Gene Summary

Gene:FUBP1; far upstream element binding protein 1
Aliases: FBP, FUBP, hDH V
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a single stranded DNA-binding protein that binds to multiple DNA elements, including the far upstream element (FUSE) located upstream of c-myc. Binding to FUSE occurs on the non-coding strand, and is important to the regulation of c-myc in undifferentiated cells. This protein contains three domains, an amphipathic helix N-terminal domain, a DNA-binding central domain, and a C-terminal transactivation domain that contains three tyrosine-rich motifs. The N-terminal domain is thought to repress the activity of the C-terminal domain. This protein is also thought to bind RNA, and contains 3'-5' helicase activity with in vitro activity on both DNA-DNA and RNA-RNA duplexes. Aberrant expression of this gene has been found in malignant tissues, and this gene is important to neural system and lung development. Binding of this protein to viral RNA is thought to play a role in several viral diseases, including hepatitis C and hand, foot and mouth disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:far upstream element-binding protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FUBP1 (cancer-related)

Debaize L, Jakobczyk H, Avner S, et al.
Interplay between transcription regulators RUNX1 and FUBP1 activates an enhancer of the oncogene c-KIT and amplifies cell proliferation.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(21):11214-11228 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) is a well-known master regulator of hematopoietic lineages but its mechanisms of action are still not fully understood. Here, we found that RUNX1 localizes on active chromatin together with Far Upstream Binding Protein 1 (FUBP1) in human B-cell precursor lymphoblasts, and that both factors interact in the same transcriptional regulatory complex. RUNX1 and FUBP1 chromatin localization identified c-KIT as a common target gene. We characterized two regulatory regions, at +700 bp and +30 kb within the first intron of c-KIT, bound by both RUNX1 and FUBP1, and that present active histone marks. Based on these regions, we proposed a novel FUBP1 FUSE-like DNA-binding sequence on the +30 kb enhancer. We demonstrated that FUBP1 and RUNX1 cooperate for the regulation of the expression of the oncogene c-KIT. Notably, upregulation of c-KIT expression by FUBP1 and RUNX1 promotes cell proliferation and renders cells more resistant to the c-KIT inhibitor imatinib mesylate, a common therapeutic drug. These results reveal a new mechanism of action of RUNX1 that implicates FUBP1, as a facilitator, to trigger transcriptional regulation of c-KIT and to regulate cell proliferation. Deregulation of this regulatory mechanism may explain some oncogenic function of RUNX1 and FUBP1.

Synhaeve NE, van den Bent MJ, French PJ, et al.
Clinical evaluation of a dedicated next generation sequencing panel for routine glioma diagnostics.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2018; 6(1):126 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Since 2013 next-generation sequencing (NGS) targeting genes mutated in diffuse gliomas is part of routine diagnostics in our institute. In the present report, we evaluate the use of this custom tailored NGS platform on 434 samples. The NGS panel assesses mutations in ATRX, CIC, EGFR, FUBP1, NOTCH1, PTEN; H3F3A, IDH1/2, PIK3CA, and BRAF, amplifications in EGFR or MDM2 and copy number alterations (CNA) of chromosome 1p, 7, 10 and 19q. TERT promoter mutations were assessed separately when indicated. Of the 433 samples of individual tumors with NGS data available, 176 cases were diagnosed as grade 2 or 3 glioma (40.6) and in 201 patients a glioblastoma (46.4%). Of the remaining 56 patients, 22 had inconclusive histology. In 378 cases (87.1%) a diagnosis solely based on glioma-targeted NGS could be established and resulted in a different diagnosis in ~ 1/4 of the cases. In 17 out of 22 cases without a conclusive histological diagnosis NGS resulted in a molecular diagnosis.The current study on a large cohort of patients confirms the diagnostic strength of the platform we developed, with a clear separation of glioma subgroups with different outcomes. It demonstrates the diagnostic value and the efficiency of glioma-targeted NGS for routine glioma diagnostics allowing with a single assay a glioma diagnosis in the large majority of cases. It allows in one run the molecular assessments required for the WHO classification of diffuse gliomas, including the recent recommendations to assess copy number alterations of chromosome 7 and 10, and of the TERT promoter region in IDHwt lower grade glioma.

Vizcaino MA, Palsgrove DN, Yuan M, et al.
Granular cell astrocytoma: an aggressive IDH-wildtype diffuse glioma with molecular genetic features of primary glioblastoma.
Brain Pathol. 2019; 29(2):193-204 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Granular cell astrocytoma (GCA) is a rare adult infiltrating glioma subtype. We studied a series of 39 GCAs. Median age of presentation was 57.8 years and most cases developed in the frontal or temporal lobes. Tumors included grade II (n = 14), grade III (n = 11), and grade IV (n = 14) by WHO criteria. Granular cell morphology was diffuse in 31 (79%) cases and partial in eight (21%). Immunohistochemistry showed frequent positivity for GFAP (28 of 31), OLIG2 (16 of 16), and CD68 (27 of 30), but HAM56, CD163, and IBA-1 histiocytic markers were all negative (22 of 22). IDH1(R132H) was negative in all the cases tested (16 of 16), while ATRX expression was retained (12 of 12). Cytogenetics demonstrated monosomy 10 (6 of 6) cases, +7 in 4 (of 6), -13q in 4 of 6, and -14 in 4 of 6. Next-generation sequencing demonstrated mutations in PTEN/PIK3 genes in 6/13 (46%), NF1 in 3 of 10 (30%), TP53 in 3 of 13 (23%), PALB2 in 3 of 10 (30%), STAG2 in 3 of 10 (30%), EGFR mutation/amplification in 3 of 13 (23%), and AR in 2 of 10 (20%). CDKN2A/B deletion was identified in 5 of 13 (30%) cases (homozygous deletion in 4). The TERT C228T mutation was identified in 9 of 13 (69%). No mutations were encountered in IDH1, IDH2, CIC, FUBP1, H3F3A, BRAF or ATRX genes. The mean overall survival was 11.3 months. Patients >60 years old at diagnosis had a worse survival than patients <60 years (P = 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in survival by WHO grade, extent of granular cell change, sex or MIB-1 (P > 0.05). GCA is a variant of IDH-wildtype diffuse glioma with aggressive behavior irrespective of grade and extent of granular cell morphology, and with molecular genetic features corresponding to primary glioblastoma.

Wang B, Fan P, Zhao J, et al.
FBP1 loss contributes to BET inhibitors resistance by undermining c-Myc expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):224 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal tumor types worldwide. BET inhibitors display anti-tumor activity in pancreatic cancer, however the cells often develop resistance after a long-term treatment and the underlying molecular basis is not fully understood.
METHODS: Drug screening assay in Fructose-1, 6-biphosphatase (FBP1) knockdown or overexpressing pancreatic cancer cells was performed. Tumor cell motility, FBP1 protein and mRNA changes were investigated after BET inhibitors treatment. The interaction between TRIM28 and FBP1 after BET inhibitors treatment was examined by Co-immunoprecipitation (IP) and GST pull-down. The relationship between FBP1 and c-Myc was examined by western blot, RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC).
RESULTS: The expression of FBP1 protein increased the sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to JQ1. Furthermore, we showed that JQ1 stabilized FBP1 protein level by disrupting the interaction between FBP1 and TRIM28 in pancreatic cancer cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that FBP1 promoted c-Myc degradation through disrupting the ERK-c-Myc axis.
CONCLUSIONS: FBP1 modulates the sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to BET inhibitors by decreasing the expression of c-Myc. These findings highlight FBP1 could be used as a therapeutic niche for patient-tailored therapies.

Zhao W, Yang S, Chen J, et al.
Forced overexpression of FBP1 inhibits proliferation and metastasis in cholangiocarcinoma cells via Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
Life Sci. 2018; 210:224-234 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the effect of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1) on the malignant phenotypes of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells, and to explore the underlying mechanism.
MAIN METHODS: The expression of FBP1 in clinical CCA tissues was detected by real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry staining. FBP1 was overexpressed by transfection of a forced expression plasmid. MTT, plate colony formation assay, Hoechst staining, flow cytometry, Western blot, wound healing, transwell assays and xenograft were performed to detect the growth, proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration, invasion and tumorigenesis in RBE and HCCC-9801 cells. In addition, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling was detected.
KEY FINDINGS: FBP1 was downregulated in clinical CCA specimens and cell lines, compared to paired para-carcinoma tissues or normal cholangetic epithelial cells. Gain-of-function experiments demonstrated that the forced expression of FBP1 inhibited the proliferation, colony formation, and blocked cell cycle of RBE and HCCC-9801 cells. Apoptosis of CCA cells was significantly enhanced by FBP1 overexpression, evidenced by upregulation of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP and Bax levels, while downregulation of Bcl-2 level. Moreover, overexpression of FBP1 decreased the migratory and invasive ability in RBE and HCCC-9801 cells. However, FBP1-induced phenotypic changes were eliminated by overexpression of β-catenin. Finally, the forced overexpression of FBP1 inhibited tumorigenesis in vivo.
SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate that FBP1 is downregulated in CCA tissues and cell lines, and the overexpression of FBP1 inhibits the proliferation, migration, invasion and tumorigenesis of CCA cells partly via inactivation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. FBP1 may be a novel early diagnosis marker and therapeutic target for CCA.

Dong Y, Huaying S, Danying W, et al.
Significance of Methylation of FBP1 Gene in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:3726091 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Because NSCLC has poor overall prognosis and is frequently diagnosed at later stage, we aimed to seek novel diagnosis biomarkers or therapy target of the disease in this study. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1) is a rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis, which was usually lost in NSCLC due to abnormal methylation in promoter DNA sequence. The clinical data indicated that the methylation rate in FBP1 gene promoter was negatively related to the overall survival of the NSCLC patients. DNA methylation transferase inhibitor 5-aza treatment could significantly increase both expression levels of mRNA and protein in A549 cell line. On the other hand, silence of FBP1 in H460 cell line by using specific siRNA against FBP1 dramatically improved the cell proliferation and cell migration according to the date of FACS and transwell assays. All these findings implied the important roles of FBP1 expression in lung cancer development and progression and the potential use of the methylation status detected in FBP1 promoter region as a novel predictor for prognosis and therapeutic target for NSCLC patients.

Wang XT, Xia QY, Ye SB, et al.
RNA sequencing of Xp11 translocation-associated cancers reveals novel gene fusions and distinctive clinicopathologic correlations.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(9):1346-1360 [PubMed] Related Publications
Both Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinomas and the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasms are characterized by a variety of gene fusions involving TFE3. It has been known that tumors with different gene fusions may have different clinicopathologic features; however, further in-depth investigations of subtyping Xp11 translocation-associated cancers are needed in order to explore more meaningful clinicopathologic correlations. A total of 22 unusual cases of Xp11 translocation-associated cancers were selected for the current study; 20 cases were further analyzed by RNA sequencing to explore their TFE3 gene fusion partners. RNA sequencing identified 17 of 20 cases (85%) with TFE3-associated gene fusions, including 4 ASPSCR1/ASPL-TFE3, 3 PRCC-TFE3, 3 SFPQ/PSF-TFE3, 1 NONO-TFE3, 4 MED15-TFE3, 1 MATR3-TFE3, and 1 FUBP1-TFE3. The results have been verified by fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The remaining 2 cases with specific pathologic features highly suggestive of MED15-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma were identified by fusion FISH assay. We provide the detailed morphologic and immunophenotypic description of the MED15-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas, which frequently demonstrate extensively cystic architecture, similar to multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential, and expressed cathepsin K and melanotic biomarker Melan A. This is the first time to correlate the MED15-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma with specific clinicopathologic features. We also report the first case of the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasm with MED15-TFE3 gene fusion. Additional novel TFE3 gene fusion partners, MATR3 and FUBP1, were identified. Cases with ASPSCR1-TFE3, SFPQ-TFE3, PRCC-TFE3, and NONO-TFE3 gene fusion showed a wide variability in morphologic features, including invasive tubulopapillary pattern simulating collecting duct carcinoma, extensive calcification and ossification, and overlapping and high columnar cells with nuclear grooves mimicking tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Furthermore, we respectively evaluated the ability of TFE3 immunohistochemistry, TFE3 FISH, RT-PCR, and RNA sequencing to subclassify Xp11 translocation-associated cancers. In summary, our study expands the list of TFE3 gene fusion partners and the clinicopathologic features of Xp11 translocation-associated cancers, and highlights the importance of subtyping Xp11 translocation-associated cancers combining morphology, immunohistochemistry, and multiple molecular techniques.

Chen LY, Cheng CS, Qu C, et al.
CBX3 promotes proliferation and regulates glycolysis via suppressing FBP1 in pancreatic cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 500(3):691-697 [PubMed] Related Publications
More and more evidence has demonstrated that Chromobox protein homolog 3(CBX3) has an important role in carcinogenesis by regulating several mechanisms, such as heterochromatin formation, gene silencing, DNA replication and repair. However, its role in pancreatic cancer has seldom been discussed. In the present study, we silenced CBX3 expression in pancreatic cancer cell lines and identified the positive roles of CBX3 in cancer cell proliferation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that silencing CBX3 in pancreatic cancer cells inhibited aerobic glycolysis, the basis for providing cancer cells with building blocks for macromolecule synthesis and ATP that required. To search for the underlying molecular mechanism, we turned to examine the impact of CBX3 on the expression of FBP1, a negative regulator of aerobic glycolysis in pancreatic cancer and indicated that CBX3 negatively regulated FBP1 expression. Silencing FBP1 expression attenuated the decrease in glycolytic capacity that caused by CBX3 knockdown in pancreatic cancer cells. Taken together, these data reveal that CBX3 serves as a positive regulator of aerobic glycolysis via suppressing of the FBP1 in pancreatic cancer cells. Disrupting the CBX3-FBP1 signaling axis would be effective to treat pancreatic cancer and prevent aerobic glycolysis.

Wattanavanitchakorn S, Rojvirat P, Chavalit T, et al.
CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) regulate expression of the human fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1) gene in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(3):e0194252 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1) plays an essential role in gluconeogenesis. Here we report that the human FBP1 gene is regulated by two liver-enriched transcription factors, CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. C/EBPα regulates transcription of FBP1 gene via binding to the two overlapping C/EBPα sites located at nucleotide -228/-208 while HNF4α regulates FBP1 gene through binding to the classical H4-SBM site and direct repeat 3 (DR3) located at nucleotides -566/-554 and -212/-198, respectively. Mutations of these transcription factor binding sites result in marked decrease of C/EBPα- or HNF4α-mediated transcription activation of FBP1 promoter-luciferase reporter expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays of -228/-208 C/EBPα or -566/-554 and -212/-198 HNF4α sites with nuclear extract of HepG2 cells overexpressing C/EBPα or HNF4α confirms binding of these two transcription factors to these sites. Finally, we showed that siRNA-mediated suppression of C/EBPα or HNF4α expression in HepG2 cells lowers expression of FBP1 in parallel with down-regulation of expression of other gluconeogenic enzymes. Our results suggest that an overall gluconeogenic program is regulated by these two transcription factors, enabling transcription to occur in a liver-specific manner.

Velázquez Vega JE, Brat DJ
Incorporating Advances in Molecular Pathology Into Brain Tumor Diagnostics.
Adv Anat Pathol. 2018; 25(3):143-171 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent advances in molecular pathology have reshaped the practice of brain tumor diagnostics. The classification of gliomas has been restructured with the discovery of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1/2 mutations in the vast majority of lower grade infiltrating gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBM), with IDH-mutant astrocytomas further characterized by TP53 and ATRX mutations. Whole-arm 1p/19q codeletion in conjunction with IDH mutations now define oligodendrogliomas, which are also enriched for CIC, FUBP1, PI3K, NOTCH1, and TERT-p mutations. IDH-wild-type (wt) infiltrating astrocytomas are mostly primary GBMs and are characterized by EGFR, PTEN, TP53, NF1, RB1, PDGFRA, and CDKN2A/B alterations, TERT-p mutations, and characteristic copy number alterations including gains of chromosome 7 and losses of 10. Other clinically and genetically distinct infiltrating astrocytomas include the aggressive H3K27M-mutant midline gliomas, and smaller subsets that occur in the setting of NF1 or have BRAF V600E mutations. Low-grade pediatric gliomas are both genetically and biologically distinct from their adult counterparts and often harbor a single driver event often involving BRAF, FGFR1, or MYB/MYBL1 genes. Large scale genomic and epigenomic analyses have identified distinct subgroups of ependymomas tightly linked to tumor location and clinical behavior. The diagnosis of embryonal neoplasms also integrates molecular testing: (I) 4 molecularly defined, biologically distinct subtypes of medulloblastomas are now recognized; (II) 3 histologic entities have now been reclassified under a diagnosis of "embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes (ETMR), C19MC-altered"; and (III) atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) now require SMARCB1 (INI1) or SMARCA4 (BRG1) alterations for their diagnosis. We discuss the practical use of contemporary biomarkers for an integrative diagnosis of central nervous system neoplasia.

Zhang L, Liu Y, Wang M, et al.
EZH2-, CHD4-, and IDH-linked epigenetic perturbation and its association with survival in glioma patients.
J Mol Cell Biol. 2017; 9(6):477-488 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Glioma is a complex disease with limited treatment options. Recent advances have identified isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations in up to 80% lower grade gliomas (LGG) and in 76% secondary glioblastomas (GBM). IDH mutations are also seen in 10%-20% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In AML, it was determined that mutations of IDH and other genes involving epigenetic regulations are early events, emerging in the pre-leukemic stem cells (pre-LSCs) stage, whereas mutations in genes propagating oncogenic signal are late events in leukemia. IDH mutations are also early events in glioma, occurring before TP53 mutation, 1p/19q deletion, etc. Despite these advances in glioma research, studies into other molecular alterations have lagged considerably. In this study, we analyzed currently available databases. We identified EZH2, KMT2C, and CHD4 as important genes in glioma in addition to the known gene IDH1/2. We also showed that genomic alterations of PIK3CA, CDKN2A, CDK4, FIP1L1, or FUBP1 collaborate with IDH mutations to negatively affect patients' survival in LGG. In LGG patients with TP53 mutations or IDH1/2 mutations, additional genomic alterations of EZH2, KMC2C, and CHD4 individually or in combination were associated with a markedly decreased disease-free survival than patients without such alterations. Alterations of EZH2, KMT2C, and CHD4 at genetic level or protein level could perturb epigenetic program, leading to malignant transformation in glioma. By reviewing current literature on both AML and glioma and performing bioinformatics analysis on available datasets, we developed a hypothetical model on the tumorigenesis from premalignant stem cells to glioma.

Zhong Q, Liu ZH, Lin ZR, et al.
Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 24(3):659-673 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications

Yu J, Li J, Chen Y, et al.
Snail Enhances Glycolysis in the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Process by Targeting FBP1 in Gastric Cancer.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017; 43(1):31-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Snail is a key regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer. However, the regulatory role and underlying mechanisms of Snail in gastric cancer metabolism are unknown. In this study, we characterized the regulation of aerobic glycolysis by Snail in gastric cancer.
METHODS: The impact of Snail on glucose metabolism was studied in vitro. Combining maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), which was obtained preoperatively via a PET/CT scan, with immunohistochemistry staining, we further analyzed the correlation between SUVmax and Snail expression in gastric cancer tissues.
RESULTS: Increased expression of Snail promoted lactate production, glucose utilization, and decreased FBP1 expression at both mRNA and protein level. The expression level of Snail was positively associated with SUVmax in gastric cancer patients (P=0.022). Snail and FBP1 expression were inversely correlated at both mRNA and protein level (P=0.002 and P=0.015 respectively) in gastric cancer tissues. Further studies demonstrated that Snail inhibited the FBP1 gene expression at the transcriptional level. Restoring FBP1 expression reversed the effects of glycolysis and EMT induced by Snail in gastric cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results thus reveal that Snail serves as a positive regulator of glucose metabolism through regulation of the FBP1 in gastric cancer. Disrupting the Snail-FBP1 signaling axis may be effective to prevent primary tumor EMT and glycolysis process.

Sun Y, Wei G, Luo H, et al.
The long noncoding RNA SNHG1 promotes tumor growth through regulating transcription of both local and distal genes.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(49):6774-6783 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasing evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important roles in various physiological processes and dysfunction of lncRNAs could be a prevalent cause in human diseases. Here we functionally characterized the nuclear-enriched lncRNA SNHG1, which is highly expressed in multiple types of cancer. We also provide evidence that SNHG1 promotes cancer cell growth by regulating gene expression both in cis and in trans. SNHG1 was involved in the AKT signaling pathway as it promotes the neighboring transcription of the protein-coding gene SLC3A2 in cis by binding the Mediator complex to facilitate the establishment of enhancer-promoter interaction. In trans, SNHG1 directly interacted with central domain of FUBP1 and antagonize the binding of FBP-interacting repressor to FUBP1, thereby coordinating the expression of the oncogene MYC. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that lncRNA SNHG1 can function both in cis and in trans with distinct mechanisms to regulate transcription, promoting tumorigenesis and cancer progression.

Zhao D, Zhang Y, Song L
MiR-16-1 Targeted Silences Far Upstream Element Binding Protein 1 to Advance the Chemosensitivity to Adriamycin in Gastric Cancer.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2018; 24(3):483-488 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemotherapy can prevent metastasis and recurrence of gastric cancer (GC), and is a well supplement for operation. But, chemotherapy resistance has severely restricted the application of chemotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the regulatory roles and molecular mechanism of miR-16-1 to the chemosensitivity to adriamycin in GC. In this study, the expression of miR-16-1 and FUBP1 was down-regulated and up-regulated respectively in adriamycin-resistant GC tissues and cell lines, and represented a negative relationship between them. MiR-16-1 could silence FUBP1 directly and specifically, FUBP1 was a target gene of miR-16-1. Silence of FUBP1 inhibited the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of SGC7901/AR cell line to adriamycin, chemosensitivity enhanced significantly. Moreover, FUBP1 silence in SGC7901/AR cell line also inhibited proliferation and invasion, and advanced cell apoptosis. To sum up, the expression of miR-16-1 was positively related with the chemosensitivity of GC to adriamycin, and miR-16-1 could targeted silence FUBP1 to advance the chemosensitivity to adriamycin in GC, which might be a novel potential therapeutic target for GC.

Liu Y, Jiang Y, Wang N, et al.
Invalidation of mitophagy by FBP1-mediated repression promotes apoptosis in breast cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(6):1010428317708779 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis, was recently shown to be a tumor suppressor. However, the functions of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 in the regulation of mitophagy and apoptosis remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 on mitophagy and apoptosis as well as their underlying mechanisms in breast cancer cells. In this work, the messenger RNA and protein expression of various molecules were determined by quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively. Gene-expression correlations were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas Breast Cancer database and analyzed using cBioPortal. The levels of cellular reactive oxygen species and apoptotic index were detected by flow cytometry. The mitochondrial membrane potentials were assessed with a JC-1 fluorescent sensor. Subcellular structures were observed under a transmission electron microscope. The intracellular distribution of translocase of outer membrane 20 was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Protein-protein interactions were analyzed by immunoprecipitation. Our results indicated that fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 expression was negatively correlated with autophagy level in breast cancer. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 restrained autophagy activity by increasing the level of p62 and decreasing the levels of LC3 and Beclin 1. Additionally, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 promoted cell apoptosis by upregulating the levels of intracellular ROS and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins such as cleaved PARP, cleaved Caspase 3, and Bax and downregulating the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins such as PARP, Caspase 3, and Bcl-2. Finally, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 limited the efficient removal of diseased mitochondria and reduced the messenger RNA and protein expressions of HIF-1α, BNIP3L/NIX, and BNIP3. More importantly, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 facilitated co-action between Bcl-2 and Beclin 1, which may be important in the mechanism of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1-mediated mitophagy inhibition. In summary, loss of mitophagy by fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1-mediated repression promotes apoptosis in breast cancer.

Holdhoff M, Cairncross GJ, Kollmeyer TM, et al.
Genetic landscape of extreme responders with anaplastic oligodendroglioma.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(22):35523-35531 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The NRG Oncology RTOG 9402 trial showed significant survival benefit in patients with 1p/19q co-deleted anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AO) who received both radiation (RT) and chemotherapy (PCV regimen) versus RT alone. Substantial separation of the survival curves was only seen after 7.3 years. We aimed to determine whether there are specific genetic alterations that distinguish co-deleted AO patients who benefit from the addition of PCV from those who do not.
METHODS: We performed whole exome sequencing on matched tumor and normal DNA from all available short-term (STS) and long-term survivors (LTS) who received RT+PCV. hTERT status and rs55705857 genotypes (G-allele) were analyzed in both cohorts.
RESULTS: Six STS (survival of <7.3y) and 7 LTS (survival of ≥7.3y and no progression) had sufficient material for analysis. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding age, performance status and extent of resection. On average, STS had 7 and LTS 4 mutations. Most common mutations in STS vs. LTS were: IDH1 (67 vs. 86%), CIC (50 vs. 71%) and FUBP1 (17 vs. 71%). The hTERT promoter was mutated in 83% STS and 86% LTS. Genotyping of rs55705857 showed a higher prevalence of G allele carriers in LTS than STS (43 vs. 17%).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm that IDH, CIC, FUBP1 mutations and rs55705857 genotype are common in AO. No distinct genetic signature was identified to differentiate STS and LTS.

Guo K, Yao J, Yu Q, et al.
The expression pattern of long non-coding RNA PVT1 in tumor tissues and in extracellular vesicles of colorectal cancer correlates with cancer progression.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(4):1010428317699122 [PubMed] Related Publications
The plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 gene (PVT1) is a large non-coding locus at adjacent of c-Myc, and long non-coding RNA PVT1 is now recognized as a cancerous gene co-amplified with c-Myc in various cancers. But the expression and functional role of PVT1 in colorectal cancer are still unelucidated. In addition, all the reported long non-coding RNAs so far are discovered in either cells or tissues, but no research about long non-coding RNAs detection in extracellular vesicles has been reported yet. In the present study, we firstly investigated the expression of PVT1 in colorectal cancer specimens and its correlation with the expression of c-Myc and other related genes by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Then, we isolated the extracellular vesicles from colorectal cancer cells culturing medium by differential centrifugation and detected the PVT1 expression in extracellular vesicles by using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The PVT1 targeting siRNA was transfected into SW480 and SW620 cells, and 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay and flow cytometry were used to evaluate the cell proliferation and apoptosis. The results showed that the PVT1 expression in tumor tissues was higher than that in normal tissues, which was significantly correlated with the expression of c-Myc and three c-Myc regulating genes FUBP1, EZH2, and NPM1 and also correlated with the expression of two other PVT1-associated transcript factors nuclear factor-κB and myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2A. Here, we reported for the first time that PVT1 as a long non-coding RNA was successfully detected in extracellular vesicles excluded from SW620 and SW480 cells, and the expression level of PVT1 was higher in extracellular vesicles from the more aggressive cell SW620 than from SW480. The results also showed that by down-regulating the PVT1 expression, the c-Myc expression was suppressed, the cell proliferation was inhibited, and cell apoptosis was increased. Taken together, these findings implicated that PVT1 may be a new oncogene co-amplified with c-Myc in colorectal cancer tissues and extracellular vesicles and functionally correlated with the proliferation and apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells.

Aihara K, Mukasa A, Nagae G, et al.
Genetic and epigenetic stability of oligodendrogliomas at recurrence.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2017; 5(1):18 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Among diffuse gliomas, oligodendrogliomas show relatively better prognosis, respond well to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and seldom progress to very aggressive tumors. To elucidate the genetic and epigenetic background for such behavior and tumor evolution during tumor relapse, we comparatively analyzed 12 pairs of primary and recurrent oligodendrogliomas with 1p/19q-codeletion. Initial treatment for these patients was mostly chemotherapy alone. Temozolomide was used for 3, and procarbazine, nimustine and vincristine (PAV chemotherapy) were used for 7 patients. World Health Organization histological grade at recurrence was mostly stable; it was increased in 2, the same in 9, and decreased in 1 cases. Whole-exome sequencing demonstrated that the rate of shared mutation between the primary and recurrent tumors was relatively low, ranging from 3.2-57.9% (average, 33.3%), indicating a branched evolutionary pattern. The trunk alterations that existed throughout the course were restricted to IDH1 mutation, 1p/19q-codeletion, and TERT promoter mutation, and mutation of the known candidate tumor suppressor genes CIC and FUBP1 were not consistently observed between primary and recurrent tumors. Multiple sampling from different regions within a tumor showed marked intratumoral heterogeneity. Notably, in general, the number of mutations was not significantly different after recurrence, remaining under 100, and no hypermutator phenotype was observed. FUBP1 mutation, loss of chr. 9p21, and TCF12 mutation were among a few recurrent de novo alterations that were found at recurrence, indicating that these events were clonally selected at recurrence but were not enough to enhance malignancy. Genome-wide methylation status, measured by Illumina 450 K arrays, was stable between recurrence and the primary tumor. In summary, although oligodendroglioma displays marked mutational heterogeneity, histological malignant transformation accompanying events such as considerable increase in mutation number and epigenetic profile change were not observed at recurrence, indicating that noticeable temporal and spatial genetic heterogeneity in oligodendrogliomas does not result in rapid tumor progression.

Poole W, Leinonen K, Shmulevich I, et al.
Multiscale mutation clustering algorithm identifies pan-cancer mutational clusters associated with pathway-level changes in gene expression.
PLoS Comput Biol. 2017; 13(2):e1005347 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Cancer researchers have long recognized that somatic mutations are not uniformly distributed within genes. However, most approaches for identifying cancer mutations focus on either the entire-gene or single amino-acid level. We have bridged these two methodologies with a multiscale mutation clustering algorithm that identifies variable length mutation clusters in cancer genes. We ran our algorithm on 539 genes using the combined mutation data in 23 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and identified 1295 mutation clusters. The resulting mutation clusters cover a wide range of scales and often overlap with many kinds of protein features including structured domains, phosphorylation sites, and known single nucleotide variants. We statistically associated these multiscale clusters with gene expression and drug response data to illuminate the functional and clinical consequences of mutations in our clusters. Interestingly, we find multiple clusters within individual genes that have differential functional associations: these include PTEN, FUBP1, and CDH1. This methodology has potential implications in identifying protein regions for drug targets, understanding the biological underpinnings of cancer, and personalizing cancer treatments. Toward this end, we have made the mutation clusters and the clustering algorithm available to the public. Clusters and pathway associations can be interactively browsed at m2c.systemsbiology.net. The multiscale mutation clustering algorithm is available at https://github.com/IlyaLab/M2C.

Duan J, Bao X, Ma X, et al.
Upregulation of Far Upstream Element-Binding Protein 1 (FUBP1) Promotes Tumor Proliferation and Tumorigenesis of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(1):e0169852 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The far upstream element (FUSE)-binding protein 1 (FUBP1) is a transactivator of human c-myc proto-oncogene transcription, with important roles in carcinogenesis. However, the expression pattern and potential biological function of FUBP1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is yet to be established.
METHODS: FUBP1 expression was detected in ccRCC tissues and cell lines by real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. The correlations of FUBP1 mRNA expression levels with clinicopathological factors were evaluated. The biological function of FUBP1 during tumor cell proliferation was studied by MTS, colony formation, and soft-agar colony formation. The effects of FUBP1 on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to identify the potential mechanism of FUBP1 regulating cell cycle and apoptosis.
RESULTS: The levels of FUBP1 mRNA and protein expression were upregulated in human ccRCC tissues compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. High levels of FUBP1 mRNA expression were associated with higher tumor stage and tumor size. FUBP1 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Meanwhile, the expression levels of c-myc and p21 mRNA were correlated with that of FUBP1 mRNA.
CONCLUSIONS: FUBP1 acts as a potential oncogene in ccRCC and may be considered as a novel biomarker or an attractive treatment target of ccRCC.

Yang J, Wang C, Zhao F, et al.
Loss of FBP1 facilitates aggressive features of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through the Warburg effect.
Carcinogenesis. 2017; 38(2):134-143 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reprogrammed metabolism has been identified as an emerging hallmark in cancer cells. It has been demonstrated that fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1) as a rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis plays critical roles in tumor initiation and progression in several cancer types. However, function of FBP1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still not clear. In this study, we observed that the expression of FBP1 was obviously downregulated in the cell lines and tissues of HCC. Downregulation of FBP1 in HCC tissues was correlated with a lower overall survival rate and had a relatively higher tendency of tumor recurrence (n = 224). Silencing FBP1 could significantly promote colony formation, proliferation and metastasis of HCC cells, while ectopic overexpression of FBP1 resulted in impaired abilities of colony formation, proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, silencing FBP1 facilitated glycolysis in HCC cell lines, which may be responsible for aggressiveness of HCC cells. We further found that targeting the Warburg effect using the specific inhibitor FX11 could suppress the aggressiveness of HCC cells which was mediated by loss of FBP1. These findings indicate that FBP1 appears to be a tumor suppressor in HCC. Strategies to restore the levels and activities of FBP1 might be developed to treat patients with HCC.

Huang Y, Xu X, Ji L, et al.
Expression of far upstream element binding protein 1 in B‑cell non‑Hodgkin lymphoma is correlated with tumor growth and cell‑adhesion mediated drug resistance.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 14(4):3759-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cell adhesion‑mediated drug resistance (CAM‑DR) remains a major obstacle to the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic treatment of lymphoma. Far upstream element binding protein 1 (FBP1) is a multifunctional protein that is highly expressed in proliferating cells of several solid neoplasms; however, its expression and biological function in B‑cell lymphoma is largely unknown. FBP1 expression in both reactive lymphoid tissues and several B‑cell lymphomas, including follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B‑cell lymphoma were detected by immunohistochemistry analysis. FBP1 expression in B‑cell lymphoma was also associated with poor survival outcomes. Functionally, small interfering RNA‑mediated silencing of FBP1 was able to inhibit the proliferation of B‑cell lymphoma cells, resulting in G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, results of a cell adhesion assay demonstrated that adhesion to fibronectin or bone marrow stromal cells induced FBP1 expression, which in turn facilitated cell adhesion. Finally, FBP1 knockdown reversed CAM‑DR. These findings support a role for FBP1 in non‑Hodgkin lymphoma cell proliferation, adhesion and drug resistance, and may lead to the generation of a novel therapeutic approach targeting this molecule.

Klener P, Fronkova E, Berkova A, et al.
Mantle cell lymphoma-variant Richter syndrome: Detailed molecular-cytogenetic and backtracking analysis reveals slow evolution of a pre-MCL clone in parallel with CLL over several years.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 139(10):2252-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Richter syndrome represents the transformation of the chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) into an aggressive lymphoma, most frequently the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In this report we describe a patient with CLL, who developed a clonally-related pleomorphic highly-aggressive mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) after five cycles of a fludarabine-based second-line therapy for the first relapse of CLL. Molecular cytogenetic methods together with whole-exome sequencing revealed numerous gene alterations restricted to the MCL clone (apart from the canonical t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation) including gain of one copy of ATM gene or emergence of TP53, CREBBP, NUP214, FUBP1 and SF3B1 gene mutations. Similarly, gene expression analysis revealed vast differences between the MCL and CLL transcriptome, including overexpression of cyclin D1, downregulation of cyclins D2 and D3, or downregulation of IL4R in the MCL clone. Backtracking analysis using quantitative PCR specifically detecting an MCL-restricted focal deletion of TP53 revealed that the pre-MCL clone appeared in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of the patient approximately 4 years before the clinical manifestation of MCL. Both molecular cytogenetic and sequencing data support the hypothesis of a slow development of the pre-MCL clone in parallel to CLL over several years, and thereby exclude the possibility that the transformation event occurred at the stage of the CLL relapse clone by mere t(11;14)(q13;q32) acquisition.

Xiong X, Zhang J, Liang W, et al.
Fuse-binding protein 1 is a target of the EZH2 inhibitor GSK343, in osteosarcoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 49(2):623-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is the primary cancer of leaf tissue and is regarded as a differentiation disease caused by genetic and epigenetic changes which interrupt the osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells. Because of its high malignancy degree and rapid development, the morbidity and mortality are high. The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a catalytic subunit of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and has been demonstrated to be involved in a variety of biological processes, such as cell proliferation and program cell death. EZH2 impairs gene expression by catalyzing the tri-methylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) which controls gene transcription epigenetically. It is reported that EZH2 expression is higher in osteosarcoma than in osteoblastoma and the highest expression of EZH2 is found in osteosarcoma with metastasis. In the past few years, several potent inhibitors of EZH2 have been discovered, and GSK343 is one of them. In this study, we found that GSK343 inhibited osteosarcoma cell viability, restrained cell cycle transition and promoted programmed cell death. GSK343 not only inhibited the expression of EZH2 and its target, c-Myc and H3K27me3, but it also inhibited fuse binding protein 1 (FBP1) expression, another c-Myc regulator. Furthermore, we found that FBP1 physically interacts with EZH2. Based on these results, we believe that GSK343 is a potential molecule for osteosarcoma clinical treatment. Other than the inhibition on EZH2-c-Myc signal pathway, we postulate that the inhibition on FBP1-c-Myc signal pathway is another potential underlying mechanism with which GSK343 inhibits osteosarcoma cell viability.

Hirata H, Sugimachi K, Komatsu H, et al.
Decreased Expression of Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase Associates with Glucose Metabolism and Tumor Progression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(11):3265-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1), the rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis, is reduced in expression in certain cancers where it has been hypothesized to act as a tumor suppressor, including in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we report functional evidence supporting this hypothesis, providing a preclinical rationale to develop FBP1 as a therapeutic target for HCC treatment. Three independent cohorts totaling 594 cases of HCC were analyzed to address clinical significance. Lower FBP1 expression associated with advanced tumor stage, poor overall survival, and higher tumor recurrence rates. In HCC cell lines, where endogenous FBP1 expression is low, engineering its ectopic overexpression inhibited tumor growth and intracellular glucose uptake by reducing aerobic glycolysis. In patient specimens, promoter methylation and copy-number loss of FBP1 were independently associated with decreased FBP1 expression. Similarly, FBP1 downregulation in HCC cell lines was also associated with copy-number loss. HCC specimens exhibiting low expression of FBP1 had a highly malignant phenotype, including large tumor size, poor differentiation, impaired gluconeogenesis, and enhanced aerobic glycolysis. The effects of FBP1 expression on prognosis and glucose metabolism were confirmed by gene set enrichment analysis. Overall, our findings established that FBP1 downregulation in HCC contributed to tumor progression and poor prognosis by altering glucose metabolism, and they rationalize further study of FBP1 as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in HCC patients. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3265-76. ©2016 AACR.

Venturutti L, Cordo Russo RI, Rivas MA, et al.
MiR-16 mediates trastuzumab and lapatinib response in ErbB-2-positive breast and gastric cancer via its novel targets CCNJ and FUBP1.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(48):6189-6202 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
ErbB-2 amplification/overexpression accounts for an aggressive breast cancer (BC) subtype (ErbB-2-positive). Enhanced ErbB-2 expression was also found in gastric cancer (GC) and has been correlated with poor clinical outcome. The ErbB-2-targeted therapies trastuzumab (TZ), a monoclonal antibody, and lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, have proved highly beneficial. However, resistance to such therapies remains a major clinical challenge. We here revealed a novel mechanism underlying the antiproliferative effects of both agents in ErbB-2-positive BC and GC. TZ and lapatinib ability to block extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT in sensitive cells inhibits c-Myc activation, which results in upregulation of miR-16. Forced expression of miR-16 inhibited in vitro proliferation in BC and GC cells, both sensitive and resistant to TZ and lapatinib, as well as in a preclinical BC model resistant to these agents. This reveals miR-16 role as tumor suppressor in ErbB-2-positive BC and GC. Using genome-wide expression studies and miRNA target prediction algorithms, we identified cyclin J and far upstream element-binding protein 1 (FUBP1) as novel miR-16 targets, which mediate miR-16 antiproliferative effects. Supporting the clinical relevance of our results, we found that high levels of miR-16 and low or null FUBP1 expression correlate with TZ response in ErbB-2-positive primary BCs. These findings highlight a potential role of miR-16 and FUBP1 as biomarkers of sensitivity to TZ therapy. Furthermore, we revealed miR-16 as an innovative therapeutic agent for TZ- and lapatinib-resistant ErbB-2-positive BC and GC.

Samarin J, Laketa V, Malz M, et al.
PI3K/AKT/mTOR-dependent stabilization of oncogenic far-upstream element binding proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Hepatology. 2016; 63(3):813-26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Transcription factors of the far-upstream element-binding protein (FBP) family represent cellular pathway hubs, and their overexpression in liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) stimulates tumor cell proliferation and correlates with poor prognosis. Here we determine the mode of oncogenic FBP overexpression in HCC cells. Using perturbation approaches (kinase inhibitors, small interfering RNAs) and a novel system for rapalog-dependent activation of AKT isoforms, we demonstrate that activity of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate 3-kinase/AKT pathway is involved in the enrichment of nuclear FBP1 and FBP2 in liver cancer cells. In human HCC tissues, phospho-AKT significantly correlates with nuclear FBP1/2 accumulation and expression of the proliferation marker KI67. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition or blockade of its downstream effector eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E activity equally reduced FBP1/2 concentrations. The mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin diminishes FBP enrichment in liver tumors after hydrodynamic gene delivery of AKT plasmids. In addition, the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib significantly reduces FBP levels in HCC cells and in multidrug resistance 2-deficient mice that develop HCC due to severe inflammation. Both FBP1/2 messenger RNAs are highly stable, with FBP2 being more stable than FBP1. Importantly, inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate 3-kinase/AKT/mTOR signaling significantly diminishes FBP1/2 protein stability in a caspase-3/-7-dependent manner.
CONCLUSION: These data provide insight into a transcription-independent mechanism of FBP protein enrichment in liver cancer; further studies will have to show whether this previously unknown interaction between phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate 3-kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway activity and caspase-mediated FBP stabilization allows the establishment of interventional strategies in FBP-positive HCCs.

Tanboon J, Williams EA, Louis DN
The Diagnostic Use of Immunohistochemical Surrogates for Signature Molecular Genetic Alterations in Gliomas.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2016; 75(1):4-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
A number of key mutations that affect treatment and prognosis have been identified in human gliomas. Two major ways to identify these mutations in a tumor sample are direct interrogation of the mutated DNA itself and immunohistochemistry to assess the effects of the mutated genes on proteins. Immunohistochemistry is an affordable, robust, and widely available technology that has been in place for decades. For this reason, the use of immunohistochemical approaches to assess molecular genetic changes has become an essential component of state-of-the-art practice. In contrast, even though DNA sequencing technologies are undergoing rapid development, many medical centers do not have access to such methodologies and may be thwarted by the relatively high costs of sending out such tests to reference laboratories. This review summarizes the current experience using immunohistochemistry of glioma samples to identify mutations in IDH1, TP53, ATRX, histone H3 genes, BRAF, EGFR, MGMT, CIC, and FUBP1 as well as guidelines for prudent use of DNA sequencing as a supplemental method.

Yang L, Zhu JY, Zhang JG, et al.
Far upstream element-binding protein 1 (FUBP1) is a potential c-Myc regulator in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its expression promotes ESCC progression.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(3):4115-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
The human far upstream element (FUSE) binding protein 1 (FUBP1) belongs to an ancient family which is required for proper regulation of the c-Myc proto-oncogene. Although c-Myc plays an important role in development of various carcinomas, the relevance of FUBP1 and their contribution to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) development remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between FUBP1 and c-Myc as well as their contribution to ESCC development. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to evaluate FUBP1 expression. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis was performed to explore the correlation between FUBP1 and c-Myc in ESCC. In addition, the role of FUBP1 in ESCC proliferation was studied in ESCC cells through knocking FUBP1 down. The regulation of FUBP1 on proliferation was confirmed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, flow cytometric assays, and clone formation assays. The expressions of FUBP1 and c-Myc were both upregulated in ESCC tissues. In addition to correlation between expression of FUBP1 and tumor grade, we also confirmed the correlation of FUBP1, c-Myc, and Ki-67 expression by twos. Moreover, upregulation of FUBP1 and c-Myc in ESCC was associated with poor survival. FUBP1 was confirmed to activate c-Myc in ESCC tissues and cells. FUBP1 was demonstrated to promote proliferation of ESCC cells. Moreover, downregulation of both FUBP1 and c-Myc was confirmed to inhibit proliferation of ESCC cells. Our results indicated that FUBP1 may potentially stimulate c-Myc expression in ESCC and its expression may promote ESCC progression.

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