Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (7)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: LGALS3 (cancer-related)
Michalová Z, Čoma M, Kičová M, et al.Overexpression of Galectin-3 in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Is Associated With 17p Deletion: A Short Report.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(6):2805-2810 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Galectins belong to the family of galactose-binding proteins known to play an important role in the processes of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and neoplastic progression. Herein, we studied the expression of galectin-3 (Gal-3) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of Gal-3 was analyzed by means of multiparametric flow cytometry in normal and pathological B-cells from peripheral blood and bone marrow samples of 67 patients with CLL.
RESULTS: Pathological B-cells expressed significantly higher levels of cytoplasmic Gal-3 than normal B-cells. Moreover, overexpression of cytoplasmic Gal-3 was observed in the prognostically poorest subgroup of CLL patients, namely those with 17p deletion.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a possible role of galectin-3 in CLL pathophysiology and its potential value as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target.
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary cancer treatment modality where two different agents (
Galectin‑3 plays crucial roles in tumor progression. However, in non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it remains unclear whether the hypoxic tumor microenvironment enhances galectin‑3‑induced cell motility. We investigated galectin‑3 expression in NSCLC cells under hypoxia, and the possible molecular mechanisms by which galectin‑3 influences tumor aggressiveness. Galectin‑3 levels in NSCLC cell lines under hypoxia were assessed using reverse transcription PCR and western blotting. To clarify the role of endogenous galectin‑3, the effect of galectin‑3 knockdown in NSCLC cells was investigated using scratch and invasion assays. The expression and clinicopathological significance of galectin‑3 in 57 patients with pN0M0 invasive pulmonary adenocarcinoma were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Both mRNA and protein levels of galectin‑3 in the NSCLC cell lines A549 and LK‑2 were upregulated by hypoxia. As revealed by scratch and invasion assays, the cell migratory and invasive activities were significantly increased under hypoxia, but were reduced by galectin‑3 knockdown. Notably, addition of galectin‑3 to the media did not improve the cell motility impaired by galectin‑3 knockdown. To clarify the role of endogenous galectin‑3 in the enhancement of tumor cell motility under hypoxia, we focused on the function of RhoA. RhoA level in the plasma membrane, but not in the cytoplasm, was increased under hypoxia and decreased by galectin‑3 knockdown. RhoA activity was significantly enhanced under hypoxia and effectively inhibited by galectin‑3 knockdown. In patients with pN0M0 invasive pulmonary adenocarcinoma, higher galectin‑3 expression on tumor cells was significantly associated with tumor cell invasion into microvessels and tumor recurrence after surgery. These data demonstrate that in NSCLC cells under hypoxia, upregulated galectin‑3 levels increase the localization of RhoA to the plasma membrane, thus enhancing RhoA activity, which is associated with aggressive cell motility. In pN0M0 invasive pulmonary adenocarcinoma, galectin‑3 is a potential biomarker for predicting tumor recurrence after radical surgery.
Sherazi AA, Jariwala KA, Cybulski AN, et al.Effects of Global
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(12):6691-6697 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND/AIM: The effects of O-linked β-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) inhibitors on galectin gene expression profiles were examined in MCF7, HT-29, and HL-60 cancer cell lines.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell cultures were treated for 24 h with OGA inhibitor thiamet G or OGT inhibitor 2-acetamido-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-5-thio-α-D-glucopyranose, and global O-GlcNAc levels and expression of galectin genes were determined using an immunodot blot assay and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Two galectin genes, LGALS3 in MCF7 cells and LGALS12 in HL-60 cells, were up-regulated by O-GlcNAc, whereas other cell-specific galectins were unresponsive to changes in O-GlcNAc level. Of interest, basal levels of O-GlcNAc in resting HL-60 and HT-29 cells were significantly higher than those in cells differentiated into neutrophilic or enterocytic lineages, respectively.
CONCLUSION: O-GlcNAc-mediated signaling pathways may be involved in regulating the expression of only a limited number of galectin genes. Additional O-GlcNAc-dependent mechanisms may work at the protein level (galectin secretion and intracellular localization) and warrant further investigation.
Nephrotoxicity is a major toxic effect in chemotherapy, which constitutes up to 60% of hospitalized acute kidney injury (AKI). Very few treatment options exist to slow the transition from AKI to subsequent chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Here, we demonstrate that galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside binding lectin that plays an important role in kidney fibrosis and renal failure, is one of the key factors for renal injury progression. Ectopic overexpression of Gal-3 significantly decreased the viability of HEK293, simultaneously inducing of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, inhibition of Gal-3, mediated by modified citrus pectin (MCP), predominantly antagonized the pro-apoptotic effects. Mice were pre-treated with normal or 1% MCP-supplemented drinking water 1 week before cisplatin injection. Analyses of serum creatinine and renal tissue damage indicated that MCP-treated mice demonstrated increased renal function and attenuated renal fibrosis after cisplatin-induced injury. MCP-treated mice also demonstrated decreased renal fibrosis and apoptosis, as revealed by masson trichrome staining and Western blot analysis of cleaved caspase-3. Additionally, the protective role of Gal-3 inhibition in the kidney injury was shown to be mediated by protein kinase C α (PKC-α), which promoted cell apoptosis and collagen I synthesis in HEK293 cells. These results demonstrated the potential Gal-3 and PKC-α as therapeutic targets for the treatment of AKI and CKD.
To identify differences in gene expression profiles of infected cells between thyroid carcinoma (C), thyroid adenoma (A) and normal thyroid (N) epithelial cells, differentially expressed genes were identified using three pairwise comparisons with the GEO2R online tool. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis were used to classify them at the functional level. The most significant cluster in the N vs. A pairwise comparison had four hub genes: Insulin-like growth factor 2, Von Willebrand factor (VWF), multimerin 1 (MMRN1) and complement factor D (CFD). In N vs. C, the most significant cluster had 19 genes: IGF2, early growth response 2, transcription factor 3, KIT proto‑oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase, SMAD family member 9, MLLT3 super elongation complex subunit, runt related transcription factor 1, CFD, actinin α 1, SWI/SNF related matrix associated actin dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily a member 4, JunD proto‑oncogene AP‑1 transcription factor subunit, serum response factor (SRF), FosB proto‑oncogene, AP‑1 transcription factor subunit, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), SRC proto‑oncogene, non‑receptor tyrosine kinase, MMRN1, SRY‑box 9, early growth response 3 and ETS variant 4. In A vs. C, the most significant cluster had 14 genes: BCL2-like 1, galectin 3, MCL1 BCL2 family apoptosis regulator, DNA damage inducible transcript 3, BCL2 apoptosis regulator, CTGF, matrix metallopeptidase 7, early growth response 1, kinase insert domain receptor, TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1, apolipoprotein E, VWF, cyclin D1 and placental growth factor. Histological evidence was presented to confirm the makeup of the hubs prior to logistic regression analysis to differentiate benign and malignant neoplasms. The results of the present study may aid in the search for novel potential biomarkers for the differential diagnosis, prognosis and development of drug targets of thyroid neoplasm.
Cao Z, Hao Z, Xin M, et al.Endogenous and exogenous galectin-3 promote the adhesion of tumor cells with low expression of MUC1 to HUVECs through upregulation of N-cadherin and CD44.
Lab Invest. 2018; 98(12):1642-1656 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Tumor cell-endothelial adhesion is one of the key steps in tumor cell haematogenous dissemination in metastasis and was previously shown to be mediated by interaction of galectin-3 with the transmembrane mucin protein MUC1. In this study, the effect of exogenous as well as endogenous galectin-3 on adhesion of two cell lines (low MUC1-expressing human prostate cancer PC-3M cells and non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells) to monolayer of umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. We found that suppression of endogenous galectin-3 expression reduced tumor cell adhesion to HUVECs and also decreased cell invasion and migration. Exogenous galectin-3 promoted tumor cell adhesion to HUVECs by entering cells. Both exogenous and endogenous galectin-3 upregulated the expression of β-catenin and increased β-catenin nuclear accumulation, and subsequently upregulated the expression of N-cadherin and CD44. We deduced that both exogenous as well as endogenous galectin-3 promoted low MUC1-expressing cancer cell adhesion to HUVECs by increasing the expression of N-cadherin and CD44 via an increase of nuclear β-catenin accumulation. These results were confirmed further by using a β-catenin/TCF transcriptional activity inhibitor, N-cadherin or CD44 siRNAs. Taken together, our results suggest a new molecular mechanism of galectin-3-mediated cell adhesion in cancer metastasis.
BACKGROUND: Neck dissection is standard in surgical management of oral squamous cell carcinomas (oscc). However, the immunologic link between primary tumor and lymph nodes is insufficiently understood. Galectin 3 (Gal3) promotes M2 polarization of macrophages and contributes to immunosuppression. The current study analyzes the association between Gal3 expression in regional lymph nodes of oscc with histomorphologic parameters (T-, N-, L- Pn-stage, grading) of the primary tumor. Additionally, Gal3 expression is correlated with markers of macrophage polarization (M1 vs. M2).
METHODS: Preoperative diagnostic biopsies (n = 26), tumor resection specimens (n = 34), tumor-free lymph nodes (n = 28) and lymph node metastases (n = 10) of T1/T2 oscc patients were immunohistochemically analyzed for Gal3 and macrophage marker (CD68, CD11c, CD163 and MRC1) expression. The number of positive cells and the expression ratios were quantitatively assessed.
RESULTS: High Gal3 expression in tumor-free regional lymph nodes was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with increased tumor size. The epithelial compartment of lymph node metastases showed a significantly (p < 0.05) increased Gal3 expression compared to biopsies and tumor resection specimens. Cell density of M2 macrophages was significantly (p < 0.05) and positively correlated with the number of Gal3 expressing cells in lymph nodes and tumor specimens.
CONCLUSION: Gal3 expression in regional lymph nodes might be associated with oscc progression. The increased Gal3 expression in regional lymph nodes of larger tumors underlines the need of immunomodulatory treatment concepts in early-stage oscc. Blocking of Gal3 might be a therapeutic option in oral cancer.
Xu WW, Zheng CC, Huang YN, et al.Synephrine Hydrochloride Suppresses Esophageal Cancer Tumor Growth and Metastatic Potential through Inhibition of Galectin-3-AKT/ERK Signaling.
J Agric Food Chem. 2018; 66(35):9248-9258 [PubMed
] Related Publications
A library consisting of 429 food-source compounds was used to screen the natural products with anticancer properties in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We demonstrated for the first time that synephrine, an active compound isolated from leaves of citrus trees, markedly suppressed cell proliferation (inhibition rate with 20 μM synephrine at day 5:71.1 ± 5.8% and 75.7 ± 6.2% for KYSE30 and KYSE270, respectively) and colony formation (inhibition rate with 10 μM synephrine: 86.5 ± 5.9% and 82.3 ± 4.5% for KYSE30 and KYSE270, respectively), as well as migration (inhibition rate with 10 μM synephrine: 76.9 ± 4.4% and 62.2 ± 5.8% for KYSE30 and KYSE270, respectively) and invasion abilities (inhibition rate with 10 μM synephrine: 73.3 ± 7.5% and 75.3 ± 3.4% for KYSE30 and KYSE270, respectively) of ESCC cells in a dose-dependent manner, without significant toxic effect on normal esophageal epithelial cells. Mechanistically, quantitative proteomics and bioinformatics analyses were performed to explore the synephrine-regulated proteins. Western blot and qRT-PCR data indicated that synephrine may downregulate Galectin-3 to inactivate AKT and ERK pathways. In addition, we found that the sensitivity of ESCC to fluorouracil (5-FU) could be enhanced by synephrine. Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed that synephrine had significant antitumor effect on ESCC tumor xenografts in nude mice (inhibition rate with 20 mg/kg synephrine is 61.3 ± 20.5%) without observed side effects on the animals. Taken together, synephrine, a food-source natural product, may be a potential therapeutic strategy in ESCC.
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer remains the top contributor to cancer-related mortality worldwide. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to participate in normal development and tumorigenesis. LncRNA nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) is highly expressed in lung cancer and promotes lung cancer cell proliferation and migration. However, the upstream regulatory mechanism still needs investigation.
METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the upstream regulators and mechanisms of NEAT1 expression disorders. We first examined NEAT1 expression in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and its correlation with clinic features in patient with lung adenocarcinoma; next, the detailed function of NEAT1 in lung cancer cell proliferation and migration was assessed. To investigate whether NF-κB acts as a transcription factor of NEAT1 to activate its expression, we validated the combination between NF-κB and NEAT1, and NF-κB regulation of NEAT1 upon LPS stimulation. Further, the effect of NF-κB upstream regulator, TLR4, on NEAT1 expression upon LPS stimulation was examined. Galectin-3 reportedly serves as a ligand of TLR4 and promotes TLR4, MyD88 and p-p65 expression; we investigated whether Galectin-3 could modulate lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation and migration through TLR4/NF-κB/NEAT1. Finally, the expression and correlation of the above factors in lung adenocarcinoma tissues was validated.
RESULTS: NEAT1 is highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and promotes lung cancer cell proliferation and migration. NF-κB binds to NEAT1 promoter to activate NEAT1 expression after LPS-stimulated p65 nucleus translocation. LPS stimulation activates TLR4 signaling, followed by downstream NF-κB activation, and ultimately NEAT1 expression activation. Galectin-3 activates TLR4 signaling thus affecting lung cancer cell proliferation and migration through TLR4/NF-κB/NEAT1. Galectin-3 and TLR4 expression are abnormally up-regulated in lung adenocarcinoma tissues, and positively correlated with NEAT1 expression.
CONCLUSION: We confirmed that Galectin-3 as a ligand of TLR4 induced TLR4 signaling activation in lung adenocarcinoma cells, thereby activating downstream p65 nucleus translocation, promoting NEAT1 expression, and finally affecting lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation and migration. Inhibiting Galectin-3-induced TLR4 signaling activation, thus to reduce p65-activated NEAT1 expression might be a promising strategy of suppressing lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation and migration.
Tan J, Qian X, Song B, et al.Integrated bioinformatics analysis reveals that the expression of cathepsin S is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in papillary thyroid cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(1):111-122 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The prognosis of the majority of patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is excellent, although there are patients who experience disease recurrence and progression. The aim of the present study was to identify potential prognostic risk markers in PTC. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs), identified from four Genome Expression Omnibus cohorts were subjected to functional enrichment analyses with Gene Ontology terms and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathways. Hub genes, filtered from cytoHubba, were validated using the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort, and their associations with clinicopathological features and prognosis were analyzed. A total of 277 DEGs were identified following data preprocessing. DEGs were primarily enriched in 'small cell lung cancer', 'ECM-receptor interaction', 'pathways in cancer'and 'tyrosine metabolism'. Hub genes [APOE, cathepsin S (CTSS), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), KIT, LGALS3, RUNX2 and TGFBR1] were extracted from cytoHubba. Their expression in the TCGA cohort was consistent with that in the GEO cohorts. CTSS (P=0.006) and IRS1 (P=0.005) were associated with disease‑free survival, as determined using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. CTSS was an independent risk factor for poor disease‑free survival (HR, 2.649; 95% CI, 1.095-6.409; P=0.031). Patients with high expression of CTSS exhibited different histological types (increased tall-cell subtype and reduced follicular subtype; P<0.001), more frequent lymph node metastasis (P<0.001) and advanced tumor-node-metastasis stages (P=0.049) compared with the low-expression group. High expression of CTSS was independently associated with lymph node metastasis (OR, 2.015; 95% CI, 1.225-3.315; P=0.006). Therefore, CTSS may serve as a predictive risk marker for the progression and prognosis of PTC.
In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), high Galectin 3 (LGALS3) expression is associated with poor prognosis. The role of LGALS3 derived from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) in the AML microenvironment is unclear; however, we have recently found high LGALS3 expression in MSC derived from AML patients is associated with relapse. In this study, we used reverse phase protein analysis (RPPA) to correlate LGALS3 expression in AML MSC with 119 other proteins including variants of these proteins such as phosphorylated forms or cleaved forms to identify biologically relevant pathways. RPPA revealed that LGALS3 protein was positively correlated with expression of thirteen proteins including MYC, phosphorylated beta-Catenin (p-CTNNB1), and AKT2 and negatively correlated with expression of six proteins including integrin beta 3 (ITGB3). String analysis revealed that proteins positively correlated with LGALS3 showed strong interconnectivity. Consistent with the RPPA results, LGALS3 suppression by shRNA in MSC resulted in decreased MYC and AKT expression while ITGB3 was induced. In co-culture, the ability of AML cell to adhere to MSC LGALS3 shRNA transductants was reduced compared to AML cell adhesion to MSC control shRNA transductants. Finally, use of novel specific LGALS3 inhibitor CBP.001 in co-culture of AML cells with MSC reduced viable leukemia cell populations with induced apoptosis and augmented the chemotherapeutic effect of AraC. In summary, the current study demonstrates that MSC-derived LGALS3 may be critical for important biological pathways for MSC homeostasis and for regulating AML cell localization and survival in the leukemia microenvironmental niche.
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BP-ALL) cells is conferred by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which could be targeted to promote chemo-sensitization. Our previous studies showed that Galectin-3, a lectin that clusters galactose-modified glycoproteins and that has both an intracellular and extracellular location, protects different subtypes of BP-ALL cells against chemotherapy. Galectin-1 is related to Galectin-3 and its expression was previously reported to be restricted to the MLL subtype of BP-ALL.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we report that Galectin-1 is expressed at different levels in and on different subclasses of BP-ALLs. Bone marrow plasma also contains high levels of Galectin-1. PTX008 is an allosteric inhibitor which inhibits Galectin-1 but not Galectin-3-mediated agglutination. The compound reduces migration of BP-ALL cells to CXCL12 and OP9 stromal cells and inhibits fibronectin-mediated adhesion. It also affects cell cycle progression of BCP-ALL cells. PTX008 is cytostatic for BP-ALL cells even when these are co-cultured with protective stroma, and can sensitize ALL cells to vincristine chemotherapy in vitro and in mice.
CONCLUSIONS: PTX008 inhibits multiple functions that contribute to BP-ALL survival. The effects of Galectin-1 inhibition on both BP-ALL cell proliferation and migration suggest both the leukemia cells as well as the microenvironment that protects these cells may be targeted.
Functional specialization of cells and tissues in metazoans require specific gene expression patterns. Biological processes, thus, need precise temporal and spatial coordination of gene activity. Regulation of the fate of messenger RNA plays a crucial role in this context. In the present review, the current knowledge related to the role of RNA-binding proteins in the whole mRNA life-cycle is summarized. This field opens up a new angle for understanding the importance of the post-transcriptional control of gene expression in cancer cells. The emerging role of non-classic RNA-binding proteins is highlighted. The goal of this review is to encourage readers to view, through the mRNA life-cycle, novel aspects of the molecular basis of cancer and the potential to develop RNA-based therapies.
Galectins (S-type lectins) are an evolutionarily-conserved family of lectin molecules, which can be expressed intracellularly and in the extracellular matrix, as well. Galectins bind β-galactose-containing glycoconjugates and are functionally active in converting glycan-related information into cell biological programs. Altered glycosylation notably occurring in cancer cells and expression of specific galectins provide, indeed, a fashionable mechanism of molecular interactions able to regulate several tumor relevant functions, among which are cell adhesion and migration, cell differentiation, gene transcription and RNA splicing, cell cycle and apoptosis. Furthermore, several galectin molecules also play a role in regulating the immune response. These functions are strongly dependent on the cell context, in which specific galectins and related glyco-ligands are expressed. Thyroid cancer likely represents the paradigmatic tumor model in which experimental studies on galectins' glycobiology, in particular on galectin-3 expression and function, contributed greatly to the improvement of cancer diagnosis. The discovery of a restricted expression of galectin-3 in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (WDTC), compared to normal and benign thyroid conditions, contributed also to promoting preclinical studies aimed at exploring new strategies for imaging thyroid cancer in vivo based on galectin-3 immuno-targeting. Results derived from these recent experimental studies promise a further improvement of both thyroid cancer diagnosis and therapy in the near future. In this review, the biological role of galectin-3 expression in thyroid cancer, the validation and translation to a clinical setting of a galectin-3 test method for the preoperative characterization of thyroid nodules and a galectin-3-based immuno-positron emission tomography (immuno-PET) imaging of thyroid cancer in vivo are presented and discussed.
Galectins are glycan-binding proteins that contain one or two carbohydrate domains and mediate multiple biological functions. By analyzing clinical tumor samples, the abnormal expression of galectins is known to be linked to the development, progression and metastasis of cancers. Galectins also have diverse functions on different immune cells that either promote inflammation or dampen T cell-mediated immune responses, depending on cognate receptors on target cells. Thus, tumor-derived galectins can have bifunctional effects on tumor and immune cells. This review focuses on the biological effects of galectin-1, galectin-3 and galectin-9 in various cancers and discusses anticancer therapies that target these molecules.
BACKGROUND: Galectin-1, a radioresistance marker, was found in our previous study to be a prognostic factor for cervical cancer. The aim of current study is to determine the prognostic significance of the galectin-1 expression level in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy (RT).
METHODS: We included 45 patients with GBM who were treated with maximal safe surgical resection or biopsy alone followed by adjuvant RT of EQD2 (equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions) > or = 60 Gy for homogeneous treatment. Paraffin-embedded tissues acquired from the Department of Pathology were analyzed using immunohistochemical staining for galectin-1 expression. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: Patients with weak expression had a better median survival (27.9 months) than did those with strong expression (10.7 months; p = 0.009). We compared characteristics between weak and strong galectin-1 expression, and only the expression level of galectin-3 showed a correlation. The group with weak galectin-1 expression displayed a 3-year OS of 27.3% and a 3-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) of 27.3%; these values were only 5.9% and 7.6%, respectively, in the group with strong galectin-1 expression (p = 0.009 and 0.020, respectively). Cox regression was used to confirm that the expression level of galectin-1 (weak vs. strong) is a significant factor of OS (p = 0.020) and CSS (p = 0.022). Other parameters, such as the expression level of galectin-3, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance, gender, surgical method, age ≥ 50 years, tumor size, or radiation field were not significant factors.
CONCLUSION: The expression level of galectin-1 affects survival in patients with GBM treated with adjuvant RT. Future studies are required to analyze the effect of other factors, such as O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT)-promoter methylation status, in patients with weak and strong galectin-1 expression.
Erdogdu IH, Yumrutas O, Ozgur Cevik M, et al.Differential expression of PIWIL2 in papillary thyroid cancers.
Gene. 2018; 649:8-13 [PubMed
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Thyroid cancer is the most common type of endocrine malignancy and a leading cause of death among endocrine organ-related cancers. Similar to other types of cancers, early diagnosis of thyroid cancer is important to increase the survival and treatment of this disease. Several immunohistochemical markers are used in the differential diagnosis of thyroid papillary carcinoma. Also, increasing evidence indicates that P-element induced wimpy testis like 2 (PIWIL2) is an RNA-binding protein involved in the induction and progression of numerous types of human malignancies such as lung, breast, colon, prostate and cervix cancers. However, the role of PIWIL2 was poorly investigated in thyroid cancers. Accordingly, aim of the present study was to elucidate the relationship between PIWIL2 and thyroid cancers. The expression level of PIWIL2 was determined by analyzing both protein and mRNA levels in papillary and micropapillary carcinoma tissues by using immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR methods, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis of HBME-1, galectin-3 and CK-19 was also performed. Similar to other immune markers of HBME-1, galectin-3 and CK-19, protein expression levels of PIWIL2 was significantly up-regulated in both papillary and micropapillary thyroid cancers (p < 0.01). Moreover, consistent with protein expression levels, mRNA expression levels of PIWIL2 was elevated in both papillary and micropapillary thyroid cancer tissues. Yet, mRNA expression changes were statistically insignificant. In conclusion, results of the current study suggest that PIWIL2 can be involved in thyroid cancer tumorigenesis and can be used as a novel predictive biomarker and/or therapeutic target.
Zhao W, Ajani JA, Sushovan G, et al.Galectin-3 Mediates Tumor Cell-Stroma Interactions by Activating Pancreatic Stellate Cells to Produce Cytokines via Integrin Signaling.
Gastroenterology. 2018; 154(5):1524-1537.e6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), abundance of extracellular matrix (ECM), and production of cytokines and chemokines. Galectin 3 (GAL3), a β-galactoside-specific lectin, contributes to PDAC development but its effects on the stroma and cytokine production are unclear.
METHODS: The effect of recombinant human GAL3 (rGAL3) on activation of PSCs, production of cytokines, and ECM proteins was determined by proliferation, invasion, cytokine array, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We assessed co-cultures of PDAC cells with GAL3 genetic alterations with PSCs. Production of interleukin 8 (IL8) and activities of nuclear factor (NF)-κB were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and luciferase reporter analyses. We studied the effects of inhibitors of NF-κB and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) on pathways activated by rGAL3.
RESULTS: In analyses of the Gene Expression Omnibus database and our dataset, we observed higher levels of GAL3, IL8, and other cytokines in PDAC than in nontumor tissues. Production of IL8, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, chemokine ligand 1, and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 increased in PSCs exposed to rGAL3 compared with controls. Culture of PSCs with PDAC cells that express different levels of GAL3 resulted in proliferation and invasion of PSCs that increased with level of GAL3. GAL3 stimulated transcription of IL8 through integrin subunit beta 1 (ITGB1) on PSCs, which activates NF-κB through ILK. Inhibitors of ILK or NF-κB or a neutralizing antibody against ITGB1 blocked transcription and production of IL8 from PSCs induced by rGAL3. The GAL3 inhibitor significantly reduced growth and metastases of orthotopic tumors that formed from PDAC and PSC cells co-implanted in mice.
CONCLUSION: GAL3 activates PSC cells to produce inflammatory cytokines via ITGB1signaling to ILK and activation of NF-κB. Inhibition of this pathway reduced growth and metastases of pancreatic orthotopic tumors in mice.
Galectins are a family of lectins that bind β-galactose-containing glycoconjugates and are characterized by carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). Galectins exploit several biological functions, including angiogenesis, regulation of immune cell activities and cell adhesion, in both physiological and pathological processes, as tumor progression. Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell (PC) malignancy characterized by the tight adhesion between tumoral PCs and bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, leading to the increase of PC survival and drug resistance, MM-induced neo-angiogenesis, immunosuppression and osteolytic bone lesions. In this review, we explore the expression profiles and the roles of galectin-1, galectin-3, galectin-8 and galectin-9 in the pathophysiology of MM. We focus on the role of these lectins in the interplay between MM and BM microenvironment cells showing their involvement in MM progression mainly through the regulation of PC survival and MM-induced angiogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. The translational impact of these pre-clinical pieces of evidence is supported by recent data that indicate galectins could be new attractive targets to block MM cell growth in vivo and by the evidence that the expression levels of
Ajani JA, Estrella JS, Chen Q, et al.Galectin-3 expression is prognostic in diffuse type gastric adenocarcinoma, confers aggressive phenotype, and can be targeted by YAP1/BET inhibitors.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 118(1):52-61 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Overexpression of Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside binding protein, has been noted in many tumour types but its functional significance and clinical utility in gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) are not well known.
METHODS: We studied 184 GAC patients characterised by histologic grade, sub-phenotypes (diffuse vs intestinal), and ethnicity (Asians vs North Americans). Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the expression of Gal-3 in human GACs and we correlated it to the clinical outcomes. Cell proliferation, invasion, co-immunoprecipitation and kinase activity assays were done in genetically stable Gal-3 overexpressing GC cell lines and the parental counterparts to delineate the mechanisms of action and activity of inhibitors.
RESULTS: Most patients were men, Asian, and had a poorly differentiated GAC. Gal-3 was over-expressed in poorly differentiated (P=0.002) tumours and also in diffuse sub-phenotype (P=0.02). Gal-3 overexpression was associated with shorter overall survival (OS; P=0.026) in all patients. Although, Gal-3 over-expression was not prognostic in the Asian cohort (P=0.337), it was highly prognostic in the North American cohort (P=0.001). In a multivariate analysis, Gal-3 (P=0.001) and N-stage (P=<0.001) were independently prognostic for shorter OS. Mechanistically, Gal-3 induced c-MYC expression through increasing RalA activity and an enhanced YAP1/RalA/RalBP complex to confer an aggressive phenotype. YAP1/BET bromodomain inhibitors reduced Gal-3-mediated aggressive phenotypes in GAC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Gal-3 is an independent prognostic marker of shorter OS and a novel therapeutic target particularly in diffuse type GAC in North American patients.
Three-dimensional (3D) organoids provide a new way to model various diseases, including cancer. We made use of recently developed kidney-organ-primordia tissue-engineering technologies to create novel renal organoids for cancer gene discovery. We then tested whether our novel assays can be used to examine kidney cancer development. First, we identified the transcriptomic profiles of quiescent embryonic mouse metanephric mesenchyme (MM) and of MM in which the nephrogenesis program had been induced
Lin GL, Ting HJ, Tseng TC, et al.Modulation of the mRNA-binding protein HuR as a novel reversal mechanism of epirubicin-triggered multidrug resistance in colorectal cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(10):e0185625 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
HuR (ELAVL1), a RNA-binding protein, plays a key role in posttranscriptional regulation of multidrug resistance (MDR)-related genes. Among various HuR-regulated oncogenic transcripts, the activation of galectin-3/β-catenin survival pathway is critical to induce transcription of cyclin D1, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and/or multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs). In this study, we aim to elucidate the HuR-regulating pathways related to epirubicin-mediated resistance in human colorectal carcinoma cells. The effects and mechanisms of epirubicin treatment on the expressions of upstream survival signals (e.g., β-catenin) and downstream MDR transporters (e.g., P-gp) and anti-apoptotic pathways (e.g., Bcl-2) were assessed with or without HuR knockdown (siHuR) or overexpression (overHuR; ectopic HuR or pcDNA3/HA-HuR). Our results showed that siHuR decreased transcriptional expressions of galectin-3, β-catenin, cyclin D1, Bcl-2, P-gp, MRP1, and MRP2 in epirubicin-treated colon cancer cells. Consistently, the co-treatment of epirubicin and siHuR diminished the expressions of galectin-3, ß-catenin, c-Myc, P-gp and MRP1. HuR silencing enhanced the intracellular accumulation of epirubicin in colon cancer cells. On the other hand, overHuR abolished such effects. Furthermore, siHuR significantly intensified epirubicin-mediated apoptosis via increasing reactive oxygen species and thus promoted the cytotoxic effect of epirubicin. The combined treatments of siHuR and epirubicin significantly reduced the expression of Bcl-2, but increased the expression of Bax, as well as activity and expression levels of caspase-3 and -9. In contrast, overHuR abrogated these effects. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms by which siHuR potentiated epirubicin-induced cytotoxicity via inhibiting galectin-3/β-catenin signaling, suppressing MDR transporters and provoking apoptosis. To our best knowledge, this is an innovative investigation linking the post-transcriptional control by HuR silencing to survival signaling repression, efflux transporter reversal and apoptosis induction. Our study thus provides a powerful regimen for circumventing MDR in colon cancer cells.
Fang SQ, Feng YM, Li MCorrelations of Galectin-3 Gene Polymorphisms with Risk and Prognosis of Cervical Cancer in Chinese Populations: A Case-Control Study.
Oncol Res Treat. 2017; 40(9):533-539 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: This study explores correlations of galectin-3 gene polymorphisms (rs4644, rs4652, and rs11125) with cervical cancer risk and prognosis in Chinese populations.
METHODS: A total of 126 patients with cervical cancer were selected to form the case group, and 102 healthy people were selected for the control group following a physical examination. 3 polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).
RESULTS: The distribution frequencies of the CC+CA genotype of rs4652 and the AT+TT genotype of rs11125 in the case group were remarkably higher than those in the control group. rs4644 only had correlations with tumor diameter, while rs4652 and rs11125 had correlations with tumor diameter, FIGO staging, differentiation grades, clinical staging, lymph node metastasis (LNM), and treatment modality. The 5-years survival rate of patients with CC+CA of rs4652 was lower but the recurrence rate was higher compared to AA type patients. In contrast, AA type patients with rs11125 had a higher 5-year survival rate but a lower recurrence rate than those of AT+TT type. CC+CA genotype of rs4652, AT+TT genotype of rs11125, and treatment modality were independent factors related to overall survival and disease-free survival, and LNM was an independent factor related to OS.
CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence that allele C of rs4652 and allele T of rs11125 in the galectin-3 gene may be risk factors for cervical cancer.
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is the most commonly used pre-operative technique for diagnosis of malignant thyroid tumor. However, many benign lesions, with indeterminate diagnosis following FNA, are referred to surgery. Based on multifunctionality of the endogenous galectin-1, we aimed to assess its status for early diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Immunohistochemistry for galectin-1 and -3 was performed on a clinical series of 69 cases of thyroid lesions. Galectin-1 expression was further examined in two additional tissue microarrays (TMA) composed of 66 follicular adenomas and 66 papillary carcinomas in comparison to galectin-3 and cytokeratin-19 (CK19). In addition, a knockdown of galectin-1 in papillary (TPC-1) and anaplastic (8505C) thyroid cancer cell lines was achieved by lentiviral transduction for in vitro experiments. A murine orthotopic thyroid cancer model was used to investigate tumor growth and metastatic ability. Immunohistochemical analyses of galectin-1 and -3 in the series of 69 cases of thyroid lesions revealed that galectin-1 was completely absent in the epithelial compartment of all benign thyroid lesions. Levels of both galectins significantly increased in the cytoplasmic compartment of malignant thyroid cells. Galectin-1 expression in the TMA yielded an excellent specificity (97%), while galectin-3 and CK19 presented a higher sensitivity (>97%) in discriminating benign from malignant thyroid lesions. In vitro experiments revealed that migration was negatively affected in TPC-1 galectin-1 knockdown (KD) cells, and that proliferation and invasion capacity of 8505C cells decreased after galectin-1 KD. Moreover, an orthotopic mouse model displayed a lower rate of tumor development with galectin-1 KD thyroid anaplastic cancer cells than in the control. Our findings support the introduction of galectin-1 as a reliable diagnostic marker for thyroid carcinomas. Its involvement in cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tumor growth also intimate functional involvement of galectin-1 in the progression of thyroid carcinoma, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic target.
Expression of the retained C-terminal extracellular portion of the ovarian cancer glycoprotein MUC16 induces transformation and tumor growth. However, the mechanisms of MUC16 oncogenesis related to glycosylation are not clearly defined. We establish that MUC16 oncogenic effects are mediated through MGAT5-dependent N-glycosylation of two specific asparagine sites within its 58 amino acid ectodomain. Oncogenic signaling from the C-terminal portion of MUC16 requires the presence of Galectin-3 and growth factor receptors colocalized on lipid rafts. These effects are blocked upon loss of either Galectin-3 expression or activity MGAT5. Using synthetic MUC16 glycopeptides, we developed novel N-glycosylation site directed monoclonal antibodies that block Galectin-3-mediated MUC16 interactions with cell surface signaling molecules. These antibodies inhibit invasion of ovarian cancer cells, directly blocking the in vivo growth of MUC16-bearing ovarian cancer xenografts, elucidating new therapeutic modalities.
There is a tremendous need for developing new useful prognostic factors in ovarian cancer. Galectins are a family of carbohydrate binding proteins which have been suggested to serve as prognostic factors for various cancer types. In this study, the presence of Galectin-1, -3, and -7 was investigated in 156 ovarian cancer specimens by immunochemical staining. Staining was evaluated in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cancer cells as well as the peritumoral stroma using a semi quantitative score (Remmele (IR) score). Patients' overall survival was compared between different groups of Galectin expression. Galectin (Gal)-1 and -3 staining was observed in the peritumoral stroma as well as the nucleus and cytoplasm of tumor cells, while Gal-7 was only present in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Patients with Gal-1 expression in the cytoplasm or high Gal-1 expression in the peritumoral stroma showed reduced overall survival. Nuclear Gal-3 staining correlated with a better outcome. We observed a significantly reduced overall survival for cases with high Gal-7 expression and a better survival for Gal-7 negative cases, when compared to cases with low expression of Gal-7. We were able to show that both tumor and stroma staining of Gal-1 could serve as negative prognostic factors for ovarian cancer. We were able to confirm cytoplasmic Gal-7 as a negative prognostic factor. Gal-3 staining in the nucleus could be a new positive prognosticator for ovarian cancer.
Li X, Chen Q, Yin D, et al.Novel role of semaphorin 3A in the growth and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(6):3313-3320 [PubMed
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Semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A), a secretory protein, is a founding member of the semaphorin family and functions in both the biological behavior of tumor cells and the modulation of tumor-associated macrophages. However, the role of SEMA3A in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still not well established. In the present study, we investigated the expression levels of SEMA3A in 80 HCC tissues and cell lines, using RT-qPCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Expression profile analysis revealed that SEMA3A was significantly overexpressed in human HCC patients and positively correlated with the metastatic potential of HCC cells. Lentiviral transfection into PLC/PRF/5 and HCCLM3 cells was performed to stably upregulate and downregulate the expression of SEMA3A in HCC cells. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), wound-healing and invasion assays revealed that SEMA3A promoted the proliferation and migration of HCC cells in vitro. Proteome profiler antibody microarray analysis revealed that overexpression of SEMA3A in HCC cells induced a significant increase in the expression levels of gelsolin-like capping protein (CapG), galectin-3, enolase 2 and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). Furthermore, the upregulation of SEMA3A in HCC cells promoted tumor growth and progression in an HCC mouse model. These results indicate that SEMA3A enhances CapG, galectin-3, enolase 2 and EpCAM expression to promote HCC progression and is a potential therapeutic target for HCC.
Sciacchitano S, Lavra L, Ulivieri A, et al.Comparative analysis of diagnostic performance, feasibility and cost of different test-methods for thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(30):49421-49442 [PubMed
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Since it is impossible to recognize malignancy at fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology in indeterminate thyroid nodules, surgery is recommended for all of them. However, cancer rate at final histology is <30%. Many different test-methods have been proposed to increase diagnostic accuracy in such lesions, including Galectin-3-ICC (GAL-3-ICC), BRAF mutation analysis (BRAF), Gene Expression Classifier (GEC) alone and GEC+BRAF, mutation/fusion (M/F) panel, alone, M/F panel+miRNA GEC, and M/F panel by next generation sequencing (NGS), FDG-PET/CT, MIBI-Scan and TSHR mRNA blood assay.We performed systematic reviews and meta-analyses to compare their features, feasibility, diagnostic performance and cost. GEC, GEC+BRAF, M/F panel+miRNA GEC and M/F panel by NGS were the best in ruling-out malignancy (sensitivity = 90%, 89%, 89% and 90% respectively). BRAF and M/F panel alone and by NGS were the best in ruling-in malignancy (specificity = 100%, 93% and 93%). The M/F by NGS showed the highest accuracy (92%) and BRAF the highest diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) (247). GAL-3-ICC performed well as rule-out (sensitivity = 83%) and rule-in test (specificity = 85%), with good accuracy (84%) and high DOR (27) and is one of the cheapest (113 USD) and easiest one to be performed in different clinical settings.In conclusion, the more accurate molecular-based test-methods are still expensive and restricted to few, highly specialized and centralized laboratories. GAL-3-ICC, although limited by some false negatives, represents the most suitable screening test-method to be applied on a large-scale basis in the diagnostic algorithm of indeterminate thyroid lesions.
Kaptan E, Sancar Bas S, Sancakli A, et al.Runt-Related Transcription Factor 2 (Runx2) Is Responsible for Galectin-3 Overexpression in Human Thyroid Carcinoma.
J Cell Biochem. 2017; 118(11):3911-3919 [PubMed
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Runx2 promotes metastatic ability of cancer cells by directly activating some of the mediators regarding malignancy. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) extensively expressed in normal and transformed cells and it is responsible for many cellular processes. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether there is any relationship between runx2 transcription factor and regulation of galectin-3 expression in different human thyroid carcinoma cell lines. To show effects of runx2 transcription factor on gal-3 expression, we developed runx2 knockdown model in the thyroid carcinoma cell lines; anaplastic 8505C and 8305C and, papillary TPC-1 and follicular FTC-133 by using siRNA transfection. We analyzed the protein expressions and mRNA levels of gal-3 and MMP2/9 in the runx2-silenced cell lines using Western blotting, qPCR, and fluorescent microscopy. Our results showed that mRNA expression levels of gal-3 and MMP2/9 were downregulated in runx2-silenced cell lines. In this investigation, we revealed that regulation of gal-3 expression was strongly correlated with runx2 transcription factor in human thyroid carcinoma. Considering the contribution of human gal-3 in collaboration with MMP2/9 to the malignant characters of many cancers, regulation of their expressions through runx2 seems like one of the key regulatory mechanism for malignant potential of human thyroid carcinoma. Accordingly, runx2 transcription factor inhibitors can be a potential target in order to prevent gal-3 mediated malignancy of human thyroid carcinoma. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3911-3919, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.