Gene Summary

Gene:CD163; CD163 molecule
Aliases: M130, MM130, SCARI1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily, and is exclusively expressed in monocytes and macrophages. It functions as an acute phase-regulated receptor involved in the clearance and endocytosis of hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes by macrophages, and may thereby protect tissues from free hemoglobin-mediated oxidative damage. This protein may also function as an innate immune sensor for bacteria and inducer of local inflammation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:scavenger receptor cysteine-rich type 1 protein M130
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: CD163 (cancer-related)

Cha YJ, Koo JS
Expression of Autotaxin⁻Lysophosphatidate Signaling-Related Proteins in Breast Cancer with Adipose Stroma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This research aimed to evaluate the expression and clinical implication of autotaxin (ATX)-lysophosphatidate (LPA) signaling-related proteins in breast cancer with adipose stroma. To this end, a tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed from 137 breast cancer tissues with adipose stroma and 329 breast cancer tissues with non-adipose stroma (inflammatory stroma:

Klein S, Mauch C, Wagener-Ryczek S, et al.
Immune-phenotyping of pleomorphic dermal sarcomas suggests this entity as a potential candidate for immunotherapy.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(6):973-982 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pleomorphic dermal sarcomas (PDS) are sarcomas of the skin with local recurrences in up to 28% of cases, and distant metastases in up to 20%. Although recent evidence provides a strong rational to explore immunotherapeutics in solid tumors, nothing is known about the immune environment of PDS.
METHODS: In the current study, a comprehensive immune-phenotyping of 14 PDS using RNA and protein expression analyses, as well as quantitative assessment of immune cells using an image-analysis tool was performed.
RESULTS: Three out of 14 PDS revealed high levels of CD8-positive tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes (TILs), also showing elevated levels of immune-related cytokines such as IL1A, IL2, as well as markers that were very recently linked to enhanced response of immunotherapy in malignant melanoma, including CD27, and CD40L. Using a multivariate analysis, we found a number of differentially expressed genes in the CD8-high group including: CD74, LYZ and HLA-B, while the remaining cases revealed enhanced levels of immune-suppressive cytokines including CXCL14. The "CD8-high" PDS showed strong MHC-I expression and revealed infiltration by PD-L1-, PD-1- and LAG-3-expressing immune cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) predominantly consisted of CD68 + , CD163 + , and CD204 + M2 macrophages showing an accentuation at the tumor invasion front.
CONCLUSIONS: Together, we provide first explorative evidence about the immune-environment of PDS tumors that may guide future decisions whether individuals presenting with advanced PDS could qualify for immunotherapeutic options.

Wei C, Yang C, Wang S, et al.
Crosstalk between cancer cells and tumor associated macrophages is required for mesenchymal circulating tumor cell-mediated colorectal cancer metastasis.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are major components of tumor microenvironment that frequently associated with tumor metastasis in human cancers. Circulating tumor cell (CTC), originating from primary tumor sites, is considered to be the precursors of tumor metastasis. However, the regulatory mechanism of TAMs in CTC-mediated tumor metastasis still remains unclear.
METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the macrophages infiltration (CD68 and CD163), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (E-cadherin and Vimentin) expression in serial sections of human colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens. Then, the correlations between macrophages infiltration and clinicopathologic features, mesenchymal CTC ratio, and patients' prognosis were analyzed. A co-culture assay in vitro was used to evaluate the role of TAMs on CRC EMT, migration and invasion, and ELISA, luciferase reporter assay and CHIP were performed to uncover the underlying mechanism. Furthermore, an in vivo model was carried out to confirm the effect of TAMs on mesenchymal CTC-mediated metastasis.
RESULTS: Clinically, CD163
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicates that TAMs induce EMT program to enhance CRC migration, invasion, and CTC-mediated metastasis by regulating the JAK2/STAT3/miR-506-3p/FoxQ1 axis, which in turn leads to the production of CCL2 that promote macrophage recruitment, revealing a new cross-talk between immune cells and tumor cells in CRC microenvironment.

Tsagozis P, Augsten M, Zhang Y, et al.
An immunosuppressive macrophage profile attenuates the prognostic impact of CD20-positive B cells in human soft tissue sarcoma.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(6):927-936 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Immune cells can regulate disease progression and response to treatment in multiple tumor types, but their activities in human soft tissue sarcoma are poorly characterized.
METHODS: Marker-defined immune cell subsets were characterized from a tumor microenvironmental perspective in two independent cohorts of human soft tissue sarcoma by multiplex IHC, quantitative PCR and/or bioinformatics.
RESULTS: B cell profiling revealed a prognostic role for CD20 protein (cohort 1, 33 patients) and MS4A1 gene expression (cohort 2, 265 patients). Multiplex IHC and gene correlation analysis supported a role in antigen presentation, immune cell differentiation and T cell activation. The prognostic role of MS4A1 expressing B cells was only observed in an IL10
CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of CD20/MS4A1 expression in soft tissue sarcoma merits further attention as a promising candidate prognostic tool for survival, but not in patients with a pronounced immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Macrophages are ubiquitous and polarized toward a protumoral phenotype. This provides a rationale for further studies on B cell function and immunotherapy targeting M2-polarized macrophages.

Bartneck M, Schrammen PL, Möckel D, et al.
The CCR2
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019; 7(2):371-390 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) typically arises in fibrotic or cirrhotic livers, which are characterized by pathogenic angiogenesis. Myeloid immune cells, specifically tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), may represent potential novel therapeutic targets in HCC, complementing current ablative or immune therapies. However, the detailed functions of TAM subsets in hepatocarcinogenesis have remained obscure.
METHODS: TAM subsets were analyzed in-depth in human HCC samples and a combined fibrosis-HCC mouse model, established by i.p. injection with diethylnitrosamine after birth and repetitive carbon tetrachloride (CCl
RESULTS: We show that human CCR2
CONCLUSIONS: The HCC microenvironment in human patients and mice is characterized by functionally distinct macrophage populations, of which the CCR2

Ning Y, Feng W, Cao X, et al.
Genistein inhibits stemness of SKOV3 cells induced by macrophages co-cultured with ovarian cancer stem-like cells through IL-8/STAT3 axis.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent studies showed that macrophages co-cultured with ovarian cancer stem-like cells (OCSLCs) induced SKOV3 cell stemness via IL-8/STAT3 signaling. Genistein (GEN) demonstrates chemopreventive activity in inflammation-associated cancers. The present study aimed to examine whether and if GEN inhibits the stemness of SKOV3 and OVCA-3R cells induced by co-culture of THP-1 macrophages and SKOV3-derived OCSLCs.
METHODS: The co-culture was treated with or without different concentrations (10, 20, and 40 μmol/L) of GEN for 24 h. Depletion or addition of IL-8 in Co-CM and knockdown or overexpression of STAT3 in THP-1 macrophages was performed to demonstrate the possible associated mechanisms. The combined effects of GEN and STAT3 knockdown were examined with the nude mouse modle by co-injection of SKOV3-derived OCSLCs with THP-1 macrophages.
RESULTS: Our results showed that GEN down-regulated CD163 and p-STAT3 expression of THP-1 macrophage, decreased the levels of IL-10, increased the levels of IL-12 and nitric oxide (NO) in the conditioned medium, and reduced the clonogenic and sphere-forming capacities and the expression of CD133 and CD44 in SKOV3 cells induced by co-culture of THP-1 macrophages and OCSLCs in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, depletion or addition of IL-8 enhanced or attenuated the effect of GEN. Additionally, knockdown or overepression of STAT3 in THP-1 macrophages potentiated or attenuated the inhibitory effects of GEN. Importantly, STAT3 overexpression retrieved the effects of IL-8 combined with GEN depletion on M2 polarization of THP-1 macrophages and stemness of SKOV3 cells induced by co-culture. The combination of GEN and STAT3 knockdown cooperatively inhibited the growth of tumors co-inoculated with OCSLCs/THP-1 macrophages in nude mice in vivo through blocking IL-8/STAT3 signaling.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our findings suggested that GEN can inhibit the increased M2 polarization of macrophages and stemness of ovarian cancer cells by co-culture of macrophages with OCSLCs through disrupting IL-8/STAT3 signaling axis. This assisted GEN to be as a potential chemotherapeutic agent in human ovarian cancer.

Gerashchenko GV, Grygoruk OV, Kononenko OA, et al.
Expression pattern of genes associated with tumor microenvironment in prostate cancer.
Exp Oncol. 2018; 40(4):315-322 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To assess relative expression (RE) levels of CAF-, TAM-specific, immune defense-associated genes in prostate tumors and to show correlation of RE with clinical, pathological and molecular characteristics, with the aim to define clinically significant specific alterations in a gene expression pattern.
METHODS: RE of 23 genes was analyzed by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 37 freshly frozen samples of prostate cancer tissues of a different Gleason score (GS) and at various tumor stages, compared with RE in 37 paired conventionally normal prostate tissue (CNT) samples and 20 samples of prostate adenomas.
RESULTS: Differences in RE were shown for 11 genes out of 23 studied, when tumor samples were compared with corresponding CNTs. 7 genes, namely ACTA2, CXCL14, CTGF, THY1, FAP, CD163, CCL17 were upregulated in tumors. 4 genes, namely CCR4, NOS2A, MSMB, IL1R1 were downregulated in tumors. 14 genes demonstrated different RE in TNA at different stages: CXCL12, CXCL14, CTGF, FAP, HIF1A, THY1, CCL17, CCL22, CCR4, CD68, CD163, NOS2A, CTLA4, IL1R1. RE changes of 9 genes - CXCL12, CXCL14, HIF1A, CCR4, CCL17, NOS2A, CTLA4, IL1R1, IL2RA - were found in tumors with different GS. Moreover, 9 genes showed differences in RE in TNA, dependently on the presence or absence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion and 7 genes showed differences in RE of groups with differential PTEN expression. Significant correlations were calculated between RE of 9 genes in adenocarcinomas and the stage, and GS; also, between RE of 2 genes and the fusion presence; and between RE of 4 genes and PTEN expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Several gene expression patterns were identified that correlated with the GS, stage and molecular characteristics of tumors, i.e. presence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion and alterations in PTEN expression. These expression patterns can be used for molecular profiling of prostate tumors, with the aim to develop personalized medicine approaches. However, the proposed profiling requires a more detailed analysis and a larger cohort of patients with prostate tumor.

Pelekanou V, Villarroel-Espindola F, Schalper KA, et al.
CD68, CD163, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) co-localization in breast tumor microenvironment predicts survival differently in ER-positive and -negative cancers.
Breast Cancer Res. 2018; 20(1):154 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the cancer immune landscape and their potential as treatment targets or modulators of response to treatment are gaining increasing interest. TAMs display high molecular and functional complexity. Therefore their objective assessment as breast cancer biomarkers is critical. The aims of this study were to objectively determine the in situ expression and significance of TAM biomarkers (CD68, CD163, and MMP-9) in breast cancer and to identify subclasses of patients who could benefit from TAM-targeting therapies.
METHODS: We measured CD68, CD163, and MMP-9 protein expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of breast carcinomas represented in tissue microarray format using multiplexed quantitative immunofluorescence (QIF) in two independent Yale cohorts: cohort A-n = 398, estrogen receptor-positive (ER
RESULTS: All three macrophage markers were co-expressed, displaying higher expression in ER
CONCLUSIONS: Macrophage activity markers correlate with survival differently in ER

Poles WA, Nishi EE, de Oliveira MB, et al.
Targeting the polarization of tumor-associated macrophages and modulating mir-155 expression might be a new approach to treat diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(2):269-282 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aging immune deterioration and Epstein-Barr (EBV) intrinsic mechanisms play an essential role in EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly (EBV + DLBCLe) pathogenesis, through the expression of viral proteins, interaction with host molecules and epigenetic regulation, such as miR-155, required for induction of M1 phenotype of macrophages. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between macrophage polarization pattern in the tumor microenvironment and relative expression of miR-155 in EBV + DLBCLe and EBV-negative DLBCL patients. We studied 28 EBV + DLBCLe and 65 EBV-negative DLBCL patients. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) were evaluated by expression of CD68, CD163 and CD163/CD68 ratio (degree of M2 polarization), using tissue microarray. RNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tumor samples for miR-155 relative expression study. We found a significantly higher CD163/CD68 ratio in EBV + DLBCLe compared to EBV-negative DLBCL. In EBV-negative DLBCL, CD163/CD68 ratio was higher among advanced-staged/high-tumor burden disease and overexpression of miR-155 was associated with decreased polarization to the M2 phenotype of macrophages. The opposite was observed in EBV + DLBCLe patients: we found a positive association between miR-155 relative expression and CD163/CD68 ratio, which was not significant after outlier exclusion. We believe that the higher CD163/CD68 ratio in this group is probably due to the presence of the EBV since it directly affects macrophage polarization towards M2 phenotype through cytokine secretion in the tumor microenvironment. Therapeutic strategies modulating miR-155 expression or preventing immuno-regulatory and pro-tumor macrophage polarization could be adjuvants in EBV + DLBCLe therapy since this entity has a rich infiltration of M2 macrophages in its tumor microenvironment.

Dabrosin N, Sloth Juul K, Bæhr Georgsen J, et al.
Innate immune cell infiltration in melanoma metastases affects survival and is associated with BRAFV600E mutation status.
Melanoma Res. 2019; 29(1):30-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Little is known about the infiltrative pattern of innate immune cells in primary melanoma compared with their paired metastases and in BRAF-mutated tumors. Therefore, our aim was to characterize the inflammatory microenvironment in primary ulcerated and nonulcerated melanomas and paired metastases, to investigate the relation between inflammation and BRAF mutation in primary melanoma and paired metastases, and to evaluate the effect of the analyzed biomarkers on melanoma-specific survival. A total of 385 primary tumors and 96 paired metastases were stained with immunohistochemistry for BRAF, CD163+ macrophages, CD123+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells, CD66b+ neutrophils, and E-cadherin and estimated using objective computer-assisted image analysis. BRAF was semiquantitatively scored as either present or absent. In metastases of nonulcerated melanomas, we observed higher neutrophil (P=0.02) and macrophage (P=0.01) numbers. In the metastases of ulcerated melanomas, we found a higher number of macrophages (P<0.0001). Increase in the neutrophil numbers in the metastases was associated with poor patient survival after first relapse (hazard ratio=1.19, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.38, P=0.02). BRAF-positive primary tumors (P=0.02) and metastases (P=0.01) exhibited increased plasmacytoid dendritic cell numbers compared with BRAF-negative tumors. Lastly, primary melanomas in men had higher neutrophil numbers than women (P≤0.0001), and men had worse melanoma-specific survival (hazard ratio=1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-2.21, P=0.03). Our data show that melanoma metastases are densely infiltrated with neutrophils, which affects survival. Our results also highlight the importance of recognizing the presence of inflammatory cells in the metastases as a prognostic marker, and that they may potentially be used to improve the precision of immunotherapy and BRAF targeted therapy.

Orrego E, Castaneda CA, Castillo M, et al.
Distribution of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in glioblastoma.
CNS Oncol. 2018; 7(4):CNS21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: Evaluation of features related to infiltrating immune cell level in glioblastoma.
METHODS: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) through H&E staining, and TILs (CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD20) and macrophage (CD68 and CD163) levels through immunohistochemistry were evaluated through digital analysis.
RESULTS: CD68 (9.1%), CD163 (2.2%), CD3 (1.6%) and CD8 (1.6%) had the highest density. Higher CD4
CONCLUSION: Macrophages are more frequent than TILs. Some subsets are associated with clinical features.

Chen T, Chen J, Zhu Y, et al.
CD163, a novel therapeutic target, regulates the proliferation and stemness of glioma cells via casein kinase 2.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(8):1183-1199 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioma is a devastating cancer with a dismal prognosis and there is an urgent need to discover novel glioma-specific antigens for glioma therapy. Previous studies have identified CD163-positive tumour cells in certain solid tumours, but CD163 expression in glioma remains unknown. In this study, via an analysis of public datasets, we demonstrated that CD163 overexpression in glioma specimens correlated with an unfavourable patient prognosis. CD163 expression was increased in glioma cells, especially primary glioma cells. The loss of CD163 expression inhibited both cell cycle progression and the proliferation of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines and primary glioma cells. CD163 interacted directly with casein kinase 2 (CK2) and CD163 silencing reduced AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin/cyclin D1 pathway activity via CK2. Moreover, CD163 was upregulated in CD133-positive glioma stem cells (GSCs), and CD163 downregulation decreased the expression of GSC markers, including CD133, ALDH1A1, NANOG and OCT4. The knockdown of CD163 impaired GSC stemness by inhibiting the CK2/AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway. Finally, a CD163 antibody successfully induced complement-dependent cytotoxicity against glioma cells. Our findings indicate that CD163 contributes to gliomagenesis via CK2 and provides preclinical evidence that CD163 and the CD163 pathway might serve as a therapeutic target for glioma.

Vizcaino MA, Palsgrove DN, Yuan M, et al.
Granular cell astrocytoma: an aggressive IDH-wildtype diffuse glioma with molecular genetic features of primary glioblastoma.
Brain Pathol. 2019; 29(2):193-204 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Granular cell astrocytoma (GCA) is a rare adult infiltrating glioma subtype. We studied a series of 39 GCAs. Median age of presentation was 57.8 years and most cases developed in the frontal or temporal lobes. Tumors included grade II (n = 14), grade III (n = 11), and grade IV (n = 14) by WHO criteria. Granular cell morphology was diffuse in 31 (79%) cases and partial in eight (21%). Immunohistochemistry showed frequent positivity for GFAP (28 of 31), OLIG2 (16 of 16), and CD68 (27 of 30), but HAM56, CD163, and IBA-1 histiocytic markers were all negative (22 of 22). IDH1(R132H) was negative in all the cases tested (16 of 16), while ATRX expression was retained (12 of 12). Cytogenetics demonstrated monosomy 10 (6 of 6) cases, +7 in 4 (of 6), -13q in 4 of 6, and -14 in 4 of 6. Next-generation sequencing demonstrated mutations in PTEN/PIK3 genes in 6/13 (46%), NF1 in 3 of 10 (30%), TP53 in 3 of 13 (23%), PALB2 in 3 of 10 (30%), STAG2 in 3 of 10 (30%), EGFR mutation/amplification in 3 of 13 (23%), and AR in 2 of 10 (20%). CDKN2A/B deletion was identified in 5 of 13 (30%) cases (homozygous deletion in 4). The TERT C228T mutation was identified in 9 of 13 (69%). No mutations were encountered in IDH1, IDH2, CIC, FUBP1, H3F3A, BRAF or ATRX genes. The mean overall survival was 11.3 months. Patients >60 years old at diagnosis had a worse survival than patients <60 years (P = 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in survival by WHO grade, extent of granular cell change, sex or MIB-1 (P > 0.05). GCA is a variant of IDH-wildtype diffuse glioma with aggressive behavior irrespective of grade and extent of granular cell morphology, and with molecular genetic features corresponding to primary glioblastoma.

Feng R, Morine Y, Ikemoto T, et al.
Nrf2 activation drive macrophages polarization and cancer cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition during interaction.
Cell Commun Signal. 2018; 16(1):54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The M2 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) inhibits the anti-tumor inflammation, increases angiogenesis and promotes tumor progression. The transcription factor Nuclear Factor (erythroid-derived 2)-Like 2 (Nrf2) not only modulates the angiogenesis but also plays the anti-inflammatory role through inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines expression; however, the role of Nrf2 in the cancer cell and macrophages interaction is not clear.
METHODS: Hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep G2 and Huh 7) and pancreatic cancer cells (SUIT2 and Panc-1) were co-cultured with monocytes cells (THP-1) or peripheral blood monocytes derived macrophages, then the phenotype changes of macrophages and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cancer cells were detected. Also, the role of Nrf2 in cancer cells and macrophages interaction were investigated.
RESULTS: In this study, we found that cancer cells could induce an M2-like macrophage characterized by up-regulation of CD163 and Arg1, and down-regulation of IL-1b and IL-6 through Nrf2 activation. Also, Nrf2 activation of macrophages promoted VEGF expression. The Nrf2 activation of macrophages correlated with the reactive oxygen species induced by cancer cells derived lactate. Cancer cells educated macrophages could activate Nrf2 of the cancer cells, in turn, to increase cancer cells epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through paracrine VEGF. These findings suggested that Nrf2 played the important role in the cancer cells and macrophages interaction.
CONCLUSIONS: Macrophage Nrf2 activation by cancer cell-derived lactate skews macrophages polarization towards an M2-like phenotype and educated macrophages activate Nrf2 of the cancer cells to promote EMT of cancer cells. This study provides a new understanding of the role of Nrf2 in the cancer cell and TAM interaction and suggests a potential therapeutic target.

Wehrhan F, Büttner-Herold M, Distel L, et al.
Galectin 3 expression in regional lymph nodes and lymph node metastases of oral squamous cell carcinomas.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):823 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neck dissection is standard in surgical management of oral squamous cell carcinomas (oscc). However, the immunologic link between primary tumor and lymph nodes is insufficiently understood. Galectin 3 (Gal3) promotes M2 polarization of macrophages and contributes to immunosuppression. The current study analyzes the association between Gal3 expression in regional lymph nodes of oscc with histomorphologic parameters (T-, N-, L- Pn-stage, grading) of the primary tumor. Additionally, Gal3 expression is correlated with markers of macrophage polarization (M1 vs. M2).
METHODS: Preoperative diagnostic biopsies (n = 26), tumor resection specimens (n = 34), tumor-free lymph nodes (n = 28) and lymph node metastases (n = 10) of T1/T2 oscc patients were immunohistochemically analyzed for Gal3 and macrophage marker (CD68, CD11c, CD163 and MRC1) expression. The number of positive cells and the expression ratios were quantitatively assessed.
RESULTS: High Gal3 expression in tumor-free regional lymph nodes was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with increased tumor size. The epithelial compartment of lymph node metastases showed a significantly (p < 0.05) increased Gal3 expression compared to biopsies and tumor resection specimens. Cell density of M2 macrophages was significantly (p < 0.05) and positively correlated with the number of Gal3 expressing cells in lymph nodes and tumor specimens.
CONCLUSION: Gal3 expression in regional lymph nodes might be associated with oscc progression. The increased Gal3 expression in regional lymph nodes of larger tumors underlines the need of immunomodulatory treatment concepts in early-stage oscc. Blocking of Gal3 might be a therapeutic option in oral cancer.

Dupuis F, Lamant L, Gerard E, et al.
Clinical, histological and molecular predictors of metastatic melanoma responses to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 119(2):193-199 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prescribing anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) immunotherapy for advanced melanoma is currently not restricted by any biomarker assessment. Determination of programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1)-expression status is technically challenging and is not mandatory, because negative tumours also achieve therapeutic responses. However, reproducible biomarkers predictive of a response to anti-PD-1 therapy could contribute to improving therapeutic decision-making.
METHODS: This retrospective study on 70 metastatic melanoma patients was undertaken to evaluate the relationships between clinical, histological, immunohistochemical and/or molecular criteria, and the 6-month objective response rate.
RESULTS: Better objective response rates were associated with metachronous metastases (P = 0.04), PD-L1 tumour- and/or immune-cell status (P = 0.01), CD163+ histiocytes at advancing edges (P = 0.009) of primary melanomas and NRAS mutation (P = 0.019). Moreover, CD163+ histiocytes at advancing edges (P = 0.04) were associated with longer progression-free survival (PFS), and metachronous metastases with longer overall survival (P = 0.02) and PFS (P = 0.049).
CONCLUSIONS: Combining these reproducible biomarkers could help improve therapeutic decision-making for patients with progressive disease.

Raschioni C, Bottai G, Sagona A, et al.
CXCR4/CXCL12 Signaling and Protumor Macrophages in Primary Tumors and Sentinel Lymph Nodes Are Involved in Luminal B Breast Cancer Progression.
Dis Markers. 2018; 2018:5018671 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Luminal B breast cancers (BC) have a more aggressive behavior associated with a higher rate of tumor relapse and worse prognosis compared to luminal A tumors. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of specific epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition- (EMT-) and immune-related pathways in the dissemination of luminal B BC cells. The expression of 42 EMT- and immune-related genes was evaluated in matched sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) analyzed by the one-step nucleic acid amplification assay (OSNA) and primary tumors of 40 luminal B BC patients by gene array and immunohistochemistry. The results were validated in an independent group of 150 luminal B tumors by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence and using gene expression data from 315 luminal B BC patients included in the Metabric dataset. We found that the expression of

Carreras J, Yukie Kikuti Y, Miyaoka M, et al.
Genomic Profile and Pathologic Features of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Subtype of Methotrexate-associated Lymphoproliferative Disorder in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(7):936-950 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rheumatoid arthritis patients often develop the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subtype of methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (DLBCL). We characterized the genomic profile and pathologic characteristics of 20 biopsies using an integrative approach. DLBCL was associated with extranodal involvement, a high/high-intermediate international prognostic index in 53% of cases, and responded to MTX withdrawal. The phenotype was nongerminal center B-cell in 85% of samples and Epstein-Barr encoding region positive (EBER) in 65%, with a high proliferation index and intermediate MYC expression levels. The immune microenvironment showed high numbers of CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes and CD163 M2 macrophages with an (CD163/CD68) M2 ratio of 3.6. Its genomic profile was characterized by 3p12.1-q25.31, 6p25.3, 8q23.1-q24.3, and 12p13.33-q24.33 gains, 6q22.31-q24.1 and 13q21.33-q34 losses, and 1p36.11-p35.3 copy neutral loss-of-heterozygosity. This profile was closer to nongerminal center B-cell DLBCL not-otherwise-specified, but with characteristic 3q, 12q, and 20p gains and lower 9p losses (P<0.05). We successfully verified array results using fluorescent DNA in situ hybridization on PLOD2, MYC, WNT1, and BCL2. Protein immunohistochemistry revealed that DLBCL expressed high IRF4 (6p25.3) and SELPLG (12q24.11) levels, intermediate TNFRSF14 (1p36.32; the exons 1 to 3 were unmutated), BTLA (3q13.2), PLOD2 (3q24), KLHL6 (3q27.1), and MYC (8q24.21) levels, and low AICDA (12p13.31) and EFNB2 (13q33.3) levels. The correlation between the DNA copy number and protein immunohistochemistry was confirmed for BTLA, PLOD2, and EFNB2. The characteristics of EBER versus EBER cases were similar, with the exception of specific changes: EBER cases had higher numbers of CD163 M2 macrophages and FOXP3 regulatory T lymphocytes, high programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 expression levels, slightly fewer genomic changes, and 3q and 4p focal gains. In conclusion, DLBCL has a characteristic genomic profile with 3q and 12 gains, 13q loss, different expression levels of relevant pathogenic biomarkers, and a microenvironment with high numbers of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and M2 macrophages.

Xiao Y, Deng WW, Yang LL, et al.
Overexpression of p21-activated kinase 2 is correlated with high-grade oral squamous cell carcinomas.
Future Oncol. 2018; 14(11):1091-1100 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) is overexpressed in several tumors but the expression of PAK2 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) remains unclear.
MATERIALS & METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on human tissue microarrays containing 165 primary OSCC, 48 oral epithelial dysplasia and 43 normal oral mucosa.
RESULTS: PAK2 expression was increased in primary OSCC compared with normal mucosa and significantly increased in primary OSCC grade III compared with grade I, but independent of overall survival rate. Moreover, the expression of PAK2 was statistically correlated with Lck/Yes novel tyrosine kinase (LYN), zinc finger transcription factor Slug, tumor-associated macrophage marker CD163 and LAG3.
CONCLUSION: Overexpression of PAK2 in OSCC may be associated with an advanced pathology grade.

Zhang J, Cao D, Yu S, et al.
Amphotericin B suppresses M2 phenotypes and B7-H1 expression in macrophages to prevent Raji cell proliferation.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):467 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Macrophages in the tumor microenvironment play a critical role in tumorigenesis and anti-cancer drug resistance. Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with dense macrophage infiltration. However, the role for macrophages in BL remains largely unknown.
METHODS: B7-H1, a transmembrane glycoprotein in the B7 family, suppresses T cell activation and proliferation and induces the apoptosis of activated T cells. The expression of B7-H1 in BL clinical tissues was determined by streptavidin-peroxidase immunohistochemistry. The mutual regulation between macrophages and BL Raji cells was investigated in a co-culture system. The cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution of Raji cells were determined using BrdU staining coupled with flow cytometry. CD163, CD204 and B7-H1 expression was assessed by flow cytometry and Western blot. Cell invasion was analyzed by Transwell assay. The expression of cytokines was detected by quantitative RT-PCR. Immunofluorescence and allogeneic T-cell proliferation assays were used to compare the expression of B7-H1, p-STAT6, or p-STAT3 and CD3+ T cell proliferation treated with or without amphotericin B.
RESULTS: B7-H1 was highly expressed in tumor infiltration macrophages in most clinical BL tissues. In vitro, Raji cells synthesized IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 to induce CD163, CD204 and B7-H1 expression in co-cultured macrophages, which in turn promoted Raji cell proliferation and invasion. Interestingly, antifungal agent amphotericin B not only inhibited STAT6 phosphorylation to suppress the M2 polarization of macrophages, but also promoted CD3+ T cell proliferation by regulating B7-H1 protein expression in macrophages.
CONCLUSION: Amphotericin B might represent a novel immunotherapeutic approach to treat patients with BL.

Webb MW, Sun J, Sheard MA, et al.
Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor blockade improves the efficacy of chemotherapy against human neuroblastoma in the absence of T lymphocytes.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(6):1483-1493 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Tumor-associated macrophages can promote growth of cancers. In neuroblastoma, tumor-associated macrophages have greater frequency in metastatic versus loco-regional tumors, and higher expression of genes associated with macrophages helps to predict poor prognosis in the 60% of high-risk patients who have MYCN-non-amplified disease. The contribution of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes to anti-neuroblastoma immune responses may be limited by low MHC class I expression and low exonic mutation frequency. Therefore, we modelled human neuroblastoma in T-cell deficient mice to examine whether depletion of monocytes/macrophages from the neuroblastoma microenvironment by blockade of CSF-1R can improve the response to chemotherapy. In vitro, CSF-1 was released by neuroblastoma cells, and topotecan increased this release. In vivo, neuroblastomas formed by subcutaneous co-injection of human neuroblastoma cells and human monocytes into immunodeficient NOD/SCID mice had fewer human CD14

Ning Y, Cui Y, Li X, et al.
Co-culture of ovarian cancer stem-like cells with macrophages induced SKOV3 cells stemness via IL-8/STAT3 signaling.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 103:262-271 [PubMed] Related Publications
Among recent concepts in the cancer biology field, the tumor microenvironment is highly associated with cancer stem cells, and plays a key role in tumor progression. This study aimed to explore the mechanism that the stemness induction of SKOV3 cell line by macrophages derived from THP-1 cells, which was co-cultured with SKOV3-derived ovarian cancer stem-like cells (OCSLCs). Sphere formation, soft agar colony formation, and expression levels of CD133 and CD44 were assessed to reflect OCSLC properties. ELISA was used to evaluate secretion profile changes in macrophages co-cultured with or without SKOV3-derived OCSLCs. For mechanistic evaluation, rhIL-8, IL-8 neutralizing antibody (IL-8 Ab), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) shRNA and STAT3 cDNA were used. The results showed that IL-10, VEGF, MMP-9, IL-8 secretion and CD163 and STAT3 expression levels in macrophages co-cultured with OCSLCs were increased compared with those from THP-1 cells, while IL-12 and NO amounts were significantly reduced, reflecting M2 macrophage polarization. Addition of rhIL-8 to THP-1 cell conditioned media promoted M2 macrophage polarization and stemness in SKOV3 cells, which were suppressed by IL-8 Ab addition to co-culture conditioned media. Consistently, overexpression of STAT3 induced M2 macrophage polarization and stemness in SKOV3 cells, which were inhibited by STAT3 knockdown in macrophages from THP-1 cells. Importantly, STAT3 overexpression rescued the effects of IL-8 Ab on M2 macrophage polarization and stemness in SKOV3 cells. These results suggested that stemness induction in SKOV3 cells by macrophages co-cultured with SKOV3-derived OCSLCs involved IL-8/STAT3 signaling.

Takada K, Kashiwagi S, Goto W, et al.
Use of the tumor-infiltrating CD8 to FOXP3 lymphocyte ratio in predicting treatment responses to combination therapy with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel for advanced HER2-positive breast cancer.
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):86 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and docetaxel (TPD) regimen is strongly recommended as a treatment option for first-line therapy for advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2-positive breast cancer. Monitoring the host microenvironments in cancer plays a significant role in predicting prognoses and curative effects. It is important to clarify the role of immune related gene expression in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we evaluated the impact of chemotherapy with a TPD regimen, on immune micro environments in HER2-positive breast cancer using immune related proteins as indicators.
METHODS: The subjects consisted of 30 patients who received the TPD regimen. The expression levels of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Ki67, CD8, forkhead box protein (FOXP) 3, programmed death (PD) 1, programmed death ligand (PD-L) 1, CD163, phosphatase and tensin homolog and lymphocyte activation gene 3 were evaluated in biopsy specimens, by immunostaining.
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows with the TPD regimen, a high CFR leads to a high ORR and long PFS in HER2-positive breast cancer. CFR, therefore, may be one of the important prognostic factors for this disease.

Tang M, Liu B, Bu X, Zhao P
Cross-talk between ovarian cancer cells and macrophages through periostin promotes macrophage recruitment.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(5):1309-1318 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) contribute to tumor progression, but it is not clear how they are recruited to tumor sites. Here we showed that periostin (POSTN) was present at high levels in ovarian cancer ascetic fluids and was correlated with CD163

Zahra A, Rubab I, Malik S, et al.
Meta-Analysis of miRNAs and Their Involvement as Biomarkers in Oral Cancers.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:8439820 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Recent studies have highlighted the role of miRNA in disease pathology, indicating its potential use as an early diagnostic marker. Dysregulated expression of miRNAs is known to affect cell growth, and these may function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in various cancers. The main objective of this study was to characterize the extracellular miRNAs involved in

Giurisato E, Xu Q, Lonardi S, et al.
Myeloid ERK5 deficiency suppresses tumor growth by blocking protumor macrophage polarization via STAT3 inhibition.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(12):E2801-E2810 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Owing to the prevalence of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in cancer and their unique influence upon disease progression and malignancy, macrophage-targeted interventions have attracted notable attention in cancer immunotherapy. However, tractable targets to reduce TAM activities remain very few and far between because the signaling mechanisms underpinning protumor macrophage phenotypes are largely unknown. Here, we have investigated the role of the extracellular-regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5) as a determinant of macrophage polarity. We report that the growth of carcinoma grafts was halted in myeloid ERK5-deficient mice. Coincidentally, targeting ERK5 in macrophages induced a transcriptional switch in favor of proinflammatory mediators. Further molecular analyses demonstrated that activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) via Tyr705 phosphorylation was impaired in

Liu JF, Wu L, Yang LL, et al.
Blockade of TIM3 relieves immunosuppression through reducing regulatory T cells in head and neck cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):44 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (TIM3) is a negative immune checkpoint and plays a crucial part in tumor-induced immune suppression. However, the mechanism of TIM3 in regulating immunosuppression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) was still not quite clear.
METHODS: We carried out the immunohistochemistry staining of HNSCC tissue microarrays. Through quantification of the histoscore, we performed the correlation analysis among the TIM3, Galectin-9, Foxp3, CD68 and CD163. The effects of TIM3 on regulatory T cells (Tregs) and macrophages were detected by utilizing the Tgfbr1/Pten 2cKO HNSCC mouse model. Flow cytometry were used to analysis the percent of Tregs, macrophages and IFN-γ.
RESULTS: We demonstrated the close association among TIM3/Galectin-9 pathway, regulatory T cell marker (Foxp3) and macrophage marker (CD68, CD163) in human HNSCC. In the transgenic HNSCC mouse model, blockade of TIM3 by the anti-TIM3 monoclonal antibody induced a reduction of CD4
CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that TIM3 was associated with the immunosuppression in HNSCC. And targeting TIM3 can enhance anti-tumor immune response by decreasing Tregs in HNSCC.

Vari F, Arpon D, Keane C, et al.
Immune evasion via PD-1/PD-L1 on NK cells and monocyte/macrophages is more prominent in Hodgkin lymphoma than DLBCL.
Blood. 2018; 131(16):1809-1819 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Much focus has been on the interaction of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) on malignant B cells with programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) on effector T cells in inhibiting antilymphoma immunity. We sought to establish the contribution of natural killer (NK) cells and inhibitory CD163

Lee K, Ahn JH, Lee KT, et al.
Deoxyschizandrin, Isolated from Schisandra Berries, Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in Ovarian Cancer Cells and Inhibits the Protumoural Activation of Tumour-Associated Macrophages.
Nutrients. 2018; 10(1) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Deoxyschizandrin, a major lignan of Schisandra berries, has been demonstrated to have various biological activities such as antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. However, the anti-cancer effects of deoxyschizandrin are poorly characterized. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of deoxyschizandrin on human ovarian cancer cell lines and tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs). Deoxyschizandrin induced G₀/G₁ phase cell cycle arrest and inhibited cyclin E expression in human ovarian cancer cells. Overexpression of cyclin E significantly reversed the deoxyschizandrin-induced cell growth inhibition. Interestingly, increased production of reactive oxygen species and decreased activation of Akt were observed in A2780 cells treated with deoxyschizandrin, and the antioxidant compromised the deoxyschizandrin-induced cell growth inhibition and Akt inactivation. Moreover, deoxyschizandrin-induced cell growth inhibition was markedly suppressed by Akt overexpression. In addition, deoxyschizandrin was found to inhibit the expression of the M2 phenotype markers CD163 and CD209 in TAMs, macrophages stimulated by the ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, expression and production of the tumour-promoting factors MMP-9, RANTES, and VEGF, which are highly enhanced in TAMs, was significantly suppressed by deoxyschizandrin treatment. Taken together, these data suggest that deoxyschizandrin exerts anti-cancer effects by inducing G₀/G₁ cell cycle arrest in ovarian cancer cells and reducing the protumoural phenotype of TAMs.

Zapka P, Dörner E, Dreschmann V, et al.
Type, Frequency, and Spatial Distribution of Immune Cell Infiltrates in CNS Germinomas: Evidence for Inflammatory and Immunosuppressive Mechanisms.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2018; 77(2):119-127 [PubMed] Related Publications
Central nervous system germinomas are characterized by a massive immune cell infiltrate. We systematically characterized these immune cells in 28 germinomas by immunophenotyping and image analysis. mRNA expression was analyzed by Nanostring technology and in situ RNA hybridization. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were composed of 61.8% ± 3.1% (mean ± SE) CD3-positive T cells, including 45.2% ± 3.5% of CD4-positive T-helper cells, 23.4% ± 1.5% of CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells, 5.5% ± 0.9% of FoxP3-positive regulatory T cells, and 11.9% ±1.3% PD-1-positive TILs. B cells accounted for 35.8% ± 2.9% of TILs and plasma cells for 9.3% ± 1.6%. Tumor-associated macrophages consisted of clusters of activated PD-L1-positive macrophages and interspersed anti-inflammatory macrophages expressing CD163. Germinoma cells did not express PD-L1. Expression of genes encoding immune cell markers and cytokines was high and comparable to mRNA levels in lymph node tissue. IFNG and IL10 mRNA was detected in subfractions of TILs and in PD-L1-positive macrophages. Taken together, the strong immune reaction observed in germinomas involves inflammatory as well as various suppressive mechanisms. Expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 and infiltration of cytotoxic T cells are biomarkers predictive of response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies, constituting a rationale for possible novel treatment approaches.

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