Ataxia Telangiectasia


Literature Analysis

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  • Genetic Markers
  • Karyotyping
  • Breast Cancer
  • X-Rays
  • Cell Line
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Chromosome Disorders
  • Radiation Tolerance
  • Genotype
  • Fanconi Anaemia
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • DNA
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Transfection
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Fibroblasts
  • DNA Damage
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Ataxia-telangiectasia
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • DNA Repair
  • Cultured Cells
  • Mutation
  • Adolescents
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Heterozygote
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • Lymphocytes
  • Chromosome 11
  • United Kingdom
  • Lymphoma
  • Chromosome 14
  • Risk Factors
  • ATM
Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Mutated Genes and Abnormal Protein Expression (2)

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ATM 11q22.3 AT1, ATA, ATC, ATD, ATE, ATDC, TEL1, TELO1 Germline
-ATM mutation in Ataxia Telangiectasia
MTCP1 Xq28 p8MTCP1, P13MTCP1 -MTCP1 and Ataxia-telangiectasia

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Useful Links (11 links)

Latest Publications

Shen M, Xu Z, Xu W, et al.
Inhibition of ATM reverses EMT and decreases metastatic potential of cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells through JAK/STAT3/PD-L1 pathway.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):149 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The cisplatin-resistance is still a main course for chemotherapy failure of lung cancer patients. Cisplatin-resistant cancer cells own higher malignance and exhibited increased metastatic ability, but the mechanism is not clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) on lung cancer metastasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cisplatin-resistant A549CisR and H157CisR cell line were generated by long-term treating parental A549 and H157 cells (A549P and H157P) with cisplatin. Cell growth, cell migration and cell invasion were determined. Gene expressions were determined by Western Blot and qPCR. Tumor metastasis was investigated using a xenograft mouse model.
RESULTS: The IC50 of the cisplatin-resistant cells (A549CisR and H157CisR cells) to cisplatin was 6-8 higher than parental cells. The A549CisR and H157CisR cells expressed lower level of E-cadherin and higher levels of N-cadherin, Vimentin and Snail compared to the parental A549P and H157P cells, and exhibited stronger capabilities of metastatic potential compared to the parental cells. The ATM expression was upregulated in A549CisR and H157CisR cells and cisplatin treatment also upregulated expression of ATM in parental cells, The inhibition of ATM by using specific ATM inhibitor CP466722 or knock-down ATM by siRNA suppressed Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastatic potential of A549CisR and H157CisR cells. These data suggest that ATM mediates the cisplatin-resistance in lung cancer cells. Expressions of JAK
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that ATM regulates PD-L1 expression through activation of JAK/STAT3 signaling in cisplatin-resistant cells. Overexpression of ATM contributes to cisplatin-resistance in lung cancer cells. Inhibition of ATM reversed EMT and inhibited cell invasion and tumor metastasis. Thus, ATM may be a potential target for the treatment of cisplatin-resistant lung cancer.

Cao J, Shen R, Zhang W, et al.
Clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling of atypical ataxia‑telangiectasia in a Chinese family.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(5):3441-3448 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ataxia‑telangiectasia (A‑T) is an autosomal recessive chromosome breakage disorder caused by mutations in the ATM serine/threonine kinase (ATM) gene. Typically, it presents in early childhood with progressive cerebellar dysfunction, accompanied by immunodeficiency and oculocutaneous telangiectasia. In the present study, the clinical and genetic findings of a Chinese family affected with A‑T in two live siblings, the proband (II‑2) and his elder brother (II‑1), as well as a fetus (II‑3) were reported. General health, clinical neurological, electrophysiological (motor and sensory nerve conduction) and magnetic resonance imaging evaluations revealed that patients II‑1 and II‑2 had similar symptoms of ataxia, dysarthria, conjunctival hyperemia and elevated serum α‑fetoprotein, whereas patient II‑1 had earlier A‑T onset at 2 years old and more serious problems with movement and intelligence. Targeted sequencing followed by Sanger sequencing revealed that these two patients carried the compound heterozygotes of a novel nonsense mutation c.5170G>T (p.Glu1724Ter) and a known nonsense mutation c.748C>T (p.Arg250Ter) in the ATM gene. Each mutation was inherited from an asymptomatic parent, which therefore confirmed the diagnosis of A‑T. Given this, proband's mother performed prenatal diagnosis in her third pregnancy. Unfortunately, the fetus had the same causal mutations as its siblings and the pregnancy was terminated. The findings of the present study expanded the mutation spectrum of the ATM gene and may help in understanding the genetic basis of A‑T, in order to guide genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.

Palazzo RP, Jardim LB, Bacellar A, et al.
DNA damage and repair in individuals with ataxia-telangiectasia and their parents.
Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 2018; 836(Pt B):122-126 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ataxi A-T elangiectasia (AT) is a multisystem, complex and rare disease inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Homozygous individuals have a variety of pathological manifestations, however, heterozygotes only present a higher risk of developing cancer. We evaluated the background levels of DNA damage (basal damage) and cell response to bleomycin or ionizing radiation using Comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) test in individuals with AT, their parents and controls. To evaluate DNA repair, the challenge experiment with ionizing radiation was performed using Comet assay, and different recovery times were evaluated. Results showed that basal MN frequencies differ between patients, parents and controls. Meanwhile, using the Comet assay, the results from the basal analysis do not differ between the groups, but monitoring the kinetics of DNA repair, we verified that the group of patients showed a delay in repair, compared to controls. Another finding was the nuclear bud (NBUD) frequency: spontaneous and induced cell cultures (with bleomycin and radiation) showed clear differences between patients, parents and controls. The CBMN assay and repair measurement with the Comet assay can help in the diagnosis of AT patients and ATM gene carriers, as complementary methods. The use of genomic instability evaluation techniques for the identification of the heterozygotes in families, where at least one member is affected, may be of great clinical importance.

Tal E, Alfo M, Zha S, et al.
Inactive Atm abrogates DSB repair in mouse cerebellum more than does Atm loss, without causing a neurological phenotype.
DNA Repair (Amst). 2018; 72:10-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
The genome instability syndrome, ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is caused by null mutations in the ATM gene, that lead to complete loss or inactivation of the gene's product, the ATM protein kinase. ATM is the primary mobilizer of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) - a broad signaling network in which many components are ATM targets. The major clinical feature of A-T is cerebellar atrophy, characterized by relentless loss of Purkinje and granule cells. In Atm-knockout (Atm-KO) mice, complete loss of Atm leads to a very mild neurological phenotype, suggesting that Atm loss is not sufficient to markedly abrogate cerebellar structure and function in this organism. Expression of inactive ("kinase-dead") Atm (Atm

Kashimada A, Hasegawa S, Nomura T, et al.
Genetic analysis of undiagnosed ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorders.
Brain Dev. 2019; 41(2):150-157 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Defects in DNA damage responses or repair mechanisms cause numerous rare inherited diseases, referred to as "DNA-repair defects" or "DNA damage deficiency", characterized by neurodegeneration, immunodeficiency, and/or cancer predisposition. Early accurate diagnosis is important for informing appropriate clinical management; however, diagnosis is frequently challenging and can be delayed, due to phenotypic heterogeneity. Comprehensive genomic analysis could overcome this disadvantage. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) and A-T-like DNA-repair defects in Japan and to determine the utility of comprehensive genetic testing of presumptively diagnosed patients in facilitating early diagnosis.
METHODS: A nationwide survey of diseases presumably caused by DNA-repair defects, including A-T, was performed. Additionally, comprehensive next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis, targeting known disease-causing genes, was conducted.
RESULTS: Sixty-three patients with A-T or other diseases with characteristics of DNA-repair defects were identified. Thirty-four patients were genetically or clinically definitively diagnosed with A-T (n = 22) or other DNA-repair defects (n = 12). Genetic analysis of 17 presumptively diagnosed patients revealed one case of ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1); one ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2); two types of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA5, SCA29); two CACNA1A-related ataxias; one microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema, or mental retardation (MCLMR); and one autosomal dominant KIF1A-related disorder with intellectual deficit, cerebellar atrophy, spastic paraparesis, and optic nerve atrophy. The diagnostic yield was 58.8%.
CONCLUSION: Comprehensive genetic analysis of targeted known disease-causing genes by NGS is a powerful diagnostic tool for subjects with indistinguishable neurological phenotypes resembling DNA-repair defects.

Zaki-Dizaji M, Akrami SM, Abolhassani H, et al.
Ataxia telangiectasia syndrome: moonlighting ATM.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2017; 13(12):1155-1172 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) a multisystem disorder primarily characterized by cerebellar degeneration, telangiectasia, immunodeficiency, cancer susceptibility and radiation sensitivity. Identification of the gene defective in this syndrome, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM), and further characterization of the disorder together with a greater insight into the function of the ATM protein have expanded our knowledge about the molecular pathogenesis of this disease. Area covered: In this review, we have attempted to summarize the different roles of ATM signaling that have provided new insights into the diverse clinical phenotypes exhibited by A-T patients. Expert commentary: ATM, in addition to DNA repair response, is involved in many cytoplasmic roles that explain diverse phenotypes of A-T patients. It seems accumulation of DNA damage, persistent DNA damage response signaling, and chronic oxidative stress are the main players in the pathogenesis of this disease.

Ruiz-Botero F, Rodríguez-Guerrero JT
[New mutation in ATM gen in patient whith Ataxia Telangiectasia: Clinical case].
Rev Chil Pediatr. 2017; 88(4):524-528 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The ataxia telangiectasia syndrome (AT) is a genetic disease with an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern, with multisystem involvement and a broad clinical spectrum. It is caused by the mutation of the ATM gene, causing reduction or absence of the ATM proteinkinase, altering processes in the cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis. The objective of this article is to report the case of a patient with ataxia telangiectasia syndrome, caused by a mutation not previously reported in the literature.
CASE REPORT: A 14 year-old patient native to Colombia, with classic clinical and phenotypical manifestations of AT syndrome, which started at 6 years of age with pondostatural alteration, recurrent respiratory infections, oculocutaneus telangiectasias and progressive neurological disorder that included: regression in her psychomotor development, ataxia and oculomotor apraxia. ATM gene sequencing is performed evidencing a homozygous mutation not reported in literature.
DISCUSSION: In Latin America are sparse the number of reports of patients with ataxia telangiectasia and only few of these describe their molecular findings. Molecular studies allow the diagnosis and a better orientation in the management and prognosis of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The report of undescribed molecular variants is of great importance to establish the etiology of such diseases in diverse population groups, such as the countries of Latin America.

Beraldi R, Meyerholz DK, Savinov A, et al.
Genetic ataxia telangiectasia porcine model phenocopies the multisystemic features of the human disease.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2017; 1863(11):2862-2870 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a progressive multisystem autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the AT-mutated (ATM) gene. Early onset AT in children is characterized by cerebellar degeneration, leading to motor impairment. Lung disease and cancer are the two most common causes of death in AT patients. Accelerated thymic involution may contribute to the cancer, and recurrent and/or chronic respiratory infections may be a contributing factor to lung disease in AT. AT patients have fertility issues, are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation and they present oculocutaneous telangiectasia. Current treatments only slightly ameliorate disease symptoms; therapy that alters or reverses the course of the disease has not yet been discovered. Previously, we have shown that ATM

Tabatabaiefar MA, Alipour P, Pourahmadiyan A, et al.
A novel pathogenic variant in an Iranian Ataxia telangiectasia family revealed by next-generation sequencing followed by in silico analysis.
J Neurol Sci. 2017; 379:212-216 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a neurodegenerative autosomal recessive disorder with the main characteristics of progressive cerebellar degeneration, sensitivity to ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency, telangiectasia, premature aging, recurrent sinopulmonary infections, and increased risk of malignancy, especially of lymphoid origin. Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated gene, ATM, as a causative gene for the A-T disorder, encodes the ATM protein, which plays an important role in the activation of cell-cycle checkpoints and initiation of DNA repair in response to DNA damage. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on an Iranian 5-year-old boy presented with truncal and limb ataxia, telangiectasia of the eye, Hodgkin lymphoma, hyper pigmentation, total alopecia, hepatomegaly, and dysarthria. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the candidate pathogenic variants. Computational docking was done using the HEX software to examine how this change affects the interactions of ATM with the upstream and downstream proteins. Three different variants were identified comprising two homozygous SNPs and one novel homozygous frameshift variant (c.80468047delTA, p.Thr2682ThrfsX5), which creates a stop codon in exon 57 leaving the protein truncated at its C-terminal portion. Therefore, the activation and phosphorylation of target proteins are lost. Moreover, the HEX software confirmed that the mutated protein lost its interaction with upstream and downstream proteins. The variant was classified as pathogenic based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guideline. This study expands the spectrum of ATM pathogenic variants in Iran and demonstrates the utility of targeted NGS in genetic diagnostics.

Aquino J, Ribeiro V, Alonso I, et al.
[Ataxia telangiectasia-like disorder -a child with a novel variant in MRE11A gene].
Rev Neurol. 2017; 65(3):143-144 [PubMed] Related Publications

Kim CD, Reed RE, Juncker MA, et al.
Evidence for the Deregulation of Protein Turnover Pathways in Atm-Deficient Mouse Cerebellum: An Organotypic Study.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2017; 76(7):578-584 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), an antagonist of the ubiquitin pathway, is elevated in cells and brain tissues obtained from ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) patients. Previous studies reveal that an elevated ISG15 pathway inhibits ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, leading to activation of basal autophagy as a compensatory mechanism for protein turnover in A-T cells. Also, genotoxic stress (ultraviolet [UV] radiation) deregulates autophagy and induces aberrant degradation of ubiquitylated proteins in A-T cells. In the current study, we show that, as in A-T cells, ISG15 protein expression is elevated in cerebellums and various other tissues obtained from Atm-compromised mice in an Atm-allele-dependent manner (Atm+/+ < Atm+/- < Atm-/-). Notably, in cerebellums, the brain part primarily affected in A-T, levels of ISG15 were significantly greater (3-fold higher) than cerebrums obtained from the same set of mice. Moreover, as in A-T cell culture, UV induces aberrant degradation of ubiquitylated proteins and autophagy in Atm-deficient, but not in Atm-proficient, cerebellar brain slices grown in culture. Thus, the ex vivo organotypic A-T mouse brain culture model mimics that of an A-T human cell culture model and could be useful for studying the role of ISG15-dependent proteinopathy in cerebellar neurodegeneration, a hallmark of A-T in humans.

Mortaz E, Marashian SM, Ghaffaripour H, et al.
A new ataxia-telangiectasia mutation in an 11-year-old female.
Immunogenetics. 2017; 69(7):415-419 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), a rare inherited disorder, usually affects the nervous and immune systems, and occasionally other organs. A-T is associated mainly with mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, which encodes a protein kinase that has a major role in the cellular response to DNA damage. We report here a novel ATM mutation (c.3244_3245insG; p.His1082fs) in an 11-year old female. This subject presented with typical features, with the addition of chest manifestations including mediastinal lymphadenopathy and diffuse bilateral micronodular infiltration of the lungs, along with a high EBV titer. The subject died as a result of rapid B-cell lymphoma progression before chemotherapy could be initiated. This case highlights the need for the rapid diagnosis of A-T mutations and the detection of associated life-threatening outcomes such as cancers.

Rieunier G, D'Enghien CD, Fievet A, et al.
ATM Gene Mutation Detection Techniques and Functional Analysis.
Methods Mol Biol. 2017; 1599:25-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T) is caused by biallelic inactivation of the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) gene, due to nonsense or missense mutations, small insertions/deletions (indels), splicing alterations, and large genomic rearrangements. After establishing A-T clinical diagnosis, a molecular confirmation is needed, based on the detection of one of these loss-of-function mutations in at least one allele. In most cases, the pathogenicity of the detected mutations is sufficient to make a definitive diagnosis. More rarely, mutations of unknown consequences are identified and direct biological analyses are required to establish their pathogenic characters. In such cases, complementary analyses of ATM expression, localization, and activity allow fine characterization of these mutations and facilitate A-T diagnosis. Here, we present genetic and biochemical protocols currently used in the laboratory that have proven to be highly accurate, reproducible, and quantitative. We also provide additional discussion on the critical points of the techniques presented here.

Hu H, Nahas S, Gatti RA
Assaying Radiosensitivity of Ataxia-Telangiectasia.
Methods Mol Biol. 2017; 1599:1-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T) is a prototypical genomic instability disorder with multi-organ deficiency and it is caused by the defective function of a single gene, ATM (Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated). Radiosensitivity, among the pleiotropic symptoms of A-T, reflects the basic physiological functions of ATM protein in the double strand break (DSB)-induced DNA damage response (DDR) and also restrains A-T patients from the conventional radiation therapy for their lymphoid malignancy. In this chapter, we describe two methods that have been developed in our lab to assess the radiosensitivity of A-T patients: (1) Colony Survival Assay (CSA) and (2) Flow Cytometry of phospho-SMC1 (FC-pSMC1). The establishment of these more rapid and reliable functional assays to measure the radiosensitivity, exemplified by A-T, would facilitate the diagnosis of other genomic instability genetic disorders as well as help the treatment options for most radiosensitive patients.

Ratnaparkhe M, Hlevnjak M, Kolb T, et al.
Genomic profiling of Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in ataxia telangiectasia patients reveals tight link between ATM mutations and chromothripsis.
Leukemia. 2017; 31(10):2048-2056 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent developments in sequencing technologies led to the discovery of a novel form of genomic instability, termed chromothripsis. This catastrophic genomic event, involved in tumorigenesis, is characterized by tens to hundreds of simultaneously acquired locally clustered rearrangements on one chromosome. We hypothesized that leukemias developing in individuals with Ataxia Telangiectasia, who are born with two mutated copies of the ATM gene, an essential guardian of genome stability, would show a higher prevalence of chromothripsis due to the associated defect in DNA double-strand break repair. Using whole-genome sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and RNA sequencing, we characterized the genomic landscape of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) arising in patients with Ataxia Telangiectasia. We detected a high frequency of chromothriptic events in these tumors, specifically on acrocentric chromosomes, as compared with tumors from individuals with other types of DNA repair syndromes (27 cases total, 10 with Ataxia Telangiectasia). Our data suggest that the genomic landscape of Ataxia Telangiectasia ALL is clearly distinct from that of sporadic ALL. Mechanistically, short telomeres and compromised DNA damage response in cells of Ataxia Telangiectasia patients may be linked with frequent chromothripsis. Furthermore, we show that ATM loss is associated with increased chromothripsis prevalence in additional tumor entities.

Maciejczyk M, Mikoluc B, Pietrucha B, et al.
Oxidative stress, mitochondrial abnormalities and antioxidant defense in Ataxia-telangiectasia, Bloom syndrome and Nijmegen breakage syndrome.
Redox Biol. 2017; 11:375-383 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Rare pleiotropic genetic disorders, Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), Bloom syndrome (BS) and Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) are characterised by immunodeficiency, extreme radiosensitivity, higher cancer susceptibility, premature aging, neurodegeneration and insulin resistance. Some of these functional abnormalities can be explained by aberrant DNA damage response and chromosomal instability. It has been suggested that one possible common denominator of these conditions could be chronic oxidative stress caused by endogenous ROS overproduction and impairment of mitochondrial homeostasis. Recent studies indicate new, alternative sources of oxidative stress in A-T, BS and NBS cells, including NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) or Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP). Mitochondrial abnormalities such as changes in the ultrastructure and function of mitochondria, excess mROS production as well as mitochondrial damage have also been reported in A-T, BS and NBS cells. A-T, BS and NBS cells are inextricably linked to high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thereby, chronic oxidative stress may be a major phenotypic hallmark in these diseases. Due to the presence of mitochondrial disturbances, A-T, BS and NBS may be considered mitochondrial diseases. Excess activity of antioxidant enzymes and an insufficient amount of low molecular weight antioxidants indicate new pharmacological strategies for patients suffering from the aforementioned diseases. However, at the current stage of research we are unable to ascertain if antioxidants and free radical scavengers can improve the condition or prolong the survival time of A-T, BS and NBS patients. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct experimental studies in a human model.

Rothblum-Oviatt C, Wright J, Lefton-Greif MA, et al.
Ataxia telangiectasia: a review.
Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2016; 11(1):159 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DEFINITION OF THE DISEASE: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disorder primarily characterized by cerebellar degeneration, telangiectasia, immunodeficiency, cancer susceptibility and radiation sensitivity. A-T is often referred to as a genome instability or DNA damage response syndrome.
EPIDEMIOLOGY: The world-wide prevalence of A-T is estimated to be between 1 in 40,000 and 1 in 100,000 live births.
CLINICAL DESCRIPTION: A-T is a complex disorder with substantial variability in the severity of features between affected individuals, and at different ages. Neurological symptoms most often first appear in early childhood when children begin to sit or walk. They have immunological abnormalities including immunoglobulin and antibody deficiencies and lymphopenia. People with A-T have an increased predisposition for cancers, particularly of lymphoid origin. Pulmonary disease and problems with feeding, swallowing and nutrition are common, and there also may be dermatological and endocrine manifestations.
ETIOLOGY: A-T is caused by mutations in the ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia, Mutated) gene which encodes a protein of the same name. The primary role of the ATM protein is coordination of cellular signaling pathways in response to DNA double strand breaks, oxidative stress and other genotoxic stress.
DIAGNOSIS: The diagnosis of A-T is usually suspected by the combination of neurologic clinical features (ataxia, abnormal control of eye movement, and postural instability) with one or more of the following which may vary in their appearance: telangiectasia, frequent sinopulmonary infections and specific laboratory abnormalities (e.g. IgA deficiency, lymphopenia especially affecting T lymphocytes and increased alpha-fetoprotein levels). Because certain neurological features may arise later, a diagnosis of A-T should be carefully considered for any ataxic child with an otherwise elusive diagnosis. A diagnosis of A-T can be confirmed by the finding of an absence or deficiency of the ATM protein or its kinase activity in cultured cell lines, and/or identification of the pathological mutations in the ATM gene.
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: There are several other neurologic and rare disorders that physicians must consider when diagnosing A-T and that can be confused with A-T. Differentiation of these various disorders is often possible with clinical features and selected laboratory tests, including gene sequencing.
ANTENATAL DIAGNOSIS: Antenatal diagnosis can be performed if the pathological ATM mutations in that family have been identified in an affected child. In the absence of identifying mutations, antenatal diagnosis can be made by haplotype analysis if an unambiguous diagnosis of the affected child has been made through clinical and laboratory findings and/or ATM protein analysis.
GENETIC COUNSELING: Genetic counseling can help family members of a patient with A-T understand when genetic testing for A-T is feasible, and how the test results should be interpreted.
MANAGEMENT AND PROGNOSIS: Treatment of the neurologic problems associated with A-T is symptomatic and supportive, as there are no treatments known to slow or stop the neurodegeneration. However, other manifestations of A-T, e.g. immunodeficiency, pulmonary disease, failure to thrive and diabetes can be treated effectively.

Piane M, Molinaro A, Soresina A, et al.
Novel compound heterozygous mutations in a child with Ataxia-Telangiectasia showing unrelated cerebellar disorders.
J Neurol Sci. 2016; 371:48-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report the case of a 6-year-old female patient with Ataxia Telangiectasia, an extremely rare condition, who developed in addition a left cerebellar astrocytoma and a right cerebellar infarction, considered as two independent events. Children with AT have an increased risk of developing cancer, but only few cases of glioma are reported and, at our knowledge, no other case of unrelated cerebellar glioma and cerebellar infarction in with the same AT patient have been described. The molecular analysis of ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated) gene showed that the patient is compound heterozygote for two previously unreported mutations: c.3291delC (p.Phe1097fs) at exon 25 and c.8198A>C (p.Gln2733Pro) at exon 58. The role of the identified ATM gene mutations in the pathogenesis of Ataxia Telangiectasia and the coexisting cerebellar disorders is discussed.

Carranza D, Vega AK, Torres-Rusillo S, et al.
Molecular and Functional Characterization of a Cohort of Spanish Patients with Ataxia-Telangiectasia.
Neuromolecular Med. 2017; 19(1):161-174 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ataxia-telangiectasia is a multisystemic disease with severe neurological affectation, immunodeficiency and telangiectasia. The disorder is caused by alterations in the ATM gene, whose size and complexity make molecular diagnosis difficult. We designed a target-enrichment next-generation sequencing strategy to characterize 28 patients from several regions of Spain. This approach allowed us to identify gene variants affecting function in 54 out of the 56 alleles analyzed, although the two unresolved alleles belong to brothers. We found 28 ATM gene mutations, of which 10 have not been reported. A total of 171 gene variants not affecting function were also found, of which 22 are reported to predispose to disease. Interestingly, all Roma (Spanish Gypsies) patients are homozygous for the same mutation and share the H3 ATM haplotype, which is strong evidence of a founder effect in this population. In addition, we generated a panel of 27 primary T cell lines from A-T patients, which revealed significant expression of ATM in two patients and traces of the protein in nine more. None of them retained residual ATM activity, and almost all T cell lines show increased or intermediate radiosensitivity.

Erttmann SF, Härtlova A, Sloniecka M, et al.
Loss of the DNA Damage Repair Kinase ATM Impairs Inflammasome-Dependent Anti-Bacterial Innate Immunity.
Immunity. 2016; 45(1):106-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ATM kinase is a central component of the DNA damage repair machinery and redox balance. ATM dysfunction results in the multisystem disease ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). A major cause of mortality in AT is respiratory bacterial infections. Whether ATM deficiency causes innate immune defects that might contribute to bacterial infections is not known. Here we have shown that loss of ATM impairs inflammasome-dependent anti-bacterial innate immunity. Cells from AT patients or Atm(-/-) mice exhibited diminished interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in response to bacteria. In vivo, Atm(-/-) mice were more susceptible to pulmonary S. pneumoniae infection in a manner consistent with inflammasome defects. Our data indicate that such defects were due to oxidative inhibition of inflammasome complex assembly. This study reveals an unanticipated function of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in negative regulation of inflammasomes and proposes a theory for the notable susceptibility of AT patients to pulmonary bacterial infection.

Shiloh Y, Lederman HM
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T): An emerging dimension of premature ageing.
Ageing Res Rev. 2017; 33:76-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
A-T is a prototype genome instability syndrome and a multifaceted disease. A-T leads to neurodegeneration - primarily cerebellar atrophy, immunodeficiency, oculocutaneous telangiectasia (dilated blood vessels), vestigial thymus and gonads, endocrine abnormalities, cancer predisposition and varying sensitivity to DNA damaging agents, particularly those that induce DNA double-strand breaks. With the recent increase in life expectancy of A-T patients, the premature ageing component of this disease is gaining greater awareness. The complex A-T phenotype reflects the ever growing number of functions assigned to the protein encoded by the responsible gene - the homeostatic protein kinase, ATM. The quest to thoroughly understand the complex A-T phenotype may reveal yet elusive ATM functions.

Johansson P, Fasth A, Ek T, Hammarsten O
Validation of a flow cytometry-based detection of γ-H2AX, to measure DNA damage for clinical applications.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2017; 92(6):534-540 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The nucleosomal histone protein H2AX is specifically phosphorylated (γ-H2AX) adjacent to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and is used for quantifying DSBs. Many chemotherapies and ionizing radiation (IR) used in cancer treatment result in DSBs. Therefore, γ-H2AX has a significant potential as a biomarker in evaluating patient sensitivity and responsiveness to IR and chemotherapy.
METHODS: Here, we report a flow cytometry-based quantification of γ-H2AX (FCM-γ-H2AX assay) customized for clinical practice.
RESULTS: We validated that our method is able to detect DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated with DSB inducing agents. The method also detected the DNA repair deficiency in PBMCs treated with DNA repair inhibitors, as well as the deficiency in DNA repair signaling in PBMCs from two ataxia telangiectasia patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The FCM-γ-H2AX assay has sufficient analytical sensitivity and precision to measure levels of DNA damage and DNA repair for clinical purposes. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

Jackson TJ, Chow G, Suri M, et al.
Longitudinal analysis of the neurological features of ataxia-telangiectasia.
Dev Med Child Neurol. 2016; 58(7):690-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To assess the relationship between genotype and neurological progression in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T).
METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data were extracted retrospectively from the records of patients attending the UK National Ataxia-Telangiectasia Clinic. Neurological assessments were performed using the A-T Index (Crawford Score) and the A-T Neurological Examination Scale Toolkit (A-T NEST). Variables influencing phenotype were identified by using an information-theoretic approach starting from a maximal model to generate estimates of coefficients for each variable. Per-individual progression was assessed for patients with three or more clinic attendances.
RESULTS: The genotype could be determined for 125/135 patients. Crawford and A-T NEST scores were well correlated. For both scoring systems the estimated coefficients were significantly positive for Age x kinase activity but not Age x protein expression. Unlike the per-genotype analysis, the individual progression of neurological scores in the 34 patients that attended on three or more occasions was not smooth and linear (and in some cases improved over time).
INTERPRETATION: Residual kinase activity confers a milder phenotype but there is no difference between kinase-dead and protein-null genotypes. The non-linear progression of individual patients' neurological scores may reflect biological complexity, day-to-day variability, limitations of the assessment methods or a combination of all three.

Zhan H, Aizawa K, Sun J, et al.
Ataxia telangiectasia mutated in cardiac fibroblasts regulates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.
Cardiovasc Res. 2016; 110(1):85-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: Doxorubicin (Dox) is a potent anticancer agent that is widely used in the treatment of a variety of cancers, but its usage is limited by cumulative dose-dependent cardiotoxicity mainly due to oxidative damage. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase is thought to play a role in mediating the actions of oxidative stress. Here, we show that ATM in cardiac fibroblasts is essential for Dox-induced cardiotoxicity.
METHODS AND RESULTS: ATM knockout mice showed attenuated Dox-induced cardiotoxic effects (e.g. cardiac dysfunction, apoptosis, and mortality). As ATM was expressed and activated predominantly in cardiac fibroblasts, fibroblast-specific Atm-deleted mice (Atm(fl/fl);Postn-Cre) were generated to address cell type-specific effects, which showed that the fibroblast is the key lineage mediating Dox-induced cardiotoxicity through ATM. Mechanistically, ATM activated the Fas ligand, which subsequently regulated apoptosis in cardiomyocytes at later stages. Therapeutically, a potent and selective inhibitor of ATM, KU55933, when administered systemically was able to prevent Dox-induced cardiotoxicity.
CONCLUSION: ATM-regulated effects within cardiac fibroblasts are pivotal in Dox-induced cardiotoxicity, and antagonism of ATM and its functions may have potential therapeutic implications.

Mahon SM
Management of Individuals With a Mutation in the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Gene.
Oncol Nurs Forum. 2016; 43(1):114-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Advances in genetic testing have led to the identification of multiple genes associated with a hereditary risk for developing breast and other cancers. One such gene is the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, which is available on many genetic panels offered to individuals with suspected hereditary risk. Genetic testing can often lead to improved understanding and clarification of risk for developing cancer, as well as allow affected individuals to make informed choices about management, including the adoption of primary prevention strategies and more aggressive screening than typically recommended in the general population. This article provides an overview of the role of mutations in the ATM gene in developing malignancies, along with emerging research on treatment implications based on genetic testing results.

van Os NJ, Roeleveld N, Weemaes CM, et al.
Health risks for ataxia-telangiectasia mutated heterozygotes: a systematic review, meta-analysis and evidence-based guideline.
Clin Genet. 2016; 90(2):105-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with immunodeficiency and an increased risk of developing cancer, caused by mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. Logically, blood relatives may also carry a pathogenic ATM mutation. Female carriers of such a mutation have an increased risk of breast cancer. Other health risks for carriers are suspected but have never been studied systematically. Consequently, evidence-based guidelines for carriers are not available yet. We systematically analyzed all literature and found that ATM mutation carriers have a reduced life expectancy because of mortality from cancer and ischemic heart diseases (RR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4) and an increased risk of developing cancer (RR 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.4), in particular breast cancer (RRwomen 3.0, 95% CI 2.1-4.5), and cancers of the digestive tract. Associations between ATM heterozygosity and other health risks have been suggested, but clear evidence is lacking. Based on these results, we propose that all female carriers of 40-50 years of age and female ATM c.7271T>G mutation carriers from 25 years of age onwards be offered intensified surveillance programs for breast cancer. Furthermore, all carriers should be made aware of lifestyle factors that contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.

Liu XL, Wang T, Huang XJ, et al.
Novel ATM mutations with ataxia-telangiectasia.
Neurosci Lett. 2016; 611:112-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ataxia telangiectasia is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia with onset in childhood, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, increased serum alpha-fetoprotein, immunodeficiency, chromosomal instability, and radiation hypersensitivity. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM) is one of the known genes to be associated with ataxia telangiectasia. We reported the clinical and genetic findings of three early-onset Chinese patients who demonstrated ataxia, oculomotor apraxia, choreoathetosis, myoclonus and telangiectasia of eyes. Sequence analysis of ATM revealed two known nonsense mutations c.8287C>T and c.9139C>T in the siblings. Though the siblings carried the same mutations, they showed different clinical features involving strephenopodia, exotropia, torsion dystonia, myoclonus and extrapyramidal impairments. The other patient was compound heterozygotes for ATM: c.8911C>T and c.7141_7151delAATGGAAAAAT, both of which were not reported previously and not found in 200 control chromosomes. This study widens the spectrum of mutations and phenotypes in ataxia telangiectasia.

Jiang D, Zhang Y, Hart RP, et al.
Alteration in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine-mediated epigenetic regulation leads to Purkinje cell vulnerability in ATM deficiency.
Brain. 2015; 138(Pt 12):3520-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A long-standing mystery surrounding ataxia-telangiectasia is why it is mainly cerebellar neurons, Purkinje cells in particular, that appear vulnerable to ATM deficiency. Here we present data showing that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), a newly recognized epigenetic marker found at high levels in neurons, is substantially reduced in human ataxia-telangiectasia and Atm(-/-) mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells. We further show that TET1, an enzyme that converts 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5hmC, responds to DNA damage and manipulation of TET1 activity directly affects the DNA damage signalling and ATM-deficient neuronal cell cycle re-entry and death. Quantitative genome-wide analysis of 5hmC-containing sequences shows that in ATM deficiency there is a cerebellum- and Purkinje cell-specific shift in 5hmC enrichment in both regulatory elements and repeated sequences. Finally, we verify that TET1-mediated 5hmC production is linked to the degenerative process of Purkinje cells and behavioural deficits in Atm(-/-) mice. Taken together, the selective loss of 5hmC plays a critical role in driving Purkinje cell vulnerability in ATM deficiency.

Chen Z, Ye W, Long Z, et al.
Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing Revealed Novel Mutations in Chinese Ataxia Telangiectasia Patients: A Precision Medicine Perspective.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0139738 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia and immunodeficiency due to mutations in the ATM gene. We performed targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) on three unrelated patients and identified five disease-causing variants in three probands, including two pairs of heterozygous variants (FAT-1:c.4396C>T/p.R1466X, c.1608-2A>G; FAT-2:c.4412_4413insT/p.L1472Ffs*19, c.8824C>T/p.Q2942X) and one pair of homozygous variants (FAT-3: c.8110T>G/p.C2704G, Hom). With regard to precision medicine for rare genetic diseases, targeted NGS currently enables the rapid and cost-effective identification of causative mutations and is an updated molecular diagnostic tool that merits further optimization. This high-throughput data-based strategy would propel the development of precision diagnostic methods and establish a foundation for precision medicine.

Campbell A, Krupp B, Bushman J, et al.
A novel mouse model for ataxia-telangiectasia with a N-terminal mutation displays a behavioral defect and a low incidence of lymphoma but no increased oxidative burden.
Hum Mol Genet. 2015; 24(22):6331-49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare multi-system disorder caused by mutations in the ATM gene. Significant heterogeneity exists in the underlying genetic mutations and clinical phenotypes. A number of mouse models have been generated that harbor mutations in the distal region of the gene, and a recent study suggests the presence of residual ATM protein in the brain of one such model. These mice recapitulate many of the characteristics of A-T seen in humans, with the notable exception of neurodegeneration. In order to study how an N-terminal mutation affects the disease phenotype, we generated an inducible Atm mutant mouse model (Atm(tm1Mmpl/tm1Mmpl), referred to as A-T [M]) predicted to express only the first 62 amino acids of Atm. Cells derived from A-T [M] mutant mice exhibited reduced cellular proliferation and an altered DNA damage response, but surprisingly, showed no evidence of an oxidative imbalance. Examination of the A-T [M] animals revealed an altered immunophenotype consistent with A-T. In contrast to mice harboring C-terminal Atm mutations that disproportionately develop thymic lymphomas, A-T [M] mice developed lymphoma at a similar rate as human A-T patients. Morphological analyses of A-T [M] cerebella revealed no substantial cellular defects, similar to other models of A-T, although mice display behavioral defects consistent with cerebellar dysfunction. Overall, these results suggest that loss of Atm is not necessarily associated with an oxidized phenotype as has been previously proposed and that loss of ATM protein is not sufficient to induce cerebellar degeneration in mice.

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