Gene Summary

Gene:LCN2; lipocalin 2
Aliases: p25, 24p3, MSFI, NGAL
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the lipocalin family. Members of this family transport small hydrophobic molecules such as lipids, steroid hormones and retinoids. The protein encoded by this gene is a neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and plays a role in innate immunity by limiting bacterial growth as a result of sequestering iron-containing siderophores. The presence of this protein in blood and urine is an early biomarker of acute kidney injury. This protein is thought to be be involved in multiple cellular processes, including maintenance of skin homeostasis, and suppression of invasiveness and metastasis. Mice lacking this gene are more susceptible to bacterial infection than wild type mice. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LCN2 (cancer-related)

Croce S, Lesluyes T, Delespaul L, et al.
GREB1-CTNNB1 fusion transcript detected by RNA-sequencing in a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor (UTROSCT): A novel CTNNB1 rearrangement.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2019; 58(3):155-163 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutations of CTNNB1 have been implicated in tumorigenesis in many organs. However, tumors harboring a CTNNB1 translocation are extremely rare and this translocation has never been reported in a uterine mesenchymal neoplasm. We report a novel translocation t(2;3)(p25;p22) involving the GREB1 (intron 8) and CTNNB1 (exon 3) in a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor (UTROSCT), which exhibited extrauterine metastasis. The translocation detected by RNA-sequencing was validated by RT-PCR, and resulted in nuclear expression of β-catenin. Juxtapositioning with GREB1, which is overexpressed in response to estrogens, resulted in overexpression of a truncated and hypophosphorylated nuclear β-catenin in the primary and recurrent tumors. This accumulation of nuclear β-catenin results in a constitutive activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway with a major oncogenic effect. The CTNNB1 gene fusion, promoted by an estrogen-responsive gene (GREB1), could be a potential driver of tumorigenesis in this case and a therapeutic target with adapted inhibitors. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry performed on 11 additional UTROSCTs showed no CTNNB1 fusion transcript or nuclear β-catenin immunoreactivity.

Lupicki K, Elifio-Esposito S, Fonseca AS, et al.
Patterns of copy number alterations in primary breast tumors of South African patients and their impact on functional cellular pathways.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(6):2745-2757 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most common and the leading cause of female mortality among South African (SA) women. Several non‑biological and biological risk factors may be attributed to their observed high mortality rate; however, the molecular profiles associated with their breast tumors are poorly characterized. The present study examined the patterns of genome-wide copy number alterations (CNAs) and their potential impact on functional cellular pathways targeted by cancer driver genes in patients with breast cancer from the Western Cape region of SA. Array-comparative genomic hybridization analysis, performed in 28 cases of invasive breast cancer, revealed a mean number of 8.68±6.18 CNAs per case, affecting primarily the Xp22.3 and 6p21-p25 cytobands (57.14% of the cases), followed by 19p13.3-p13.11 (35.7%), 2p25.3-p24.3, 4p16.3-p15.3, 8q11.1-q24.3 and 16 p13.3-p11.2 (32.14%). Functional enrichment analysis of genes and microRNA targets mapped in these affected cytobands revealed critical cancer-associated pathways, including fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, hippo and tumor protein p53 signaling pathways, which are regulated by known cancer genes, including CCND1, CDKN1A, MAPK1, MDM2, TP53 and SMAD2. An inverse correlation was observed among the number of CNAs and tumor size and grade; CNAs on the 4p and 6p cytobands were also inversely correlated with tumor grade. No association was observed in the number of CNAs and/or the affected cytobands and the different ethnic groups of the SA patients, indicating that their tumor genome is affected by CNAs, irrespectively of their genetic descent. Additional genomic tumor profiling in SA and other Sub-Saharan African patients with breast cancer is required to determine the associations of the CNAs observed with prognosis and clinical outcome.

Han MY, Nie JW, Li YY, et al.
Downregulation of NGAL is Required for the Inhibition of Proliferation and the Promotion of Apoptosis of Human Gastric Cancer MGC-803 Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 50(2):694-705 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastric cancer is considered as a common malignancy with a poor prognosis as well as unsatisfactory treatment. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been reported to affect multiple aspects of human tumor, including gastric cancer. This study aims to explore the effects of NGAL gene silencing on the proliferation as well as apoptosis of human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells.
METHODS: This study included 87 patients with gastric cancer. MGC-803 cells were collected and mainly treated with siRNA against NGAL and recombinant NGAL plasmid. The expression of NGAL mRNA and the expressions of NGAL protein and apoptosis-related proteins were determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. Cell cycle and apoptosis were tested by flow cytometry, and cell proliferation was detected by water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1) assay. The effect of NGAL gene silencing on tumorigenicity of MGC-803 cells in vivo was detected through establishment of xenograft in nude mice.
RESULTS: NGAL was highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues. The protein and mRNA expressions of NGAL gene in MGC-803 cells treated with NGAL-siRNA were obviously reduced, and the amount of cells in G0/G1 phase was increased. Moreover, MGC-803 cells treated with NGAL-siRNA exhibited inhibited proliferation, enhanced apoptosis, decreased expressions of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) as well as B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and increased expressions of cysteine-aspartic acid specific protease-9 (caspase-9) and Bcl2-associated X (Bax), as well as repressed tumorigenicity in vivo.
CONCLUSION: NGAL gene silencing inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of MGC-803 cells, which can provide a novel theory for treatment of gastric cancer.

Kim SL, Min IS, Park YR, et al.
Lipocalin 2 inversely regulates TRAIL sensitivity through p38 MAPK-mediated DR5 regulation in colorectal cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(6):2789-2799 [PubMed] Related Publications
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through death receptors (DRs)4 and/or 5 expressed on the cell surface. Multiple clinical trials are underway to evaluate the antitumor activity of recombinant human TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to DR4 or DR5. However, their therapeutic potential is limited by the high frequency of cancer resistance. In this study, we provide evidence demonstrating the role of lipocalin 2 (LCN2) in the TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of human colorectal cancer (CRC). By analyzing the mRNA expression data of 71 CRC tissues from patients, we found that DR5 was preferentially expressed in CRC tissues with a low LCN2 expression level compared to tissues with a high LCN2 expression level. Moreover, we analyzed the association between DR5 and LCN2 expression and this analysis revealed that DR5 expression in CRC tended to be inversely associated with LCN2 expression. By contrast, no association was found between the DR4 and LCN2 expression levels. The expression patterns of LCN2 in human CRC cell lines also exhibited an inverse association with DR5 expression. The knockdown of LCN2 by siRNA in the TRAIL‑resistant CRC cells expressing high levels of LCN2 led to a significant increase in TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the upregulation of DR5 protein and mRNA expression. The mechanism through which LCN2 silencing sensitized the CRC cells to TRAIL was dependent on the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In addition, we identified that the knockdown of LCN2 enhanced the sensitivity of the cells to TRAIL through the p38 MAPK/CHOP-dependent upregulation of DR5. Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that LCN2 is responsible for TRAIL sensitivity and LCN2 may thus prove to be a promising target protein in DR-targeted CRC therapy.

Meyer HJ, Leifels L, Hamerla G, et al.
ADC-histogram analysis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Associations with different histopathological features including expression of EGFR, VEGF, HIF-1α, Her 2 and p53. A preliminary study.
Magn Reson Imaging. 2018; 54:214-217 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values derived from Diffusion-weighted images are able to reflect tumor microstructure, such as cellularity, extracellular matrix or proliferation potential. This present study sought to correlate prognostic relevant histopathologic parameters with ADC values derived from a whole lesion measurement in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients with histological proven primary HNSCC were prospectively acquired. Histogram analysis was derived from ADC maps. In all cases, expression of Hif1-alpha, VEGF, EGFR, p53, p16, Her 2 were analyzed.
RESULTS: In the overall patient sample, ADCmax correlated with p53 expression (p = -0.446, p = 0.009) and ADCmode correlated with Her2-expression (p = -0.354, p = 0.047). In the p16 positive group there were several correlations. P25, P90 and entropy correlated with Hif1-alpha (p = -0.423, p = 0.05, p = -0.494, p = 0.019, p = 0.479, p = 0.024, respectively). Kurtosis correlated with P53 expression (p = -0.466, p = 0.029). For p16 negative carcinomas the following associations could be identified. Mode correlated with VEGF-expression (p = -0.657, p = 0.039). ADCmax, P75, P90, and Std correlated with p53-expression (p = -0.827, p = 0.002, p = -0.736, p = 0.01, p = -0.836, p = 0.001 and p = -0.70, p = 0.016, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences of ADC histogram parameters between p16 positive and p16 negative carcinomas.
CONCLUSION: ADC histogram values can reflect different histopathological features in HNSCC. Associations between ADC histogram analysis parameters and histopathology depend on p16 status.

Liu F, Li N, Yang W, et al.
The expression analysis of NGAL and NGALR in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Gene. 2018; 676:269-278 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most prevalent subtype of kidney cancer. Recently, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and its cell surface receptor, NGALR, have been reported to play critical roles in various tumors. However, the expression pattern and biological involvement of NGAL and NGALR in ccRCC remain unclear. In this study, we performed systematic analyses of 22 ccRCC data sets to characterize the expression patterns of NGAL and NGALR. The expression levels of NGAL and NGALR were significantly down-regulated in ccRCC samples in most of the data sets and the merged data set by meta-analysis. Furthermore, we also investigated the correlations between the expression of these two genes and their clinical associations with prognoses of ccRCC patients. Using integrated analyses of multiple ccRCC data sets, co-expression genes for NGAL and NGALR were identified. In addition, the sub-network analyses and biological pathway enrichment analyses were performed based on these co-expression genes. Finally, an activity score matrix for 23 pathways was constructed and confirmed as clinical prognostic signatures for ccRCC. Taken together, these findings determined the expression levels of NGAL and NGALR in ccRCC tumors, and provided the basis for a further examination of their biological roles.

Linjawi S, AlGaithy Z, Sindi S, et al.
Regulation of Lipocalin-2 oncogene and its impact on gene polymorphisms on breast cancer patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Saudi Med J. 2018; 39(6):558-563 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To identify the impact of Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) gene polymorphisms on breast cancer patients in western Saudi Arabia.
METHODS: It is a case control study in which blood samples of participants from Medical Reference Clinics and King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia have been taken between 2014 and 2016. This study recruited 128 participants (50% control, 50% patients) and used Tetra-Primer amplification-refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction method for the detection of missense SNP (rs11556770). The study measured LCN2 plasma protein expression by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Results: The results have shown that 100% of the genotypes were normal allele (G/G). In contrast, the plasma level of LCN2 was considerably elevated among patients as compared to control (p=0.001), and higher in invasive ductal carcinoma patients (p=0.001). The LCN2 protein expression in plasma level was significantly elevated among patients, particularly who demonstrated invasive ductal carcinoma. Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between breast cancer patients and LCN2 gene polymorphisms   (rs11556770).

Yoon S, Lee EJ, Choi JH, et al.
Recapitulation of pharmacogenomic data reveals that invalidation of SULF2 enhance sorafenib susceptibility in liver cancer.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(32):4443-4454 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene mutations play critical roles during cancer development and progression, and therefore represent targets for precision medicine. Here we recapitulated the pharmacogenomic data to delineate novel candidates for actionable mutations and therapeutic target drugs. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrated that the loss-of-function of SULF2 by mutation (N491K) or inhibition enhanced sorafenib sensitivity in liver cancer cells and in vivo mouse models. This effect was mediated by deregulation of EGFR signaling and downstream expression of LCN2. We also report that the liver cancer patients non-responding to sorafenib treatment exhibit higher expression of SULF2 and LCN2. In conclusion, we suggest that SULF2 plays a key role in sorafenib susceptibility and resistance in liver cancer via deregulation of LCN2. Diagnostic or therapeutic targeting of SULF2 (e.g., OKN-007) and/or LCN2 can be a novel precision strategy for sorafenib treatment in cancer patients.

Han C, Bellone S, Siegel ER, et al.
A novel multiple biomarker panel for the early detection of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 149(3):585-591 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Since the majority of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage, ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. There is no single biomarker with the sensitivity and specificity required for effective cancer screening; therefore, we investigated a panel of novel biomarkers for the early detection of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.
METHODS: Twelve serum biomarkers with high differential gene expression and validated antibodies were selected: IL-1Ra, IL-6, Dkk-1, uPA, E-CAD, ErbB2, SLPI, HE4, CA125, LCN2, MSLN, and OPN. They were tested using Simple Plex™, a multi-analyte immunoassay platform, in samples collected from 172 patients who were either healthy, had benign gynecologic pathologies, or had high-grade serous ovarian adenocarcinomas. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, ROC area under the curve (AUC), and standard error (SE) of the AUC were obtained. Univariate ROC analyses and multivariate ROC analyses with the combination of multiple biomarkers were performed.
RESULTS: The 4-marker panel consisting of CA125, HE4, E-CAD, and IL-6 had the highest ROC AUC. When evaluated for the ability to distinguish early stage ovarian cancer from a non-cancer control, not only did this 4-marker panel (AUC=0.961) performed better than CA 125 alone (AUC=0.851; P=0.0150) and HE4 alone (AUC=0.870; P=0.0220), but also performed significantly better than the 2- marker combination of CA125+HE4 (AUC=0.922; P=0.0278). The 4-marker panel had the highest average sensitivity under the region of its ROC curve corresponding to specificity ranging from 100% down to ~95%.
CONCLUSION: The four-marker panel, CA125, HE4, E-CAD, and IL-6, shows potential in detecting serous ovarian cancer at earlier stages. Additional validation studies using the biomarker combination in ovarian cancer patients are warranted.

Celestino R, Nome T, Pestana A, et al.
CRABP1, C1QL1 and LCN2 are biomarkers of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and predict extrathyroidal extension.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The prognostic variability of thyroid carcinomas has led to the search for accurate biomarkers at the molecular level. Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is a typical example of differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) in which challenges are faced in the differential diagnosis.
METHODS: We used high-throughput paired-end RNA sequencing technology to study four cases of FTC with different degree of capsular invasion: two minimally invasive (mFTC) and two widely invasive FTC (wFTC). We searched by genes differentially expressed between mFTC and wFTC, in an attempt to find biomarkers of thyroid cancer diagnosis and/or progression. Selected biomarkers were validated by real-time quantitative PCR in 137 frozen thyroid samples and in an independent dataset (TCGA), evaluating the diagnostic and the prognostic performance of the candidate biomarkers.
RESULTS: We identified 17 genes significantly differentially expressed between mFTC and wFTC. C1QL1, LCN2, CRABP1 and CILP were differentially expressed in DTC in comparison with normal thyroid tissues. LCN2 and CRABP1 were also differentially expressed in DTC when compared with follicular thyroid adenoma. Additionally, overexpression of LCN2 and C1QL1 were found to be independent predictors of extrathyroidal extension in DTC.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the underexpression of CRABP1 and the overexpression of LCN2 may be useful diagnostic biomarkers in thyroid tumours with questionable malignity, and the overexpression of LCN2 and C1QL1 may be useful for prognostic purposes.

Guo X, Li Q, Wang YF, et al.
Reduced Lipocalin 2 Expression Contributes to Vincristine Resistance in Human Colon Cancer Cells.
Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov. 2018; 13(2):248-254 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Vincristine (VCR) resistance can lead to cancer chemotherapy failure. Although changes in gene expression are responsible for drug resistance, the specific identities and roles of these genes remain unclear.
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to identify differentially expressed genes and mechanisms of VCR resistance in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells.
METHODS: A VCR-resistant CRC cell line (HCT-8/VCR) was established, and differentially expressed proteins between HCT-8 and HCT-8/VCR cells were screened using a human cytokine array; the results were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Furthermore, differentially expressed proteins were downregulated using siRNA, and cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively.
RESULTS: Compared with HCT-8 CRC cells, HCT-8/VCR cells showed downregulation of lipocalin 2 (LCN2). We found that siRNA-mediated downregulation of LCN2 in HCT-8 cells significantly increased VCR resistance. Furthermore, when we downregulated LCN2, we observed significant decreases in apoptosis, but no significant effect on cell cycle.
CONCLUSION: Overall, these results demonstrate that LCN2 plays an important role in VCR resistance and is a potential therapeutic target for this disease.

Brunetti M, Panagopoulos I, Gorunova L, et al.
RNA-sequencing identifies novel GREB1-NCOA2 fusion gene in a uterine sarcoma with the chromosomal translocation t(2;8)(p25;q13).
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(4):176-181 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sarcomas account for 3% of all uterine malignancies and many of them are characterized by acquired, specific fusion genes whose detection has increased pathogenetic knowledge and diagnostic precision. We describe a novel fusion gene, GREB1-NCOA2, detected by transcriptome sequencing and validated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing in an undifferentiated uterine sarcoma. The chimeric transcript was an in-frame fusion between exon 3 of GREB1 and exon 15 of NCOA2. The fusion is reported here for the first time, but it involves the GREB1 gene, an important promoter of tumor growth and progression, and NCOA2 which is known to be involved in transcriptional regulation. The alteration and recombination of these genes played a role in the tumorigenesis and/or progression of this sarcoma.

Meng L, Wang M, Du Z, et al.
Cell Signaling Pathway in 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-Induced LCN2 Gene Transcription in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2017; 2017:9592501 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
LCN2 is involved in various cellular functions, including transport of small hydrophobic molecules, protection of MMP9 from proteolytic degradation, and regulating innate immunity. LCN2 is elevated in multiple human cancers, frequently being associated with tumor size, stage, and invasiveness. Our previous studies have shown that LCN2 expression could be induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by the binding of five nucleoproteins (MISP, KLF10, KLF15, PPP1R18, and RXR

Agarwal R, Narayan J, Bhattacharyya A, et al.
Gene expression profiling, pathway analysis and subtype classification reveal molecular heterogeneity in hepatocellular carcinoma and suggest subtype specific therapeutic targets.
Cancer Genet. 2017; 216-217:37-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
A very low 5-year survival rate among hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is mainly due to lack of early stage diagnosis, distant metastasis and high risk of postoperative recurrence. Hence ascertaining novel biomarkers for early diagnosis and patient specific therapeutics is crucial and urgent. Here, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of the expression data of 423 HCC patients (373 tumors and 50 controls) downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) followed by pathway enrichment by gene ontology annotations, subtype classification and overall survival analysis. The differential gene expression analysis using non-parametric Wilcoxon test revealed a total of 479 up-regulated and 91 down-regulated genes in HCC compared to controls. The list of top differentially expressed genes mainly consists of tumor/cancer associated genes, such as AFP, THBS4, LCN2, GPC3, NUF2, etc. The genes over-expressed in HCC were mainly associated with cell cycle pathways. In total, 59 kinases associated genes were found over-expressed in HCC, including TTK, MELK, BUB1, NEK2, BUB1B, AURKB, PLK1, CDK1, PKMYT1, PBK, etc. Overall four distinct HCC subtypes were predicted using consensus clustering method. Each subtype was unique in terms of gene expression, pathway enrichment and median survival. Conclusively, this study has exposed a number of interesting genes which can be exploited in future as potential markers of HCC, diagnostic as well as prognostic and subtype classification may guide for improved and specific therapy.

Kim SL, Lee ST, Min IS, et al.
Lipocalin 2 negatively regulates cell proliferation and epithelial to mesenchymal transition through changing metabolic gene expression in colorectal cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2017; 108(11):2176-2186 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lipocalin 2 (LCN2), a member of the lipocalin superfamily, plays an important role in oncogenesis and progression in various types of cancer. However, the expression pattern and functional role of LCN2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) is still poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether LCN2 is associated with proliferation and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CRC and to elucidate the underlying signaling pathways. LCN2 was preferentially expressed in CRC cells compared to normal tissues. However, LCN2 expression was significantly lower in metastatic or advanced-stage CRC than in non-metastatic or early stage CRC. Knockdown of LCN2 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in CRC cells expressing a high level of LCN2 induced cell proliferation and a morphological switch from an epithelial to mesenchymal state. Furthermore, downregulation of LCN2 in CRC cells increased cell migration and invasion involved in the regulation of EMT markers. Knockdown of LCN2 also induced glucose consumption and lactate production, accompanied by an increase in energy metabolism-related genes. Taken together, our findings indicated that LCN2 negatively modulated proliferation, EMT and energy metabolism in CRC cells. Accordingly, LCN2 may be a candidate metastasis suppressor and potential therapeutic target in CRC.

Yelken BÖ, Balcı T, Süslüer SY, et al.
The effect of tomatine on metastasis related matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities in breast cancer cell model.
Gene. 2017; 627:408-411 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women and metastasis is the cause of morbidity and mortality in patients. In the development of metastasis, the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family has a very important role in tumor development. MMP-2 and MMP-9 work together for extracellular matrix (ECM) cleavage to increase migration. Tomatine is a secondary metabolite that has a natural defense role against plants, fungi, viruses and bacteria that are synthesized from tomato. In additıon, tomatine is also known that it breaks down the cell membrane and is a strong inhibitor in human cancer cells. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the effect of tomatine on cytotoxicity, apoptosis and matrix metalloproteinase inhibition in MCF-7 cell lines. Human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) was used as a cell line. In MCF-7 cells, the IC

De Marco C, Laudanna C, Rinaldo N, et al.
Specific gene expression signatures induced by the multiple oncogenic alterations that occur within the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway in lung cancer.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(6):e0178865 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hyperactivation of the phosphatydil-inositol-3' phosphate kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway is observed in most NSCLCs, promoting proliferation, migration, invasion and resistance to therapy. AKT can be activated through several mechanisms that include loss of the negative regulator PTEN, activating mutations of the catalytic subunit of PI3K (PIK3CA) and/or mutations of AKT1 itself. However, number and identity of downstream targets of activated PI3K/AKT pathway are poorly defined. To identify the genes that are targets of constitutive PI3K/AKT signalling in lung cancer cells, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) expressing active mutant AKT1 (AKT1-E17K), active mutant PIK3CA (PIK3CA-E545K) or that are silenced for PTEN. We found that, altogether, aberrant PI3K/AKT signalling in lung epithelial cells regulated the expression of 1,960/20,436 genes (9%), though only 30 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (15 up-regulated, 12 down-regulated and 3 discordant) out of 20,436 that were common among BEAS-AKT1-E17K, BEAS-PIK3CA-E545K and BEAS-shPTEN cells (0.1%). Conversely, DEGs specific for mutant AKT1 were 133 (85 up-regulated; 48 down-regulated), DEGs specific for mutant PIK3CA were 502 (280 up-regulated; 222 down-regulated) and DEGs specific for PTEN loss were 1549 (799 up-regulated, 750 down-regulated). The results obtained from array analysis were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR on selected up- and down-regulated genes (n = 10). Treatment of BEAS-C cells and the corresponding derivatives with pharmacological inhibitors of AKT (MK2206) or PI3K (LY294002) further validated the significance of our findings. Moreover, mRNA expression of selected DEGs (SGK1, IGFBP3, PEG10, GDF15, PTGES, S100P, respectively) correlated with the activation status of the PI3K/AKT pathway assessed by S473 phosphorylation in NSCLC cell lines (n = 6). Finally, we made use of Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to investigate the relevant BioFunctions enriched by the costitutive activation of AKT1-, PI3K- or PTEN-dependent signalling in lung epithelial cells. Expectedly, the analysis of the DEGs common to all three alterations highlighted a group of BioFunctions that included Cell Proliferation of tumor cell lines (14 DEGs), Invasion of cells (10 DEGs) and Migration of tumour cell lines (10 DEGs), with a common core of 5 genes (ATF3, CDKN1A, GDF15, HBEGF and LCN2) that likely represent downstream effectors of the pro-oncogenic activities of PI3K/AKT signalling. Conversely, IPA analysis of exclusive DEGs led to the identification of different downstream effectors that are modulated by mutant AKT1 (TGFBR2, CTSZ, EMP1), mutant PIK3CA (CCND2, CDK2, IGFBP2, TRIB1) and PTEN loss (ASNS, FHL2). These findings not only shed light on the molecular mechanisms that are activated by aberrant signalling through the PI3K/AKT pathway in lung epithelial cells, but also contribute to the identification of previously unrecognised molecules whose regulation takes part in the development of lung cancer.

Ku AT, Shaver TM, Rao AS, et al.
TCF7L1 promotes skin tumorigenesis independently of β-catenin through induction of LCN2.
Elife. 2017; 6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcription factor

Okuda M, Inoue J, Fujiwara N, et al.
Subcloning and characterization of highly metastatic cells derived from human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma KYSE150 cells by in vivo selection.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(21):34670-34677 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer and the sixth most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite the research progress in understanding the disease, the mechanism underlying the metastasis is still unclear. Here, we successfully generated a highly metastatic cell subline, designated as KYSE150-LuM, derived from an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (KYSE150) by in vivo selection. To elucidate the mechanisms driving metastasis, we characterized the gene expression differences between LuM cells and parent KYSE150 cells. IL-6, IL-1β, and LCN2, previously associated with tumor growth and metastasis, were up-regulated in LuM cells. Recent studies on cancer have increasingly focused on the tumor microenvironment, from which these cytokines are released. The fact that these three cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, LCN2) were up-regulated in LuM cells indicates that these highly metastatic cells obtained through in vivo selection will be a useful resource for further studies on elucidating the mechanisms underlying the tumor microenvironment which is associated with cytokine-related tumor growth and metastasis. Moreover, LuM cells could disseminate to the lung in shorter period of time in vivo, indicating their utility for in vivo experiments of metastasis and new therapeutic targets in a shorter period of time than currently possible.

Oláh J, Bertrand P, Ovádi J
Role of the microtubule-associated TPPP/p25 in Parkinson's and related diseases and its therapeutic potential.
Expert Rev Proteomics. 2017; 14(4):301-309 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The discovery and development of therapeutic strategies for the treatments of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies are limited by a lack of understanding of the pathomechanisms and their connection with different diseases such as cancers. Areas covered: The hallmarks of these diseases are frequently multifunctional disordered proteins displaying moonlighting and/or chameleon features, which are challenging drug targets. A representative of these proteins is the disordered Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP/p25) expressed specifically in oligodendrocytes (OLGs) in normal brain. Its non-physiological level is tightly related to the etiology of PD and Multiple System Atrophy (TPPP/p25 enrichment in inclusions of neurons and OLGs, respectively), multiple sclerosis (TPPP/p25-positive OLG destruction), as well as glioma (loss of TPPP/p25 expression). The established anti-proliferative potency of TPPP/p25 may raise its influence in cancer development. The recognition that whereas too much TPPP/p25 could kill neurons in PD, but its loss keeps cells alive in cancer could contribute to our understanding of the interrelationship of 'TPPP/p25 diseases'. Expert commentary: The knowledge accumulated so far underlines the key roles of the multifunctional TPPP/p25 in both physiological and diverse pathological processes, consequently its validation as drug target sorely needs a new innovative strategy that is briefly reviewed here.

Chiang KC, Yeh TS, Huang CC, et al.
MART-10 represses cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and high vitamin D receptor expression indicates better prognosis for cholangiocarcinoma.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:43773 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating disease due to no effective treatments available. Since the non-mineral functions of vitamin D emerges, 1α,25(OH)

Gomez-Chou SB, Swidnicka-Siergiejko AK, Badi N, et al.
Lipocalin-2 Promotes Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma by Regulating Inflammation in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(10):2647-2660 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) promotes malignant development in many cancer types. LCN2 is upregulated in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and in obese individuals, but whether it contributes to PDAC development is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Lcn2 depletion on diet-induced obesity, inflammation, and PDAC development. Mice with acinar cell-specific expression of Kras

Ariazi EA, Taylor JC, Black MA, et al.
A New Role for ERα: Silencing via DNA Methylation of Basal, Stem Cell, and EMT Genes.
Mol Cancer Res. 2017; 15(2):152-164 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Resistance to hormonal therapies is a major clinical problem in the treatment of estrogen receptor α-positive (ERα
IMPLICATIONS: ERα directs DNA methylation-mediated silencing of specific genes that have biomarker potential in breast cancer subtypes. Mol Cancer Res; 15(2); 152-64. ©2016 AACR.

Uzozie AC, Selevsek N, Wahlander A, et al.
Targeted Proteomics for Multiplexed Verification of Markers of Colorectal Tumorigenesis.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2017; 16(3):407-427 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Targeted proteomic methods can accelerate the verification of multiple tumor marker candidates in large series of patient samples. We utilized the targeted approach known as selected/multiple reaction monitoring (S/MRM) to verify potential protein markers of colorectal adenoma identified by our group in previous transcriptomic and quantitative shotgun proteomic studies of a large cohort of precancerous colorectal lesions. We developed SRM assays to reproducibly detect and quantify 25 (62.5%) of the 40 selected proteins in an independent series of precancerous and cancerous tissue samples (19 adenoma/normal mucosa pairs; 17 adenocarcinoma/normal mucosa pairs). Twenty-three proteins were significantly up-regulated (

Zhang Y, Yu J, Grachtchouk V, et al.
Genomic binding of PAX8-PPARG fusion protein regulates cancer-related pathways and alters the immune landscape of thyroid cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(4):5761-5773 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PAX8-PPARG fusion protein (PPFP) results from a t(2;3)(q13;p25) chromosomal translocation, is found in 30% of follicular thyroid carcinomas, and demonstrates oncogenic capacity in transgenic mice. A PPARG ligand, pioglitazone, is highly therapeutic in mice with PPFP thyroid cancer. However, only limited data exist to characterize the binding sites and oncogenic function of PPFP, or to explain the observed therapeutic effect of pioglitazone. Here we used our previously characterized transgenic mouse model of PPFP follicular thyroid carcinoma to identify PPFP binding sites in vivo using ChIP-seq, and to distinguish genes and pathways regulated directly or indirectly by PPFP with and without pioglitazone treatment via integration with RNA-seq data. PPFP bound to DNA regions containing the PAX8 and/or the PPARG motif, near genes involved in lipid metabolism, the cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell motility; the binding site distribution was highly concordant with our previous study in a rat PCCL3 cell line. Most strikingly, pioglitazone induced an immune cell infiltration including macrophages and T cells only in the presence of PPFP, which may be central to its therapeutic effect.

Calvo N, Shabaka A, Rodriguez Cubillo B, et al.
Presence of T-275A and C-2152T Polymorphisms of the Promoter Region of Uridine Diphosphate-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A9 Increases Mortality From Digestive Tumors: Results After 10 Years of Follow-up in a Renal Transplant Population.
Transplant Proc. 2016; 48(9):2947-2949 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A9 (UGT1A9) promoter region T-275A and C-2152T single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in stable transplant patients and to investigate the impact of these SNPs on the evolution of this population after 10 years of follow-up.
METHODS: White renal transplant recipients (n = 873) were studied. The median time of follow-up was 91.8 months (P25-75 46-146). Amplification with specific "primers" to delimit the study area was performed for each polymorphism. Amplification was performed with the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: T-275A promoter mutation was detected in 13% of patients and C-2152T in 12% of patients. Survival analysis was performed on 873 renal transplants, carried out between 2004 and 2013. We found a higher frequency of death from cancer among polymorphism carriers (P = .001).
CONCLUSIONS: It appears that carriers of T-275A and C-2152T SNPs of the UGT1A9 gene promoter region show a greater incidence of death from cancer, with a significantly higher cumulative incidence of death from gastrointestinal tumors.

Feng M, Feng J, Chen W, et al.
Lipocalin2 suppresses metastasis of colorectal cancer by attenuating NF-κB-dependent activation of snail and epithelial mesenchymal transition.
Mol Cancer. 2016; 15(1):77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lipocalin2 (LCN2) is a secretory protein that is aberrantly expressed in several types of cancer and has been involved in metastatic progression. However, neither mechanisms nor the role that LCN2 plays in the metastasis of colorectal cancer are clear.
METHODS: LCN2 expression in colorectal cancer was detected by immunohistochemistry in 400 tissue specimens and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. In vitro, real-time PCR, western blot, colony formation assay, immunofluorescence assay, wound healing assay, migration and invasion experiment were performed to investigate the effects of LCN2 in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and invasion, respectively. In vivo mouse xenograft and metastasis models were utilized to determine tumorigenicity and metastasis ability, and immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, western blot were used to evaluate the related protein expression. Luciferase reporter assay was used to explore the role of LCN2 on NF-ĸB promoter.
RESULTS: LCN2 was highly expressed in 66.5% of the specimens, and significantly correlated with positive E-cadherin in the membrane and negative nuclear β-catenin. Higher expression of LCN2 together with negative NF-κB expression was negatively related to nuclear accumulation of snail and predicted favorable prognosis. LCN2 blocked cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo, and inhibited translocation of NF-κB into nucleus. NF-κB could reverse the effect of LCN2 on EMT and promote snail expression. Rescued snail expression had similar effect without influencing NF-κB activity.
CONCLUSION: LCN2 may be an important negative regulator in EMT, invasion and metastasis of CRC via acting as upstream of NF-κB/snail signaling pathway. Thereby combinative manipulation of LCN2 and NF-κB/snail pathway may represent a novel and promising therapeutic approach for the patients with CRC.

Wilson C, Qiu L, Hong Y, et al.
The histone demethylase KDM4B regulates peritoneal seeding of ovarian cancer.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(18):2565-2576 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has poor prognosis and rapid recurrence because of widespread dissemination of peritoneal metastases at diagnosis. Multiple pathways contribute to the aggressiveness of ovarian cancer, including hypoxic signaling mechanisms. In this study, we have determined that the hypoxia-inducible histone demethylase KDM4B is expressed in ∼60% of EOC tumors assayed, including primary and matched metastatic tumors. Expression of KDM4B in tumors is positively correlated with expression of the tumor hypoxia marker CA-IX, and is robustly induced in EOC cell lines exposed to hypoxia. KDM4B regulates expression of metastatic genes and pathways, and loss of KDM4B increases H3K9 trimethylation at the promoters of target genes like LOXL2, LCN2 and PDGFB. Suppressing KDM4B inhibits ovarian cancer cell invasion, migration and spheroid formation in vitro. KDM4B also regulates seeding and growth of peritoneal tumors in vivo, where its expression corresponds to hypoxic regions. This is the first demonstration that a Jumonji-domain histone demethylase regulates cellular processes required for peritoneal dissemination of cancer cells, one of the predominant factors affecting prognosis of EOC. The pathways regulated by KDM4B may present novel opportunities to develop combinatorial therapies to improve existing therapies for EOC patients.

Chiang KC, Yeh TS, Wu RC, et al.
Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is a promising target for cholangiocarcinoma treatment and bile LCN2 level is a potential cholangiocarcinoma diagnostic marker.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:36138 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating disease due to resistance to traditional chemotherapies and radiotherapies. New therapeutic strategies against CCA are urgently needed. This study investigated the role of lipocalin-2 (LCN2) in human cholangiocarcinoma as a potential therapeutic target and diagnostic marker. So far, the role of LCN2 in cancer is still controversial and studies regarding the role of LCN2 in CCA are limited. LCN2 knockdown inhibited CCA cell growth in vitro and in vivo through induction of cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phases and decreased metastatic potential due to repression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Overexpression of LCN2 in CCA cells increased cell metastatic potential. We showed for the first time that the N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) and NDRG2, known as tumor suppressor genes, are negatively regulated by LCN2 in CCA cells. LCN2 concentration in bile was higher in patients with CCA than that in patients with gallstones, with a cutoff value of 20.08 ng/ml making this a potential diagnostic marker. Higher LCN2 expression was associated with worse survival in patients with CCA. LCN2 is a promising target for CCA treatment and bile LCN2 level is a potential diagnostic marker for CCA.

Steenbrugge J, Breyne K, Denies S, et al.
Comparison of the Adipose and Luminal Mammary Gland Compartment as Orthotopic Inoculation Sites in a 4T1-Based Immunocompetent Preclinical Model for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2016; 21(3-4):113-122 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast tumorigenesis is classically studied in mice by inoculating tumor cells in the fat pad, the adipose compartment of the mammary gland. Alternatively, the mammary ducts, which constitute the luminal mammary gland compartment, also provide a suitable inoculation site to induce breast cancer in murine models. The microenvironments in these compartments influence tumor cell progression, yet this effect has not been investigated in an immunocompetent context. Here, we compared both mammary gland compartments as distinct inoculation sites, taking into account the immunological aspect by inoculating 4T1 tumor cells in immunocompetent mice. Following tumor cell inoculation in the adipose compartment of non-pretreated/naive, hormonally pretreated/naive and non-pretreated/lactating mice, the primary tumors developed similarly. However, a slower onset of primary tumor growth was found after inoculations in the luminal compartment of non-pretreated/lactating mice. Despite this difference in tumor development rate, metastasis to the liver and lungs was equally observed and was accompanied by lymphatic spreading of tumor cells and progressive splenomegaly with both inoculation types. Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) and lipocalin 2 (LCN2) served as innovative biomarkers for disease progression showing increased levels in primary tumors and sera of the non-pretreated/lactating inoculation groups. A slower increase in circulating CHI3L1 but not LCN2 levels, was observed after inoculations in the luminal compartment which corroborated the slower tumor development at this inoculation site. Our results highlight the critical impact of different mammary gland compartments on tumor development in syngeneic murine models and support the use of novel tumor progression biomarkers in an immune-competent environment.

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