further mechanistic dissection revealed that M2 macrophages secreted IL-8 was sufficient to drive up MALAT1 expression level via activating STAT3 signaling pathway. Additional chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assays displayed that STAT3 could bind to the MALAT1 promoter region and transcriptionally stimulate the MALAT1 expression. In summary, our present study identified the IL-8/STAT3/MALAT1 axis as key regulators during prostate tumorigenesis and therefore demonstrated a new mechanism for the MALAT1 transcriptional regulation.

Gyvyte U, Kupcinskas J, Juzenas S, et al.
Identification of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) deregulated in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs).
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0209342 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are >200 nucleotides long non-coding RNAs, which have been shown to be implicated in carcinogenic processes by interacting with cancer associated genes or other non-coding RNAs. However, their role in development of rare gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is barely investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define lincRNAs deregulated in GIST and find new GIST-lincRNA associations. Next-generation sequencing data of paired GIST and adjacent tissue samples from 15 patients were subjected to a web-based lincRNA analysis. Three deregulated lincRNAs (MALAT1, H19 and FENDRR; adjusted p-value < 0.05) were selected for expression validation in a larger group of patients (n = 22) by RT-qPCR method. However, only H19 and FENDRR showed significant upregulation in the validation cohort (adjusted p < 0.05). Further, we performed correlation analyses between expression levels of deregulated lincRNAs and GIST-associated oncogenes or GIST deregulated microRNAs. We found high positive correlations between expression of H19 and known GIST related oncogene ETV1, and between H19 and miR-455-3p. These findings expand the knowledge on lincRNAs deregulated in GIST and may be an important resource for the future studies investigating lincRNAs functionally relevant to GIST carcinogenesis.

Gong N, Teng X, Li J, Liang XJ
Antisense Oligonucleotide-Conjugated Nanostructure-Targeting lncRNA MALAT1 Inhibits Cancer Metastasis.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2019; 11(1):37-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) located in the cell nucleus, is a critical regulator of tumor cell migration. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), which can downregulate the expression level of specific RNAs, have been used in clinical for disease treatment. Herein, we constructed MALAT1-specific ASO and nucleus-targeting TAT peptide cofunctionalized Au nanoparticles, namely, ASO-Au-TAT NPs, which stabilized the fragile ASOs, enhanced nuclear internalization, and exhibited good biocompatibility. After treatment with the ASO-Au-TAT NPs, A549 lung cancer cells showed a greatly reduced MALAT1 expression level and decreased migration ability  in vitro. Moreover, the ASO-Au-TAT NPs significantly reduced metastatic tumor nodule formation in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the ASO-Au-TAT nanostructures (NSs) have great potential for treatment of cancer metastasis.

Sun Z, Ou C, Liu J, et al.
YAP1-induced MALAT1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis by sponging miR-126-5p in colorectal cancer.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(14):2627-2644 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) exerts significant effects in various malignancies. However, the oncogenic role of YAP1 remains controversial, and the mechanism by which YAP1 regulates non-coding RNAs is still largely unknown. The present study aimed to assess the effect of YAP1 on the malignant behaviors of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and explore the underlying regulatory mechanism of the YAP1-MALAT1-miR-126-5p axis. YAP1 was highly expressed in CRC tissues as assessed by GSE20916 and its expression was negatively correlated with overall survival in 83 CRC cases. Meanwhile, YAP1 promoted proliferation, invasion, and migration in colon cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo. MALAT1 was obviously expressed, with differential expression of 11 lncRNAs in HCT116 cells after transfection with siYAP1 or si-Ctl. Based on bioinformatics prediction, immunoprecipitation (IP), and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), the interaction of YAP1 with TCF4/β-catenin was regulated by MALAT1. Bioinformatics prediction, dual luciferase assay, RNA-IP, and RNA pull-down assay demonstrated that YAP1-induced MALAT1 promoted the expression of metastasis-associated molecules such as VEGFA, SLUG, and TWIST, by sponging miR-126-5p in CRC. These findings indicated that the YAP1-MALAT1-miR-126-5p axis could control angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in CRC, providing potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for CRC.

Chen Y, Huang W, Sun W, et al.
LncRNA MALAT1 Promotes Cancer Metastasis in Osteosarcoma via Activation of the PI3K-Akt Signaling Pathway.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 51(3):1313-1326 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: LncRNAs have been reported to be vital regulators of the progression of osteosarcoma, although the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood.
METHODS: The levels of MALAT1 and miR-129-5p expression were measured using qRT-PCR. Cell growth was determined using the CCK-8 and colony formation assays. Cell migration and invasion were detected using the wound healing and Transwell invasion assays, respectively. Tumor growth was determined with a xenograft model.
RESULTS: MALAT1 was significantly up-regulated in osteosarcoma tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor soft tissues. Overexpression of MALAT1 promoted osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and enhanced tumor growth in a tumor xenograft mouse model. MALAT1 promoted osteosarcoma progression by modulating stem cell-like properties. Moreover, rescue experiment and luciferase reporter assay results indicated that MALAT1 modulates RET expression by sponging miR-129-5p in osteosarcomas. Furthermore, MALAT1 augmented the expression of downstream proteins of the RET-Akt pathway. MALAT1 was consistently significantly increased in osteosarcoma tissues and MALAT1 expression was positively correlated with tumor size and metastasis. High expression of MALAT1 was significantly associated with poor outcomes in patients with osteosarcomas. MALAT1 expression was positively related to RET and negatively related to miR-129-5p in osteosarcoma samples and xenograft tumors. MALAT1 functioned as an oncogenic lncRNA in osteosarcomas and was as an independent prognostic indicator.
CONCLUSION: Our data revealed for the first time that MALAT1 increases stem cell-like properties by up-regulating RET via sponging miR-129-5p, and thus activates the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and provides potential therapeutic targets for osteosarcoma treatment.

Aalijahan H, Ghorbian S
Long non-coding RNAs and cervical cancer.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2019; 106:7-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is determined as the second highest number of deaths factor in female cancers. Here is a need to find new biomarkers for detection and preliminary prognosis, metastasis. To find new treatment to enhance the survival of cervical cancer patients, pivotal actions are necessitated to be implemented. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) appear to be the crucial modulators in various processes and critically influence the oncogenesis. The commencement and general review actions of the following lncRNAs HOTAIR, H19, XIST, CCHE1, EBIC, MALAT1, ANRIL, LET, NEAT1, BLACAT1, UFC1, SNHG16 and SNHG20 are focused in this review article. Roles of the lncRNAs in cervical cancer in terms of prognosis and tumor progression, invasion and metastasis, apoptosis, and radio-resistance are pointed out. In this review the utilization of lncRNAs as biomarkers in cervical cancer prognosis for metastasis is discussed. An overview of this review will be useful for selection of biomarkers in diagnosis, prognosis, and targeted therapy of cervical cancer in the future.

Li Z, Ma Z, Xu X
Long non‑coding RNA MALAT1 correlates with cell viability and mobility by targeting miR‑22‑3p in renal cell carcinoma via the PI3K/Akt pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(2):1113-1121 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most common types of cancer of the urinary tract in the world. Long non‑coding RNA MALAT1 (lncR‑MALAT1) is upregulated in RCC and is associated with the proliferation and migration of RCC. The present study aimed to investigate the regulating role of lncR‑MALAT1 in RCC as well as the possible underlying mechanisms. The relative expression of MALAT1 and miR‑22‑3p in RCC tumor tissues and cell lines was detected by qRT‑PCR. CCK‑8 and wound healing assay were used to evaluate cell proliferation and migration ability. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of Ki‑67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), matrix metalloproteinase‑3 (MMP‑3), migration and invasion inhibitory protein (MIIP), p‑PI3K and p‑Akt. The relationship between MALAT1 and miR‑22‑3p was examined by bioinformatic prediction analysis and luciferase reporter assay. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the activation of Akt. MALAT1 was highly expressed and the expression of miR‑22‑3p was suppressed in RCC tissues and cell lines. ShRNA‑mediated knockdown of MALAT1 significantly inhibited the viability and mobility of RCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Further experiments revealed that miR‑22‑3p was a target of MALAT1 and that miR‑22‑3p inhibitor abolished the effect of MALAT1 shRNA on cell proliferation, migration and inactivation of PI3K/AKT pathway. In conclusion, lncR‑MALAT1 affected the proliferation and migration of RCC cells by targeting miR‑22‑3p through the inactivation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

Yan L, Zhang J, Guo D, et al.
IL-21R functions as an oncogenic factor and is regulated by the lncRNA MALAT1/miR-125a-3p axis in gastric cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(1):7-16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interleukin-21 receptor (IL-21R) is involved in the immunological regulation of immune cells and tumor progression in multiple malignancies. However, the potential molecular mechanisms through which non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) modulate IL-21R signaling in gastric cancer (GC) remain elusive. In this study, the expression of IL-21R was detected by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis in GC cell lines. The association between IL-21R expression and clinicopathological characteristics and the prognosis of patients with GC was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Kaplan-Meier plotter analysis. The biological functions of IL-21R were analyzed by a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments, and its regulation by ncRNAs was predicted by bioinformatics analysis and confirmed by luciferase assays and rescue experiments. As a result, the expression of IL-21R was found to be significantly increased in GC cell lines and tissues as compared with normal tissues, and was associated with tumor size and lymphatic metastasis, acting as an independent prognostic factor of poor survival and recurrence in patients with GC. The knockdown of IL-21R markedly suppressed GC cell proliferation and invasion, and IL-21R expression was further validated to be negatively regulated by miR-125a-3p (miR-125a). The overexpression of IL-21R reversed the tumor suppressive effects of miR-125a in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, lncRNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) acted as a sponge of miR-125a to modulate the IL-21R signaling pathway in GC cells and represented a risk factor for survival and recurrence in patients with GC. Taken together, the findings of this study reveal an oncogenic role for IL-21R in gastric tumorigenesis and verify that its activation is partly due to the dysregulation of the lncRNA MALAT1/miR-125a axis. These findings may provide a potential prognostic marker for patients with GC.

Liu Y, Gao S, Du Q, Zhao Q
Knockdown of long non-coding RNA metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 inhibits the proliferation and migration of bladder cancer cells by modulating the microRNA-34a/cyclin D1 axis.
Int J Mol Med. 2019; 43(1):547-556 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long non‑coding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) has been demonstrated to participate in the development and progression of some common cancer types, including bladder cancer (BC). However, the regulatory mechanism of MALAT1 underlying BC growth and metastasis remains to be fully elucidated. The present study revealed that MALAT1 was significantly upregulated in BC tissues and cell lines compared with the adjacent non‑tumour tissues and the normal urinary tract epithelial cell line SV‑HUC‑1, respectively. The expression levels of MALAT1 were higher in stage III‑IV BC tissues when compared with that in stage I‑II tissues. Furthermore, knockdown of MALAT1 significantly inhibited BC cell proliferation and migration by targeting microRNA (miR)‑34a. The expression levels of miR‑34a were significantly decreased in BC tissues and cell lines compared with that of adjacent non‑tumour tissues and SV‑HUC‑1 cells. In addition, the expression of miR‑34a was inversely correlated with the expression of MALAT1 in BC tissues. The present study revealed that cyclin D1 (CCND1) was identified as a target gene of miR‑34a, and its expression was negatively mediated by miR‑34a in BC cells. Notably, the upregulation of CCND1 impaired the effect of MALAT1 inhibition on BC cell proliferation and migration. In addition, the expression levels of CCND1 were significantly increased in BC tissues and cell lines. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrated that the knockdown of lncRNA MALAT1 inhibits the proliferation and migration of BC cells by modulating the miR‑34a/CCND1 axis, suggesting that the MALAT1/miR‑34a/CCND1 axis may be a potential therapeutic target for BC treatment.

Wen F, Cao YX, Luo ZY, et al.
LncRNA MALAT1 promotes cell proliferation and imatinib resistance by sponging miR-328 in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 507(1-4):1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a type of cancer that starts in certain blood-forming cells of the bone marrow. LncRNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a well known protooncogene, has be shown to be upregulated in various tumor types, including multiple myeloma. However, the biological function of MALAT1 in CML remains has yet to be explored. This study was designed to investigate the effects of MALAT1 on the physiological processes in CML and its underlying mechanisms, which will be helpful for us to have a better understanding of CML development and progression as well as improved therapeutic method.
METHODS: Recombinant virus construction and infection was performed to overexpress or knockdown the expression of MALAT1. Dual luciferase reporter assay was applied to vetify the interaction between MALAT1 and miR-328. The cell viability and cell cycle were analyzed by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Quantitative real time PCR and western blotting assays were used to measure the expression of genes and proteins.
RESULTS: The expression of MALAT1 was significantly increased in CML cells compared with peripheral blood cells from health donors. Silencing of MALAT1 significantly inhibited the proliferation and arrested cell cycle of CML cells by targeting miR-328. Moreover, MALAT1 knockdown enhanced imatinib sensitivity of K562 cells, while silencing of miR-328 abolished this effect.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that lncRNA MALAT1/miR-328 axis promotes the proliferation and imatinib resistance of CML cells, providing new perspectives for the future study of MALAT1 as a therapeutic target for CML.

Xi Z, Si J, Nan J
LncRNA MALAT1 potentiates autophagy‑associated cisplatin resistance by regulating the microRNA‑30b/autophagy‑related gene 5 axis in gastric cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(1):239-248 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common type of cancer worldwide and chemoresistance is a major obstacle to successful GC treatment. In the present study, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to measure the expression of metastasis‑associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) and microRNA (miR)‑30b. Western blot analysis was conducted to detect the protein expression of autophagy‑related gene 5 (ATG5), p62 and LC3 (LC3‑I and LC3‑II). Cell viability and half maximal inhibitory concentration were determined by the Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)‑LC3‑positive cell percentage was determined by the GFP‑LC3 puncta experiment. Luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation assays were used to explore the molecular associations among MALAT1, miR‑30b and ATG5. MALAT1 was found to be highly expressed in CDDP‑resistant AGS(AGS/CDDP) cells and CDDP‑resistant HGC‑27 (HGC‑27/CDDP) cells. Cell viability was markedly increased in MALAT1‑overexpressing AGS/CDDP cells, but was notably reduced in MALAT1‑depleted HGC‑27/CDDP cells. Moreover, MALAT1 potentiated CDDP resistance by facilitating autophagy in AGS/CDDP and HGC‑27/CDDP cells. Further investigations demonstrated that MALAT1 inhibited miR‑30b expression by direct interaction. Moreover, miR‑30b abolished MALAT1‑induced CDDP resistance by inhibiting autophagy in AGS/CDDP and HGC‑27/CDDP cells. Furthermore, ATG5 was found to be a target of miR‑30b. miR‑30b weakened resistance to CDDP by inhibiting autophagy in AGS/CDDP and HGC‑27/CDDP cells, while this effect was abrogated by increased ATG5 expression. Additionally, MALAT1 sequestered miR‑30b from ATG5 to increase ATG5 expression in AGS/CDDP and HGC‑27/CDDP cells. Therefore, MALAT1 potentiated autophagy‑related CDDP resistance through suppressing the miR‑30b/ATG5 axis in AGS/CDDP and HGC‑27/CDDP cells, indicating that it may represent a promising target for the reversal of chemoresistance in GC.

Duan G, Zhang C, Xu C, et al.
Knockdown of MALAT1 inhibits osteosarcoma progression via regulating the miR‑34a/cyclin D1 axis.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(1):17-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Long non‑coding (lnc)RNAs have been demonstrated to be involved in the development of various types of cancers, such as osteosarcoma (OS). Long non‑coding (lnc)RNA metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) expression was reported to be highly expressed in OS and promoted the development of this disease; however, the underlying molecular mechanism by which MALAT1 promotes the progression of OS requires further investigation. In the present study, the expression of MALAT1 and miR‑34a was detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR). The abundance of cyclin D1 (CCND1) was detected by RT‑qPCR and western blotting. Cell viability, migration and invasion were examined by MTT and Transwell assays. The interaction between miR‑34a and MALAT1 or CCND1 was probed by a dual luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation. Xenograft tumor assay was performed to verify the roles of MALAT1 and miR‑34a in tumor growth in vivo. The results demonstrated that MALAT1 and CCND1 mRNA expression levels were upregulated and miR‑34a was downregulated in OS tissues and cells. Additionally, MALAT1 expression was correlated with tumor size, clinical stage and distant metastasis in patients with OS. In addition, MALAT1 promoted OS cell viability, invasion and migration, while MALAT1 silencing exhibited opposing effects. Moreover, MALAT1 functioned as a ceRNA to suppress miR‑34a expression and in turn upregulate CCND1 in OS cells. Rescue experiments further demonstrated that MALAT1 knockdown partially reversed anti‑miR‑34a‑mediated promotion on OS cell viability, migration and invasion; overexpression of CCND1 partially reversed the effects of MALAT1 silencing on OS progression. Furthermore, in vivo experiments also revealed that MALAT1 promoted OS tumor growth via miR‑34a inhibition and upregulating the expression of CCND1. In conclusion, the present study suggested that MALAT1 exerted its oncogenic function in OS by regulating the miR‑34a/CCND1 axis in OS, which may provide novel insight into the diagnosis and therapy for OS.

Yao Y, Chen X, Lu S, et al.
Circulating Long Noncoding RNAs as Biomarkers for Predicting Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 50(4):1429-1440 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The anatomical complexity of the head and neck region and the lack of sufficiently specific and sensitive biomarkers often lead to the diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) at advanced stages. To identify novel biomarkers for early diagnosis of primary HNSCC through a minimally invasive method, we investigated circulating long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) levels in plasma of HNSCC patients.
METHODS: The global lncRNA expression profiles of HNSCC patients were measured using microarray and next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data from both circulating and tissue samples. The diagnosis prediction model based on the lncRNA signatures and clinical features was evaluated by multi-stage validation and risk score analysis.
RESULTS: The data showed that 432 lncRNA transcripts were differentially expressed by fold changes of > 4 in circulating samples and 333 in tissues samples, respectively. Only 12 lncRNAs consistently emerged in these two kinds of samples. After the risk score analysis including a multistage validation, we identified three lncRNAs, namely, HOXA11-AS, LINC00964 and MALAT1, which were up-regulated in the plasma of HNSCC patients compared with those in healthy controls with merged areas under the curve (AUCs) in training and validation sets of 0.925 and 0.839, respectively.
CONCLUSION: HOXA11-AS, LINC00964 and MALAT1 might be potential circulating biomarkers for the early detection of HNSCC in the future.

Zhuo M, Yuan C, Han T, et al.
A novel feedback loop between high MALAT-1 and low miR-200c-3p promotes cell migration and invasion in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and is predictive of poor prognosis.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1032 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It was demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs occupied an important position in tumor pathogenesis and progression. We have previously found that the metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT-1) promotes cell proliferation and metastases in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The present study was aimed to discuss the underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: Bioinformatics method was used to identify the miRNA target of MALAT-1. Expressions of relative genes were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Sulforhodamine B assay and Transwell assay were employed to detect cell proliferation, migration and invasion, respectively. Moreover, RNA immunoprecipitation was performed to determine whether RNA-induced silencing complex contained MALAT-1 and its potential binding miRNA. Luciferase assays was used to confirm potential binding site.
RESULTS: Bioinformatics search predicted that miR-200c-3p was a direct target of MALAT-1. Further, we found a reciprocal suppression between MALAT-1 and miR-200c-3p expression. In terms of mechanisms, high MALAT-1 and low miR-200c-3p may form a novel feedback loop. On the one hand, MALAT-1 functioned as a competing endogenous RNA to suppress miR-200c-3p expression, leading to upregulation of ZEB1 expression. On the other hand, miR-200c-3p inhibited the level of MALAT-1 expression was in a way similar to miRNA-mediated downregulation of target genes. Clinical data further indicated that MALAT-1 and ZEB1 expression was negatively correlated with miR-200c-3p transcript level of PDAC tissues. There was a positive correlation between MALAT-1 and ZEB1 level. MALAT-1 (high)/miR-200c-3p (low) correlated with shorter overall survival of PDAC patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that both MALAT-1 and miR-200c-3p levels were independent prognostic factors.
CONCLUSION: Our findings firstly revealed a novel feedback loop between high MALAT-1 and low miR-200c-3p. Targeting the feedback loop between high MALAT-1 and low miR-200c-3p will be a therapeutic strategy for PDAC.

Kim J, Piao HL, Kim BJ, et al.
Long noncoding RNA MALAT1 suppresses breast cancer metastasis.
Nat Genet. 2018; 50(12):1705-1715 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MALAT1 has previously been described as a metastasis-promoting long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). We show here, however, that targeted inactivation of the Malat1 gene in a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer, without altering the expression of its adjacent genes, promotes lung metastasis, and that this phenotype can be reversed by genetic add-back of Malat1. Similarly, knockout of MALAT1 in human breast cancer cells induces their metastatic ability, which is reversed by re-expression of Malat1. Conversely, overexpression of Malat1 suppresses breast cancer metastasis in transgenic, xenograft, and syngeneic models. Mechanistically, the MALAT1 lncRNA binds and inactivates the prometastatic transcription factor TEAD, preventing TEAD from associating with its co-activator YAP and target gene promoters. Moreover, MALAT1 levels inversely correlate with breast cancer progression and metastatic ability. These findings demonstrate that MALAT1 is a metastasis-suppressing lncRNA rather than a metastasis promoter in breast cancer, calling for rectification of the model for this highly abundant and conserved lncRNA.

Ye Y, Zhang F, Chen Q, et al.
LncRNA MALAT1 modified progression of clear cell kidney carcinoma (KIRC) by regulation of miR-194-5p/ACVR2B signaling.
Mol Carcinog. 2019; 58(2):279-292 [PubMed] Related Publications
This investigation was purposed to extrapolate whether and how lncRNA MALAT1, miR-194-5p, and ACVR2B altered development of clear cell kidney carcinoma (KIRC). We totally gathered 318 pairs of KIRC tissues and adjacent normal tissues, and also purchased human KIRC cell lines and normal human proximal tubular epithelial cell line. Besides, si-MALAT1, pcDNA-MALAT1, miR-194-5p mimic, miR-194-5p inhibitor, and negative control (NC) were, respectively, transfected into KIRC cells. The viability, proliferation, and apoptosis of the cells were determined with CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, and flow cytometry. Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay was implemented to validate the targeted relationships between MALAT1 and miR-194-5p, as well as between miR-194-5p and ACVR2B. The results showed that highly expressed MALAT1, ACVR2B, and lowly expressed miR-194-5p were associated with larger tumor size (≥4 cm), advanced TNM stage and poor prognosis of KIRC patients, when, respectively, compared with lowly expressed MALAT1, ACVR2B, and highly expressed miR-194-5p (P < 0.05). Transfection of pcDNA-MALAT1, miR-194-5p inhibitor, and pcDNA-ACVR2B conferred the KIRC cells with promoted viability and proliferation, as well as reduced apoptosis (P < 0.05). Treatment of rats with pcDNA-MALAT1, miR-194-5p inhibitor, or pcDNA-ACVR2B also contributed to larger tumor size growing in them (P < 0.05). Moreover, MALAT1 could directly target miR-194-5p to suppress its expression, and ACVR2B was the targeted molecule of miR-194-5p (P < 0.05). Finally, ACVR2B could reverse the effects exerted by miR-194-5p on viability, proliferation, and apoptosis of KIRC cells (P < 0.05). In conclusion, LncRNA MALAT1/miR-194-5p/ACVR2B signaling was regarded as a candidate pathway for modulating KIRC progression.

Dai SP, Jin J, Li WM
Diagnostic efficacy of long non-coding RNA in lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Postgrad Med J. 2018; 94(1116):578-587 [PubMed] Related Publications
The detection of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a novel method for lung cancer diagnosis. However, the diagnostic efficacy of lncRNA in different studies is inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to elucidate the diagnostic efficacy of lncRNA in identification of lung cancer including small cell lung cancer. The online PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, CNKI and Wanfang literature databases were searched to identify all related articles about the diagnostic efficacy of lncRNA for lung cancer. 28 articles including 3044 patients with lung cancer and 2598 controls were enrolled in our meta-analysis. lncRNA sustained a high diagnostic efficacy, pooled sensitivity of 0.82 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.84), specificity of 0.82 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.84) and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.88 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.91) in identification of patients with lung cancer from controls. Furthermore, the diagnostic efficacy of paralleled lncRNA was better than single lncRNA (sensitivity: 0.86 vs 0.80; specificity: 0.88 vs 0.78; AUC: 0.93 vs 0.86). MALAT1 had a better diagnostic efficacy than GAS5 (AUC: 0.90 vs 0.81; sensitivity: 0.83 vs 0.70; specificity: 0.83 vs 0.78). lncRNA in tissues was observed to achieve lower diagnostic efficacy than that in plasma or serum (AUC: 0.87 vs 0.90 vs 0.90) when stratified by sample types. In summary, our meta-analysis suggests that lncRNA might be a promising biomarker(s) for identifying lung cancer and the combination of lncRNA or with other biomarkers had a better diagnostic efficacy.

Gordon MA, Babbs B, Cochrane DR, et al.
The long non-coding RNA MALAT1 promotes ovarian cancer progression by regulating RBFOX2-mediated alternative splicing.
Mol Carcinog. 2019; 58(2):196-205 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer metastasizes via direct seeding, whereby cancer cells shed from the primary site, resist cell death in the peritoneal cavity, then metastasize to peritoneal organs. We sought to identify molecular mechanisms that facilitate ovarian cancer cell anchorage independent survival. Gene expression profiling was performed on ovarian cancer cells grown in attached or forced suspension culture and confirmed by RT-qPCR. Anoikis was measured by Caspase 3/7 assay. Since the long non-coding RNA Metastasis Associated Lung Adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) was among the transcripts most highly increased in forced suspension culture, modified anti-sense oligonucleotides (ASO) were used to inhibit its expression. Knockdown of RBFOX2 and KIF1B was performed using shRNAs. Publically available datasets were analyzed for association of MALAT1 gene expression with clinicopathological variables. In multiple anoikis-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines MALAT1 expression increased after 24 and 48 h in forced suspension culture compared to attached culture. High MALAT1 is associated with increased stage, recurrence, and reduced survival in ovarian cancer, and in a small percentage of ovarian cancers MALAT1 is amplified. MALAT1 knockdown resulted in decreased proliferation, invasion, anchorage-independent growth, and increased anoikis. Suppression of MALAT1 also resulted in decreased expression of RBFOX2, and alternative processing of the pro-apoptotic tumor suppressor gene KIF1B. RBFOX2 suppression resulted in preferential splicing of the pro-apoptotic isoform of KIF1B (KIFB1B-beta) and increased anoikis. The lncRNA MALAT1 facilitates a pro-metastatic phenotype in ovarian cancer by promoting alternative RNA processing and differential expression of anti-apoptosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes.

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