Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: TGFBR3 (cancer-related)
Rougemont AL, Berczy M, Lin Marq N, et al.Targeted RNA-sequencing identifies FBXW4 instead of MGEA5 as fusion partner of TGFBR3 in pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 475(2):251-254 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor of intermediate malignancy. PHAT, and the related hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor, show a recurrent t(1;10)(p22;q24). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) clones have previously identified TGFBR3 and MGEA5 as fusion partners. However, targeted RNA-sequencing allowed for the correct identification of FBXW4 and not MGEA5 as the fusion partner of TGFBR3 in a subcutaneous PHAT, a finding further confirmed by RT-PCR. FBXW4 and MGEA5 share a common cytogenetic location at 10q24.32, thereby suggesting that the use of less precise technology may have led to inaccurate gene identification. The study of additional cases is however required.
The type III TGF-β receptor (TβRIII) is a TGF-β co-receptor that presents ligand to the type II TGF-β receptor to initiate signaling. TβRIII also undergoes ectodomain shedding to release a soluble form (sTβRIII) that can bind ligand, sequestering it away from cell surface receptors. We have previously identified a TβRIII extracellular mutant that has enhanced ectodomain shedding ("super shedding (SS)"-TβRIII-SS). Here, we utilize TβRIII-SS to study the balance of cell surface and soluble TβRIII in the context of lung cancer. We demonstrate that expressing TβRIII-SS in lung cancer cell models induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and that these TβRIII-SS (EMT) cells are less migratory, invasive and adhesive and more resistant to gemcitabine. Moreover, TβRIII-SS (EMT) cells exhibit decreased tumorigenicity but increased growth rate in vitro and in vivo. These studies suggest that the balance of cell surface and soluble TβRIII may regulate a dichotomous role for TβRIII during cancer progression.
Pituitary adenoma (PA) is prevalent in the general population. Due to its severe complications and aggressive infiltration into the surrounding brain structure, the effective management of PA is required. Till now, no drug has been approved for treating non-functional PA, and the removal of cancerous cells from the pituitary is still under experimental investigation. Due to its superior specificity and safety profile, immunotherapy stands as one of the most promising strategies for dealing with PA refractory to the standard treatment, and various studies have been carried out to discover immune-related gene markers as target candidates. However, the lists of gene markers identified among different studies are reported to be highly inconsistent because of the greatly limited number of samples analyzed in each study. It is thus essential to substantially enlarge the sample size and comprehensively assess the robustness of the identified immune-related gene markers. Herein, a novel strategy of direct data integration (DDI) was proposed to combine available PA microarray datasets, which significantly enlarged the sample size. First, the robustness of the gene markers identified by DDI strategy was found to be substantially enhanced compared with that of previous studies. Then, the DDI of all reported PA-related microarray datasets were conducted to achieve a comprehensive identification of PA gene markers, and 66 immune-related genes were discovered as target candidates for PA immunotherapy. Finally, based on the analysis of human protein⁻protein interaction network, some promising target candidates (
Mouse models of cancer play an important role in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that contribute to tumorigenesis. The extent to which these models resemble one another and their human counterparts at the molecular level is critical in understanding tumorigenesis. In this study, we carried out a comparative gene expression analysis to generate a detailed molecular portrait of a transgenic mouse model of IGFIR-driven lung cancer. IGFIR-driven tumors displayed a strong resemblance with established mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma, particularly EGFR-driven models highlighted by elevated levels of the EGFR ligands Ereg and Areg. Cross-species analysis revealed a shared increase in human lung adenocarcinoma markers including Nkx2.1 and Napsa as well as alterations in a subset of genes with oncogenic and tumor suppressive properties such as Aurka, Ret, Klf4 and Lats2. Integrated miRNA and mRNA analysis in IGFIR-driven tumors identified interaction pairs with roles in ErbB signaling while cross-species analysis revealed coordinated expression of a subset of conserved miRNAs and their targets including miR-21-5p (Reck, Timp3 and Tgfbr3). Overall, these findings support the use of SPC-IGFIR mice as a model of human lung adenocarcinoma and provide a comprehensive knowledge base to dissect the molecular pathogenesis of tumor initiation and progression.
Liu C, Yang Z, Deng Z, et al.Upregulated lncRNA ADAMTS9-AS2 suppresses progression of lung cancer through inhibition of miR-223-3p and promotion of TGFBR3.
IUBMB Life. 2018; 70(6):536-546 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In this study, we aimed at investigating effects of lncRNA ADAMTS9-AS2 on lung cancer progression through regulating miR-223-3p and TGFBR3 expressions. Expressions of ADAMTS9-AS2 in lung cancer tissues and cell lines were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). TargetScan and miRcode were used to predict the targeting relationships, respectively. The luciferase reporter system was used to verify that the relationship among ADAMTS9-AS2, TGFBR3 and miR-223-3p. Western blot assay tested the protein level changes in TGFBR3. Cell proliferation was determined by CCK-8 assay. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry assay, and migration and invasion were determined by transwell assay. Tumor xenograft model was developed to study the influence of ADAMTS9-AS2 on tumor growth in vivo. qRT-PCR results demonstrated that lncADAMTS9-AS2 was lowly expressed in lung cancer tissues. High expression of ADAMTS9-AS2 in lung cancer cells significantly reduced proliferation ability and inhibited migration, as well as elevating their apoptosis rate. In vivo assay found that ADAMTS9-AS2 suppressed the lung tumor growth. Bioinformatics predicted that miR-223-3p bound directly to the ADAMTS9-AS2 and TGFBR3, which was later confirmed by luciferase reporter system. ADAMTS9-AS2 transfection increased TGFBR3 mRNA and protein expressions in lung cancer cells, but miR-223-3p transfection significantly decreased them. Besides, our results showed that miR-223-3p induced cellular apoptosis while TGFBR3 group showed the complete opposite effect. It was proved that ADAMTS9-AS2 and TGFBR3 were the direct genes of miR-223-3p. MiR-223-3p promotes proliferation, migration and invasion of lung cancer cells by targeting TGFBR3. Therefore, ADAMTS9-AS2, miR-223-3p and TGFBR3 may provide potential targets for the treatment of lung cancer patients. © 2018 IUBMB Life, 70(6):536-546, 2018.
Yu-Lee LY, Yu G, Lee YC, et al.Osteoblast-Secreted Factors Mediate Dormancy of Metastatic Prostate Cancer in the Bone via Activation of the TGFβRIII-p38MAPK-pS249/T252RB Pathway.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(11):2911-2924 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bone metastasis from prostate cancer can occur years after prostatectomy, due to reactivation of dormant disseminated tumor cells (DTC) in the bone, yet the mechanism by which DTCs are initially induced into a dormant state in the bone remains to be elucidated. We show here that the bone microenvironment confers dormancy to C4-2B4 prostate cancer cells, as they become dormant when injected into mouse femurs but not under the skin. Live-cell imaging of dormant cells at the single-cell level revealed that conditioned medium from differentiated, but not undifferentiated, osteoblasts induced C4-2B4 cellular quiescence, suggesting that differentiated osteoblasts present locally around the tumor cells in the bone conferred dormancy to prostate cancer cells. Gene array analyses identified GDF10 and TGFβ2 among osteoblast-secreted proteins that induced quiescence of C4-2B4, C4-2b, and PC3-mm2, but not 22RV1 or BPH-1 cells, indicating prostate cancer tumor cells differ in their dormancy response. TGFβ2 and GDF10 induced dormancy through TGFβRIII to activate phospho-p38MAPK, which phosphorylates retinoblastoma (RB) at the novel N-terminal S249/T252 sites to block prostate cancer cell proliferation. Consistently, expression of dominant-negative p38MAPK in C4-2b and C4-2B4 prostate cancer cell lines abolished tumor cell dormancy both
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer characterizes high recurrence and poor prognosis. In clinical practice, radiotherapy is widely used for pancreatic cancer treatment. However, the outcome remains undesirable due to tumor repopulation and following recurrence and metastasis after radiation. So, it is highly needed to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms and accordingly develop therapeutic strategies. Our previous studies revealed that dying cells from chemoradiation could stimulate repopulation of surviving pancreatic cancer cells. However, we still knew little how dying cells provoke pancreatic cancer cell repopulation. We herein would explore the significance of TGF-β2 changes and investigate the modulation of microRNA-193a (miR-193a), and identify their contributions to pancreatic cancer repopulation and metastasis.
METHODS: In vitro and in vivo repopulation models were established to mimic the biological processes of pancreatic cancer after radiation. Western blot, real-time PCR and dual-luciferase reporter assays were accordingly used to detect miR-193a and TGF-β2/TGF-βRIII signalings at the level of molecular, cellular and experimental animal model, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis, wound healing and transwell assay, vascular endothelial cell penetration experiment, and bioluminescence imaging were employed to assessthe biological behaviors of pancreatic cancer after different treatments. Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) mice models were established to evaluate the therapeutic potential of miR-193a antagonist on pancreatic cancer repopulation and metastasis after radiation.
RESULTS: miR-193a was highly expressed in the irradiated pancreatic cancer dying cells, accordingly elevated the level of miR-193a in surviving cells, and further promoted pancreatic cancer repopulation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. miR-193a accelerated pancreatic cancer cell cycle and stimulated cell proliferation and repopulation through inhibiting TGF-β2/TGF-βRIII/SMADs/E2F6/c-Myc signaling, and even destroyed normal intercellular junctions and promoted metastasis via repressing TGF-β2/TGF-βRIII/ARHGEF15/ABL2 pathway. Knockdown of miR-193a or restoration of TGF-β2/TGF-βRIII signaling in pancreatic cancer cells was found to block pancreatic cancer repopulation and metastasis after radiation. In PDX models, the treatment in combination with miR-193a antagonist and radiation was found to dramatically inhibit pancreatic cancer cell repopulation and metastasis, and further improved the survival after radiation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that miR-193a stimulated pancreatic cancer cell repopulation and metastasis through modulating TGF-β2/TGF-βRIII signalings, and miR-193a might be a potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer repopulation and metastasis.
Nishida J, Miyazono K, Ehata SDecreased TGFBR3/betaglycan expression enhances the metastatic abilities of renal cell carcinoma cells through TGF-β-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(16):2197-2212 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TGF-β regulates both the tumor-forming and migratory abilities of various types of cancer cells. However, it is unclear how the loss of TGF-β signaling components affects these abilities in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). In this study, we investigated the role of TGFBR3 (TGF-β type III receptor, also known as betaglycan) in ccRCC. Database analysis revealed decreased expression of TGFBR3 in ccRCC tissues, which correlated with poor prognosis in patients. Orthotopic inoculation experiments using immunocompromised mice indicated that low TGFBR3 expression in ccRCC cells enhanced primary tumor formation and lung metastasis. In the presence of TGFBR3, TGF-β2 decreased the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive ccRCC cell population, in which renal cancer-initiating cells are enriched. Loss of TGFBR3 also enhanced cell migration in cell culture and induced expression of several mesenchymal markers in a TGF-β-independent manner. Increased lamellipodium formation by FAK-PI3K signaling was observed with TGFBR3 downregulation, and this contributed to TGF-β-independent cell migration in ccRCC cells. Taken together, our findings reveal that loss of TGFBR3 endows ccRCC cells with multiple metastatic abilities through TGF-β-dependent and independent pathways.
Previous studies indicate that TGFBR3 (transforming growth factor type III receptor, also known as betaglycan), a novel suppressor of progression in certain cancers, is down-regulated in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). However, the role of this factor as an upstream regulator in TSCC cells remains to be elucidated. The present study was designed to elucidate whether TGFBR3 gene expression is regulated by two microRNA molecules, miR-19a and miR-424. The study also aimed to determine if these microRNAs promote migration of CAL-27 human oral squamous cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot analyses demonstrated that TGFBR3 protein levels were dramatically down-regulated in clinical TSCC specimens. Conversely, bioinformatics analyses and qRT-PCR results confirmed that both miR-19a and miR-424 were markedly up-regulated in clinical TSCC specimens. In this study, we observed that transfection of a TGFBR3-containing plasmid dramatically inhibited epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration in CAL-27 cells. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses also revealed that TGFBR3 forms a complex with the β-arrestin 2 scaffolding protein and IκBα. Furthermore, overexpression of TGFBR3 decreased p-p65 expression and increased IκBα expression; these effects were subsequently abolished following knockdown of β-arrestin 2. Moreover, over-expression of miR-19a and miR-424 promoted migration and EMT in CAL-27 cells. We also observed that the promotion of EMT by miR-19a and miR-424 was mediated by the inhibition of TGFBR3. Our study provides evidence that miR-19a and miR-424 play important roles in the development of TSCC. These results expand our understanding of TGFBR3 gene expression and regulatory mechanisms pertaining to miRNAs.
Myoepithelial carcinoma (MECA) is an aggressive salivary gland cancer with largely unknown genetic features. Here we comprehensively analyze molecular alterations in 40 MECAs using integrated genomic analyses. We identify a low mutational load, and high prevalence (70%) of oncogenic gene fusions. Most fusions involve the PLAG1 oncogene, which is associated with PLAG1 overexpression. We find FGFR1-PLAG1 in seven (18%) cases, and the novel TGFBR3-PLAG1 fusion in six (15%) cases. TGFBR3-PLAG1 promotes a tumorigenic phenotype in vitro, and is absent in 723 other salivary gland tumors. Other novel PLAG1 fusions include ND4-PLAG1; a fusion between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. We also identify higher number of copy number alterations as a risk factor for recurrence, independent of tumor stage at diagnosis. Our findings indicate that MECA is a fusion-driven disease, nominate TGFBR3-PLAG1 as a hallmark of MECA, and provide a framework for future diagnostic and therapeutic research in this lethal cancer.
Shih YL, Au MK, Liu KL, et al.Ouabain impairs cell migration, and invasion and alters gene expression of human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells.
Environ Toxicol. 2017; 32(11):2400-2413 [PubMed
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Ouabain, the specific Na
Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS) is a low grade soft tissue sarcoma with a predilection for acral sites, being associated with a high rate of local recurrence but very infrequent distant metastases. Although a t(1;10) translocation resulting in TGFBR3-MGEA5 fusion has been reported as a recurrent genetic event in MIFS, this abnormality is seen only in a subset of cases. As no studies to date have investigated the spectrum of alternative genetic alterations in TGFBR3-MGEA5 fusion negative MIFS, we undertook a genetic analysis of this particular cohort for further molecular classification. Triggered by an index case occurring in the finger of a 37-year-old female and harboring a novel TOM1L2-BRAF fusion by targeted RNA sequencing we investigated potential recurrent BRAF abnormalities by screening a large group of 19 TGFBR3-MGEA5 fusion negative MIFS by fluorescence in situ hybridization. There were 6 (32%) additional MIFS with BRAF genetic abnormalities, including 5 gene rearrangements and one showing BRAF amplification. Interestingly, VGLL3 amplification, a recurrent genetic abnormality coexisting with t(1;10) in some MIFS, was also detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 4/6 (67%) BRAF-rearranged MIFS, but not in the BRAF-amplified case. Up-regulated VGLL3 mRNA expression was also demonstrated in the index case by RNA sequencing. The 7 BRAF-rearranged/amplified MIFS arose in the fingers (n=3), and 1 each in wrist, forearm, foot, and knee, of adult patients (36 to 74 y; M:F=4:3). The histologic spectrum ranged from predominantly solid growth of plump histiocytoid to epithelioid tumor cells with focal myxoid change to a predominantly myxoid background with scattered tumor cells. Varying degree of inflammatory infiltrates and large tumor cells with virocyte-like macronucleoli were observed in most cases. Immunohistochemical stains of phosphorylated ERK, a downstream effector of BRAF activation, were positive in all 4 cases tested (2 diffuse strong, 2 focal strong). Unlike t(1;10), BRAF rearrangements were only found in MIFS but not in 6 hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor (HFLT) lacking TGFBR3-MGEA5 fusions (including 2 pure HFLT, 2 hybrid HFLT-MIFS, and 2 associated with pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumors).
Landero-Huerta DA, Vigueras-Villasenor RM, Yokoyama-Rebollar E, et al.Epigenetic and risk factors of testicular germ cell tumors: a brief review.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2017; 22:1073-1098 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Testicular germ cell cancer (TGCT) is the most common malignancy among young adult males, which has become important due to its increased incidence and mortality in the population worldwide. The etiology is multifactorial. Recent studies have shown some associations between the development of isolated TGCT and certain risk factors, such as exposure to endocrine disruptors, cryptorchidism, and family history of cancer, in order to identify the key pieces in carcinogenesis. Some of the most important findings in recent years is the association of different genes, such as
Zreik RT, Carter JM, Sukov WR, et al.TGFBR3 and MGEA5 rearrangements are much more common in "hybrid" hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor-myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcomas than in classical myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcomas: a morphological and fluorescence in situ hybridization study.
Hum Pathol. 2016; 53:14-24 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS) is a rare low-grade sarcoma that most often involves the distal extremities of adults. Some MIFSs have been reported to show TGFBR3 and MGEA5 rearrangements. TGFBR3 and MGEA5 rearrangements have also been reported in hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor (HFLT), in pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT), and in rare tumors allegedly showing features of both HFLT and MIFS (hybrid HFLT-MIFS). These findings have led to speculation that HFLT, MIFS, PHAT, and hybrid HFLT-MIFS are closely related; however, areas resembling HFLTs are only very rarely encountered in previous series of MIFSs. We studied classic examples of these tumors with the goal of clarifying the relationship between MIFS and HFLT-MIFS. Cases of MIFS (n=31), hybrid HFLT-MIFS (n=8), PHAT (n=2), HFLT (n=1), and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (n=4) were retrieved from our archives, and the diagnoses were verified by 5 soft tissue pathologists. Using previously validated break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization probes, we analyzed for TGFBR3 and MGEA5 rearrangements. Only 2 of 31 MIFSs harbored MGEA5 rearrangements; all lacked TGFBR3 rearrangements. Six of 8 hybrid HFLT-MIFSs harbored rearrangements of TGFBR3 and/or MGEA5. Both PHATs were positive for rearrangements of TGFBR3 and/or MGEA5. The HFLT was positive for rearrangements of both TGFBR3 and MGEA5. All undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas with focal myxoid change were negative. We conclude that (1) TGFBR3 and/or MGEA5 rearrangements are much more common in hybrid HFLT-MIFSs than in classic MIFSs, (2) HFLTs and MIFSs may be unrelated lesions, and (3) hybrid HFLT-MIFSs most likely represent HFLTs with sarcomatous progression, rather than tumors strictly related to classic MIFSs.
Zhang S, Sun WY, Wu JJ, et al.Decreased expression of the type III TGF-β receptor enhances metastasis and invasion in hepatocellullar carcinoma progression.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(4):2373-81 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily of cytokines is multifunctional and involved in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. TGF-β can induce an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of both epithelial and endothelial cells. This has consequences for cancer progression in regards to both migration and invasion abilities. The type III TGF-β receptor (TβRIII) is a ubiquitously expressed TGF-β co-receptor which regulates TGF-β signaling and the progression of various types of cancer. Previous studies have shown that TβRIII exhibits abnormal expression and plays an essential role in regulating cancer invasion and metastasis, while little is known in regards to its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. In the present study, we designed the present research to study the role of TβRIII in the invasion and metastasis of HCC and the possible mechanisms involved. The results demonstrated decreased expression of TβRIII in HCC patient tissues and human HCC cell lines. TGF-β1 stimulation led to the increased migratory ability and reduced expression of TβRIII in HCC cells. In addition, knockdown of TβRIII by small interfering RNA (siRNA) promoted the migration and invasion of HCC cells and induced activation of the Smad2 and Akt pathways. All the results suggest that TβRIII is a novel suppressor of HCC progression.
Morency E, Laskin W, Lin XCytologic and Histologic Features of Pleomorphic Undifferentiated Sarcoma Arising in a Hybrid Hemosiderotic Fibrolipomatous Tumor and Pleomorphic Hyalinizing Angiectatic Tumor: Report of an Unusual Case with a Literature Review.
Acta Cytol. 2015; 59(6):493-7 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT) and hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor (HFLT) are low-grade neoplasms that share clinicopathologic features and recurring translocation t(1;10)(p22;q24) involving the TGFBR3 and MGEA5 genes. Coexistence of these tumors with a high-grade sarcoma is exceedingly rare and the cytologic features have not been widely described in the literature.
CASE: A 55-year-old female presented with a soft tissue tumor on the dorsum of the foot. Cytologic smears and corresponding core biopsies were composed of a population of markedly pleomorphic spindle cells seen singly and in loose clusters within a myxofibrous matrix and infiltrating fat, with coarse chromatin, prominent nucleoli, irregular nuclear contours and delicate to vacuolated cytoplasm. Intracytoplasmic hemosiderin granules and rare intranuclear cytoplasmic pseudoinclusions were identified. The histologic features of the excisional biopsy mirrored those of the cytologic preparations, but also demonstrated cellular foci of higher-grade sarcoma composed of markedly pleomorphic tumor cells with large vesicular nuclei and prominent nucleoli, exhibiting a mitotic index of 12 mitotic figures per 10 high-powered fields.
CONCLUSION: While HFLT/PHAT generally can be managed by wide local excision, it is important to be aware of their capacity to harbor higher-grade lesions with metastatic potential which may require more radical surgical excision.
Michal M, Kazakov DV, Hadravský L, et al.Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor revisited: all tumors manifest typical morphologic features of myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma, further suggesting 2 morphologic variants of a single entity.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2016; 20:40-3 [PubMed
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We describe 9 cases of pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT). Recently described TGFBR3 and MGEA5 gene rearrangements in these tumors have confirmed the long-hypothesized link between PHAT and another soft tissue entity, the myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS). Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma and PHAT share the same translocation and in addition have a very similar clinical presentation. However, to our best knowledge, no study has ever addressed the striking morphologic similarities between MIFS and PHAT. Our findings based on histological criteria suggest that most, if not all, tumors diagnosed as PHAT might, in fact, represent examples of MIFS that, in addition to a conventional MIFS morphology, manifest aberrant angiectatic hyalinized vessels.
Xu D, Li D, Lu Z, et al.Type III TGF-β receptor inhibits cell proliferation and migration in salivary glands adenoid cystic carcinoma by suppressing NF-κB signaling.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(1):267-74 [PubMed
] Related Publications
It is known that the TGF-β superfamily receptors act as master regulators of cancer progression. However, alteration and role of type III TGF-β receptor (TβRIII, or betaglycan) as the most abundant of the TGF-β receptor has not been explored in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Here, we reported that tumor biopsies and matched normal human salivary glands from patients with ACC were examined for the expression of TβRIII. The expression of TβRIII protein is significantly decreased in ACC patients based on immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. In vitro, a transient overexpression of TβRIII markedly induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, thereby inhibited cell viability and migration of ACC-M cells. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that TβRIII, scaffolding protein-arrestin2 (β-arrestin2) and IκBα formed a complex. Transient overexpression of TβRIII decreased p-p65 expression and increased IκBα expression, which was abolished by knockdown of β-arrestin2. The present study defines TβRIII as a biomarker exerting antitumor action on ACC progression.Gene therapy of TβRIII may be a powerful new approach for ACC disease.
Fernández-Vega I, García-Suárez O, García B, et al.Heparan sulfate proteoglycans undergo differential expression alterations in right sided colorectal cancer, depending on their metastatic character.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:742 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are complex molecules involved in the growth, invasion and metastatic properties of cancerous cells. This study analyses the alterations in the expression patterns of these molecules in right sided colorectal cancer (CRC), both metastatic and non-metastatic.
METHODS: Twenty right sided CRCs were studied. A transcriptomic approach was used, employing qPCR to analyze both the expression of the enzymes involved in heparan sulfate (HS) chains biosynthesis, as well as the proteoglycan core proteins. Since some of these proteoglycans can also carry chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains, we include the study of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these glycosaminoglycans. Immunohistochemical techniques were also used to analyze tissue expression of particular genes showing significant expression differences, of potential interest.
RESULTS: Changes in proteoglycan core proteins differ depending on their location; those located intracellularly or in the extracellular matrix show very similar alteration patterns, while those located on the cell surface vary greatly depending on the nature of the tumor: glypicans 1, 3, 6 and betaglycan are affected in the non-metastatic tumors, whereas in the metastatic, only glypican-1 and syndecan-1 are modified, the latter showing opposing alterations in levels of RNA and of protein, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation in these tumors. Furthermore, in non-metastatic tumors, polymerization of glycosaminoglycan chains is modified, particularly affecting the synthesis of the tetrasaccharide linker and the initiation and elongation of CS chains, HS chains being less affected. Regarding the enzymes responsible for the modificaton of the HS chains, alterations were only found in non-metastatic tumors, affecting N-sulfation and the isoforms HS6ST1, HS3ST3B and HS3ST5. In contrast, synthesis of the CS chains suggests changes in epimerization and sulfation of the C4 and C2 in both types of tumor.
CONCLUSIONS: Right sided CRCs show alterations in the expression of HSPGs, including the expression of the cell surface core proteins, many glycosiltransferases and some enzymes that modify the HS chains depending on the metastatic nature of the tumor, resulting more affected in non-metastatic ones. However, matrix proteoglycans and enzymes involved in CS fine structure synthesis are extensively modified independetly of the presence of lymph node metastasis.
The transforming growth factor type III receptor (TβRIII), also known as β-glycan, is a multi-functional sensor that regulates growth, migration and apoptosis in most cancer cells. We hereby investigated the expression of TβRIII in clinical specimens of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and the underlying mechanism that TβRIII inhibits the growth of CAL-27 human oral squamous cells. The TSCC tissues showed a significant decrease in TβRIII protein expression as detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot analysis. Transfection of TβRIII-containing plasmid DNA dramatically promoted TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml)-induced decrease in cell viability, apoptosis and cell arrest at the G0-/G1-phase. Moreover, transient overexpression of TβRIII enhanced the TGF-β1-induced cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2b (CDKN2b) and p38 protein activity, but did not affect the activities of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) in CAL-27 cells. These results suggest overexpression of TβRIII receptor restored TGF-β1 sensitivity in CAL-27 cells, which may provide some new insights on exploiting this molecule therapeutically.
BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an incurable malignancy of mature B-lymphocytes, characterized as being a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical manifestation and survival. Mutational statuses of rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGVH) genes has been consider one of the most important prognostic factors in CLL, but despite of its proven value to predict the course of the disease, the regulatory programs and biological mechanisms responsible for the differences in clinical behavior are poorly understood.
METHODS: In this study, (i) we performed differential gene expression analysis between the IGVH statuses using multiple and independent CLL cohorts in microarrays platforms, based on this information, (ii) we constructed a simplified protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and (iii) investigated its structure and critical genes. This provided the basis to (iv) develop a Boolean model, (v) infer biological regulatory mechanism and (vi) performed perturbation simulations in order to analyze the network in dynamic state.
RESULTS: The result of topological analysis and the Boolean model showed that the transcriptional relationships of IGVH mutational status were determined by specific regulatory proteins (PTEN, FOS, EGR1, TNF, TGFBR3, IFGR2 and LPL). The dynamics of the network was controlled by attractors whose genes were involved in multiple and diverse signaling pathways, which may suggest a variety of mechanisms related with progression occurring over time in the disease. The overexpression of FOS and TNF fixed the fate of the system as they can activate important genes implicated in the regulation of process of adhesion, apoptosis, immune response, cell proliferation and other signaling pathways related with cancer.
CONCLUSION: The differences in prognosis prediction of the IGVH mutational status are related with several regulatory hubs that determine the dynamic of the system.
Morabito F, Cutrona G, Mosca L, et al.Surrogate molecular markers for IGHV mutational status in chronic lymphocytic leukemia for predicting time to first treatment.
Leuk Res. 2015; 39(8):840-5 [PubMed
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ZAP-70 is a marker of clinical outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), however its assessment suffers from a lack of standardization consensus. To identify novel markers able to surrogate IGHV mutational status, CD19(+)CD5(+)-B-lymphocytes from 216 patients enrolled in a prospective study (ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier:NCT00917540), underwent gene expression profiling. Samples were split into CLL-Training (n=102) and CLL-Validation (n=114) sets, and an independent supervised analysis for IGHV mutational status was performed considering all genes with gene expression equal or above that of ZAP-70. Thirty-one genes (23 up- and 8 down-regulated) and 23 genes (18 up- and 5 down-regulated) satisfied these criteria in the CLL-Training and CLL-Validation sets, respectively, and 20 common genes (15 up and 5 down) were found to be differentially regulated in both sets. Two (SNORA70F, NRIP1) of the down-regulated and 6 (SEPT10, ZNF667, TGFBR3, MBOAT1, LPL, CRY1) of the up-regulated genes were significantly associated with a reduced risk of disease progression in both sets. Forcing the afore-mentioned genes in a Cox multivariate model together with IGHV mutational status, only CRY1 (HR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.1-4.9, P=.027) and MBOAT1 (HR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-3.7, P=.018) retained their independent prognostic impact, supporting the hypothesis that these genes may potentially act as surrogates for predicting IGHV mutational status.
Cheng CW, Hsiao JR, Fan CC, et al.Loss of GDF10/BMP3b as a prognostic marker collaborates with TGFBR3 to enhance chemotherapy resistance and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Carcinog. 2016; 55(5):499-513 [PubMed
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Growth differentiation factor-10 (GDF10), commonly referred as BMP3b, is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. GDF10/BMP3b has been considered as a tumor suppressor, however, little is known about the molecular mechanism of its roles in tumor suppression in oral cancer. Clinical significance of GDF10 downregulation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was evaluated using three independent cohorts of OSCC patients. The molecular mechanisms of GDF10 in the suppression of cell survival, cell migration/invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were investigated by using oral cancer cell lines. The present study shows that GDF10 is downregulated during oral carcinogenesis, and GDF10 expression is also an independent risk factor for overall survival of OSCC patients. Overexpression of GDF10 attenuates cell proliferation, transformation, migration/invasion, and EMT. GDF10-inhibited EMT is mediated by ERK signaling but not by typical TGF-β signaling. In addition, overexpression of GDF10 promotes DNA damage-induced apoptosis and sensitizes the response to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and camptothecin (CPT). Intriguingly, the expression of GDF10 is induced by type III TGF-β receptor (TGFBR3) through TGF-β-SMAD2/3 signaling. Our findings suggest that TGFBR3 is an upstream activator of GDF10 expression and they share the same signaling to inhibit EMT and migration/invasion. These results support that GDF10 acts as a hinge to collaborate with TGFBR3 in the transition of EMT-MET program. Taken together, we illustrated the clinical significance and the molecular mechanisms of tumor-suppressive GDF10 in OSCC.
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a dynamic process that relies on cellular plasticity. Recently, the process of an oncogenic EMT, followed by a reverse mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), has been implicated as critical in the metastatic colonization of carcinomas. Unlike governance of epithelial programming, regulation of mesenchymal programming is not well understood in EMT. Here, we describe and characterize the first microRNA that enhances exclusively mesenchymal programming. We demonstrate that miR-424 is upregulated early during a TWIST1 or SNAI1-induced EMT, and that it causes cells to express mesenchymal genes without affecting epithelial genes, resulting in a mixed/intermediate EMT. Furthermore, miR-424 increases motility, decreases adhesion, and induces a growth arrest, changes associated with a complete EMT that can be reversed when miR-424 expression is lowered, concomitant with an MET-like process. Breast cancer patient miR-424 levels positively associate with TWIST1/2 and EMT-like gene signatures, and miR-424 is increased in primary tumors versus matched normal breast. However, miR-424 is downregulated in patient metastases versus matched primary tumors. Correspondingly, miR-424 decreases tumor initiation and is posttranscriptionally downregulated in macrometastases in mice, suggesting the need for biphasic expression of miR-424 to transit the EMT-MET axis. Next-generation RNA sequencing revealed miR-424 regulates numerous EMT and cancer stemness-associated genes, including TGFBR3, whose downregulation promotes mesenchymal phenotypes, but not tumor-initiating phenotypes. Instead, we demonstrate that increased MAPK-ERK signaling is critical for miR-424-mediated decreases in tumor-initiating phenotypes. These findings suggest miR-424 plays distinct roles in tumor progression, potentially facilitating earlier, but repressing later, stages of metastasis by regulating an EMT-MET axis.
UNLABELLED: The LIN28B→let-7 pathway contributes to regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem cell self-renewal. The oncogenic MUC1-C transmembrane protein is aberrantly overexpressed in lung and other carcinomas; however, there is no known association between MUC1-C and the LIN28B→let-7 pathway. Here in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), silencing MUC1-C downregulates the RNA-binding protein LIN28B and coordinately increases the miRNA let-7. Targeting MUC1-C function with a dominant-negative mutant or a peptide inhibitor provided confirming evidence that MUC1-C induces LIN28B→let-7 signaling. Mechanistically, MUC1-C promotes NF-κB p65 chromatin occupancy of the LIN28B first intron and activates LIN28B transcription, which is associated with suppression of let-7. Consistent with let-7-mediated inhibition of HMGA2 transcripts, targeting of MUC1-C also decreases HMGA2 expression. HMGA2 has been linked to stemness, and functions as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of let-7-mediated regulation of the TGFβ coreceptor TGFBR3. Accordingly, targeting MUC1-C suppresses HMGA2 mRNA and protein, which is associated with decreases in TGFBR3, reversal of the EMT phenotype, and inhibition of self-renewal capacity. These findings support a model in which MUC1-C activates the ⇑LIN28B→⇓let-7→⇑HMGA2 axis in NSCLC and thereby promotes EMT traits and stemness.
IMPLICATIONS: A novel pathway is defined in which MUC1-C drives LIN28B→let-7→HMGA2 signaling, EMT, and self-renewal in NSCLC.
Ieremia E, Thway KMyxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma: morphologic and genetic updates.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2014; 138(10):1406-11 [PubMed
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Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS) is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm most frequently arising in the distal extremities of adults, which usually behaves in a low-grade manner but is capable of metastasizing to local and distant sites, rarely leading to death. It is a rare tumor whose unusual morphology can lead to erroneous histologic diagnosis, either as a nonneoplastic (infectious or inflammatory) process or as a variety of neoplastic diseases. While its exact origin is uncertain, ultrastructural studies have shown at least some of the constituent cells to be modified fibroblasts. Distinct and reproducible genetic abnormalities identified in MIFS are translocation t(1;10)(p22:q24), with rearrangements of the TGFBR3 and MGEA5 genes associated with increased levels of FGF8, and formation of marker/ring chromosome 3, with amplification of the VGLL3 locus. Because these genetic abnormalities are shared by both MIFS and hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous tumor, it is thought that these 2 morphologically distinct neoplasms may comprise a spectrum of disease defined by these genetics. We review the literature on MIFS and discuss morphology (including that of MIFS/hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous tumor hybrid lesions), immunohistochemistry, the differential diagnosis, and recent molecular genetic developments.
Bilandzic M, Wang Y, Ahmed N, et al.Betaglycan blocks metastatic behaviors in human granulosa cell tumors by suppressing NFκB-mediated induction of MMP2.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 354(1):107-14 [PubMed
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Metastatic ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCT) exhibit loss of betaglycan. Here we test the hypothesis that betaglycan blocks GCT metastasis by suppressing NFκB/TGFβ2-induced matrix metalloprotinease-2 (MMP2). Human GCT and a human GCT cell model demonstrated prominent MMP2 expression, which was dependent on NFκB activity and stimulated by TGFβ2 in an NFκB-dependent manner. Betaglycan suppressed both basal and TGFβ2-induced MMP2 expression and countered metastatic behaviors of GCT cells in non-adherent spheroid culture and in vivo xenograft models of metastasis. These data suggest that NFκB/TGFβ2 promotes, and betaglycan impedes, the early stages of GCT metastasis, when tumor cells first invade the peritoneum.
INTRODUCTION: There is a major need to better understand the molecular basis of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in order to develop effective therapeutic strategies. Using gene expression data from 587 TNBC patients we previously identified six subtypes of the disease, among which a mesenchymal-stem like (MSL) subtype. The MSL subtype has significantly higher expression of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) pathway-associated genes relative to other subtypes, including the TGF-β receptor type III (TβRIII). We hypothesize that TβRIII is tumor promoter in mesenchymal-stem like TNBC cells.
METHODS: Representative MSL cell lines SUM159, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 were used to study the roles of TβRIII in the MSL subtype. We stably expressed short hairpin RNAs specific to TβRIII (TβRIII-KD). These cells were then used for xenograft tumor studies in vivo; and migration, invasion, proliferation and three dimensional culture studies in vitro. Furthermore, we utilized human gene expression datasets to examine TβRIII expression patterns across all TNBC subtypes.
RESULTS: TβRIII was the most differentially expressed TGF-β signaling gene in the MSL subtype. Silencing TβRIII expression in MSL cell lines significantly decreased cell motility and invasion. In addition, when TβRIII-KD cells were grown in a three dimensional (3D) culture system or nude mice, there was a loss of invasive protrusions and a significant decrease in xenograft tumor growth, respectively. In pursuit of the mechanistic underpinnings for the observed TβRIII-dependent phenotypes, we discovered that integrin-α2 was expressed at higher level in MSL cells after TβRIII-KD. Stable knockdown of integrin-α2 in TβRIII-KD MSL cells rescued the ability of the MSL cells to migrate and invade at the same level as MSL control cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We have found that TβRIII is required for migration and invasion in vitro and xenograft growth in vivo. We also show that TβRIII-KD elevates expression of integrin-α2, which is required for the reduced migration and invasion, as determined by siRNA knockdown studies of both TβRIII and integrin-α2. Overall, our results indicate a potential mechanism in which TβRIII modulates integrin-α2 expression to effect MSL cell migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity.
Elderbroom JL, Huang JJ, Gatza CE, et al.Ectodomain shedding of TβRIII is required for TβRIII-mediated suppression of TGF-β signaling and breast cancer migration and invasion.
Mol Biol Cell. 2014; 25(16):2320-32 [PubMed
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The type III transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor (TβRIII), also known as betaglycan, is the most abundantly expressed TGF-β receptor. TβRIII suppresses breast cancer progression by inhibiting migration, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. TβRIII binds TGF-β ligands, with membrane-bound TβRIII presenting ligand to enhance TGF-β signaling. However, TβRIII can also undergo ectodomain shedding, releasing soluble TβRIII, which binds and sequesters ligand to inhibit downstream signaling. To investigate the relative contributions of soluble and membrane-bound TβRIII on TGF-β signaling and breast cancer biology, we defined TβRIII mutants with impaired (ΔShed-TβRIII) or enhanced ectodomain shedding (SS-TβRIII). Inhibiting ectodomain shedding of TβRIII increased TGF-β responsiveness and abrogated TβRIII's ability to inhibit breast cancer cell migration and invasion. Conversely, expressing SS-TβRIII, which increased soluble TβRIII production, decreased TGF-β signaling and increased TβRIII-mediated inhibition of breast cancer cell migration and invasion. Of importance, SS-TβRIII-mediated increases in soluble TβRIII production also reduced breast cancer metastasis in vivo. Taken together, these studies suggest that the ratio of soluble TβRIII to membrane-bound TβRIII is an important determinant for regulation of TβRIII- and TGF-β-mediated signaling and biology.
The presence of regulatory T cells (Treg) in solid tumors is known to play a role in patient survival in ovarian cancer and other malignancies. We assessed inherited genetic variations via 749 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 25 Treg-associated genes (CD28, CTLA4, FOXP3, IDO1, IL10, IL10RA, IL15, 1L17RA, IL23A, IL23R, IL2RA, IL6, IL6R, IL8, LGALS1, LGALS9, MAP3K8, STAT5A, STAT5B, TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFBR1, TGRBR2, and TGFBR3) in relation to ovarian cancer survival. We analyzed genotype and overall survival in 10,084 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, including 5,248 high-grade serous, 1,452 endometrioid, 795 clear cell, and 661 mucinous carcinoma cases of European descent across 28 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). The strongest associations were found for endometrioid carcinoma and IL2RA SNPs rs11256497 [HR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22-1.64; P = 5.7 × 10(-6)], rs791587 (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.17-1.57; P = 6.2 × 10(-5)), rs2476491 (HR, = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.19-1.64; P = 5.6 × 10(-5)), and rs10795763 (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.17-1.57; P = 7.9 × 10(-5)), and for clear cell carcinoma and CTLA4 SNP rs231775 (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54-0.82; P = 9.3 × 10(-5)) after adjustment for age, study site, population stratification, stage, grade, and oral contraceptive use. The rs231775 allele associated with improved survival in our study also results in an amino acid change in CTLA4 and previously has been reported to be associated with autoimmune conditions. Thus, we found evidence that SNPs in genes related to Tregs seem to play a role in ovarian cancer survival, particularly in patients with clear cell and endometrioid epithelial ovarian cancer.