Gene Summary

Gene:TFE3; transcription factor binding to IGHM enhancer 3
Aliases: TFEA, RCCP2, RCCX1, bHLHe33
Summary:This gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix domain-containing transcription factor that binds MUE3-type E-box sequences in the promoter of genes. The encoded protein promotes the expression of genes downstream of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling. This gene may be involved in chromosomal translocations in renal cell carcinomas and other cancers, resulting in the production of fusion proteins. Translocation partners include PRCC (papillary renal cell carcinoma), NONO (non-POU domain containing, octamer-binding), and ASPSCR1 (alveolar soft part sarcoma chromosome region, candidate 1), among other genes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor E3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (10)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
-TFE3 and Papillary Carcinoma View Publications21
Lung CancerTFE3 and Lung Cancer View Publications13
Soft Tissue Sarcomader(17)t(X;17)(p11.2;q25) in Alveolar Soft-Part Sarcoma
der(17)t(X;17)(p11;q25) of human alveolar soft part sarcoma fuses the TFE3 transcription factor gene to ASPL 17q25
Kidney Cancert(X;1)(p11;q21) in Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TFE3 (cancer-related)

Kurahashi R, Kadomatsu T, Baba M, et al.
MicroRNA-204-5p: A novel candidate urinary biomarker of Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(6):1897-1908 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (Xp11 tRCC) is a rare sporadic pediatric kidney cancer caused by constitutively active TFE3 fusion proteins. Tumors in patients with Xp11 tRCC tend to recur and undergo frequent metastasis, in part due to lack of methods available to detect early-stage disease. Here we generated transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing the human PRCC-TFE3 fusion gene in renal tubular epithelial cells, as an Xp11 tRCC mouse model. At 20 weeks of age, mice showed no histological abnormalities in kidney but by 40 weeks showed Xp11 tRCC development and related morphological and histological changes. MicroRNA (miR)-204-5p levels in urinary exosomes of 40-week-old Tg mice showing tRCC were significantly elevated compared with levels in control mice. MicroRNA-204-5p expression also significantly increased in primary renal cell carcinoma cell lines established both from Tg mouse tumors and from tumor tissue from 2 Xp11 tRCC patients. All of these lines secreted miR-204-5p-containing exosomes. Notably, we also observed increased miR-204-5p levels in urinary exosomes in 20-week-old renal PRCC-TFE3 Tg mice prior to tRCC development, and those levels were equivalent to those in 40-week-old Tg mice, suggesting that miR-204-5p increases follow expression of constitutively active TFE3 fusion proteins in renal tubular epithelial cells prior to overt tRCC development. Finally, we confirmed that miR-204-5p expression significantly increases in noncancerous human kidney cells after overexpression of a PRCC-TFE3 fusion gene. These findings suggest that miR-204-5p in urinary exosomes could be a useful biomarker for early diagnosis of patients with Xp11 tRCC.

Zhao J, Teng H, Zhao R, et al.
Malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the lung synchronous with a primary adenocarcinoma: one case report and review of the literature.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):235 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Tumors (PEComa) is an extraordinarily rare mesenchymal neoplasm especially the malignant type originating from the lung. To date, only 8 cases of malignant or malignant potential pulmonary PEComa had been documented. Firm diagnostic criteria for malignant pulmonary PEComa need urgently to be established.
CASE PRESENTATION: We report a challenging case of malignant pulmonary PEComa combined with a primary adenocarcinoma in a 54-year-old man. The PEComa-like tumor showed strong Melan-A and weak transcription factor E3 (TFE3) protein expression but no TFE3 gene rearrangement. The carcinoma-like nodule was recognized as a poorly differentiated primary lung adenocarcinoma.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our case report was the first case of malignant pulmonary PEComa synchronous with a primary adenocarcinoma and studied the dilemma of diagnosing benign versus malignant criteria for this uncommon tumor.

Yin X, Wang B, Gan W, et al.
TFE3 fusions escape from controlling of mTOR signaling pathway and accumulate in the nucleus promoting genes expression in Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinomas.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):119 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (tRCC) is mainly caused by translocation of the TFE3 gene located on chromosome Xp11.2 and is characterized by overexpression of the TFE3 fusion gene. Patients are diagnosed with tRCC usually before 45 years of age with poor prognosis. We investigated this disease using two tRCC cell lines, UOK109 and UOK120, in this study.
METHODS: The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathogenic mechanism of TFE3 fusions in tRCC based on its subcellular localization, nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity. The expression of TFE3 fusions and other related genes were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. The subcellular localization of TFE3 was determined using immunofluorescence. The transcriptional activity of TFE3 fusions was measured using a luciferase reporter assay and ChIP analysis. In some experiments, TFE3 fusions were depleted by RNAi or gene knockdown. The TFE3 fusion segments were cloned into a plasmid expression system for expression in cells.
RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that TFE3 fusions were overexpressed in tRCC with a strong nuclear retention irrespective of treatment with an mTORC1 inhibitor or not. TFE3 fusions lost its co-localization with lysosomal proteins and decreased its interaction with the chaperone 14-3-3 proteins in UOK109 and UOK120 cells. However, the fusion segments of TFE3 could not translocate to the nucleus and inhibition of Gsk3β could increase the cytoplasmic retention of TFE3 fusions. Both the luciferase reporter assay and ChIP analysis demonstrated that TFE3 fusions could bind to the promoters of the target genes as a wild-type TFE3 protein. Knockdown of TFE3 results in decreased expression of those genes responsible for lysosomal biogenesis and other target genes. The ChIP-seq data further verified that, in addition to lysosomal genes, TFE3 fusions could regulate genes involved in cellular responses to hypoxic stress and transcription.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that the overexpressed TFE3 fusions were capable of escaping from the control by the mTOR signaling pathway and were accumulated in the nucleus in UOK109 and UOK120 cells. The nuclear retention of TFE3 fusions promoted the expression of lysosomal genes and other target genes, facilitating cancer cell resistance against an extreme environment.

Al-Maghrabi J, Mufti S, Gomaa W
The incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion in Saudi adult patients with renal cancer: a retrospective tissue microarray analysis.
Pol J Pathol. 2018; 69(4):376-383 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common renal tumour. RCC with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 (transcription factor E3) gene fusions (Xp11.2 RCC) is positive for immunostain labelling by TFE3 antibody. This tumour is rarely described in adults. This study aims to evaluate the frequency of RCC with Xp11.2 in a subset of Saudi adult patients with RCC. 112 RCCs diagnosed in 1995-2016 were retrieved from the Department of Pathology at King Abdulaziz University and King and Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Saudi Arabia. Tissue microarrays were constructed and TFE3 immunostaining was performed. TFE3 immunostaining was considered positive when diffuse strong nuclear immunostaining was detected. TFE3 immunostaining-positive tumours were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. 4.5% of RCCs were shown to be Xp11.2 RCC by TFE3 immunostaining. TFE3-positive tumours have a papillary configuration, nested pattern, or both. Positive tumours show male predominance, more occurrences in middle age, high grade, and large-sized tumours with necrosis. Two tumours were FISH-positive. Xp11.2 RCC is rare in Saudi adult patients. Xp11.2 RCCs tend to be large sized and higher grade. TFE3 immunostaining should be considered in RCC that are histologically suggestive to confirm the diagnosis of Xp11.2.

Fukuda H, Kato I, Furuya M, et al.
A novel partner of TFE3 in the Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma: clinicopathological analyses and detection of EWSR1-TFE3 fusion.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 474(3):389-393 [PubMed] Related Publications
The renal cell carcinomas associated with Xp11 translocations (Xp11 translocation RCCs) harbor gene fusions involving TFE3, a member of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF) family. In the present study, we identified a novel partner of TFE3, Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1), in an Xp11 translocation RCC. A 57-year-old Japanese woman without special disease history was referred to us for treatment of an RCC. The resected tumor displayed an alveolar growth pattern with high-grade nuclei. The tumor was diffusely positive for TFE3 and cathepsin K. Anchored multiplex PCR revealed a novel fusion, EWSR1-TFE3. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated the rearrangements of EWSR1 and TFE3. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the chimeric transcript. No neoplasm with EWSR1-TFE3 has been reported so far, in any organ. The results will expand the genomic spectrums of Xp11 translocation RCCs and contribute to better understanding of the roles of the MiTF family in the oncogenic process.

Alaghehbandan R, Ulamec M, Martinek P, et al.
Papillary pattern in clear cell renal cell carcinoma: Clinicopathologic, morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic analysis of 23 cases.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2019; 38:80-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the most common histologic subtype of RCCs, demonstrates a wide spectrum of morphologic features (i.e., low-grade spindle cell, syncytial giant cells, and mucin-producing cells). However, papillary growth pattern in ccRCCs is rather a rare finding, which can present challenges in differential diagnostic work up. The aim of this study was to investigate ccRCCs with predominant papillary features from morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic perspectives. 23 clear cell renal cell carcinomas with papillary architecture were selected. Tumors were evaluated morphologically, immunohistochemically, and molecularly by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The diagnosis of MiT family translocation RCC was excluded by TFE3 immunohistochemistry. Mean age of patients was 65.2 years (range 42-81 years), and 19/23 were male. Tumor size ranged from 1.6 to 12.8 cm (median 6.5 cm). At a median follow-up of 2.5 years (range 1.5-9 years), 2 patients (8.7%) died of disease, 2 developed metastasis. Areas of papillary pattern accounted for approximately 40-100% of the tumor. CK7 was negative in non-papillary areas in majority of cases (20/23, 87%), and was only focally positive in 3/23 cases (13%). In papillary areas, AMACR was positive/focally positive in 17/23 (73.9%) cases and in the non-papillary areas it was positive/focally positive in 22/23 (95.6%) cases. CAIX was mainly negative in both non-papillary and papillary areas (15/23 [65%] and 16/23 [69.5%], respectively). Molecular analysis of 15 analyzable cases revealed the most frequently mutated gene to be VHL (in 9 cases), followed by PRBM1 (in 2 cases) and 29 other different mutations in various genes. Papillary growth pattern in ccRCC is not an uncommon situation. Papillary RCC with clear cells and MiT family (TFE3) translocation RCCs are the major differential diagnostic considerations in such scenarios. Our NGS molecular analysis supported classifying such tumors as a morphologic variant of ccRCC.

Karashima T, Kuno T, Kuroda N, et al.
Bilateral Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma: a case report.
BMC Urol. 2018; 18(1):106 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a rare variety of a kidney neoplasm. We report a case of bilateral Xp11.2 translocation RCC occurring metachronously and discuss this very rare entity with reference to the literature.
CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 56-year-old woman who presented with a right renal tumor. The patient had undergone left radical nephrectomy 7 years previously, which resulted in a histopathological diagnosis of clear cell RCC. Open right partial nephrectomy was performed under the presumptive diagnosis of recurrence of clear cell RCC. The present right renal tumor was pathologically diagnosed Xp11.2 translocation RCC. More than 70% of the tumor cells in the present right tumor were strongly positive for transcription factor E3 (TFE3) expression by immunohistochemical analysis with an anti-TFE3 antibody. A break-apart of the TFE3 genes in the bilateral tumors was identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Real time-polymerase chain reaction analysis for the alveolar soft part sarcoma locus-TFE3 fusion gene was performed, which gave a positive result in the bilateral tumors. Pathological comparison of each of the tumors might lead to a final diagnosis of Xp11.2 translocation RCC occurring metachronously.
CONCLUSIONS: We present the bilateral Xp11.2 translocation RCC. A combination of immunohistochemical, cytogenetic and molecular biological approaches allowed the final diagnosis of such a rare RCC.

Anderson WJ, Hornick JL
Immunohistochemical correlates of recurrent genetic alterations in sarcomas.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2019; 58(2):111-123 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accurate diagnosis of sarcomas relies on the integration of clinical, histopathological and molecular features. Our understanding of the latter has increased dramatically in recent years with the application of high-throughput sequencing. Concomitantly, the role of immunohistochemistry has expanded as genomic alterations have been exploited by the development of diagnostic markers that serve as surrogates for their detection. Herein, we review selected immunohistochemical markers that can infer the presence of diverse molecular events. These include gene fusions in vascular neoplasms (FOSB, CAMTA1 and TFE3), round cell sarcomas (BCOR, DUX4 and WT1), and fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumors (STAT6, ALK and Pan-TRK); amplifications in well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas (MDM2 and CDK4); and deletions in several aggressive neoplasms (SMARCB1 and SMARCA4). Protein correlates of single nucleotide variants (beta-catenin in desmoid fibromatosis) and epigenetic alterations (histone H3K27me3 in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor) and markers discovered through gene expression profiling (NKX2.2 and MUC4) are also discussed.

Kuroda N, Sugawara E, Kusano H, et al.
A review of ALK-rearranged renal cell carcinomas with a focus on clinical and pathobiological aspects.
Pol J Pathol. 2018; 69(2):109-113 [PubMed] Related Publications
ALK-rearranged renal cell carcinoma (ALK-RCC) has been recently proposed and incorporated into the recent World Health Organisation Classification of renal tumours as a provisional entity. In this article, we review ALK-RCC with a focus on clinical and pathobiological aspects. Seventeen cases have been described to date. ALK-RCC accounts for less than 1% of all renal tumours. The age of patients ranges from 6 to 61 years with a mean age of 29.6 years. Grossly, the tumour forms were ill-demarcated or well demarcated solid mass in the renal medulla. Histologically, RCC with VCL-ALK translocation resembles renal medullary carcinoma and mucinous cribriform pattern, signet-ring cell pattern and solid rhabdoid pattern are often observed in RCC with non-VCL-ALK fusion. Immunohistochemically, ALK protein diffusely expresses and TFE3 is often expressed. ALK gene can fuse to VCL, TPM3, EML4, HOOK1 or STRN gene. A break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridisation study is clinically available for the practice of definite diagnosis. ALK inhibitor therapy will provide great benefit for patients with advanced stage of ALK-RCC in the near future.

Verma SP, Das P
Monensin induces cell death by autophagy and inhibits matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) in UOK146 renal cell carcinoma cell line.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2018; 54(10):736-742 [PubMed] Related Publications
Monensin is a metal ionophore used as anticancer agent in many types of cancer cells. In this study, therapeutic potential of monensin was evaluated in TFE3 translocated renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell line UOK146. UOK146 cells were treated with different concentrations of monensin, and cell death was induced as shown by MTT assay. Autophagy was studied by LC3 western, FACS and LC3 puncta formation after monensin treatment. Mitochondrial potential was studied by staining with TMRM and FACS. Antimetastatic potential of monensin was checked by inhibition of wound closure and MMP7 expression at RNA level. Dead and floating cells after the 10 μM monensin treatment were observed under phase contrast microscope. FACS analysis following TMRM staining showed that mitochondrial membrane gets depolarized after monensin treatment. FACS analysis after acridine orange staining showed increased double positive (green and red) cells, and LC3 upregulation and increased LC3 punta displayed autophagy activation in UOK146 cell line after monensin treatment. These findings showed that monensin acts as antiproliferative agent, activating autophagy and downregulates PRCC-TFE3 fusion transcript in Xp11.2 translocated tumor cell line.

He H, Trpkov K, Martinek P, et al.
"High-grade oncocytic renal tumor": morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of 14 cases.
Virchows Arch. 2018; 473(6):725-738 [PubMed] Related Publications
The spectrum of the renal oncocytic tumors has been expanded in recent years to include several novel and emerging entities. We describe a cohort of novel, hitherto unrecognized and morphologically distinct high-grade oncocytic tumors (HOT), currently diagnosed as "unclassified" in the WHO classification. We identified 14 HOT by searching multiple institutional archives. Morphologic, immunohistochemical (IHC), molecular genetic, and molecular karyotyping studies were performed to investigate these tumors. The patients included 3 men and 11 women, with age range from 25 to 73 years (median 50, mean 49 years). Tumor size ranged from 1.5 to 7.0 cm in the greatest dimension (median 3, mean 3.4 cm). The tumors were all pT1 stage. Microscopically, they showed nested to solid growth, and focal tubulocystic architecture. The neoplastic cells were uniform with voluminous oncocytic cytoplasm. Prominent intracytoplasmic vacuoles were frequently seen, but no irregular (raisinoid) nuclei or perinuclear halos were present. All tumors demonstrated prominent nucleoli (WHO/ISUP grade 3 equivalent). Nine of 14 cases were positive for CD117 and cytokeratin (CK) 7 was either negative or only focally positive in of 6/14 cases. All tumors were positive for AE1-AE3, CK18, PAX 8, antimitochondrial antigen, and SDHB. Cathepsin K was positive in 13/14 cases and CD10 was positive in 12/13 cases. All cases were negative for TFE3, HMB45, Melan-A. No TFEB and TFE3 genes rearrangement was found in analyzable cases. By array CGH, complete chromosomal losses or gains were not found in any of the cases, and 3/9 cases showed absence of any abnormalities. Chromosomal losses were detected on chromosome 19 (4/9), 3 with losses of the short arm (p) and 1 with losses of both arms (p and q). Loss of chromosome 1 was found in 3/9 cases; gain of 5q was found in 1/9 cases. On molecular karyotyping, 3/3 evaluated cases showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on 16p11.2-11.1 and 2/3 cases showed LOH at 7q31.31. Copy number (CN) losses were found at 7q11.21 (3/3), Xp11.21 (3/3), Xp11.22-11.21 (3/3), and Xq24-25 (2/3). CN gains were found at 13q34 (2/3). Ten patients with available follow up information were alive and without disease progression, after a mean follow-up of 28 months (1 to 112 months). HOT is a tumor with unique morphology and its IHC profile appears mostly consistent. HOT should be considered as an emerging renal entity because it does not meet the diagnostic criteria for other recognized eosinophilic renal tumors, such as oncocytoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC), TFE3 and TFEB RCC, SDH-deficient RCC, and eosinophilic solid and cystic RCC.

Jing H, Wei H, Yuan H, et al.
Melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer: a report of a distinctive case and a review of the literature.
Diagn Pathol. 2018; 13(1):51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer (TRC) is a newly described exceedingly rare tumor, and its characterization remains controversial. This study aimed to describe a case of distinctive melanotic Xp11 TRC and to elucidate its clinicopathological and molecular genetic features.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 44-year-old Chinese female presented with a left renal mass. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a 4.5 cm × 4.0 cm mass in the left kidney. Grossly, the well-demarcated mass was black with moderately firm consistency. Microscopic examination indicated that the tumor was characterized by the presence of nests and cords of polygonal cells with clear and granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, central round to oval nuclei and occasional nucleoli. Intracytoplasmic melanin was observed in approximately 45% of tumor cells. Uniquely, the tumor presented with intranuclear eosinophilic pseudoinclusions and thick-walled stromal blood vessels. IHC showed that tumor cells were diffusely positive for TFE3 and exhibited patchy and weak HMB45 staining. FISH confirmed the presence of TFE3 rearrangement.
CONCLUSION: This case is the twentieth published case of melanotic Xp11 TRC. Moreover, the present patient had a favorable prognosis given that she was disease free at her 113-month postoperative follow-up. Our case adds to the small body of literature on these exceptionally rare tumors and widens their clinicopathological spectrum.

Lee HJ, Shin DH, Kim SY, et al.
TFE3 translocation and protein expression in renal cell carcinoma are correlated with poor prognosis.
Histopathology. 2018; 73(5):758-766 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Since Xp11.2 translocation-associated renal cell carcinoma (TRCC) was first recognised, its morphological features and the clinical significance of TFE3 expression, frequency of gene translocation and diagnostic criteria have been the subject of limited studies. The present retrospective analysis aimed to evaluate the correlation between TFE3 immunoreactivity and its gene translocation status using fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH) and determine how TFE3 translocation and expression affect patient prognosis differently.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 303 consecutive renal cell carcinoma cases. Immunohistochemical staining for TFE3 was performed in 303 cases, and FISH analysis was performed for molecular testing. The TCGA data set of renal cell carcinoma was evaluated to validate TFE3 expression and survival analysis. TFE3 expression was associated significantly with the nested alveolar pattern, papillary pattern, eosinophilic cytoplasm, voluminous expansile cytoplasm, nuclear grade, tumour necrosis, sarcomatoid pattern and picket fence appearance. FISH analysis showed break-apart signals in 26 of 32 (81.25%) cases expressing strong or moderate nuclear TFE3 immunoreactivity. Thirteen of 56 samples that showed no or weak TFE3 expression with morphologically suspicious cases were translocation-positive in the FISH assay. The TFE3-translocation group (harbouring TFE3 translocation regardless of TFE3 expression) showed the poorest progression-free survival (PFS), and the TFE3-expressing group (expressing TFE3 but negative for translocation) was correlated significantly with decreased PFS.
CONCLUSION: Increased TFE3 expression in RCC was associated with poor PFS regardless of the gene translocation status. Moreover, morphological analysis should help to select candidates who would benefit from TFE3 staining and FISH analysis.

Gong P, Zhuang Q, Wang K, et al.
Adult-onset renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion: 3 case reports and review of literature.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(24):e11023 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma. This predominantly occurs in juveniles, but rarely seen in adults with lymph node or organic metastasis and a worsened prognosis.
PATIENTS CONCERNS: Herein, we presented 3 adult cases of Xp11-RCC. Two patients were in early stage and good condition, and the third patient had lymph node metastasis but showed no recurrence after a 3-month follow-up.
DIAGNOSES: Case 1: A 50-year-old female without any lumbago and gross hematuria was incidentally detected by left renal mass by ultrasonography. Case 2: A 31-year-old female with 2-year hemodialysis was detected with right renal carcinoma during preoperative examination of renal transplant. Case 3: A 45-year-old male with right lumbago for 1 month was detected with a mass in the lower pole of right kidney by ultrasonography.
INTERVENTION: The characteristics of these 3 images are not consistent with each other, and showed some differences with the previous ones.
OUTCOMES: All these 3 patients underwent laparoscopic radical nephrectomy, and case 1 patient underwent renal hilar lymphnode dissection at the same time. Immunohistochemistry was performed on all the 3 tumors, revealing that the tumor cells were positive for TFE3 and Melan-A. Case 1 showed lymph node metastasis, and received mTOR inhibitors. The 3 patients had no recurrent and new metastasis in other organs after follow-up for 3 months, 2 months, and 11 months, respectively.
LESSONS: Whether the adult-onset Xp-RCC has an aggressive clinical course still remains controversial. Characteristics of the images of the 3 adult cases showed some uniformity but still have some differences. Immunohistochemistry results revealed tumor cell positive for TFE3, but have no consistency in carbonic anhydrase IX, CD117, Ki67, CK8/18 AE1/AE3 and so on. Therefore, the uniform and definitive diagnostic standards of the tumors are uncertain. Hence, more cases and findings are required to elaborate the standards of all the tumor subtypes. Vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy showed some efficacious results in patients with metastasis, but more useful treatments are warranted.

Agizamhan S, Qu F, Liu N, et al.
Preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts the surgical outcome of Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 renal cell carcinoma patients.
BMC Urol. 2018; 18(1):60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CRP/Alb ratio) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been demonstrated to predict the clinical outcome of various human cancer, including renal cell carcinoma(RCC). The aim of our study was to explore the prognostic values of these ratios in patients with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusions renal cell carcinoma (Xp11.2 tRCC).
METHODS: A retrospective multicentre study was performed in 82 Xp11.2 tRCC patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy. The optimal cutoff values of the NLR, CRP/Alb ratio and PLR were determined by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The impact of the NLR, CRP/Alb ratio and PLR, as well as other clinicopathological characteristics, on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated using the univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses.
RESULTS: The optimal cutoff values of the NLR, CRP/Alb ratio and PLR were set at 2.45, 140 and 0.08, respectively, according to the ROC analysis. Univariate analyses showed that the NLR, CRP/Alb ratio and PLR all were associated with DFS of Xp11.2 tRCC patients (P < 0.001, P = 0.005 and P = 0.001, respectively) and OS of Xp11.2 tRCC patients (P = 0.016, P = 0.003 and P = 0.014, respectively). Multivariate analysis indicated that the NLR was independently associated with DFS of Xp11.2 tRCC patients (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.25; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.19-15.18; P = 0.026) along with age (P = 0.004), the pT status (P < 0.001) and the pN status (P < 0.019), and the NLR (HR: 26.26; 95% CI: 1.44-480.3; P = 0.028) also was independently associated with OS in patients with Xp11.2 tRCC, along with age (P = 0.016) and a tumour thrombus (P = 0.007).
CONCLUSION: Overall, relatively high NLRs, CRP/Alb ratios and PLRs were associated with a poor prognosis of Xp11.2 tRCC patients; among of them, only the NLR independently predicted the progression of Xp11.2 tRCC, and the NLR may help to identify patients with high metastasis or relapse risk.

Tan M, Wu A, Liao N, et al.
Inhibiting ROS-TFE3-dependent autophagy enhances the therapeutic response to metformin in breast cancer.
Free Radic Res. 2018; 52(8):872-886 [PubMed] Related Publications
Autophagy modulation is a potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer, and a previous study indicated that metformin exhibits significant anti-carcinogenic activity. However, the ability of metformin to induce autophagy and its role in breast cancer cell death remains unclear. In this study, we exposed MCF-7 cells to different concentrations of metformin (2.5, 5, and 10 mM) for 48 h, and metformin-induced significant apoptosis in the MCF-7 cells. The expression levels of CL-PARP (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1) and the ratio of BAX to BCL-2 were significantly increased. In addition to apoptosis, we showed that metformin increased autophagic flux in MCF-7 cells, as evidenced by the upregulation of LC3-II and downregulation of P62/SQSTM1. Moreover, pharmacological or genetic blocking of autophagy increased metformin-induced apoptosis, indicating a cytoprotective role of autophagy in metformin-treated MCF-7 cells. Mechanistically, metformin-induced TFE3

Vargas AC, Selinger C, Satgunaseelan L, et al.
FISH analysis of selected soft tissue tumors: Diagnostic experience in a tertiary center.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2019; 15(1):38-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an important ancillary tool for the classification of bone/soft tissue (BST) tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of FISH to the final classification of common BST entities in the molecular pathology department of the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital (RPAH), which is one of the most important referral centers for the management of sarcomas in Australia.
METHODS: All routine diagnostic FISH tests performed on BST formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens at the RPAH in a 5-year period (February, 2010-November, 2015) were reviewed. FISH analyses presented in this study include commercial break-apart probes (SS18, FUS, DDIT3, FUS, USP6, PDGFB, TFE3 and ALK) and a single enumeration (MDM2) probe.
RESULTS: There were 434 interpretable FISH assays on BST samples including MDM2 (n=180), SS18 (n=97), FUS (n=64), DDIT3 (n=37), USP6 (n=30), PDGFB (n=13), TFE3 (n=8) and ALK (n=5). Discrepancies between the histopathological diagnosis and the FISH results were seen in 12% of the cases. In this subset of discordant cases, FISH contributed to the re-classification of 7% of cases originally diagnosed as synovial sarcoma (SS18) and 6% of adipocytic neoplasms (MDM2) based on the presence or absence of the expected gene alteration.
CONCLUSION: Our study confirms that paraffin FISH is a sensitive and specific ancillary tool in the diagnosis of BST neoplasms when used in the appropriate clinicopathological context. These findings highlight the need for further ancillary molecular tools in the diagnosis and characterization of challenging cases.

Gupta A, Micale M, Bernacki KD
Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on cytologic smears: An accurate and efficient method in the diagnosis of melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2018; 46(9):786-789 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer is a rare category of MiTF/TFE3 neoplasms morphologically resembling Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma, Xp11 translocation perivascular epithelioid cell tumor, and melanoma. The diagnosis requires demonstration of TFE3 gene rearrangement, by either fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) at the Xp11.2 locus or by TFE3 immunohistochemistry. As cytology smears can be useful adjuncts in cytogenetic and molecular testing, we demonstrate TFE3 rearrangement by FISH analysis on cytologic smears in melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer. An 18-year-old girl presented with a large right renal mass. Intraoperative scrape smears were performed on suspicious aortocaval lymph nodes. A subset of smears was stained (Papanicolaou and DiffQuik). Morphologically, the neoplastic cells exhibited abundant clear vacuolated cytoplasm and moderate to marked nuclear pleomorphism. Unstained and destained smears were examined for TFE3 rearrangement by FISH. Positive TFE3 FISH results on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue correlated with the positive FISH findings of TFE3 gene rearrangement on cytologic smears. Therefore, the diagnosis of melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer was rendered. In Xp11 translocation associated neoplasms, FISH analysis on cytologic smears can be an efficient, accurate, and cost-effective method for evaluating TFE3 rearrangement.

Wang XT, Xia QY, Ye SB, et al.
RNA sequencing of Xp11 translocation-associated cancers reveals novel gene fusions and distinctive clinicopathologic correlations.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(9):1346-1360 [PubMed] Related Publications
Both Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinomas and the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasms are characterized by a variety of gene fusions involving TFE3. It has been known that tumors with different gene fusions may have different clinicopathologic features; however, further in-depth investigations of subtyping Xp11 translocation-associated cancers are needed in order to explore more meaningful clinicopathologic correlations. A total of 22 unusual cases of Xp11 translocation-associated cancers were selected for the current study; 20 cases were further analyzed by RNA sequencing to explore their TFE3 gene fusion partners. RNA sequencing identified 17 of 20 cases (85%) with TFE3-associated gene fusions, including 4 ASPSCR1/ASPL-TFE3, 3 PRCC-TFE3, 3 SFPQ/PSF-TFE3, 1 NONO-TFE3, 4 MED15-TFE3, 1 MATR3-TFE3, and 1 FUBP1-TFE3. The results have been verified by fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The remaining 2 cases with specific pathologic features highly suggestive of MED15-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma were identified by fusion FISH assay. We provide the detailed morphologic and immunophenotypic description of the MED15-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas, which frequently demonstrate extensively cystic architecture, similar to multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential, and expressed cathepsin K and melanotic biomarker Melan A. This is the first time to correlate the MED15-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma with specific clinicopathologic features. We also report the first case of the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasm with MED15-TFE3 gene fusion. Additional novel TFE3 gene fusion partners, MATR3 and FUBP1, were identified. Cases with ASPSCR1-TFE3, SFPQ-TFE3, PRCC-TFE3, and NONO-TFE3 gene fusion showed a wide variability in morphologic features, including invasive tubulopapillary pattern simulating collecting duct carcinoma, extensive calcification and ossification, and overlapping and high columnar cells with nuclear grooves mimicking tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Furthermore, we respectively evaluated the ability of TFE3 immunohistochemistry, TFE3 FISH, RT-PCR, and RNA sequencing to subclassify Xp11 translocation-associated cancers. In summary, our study expands the list of TFE3 gene fusion partners and the clinicopathologic features of Xp11 translocation-associated cancers, and highlights the importance of subtyping Xp11 translocation-associated cancers combining morphology, immunohistochemistry, and multiple molecular techniques.

Rua Fernández OR, Escala Cornejo R, Navarro Martín M, et al.
Renal Cell Carcinoma Associated With Xp11.2 Translocation/TFE3 Gene-fusion: A Long Response to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) Inhibitors.
Urology. 2018; 117:41-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that patients with Xp11.2/TFE3 gene-fusion translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC), despite having an aggressive course in young adults, could have valid treatment options such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors with good outcomes. Furthermore, to explain possible mechanisms of action of mTOR inhibitors in this type of RCC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report a case of a 44-year-old man who has been treated with everolimus for a Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene-fusion RCC after 2 previous failed treatments with tyrosine kinase inhibitor. During the follow-up, we evaluated type and duration of response with everolimus.
RESULTS: The patient obtained a long-lasting response of disease of 25 months with everolimus without any symptom.
CONCLUSION: We believe that mTOR inhibitors could be a good line option treatment to consider for this type of patients.

Verma SP, Agarwal A, Das P
Sodium butyrate induces cell death by autophagy and reactivates a tumor suppressor gene DIRAS1 in renal cell carcinoma cell line UOK146.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2018; 54(4):295-303 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sodium butyrate (SB), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, is emerging as a potent anti-cancer drug for different types of cancers. In the present study, anti-cancer activity of SB in Xp11.2 (TFE3) translocated renal cell carcinoma cell line UOK146 was studied. Anti-proliferative effect of SB in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell line UOK146 was evaluated by MTT assay and morphological characteristics were observed by phase contrast microscopy which displayed the cell death after SB treatment. SB induces DNA fragmentation and change in nuclear morphology observed by increased sub-G1 region cell population and nuclear blebbings. Cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase was found after SB treatment. UOK146 cell line shows autophagy mode of cell death as displayed by acridine orange staining and flow cytometry analysis. LC3-II, a protein marker of autophagy, was also found to be upregulated after SB treatment. A tumor suppressor gene DIRAS1 was upregulated after SB treatment, displaying its anti-cancer potential at molecular level. These findings suggest that SB could serve as a novel regulator of tumor suppressors and lead to the discovery of novel therapeutics with better and enhanced anti-cancer activity.

Chen XF, Yeong J, Chang KTE, et al.
TFE3-Expressing Epithelioid Rich Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasm (PEComa) of the Bladder with Unusual Benign Course.
Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2018; 48(1):110-115 [PubMed] Related Publications
Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is an uncommon tumor which presents with epithelioid and spindled cell morphology and is immunoreactive for myogenic and melanocytic markers. Recently, a subset of PEComas has been reported to harbor

Caliò A, Mengoli MC, Cavazza A, et al.
Cathepsin K expression in clear cell "sugar" tumor (PEComa) of the lung.
Virchows Arch. 2018; 473(1):55-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clear cell "sugar" tumor is a rare benign neoplasm arising in the lung, considered as a part of the PEComa family. As PEComas of other sites, this tumor expresses melanocytic markers such as HMB45 and Melan-A. Despite cathepsin K, MITF and CD68 staining are known to be positive in a large number of PEComas and TFE3 rearrangement has been reported in a subset of PEComas, no data is available regarding the expression of these markers and the occurrence of TFE3 and TFEB rearrangement in clear cell "sugar" tumor of the lung. We have investigated the immunolabeling of cathepsin K, MITF, and CD68 in five cases of clear cell "sugar" tumor. Moreover, we have also sought the presence of TFE3 and TFEB rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay. In all tumors, strong immunoreactivity of cathepsin K and CD68 (PG-M1 and KP1 clone) was demonstrated, whereas none of them labeled for MITF staining and showed TFE3 or TFEB rearrangement. These findings widen the immunohistochemical profile of clear cell "sugar" tumor providing useful new markers for challenging cases. The expression of lysosomal markers, such as cathepsin K and CD68, strengthens the hypothesis that this tumor is part of the PEComa family.

Ling W, Ma X, Luo Y, et al.
Ultrasonographic Findings of Renal Cell Carcinomas Associated with Xp11.2 Translocation/TFE3 Gene Fusion.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging. 2017; 2017:2958357 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective: This study was to investigate the features of renal carcinomas associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions (Xp11.2-RCC) on conventional ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS).
Methods: US and CEUS features of twenty-two cases with histopathologically proven Xp11.2-RCC were retrospectively reviewed.
Results: 22 patients (11 males, 11 females) were included in this study, with a mean age of 28.3 ± 20.4 years. Eight tumors (36.3%, 8/22) were in left kidney, and 14 tumors (63.7%, 14/22) were in right kidney. All tumors (100%, 22/22) were mixed echogenicity type. 13 tumors (59.1%, 13/22) presented small dotted calcifications. The boundary of 14 tumors (63.6%, 14/22) was sharp and the other 8 tumors' (36.4%, 8/22) boundary was blurry. By CEUS, in early phase, the solid element of all tumors showed obvious enhancement. In delayed phase, 13 tumors showed hypoenhancement, seven tumors showed isoenhancement, and 2 tumors showed hyperenhancement. There were irregular nonenhancement areas in all tumors inside.
Conclusions: By US and CEUS, when children and adolescents were found to have hyperechoic mixed tumor in kidney with sharp margin and calcification, and the tumors showed obvious enhancement and hypoenhancement with irregular nonenhancement areas in the tumor in early phase and delayed phase, respectively, Xp11.2-RCC should be suspected.

Schöffski P, Wozniak A, Kasper B, et al.
Activity and safety of crizotinib in patients with alveolar soft part sarcoma with rearrangement of TFE3: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) phase II trial 90101 'CREATE'.
Ann Oncol. 2018; 29(3):758-765 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is an orphan malignancy associated with a rearrangement of transcription factor E3 (TFE3), leading to abnormal MET gene expression. We prospectively assessed the efficacy and safety of the MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib in patients with advanced or metastatic ASPS.
Patients and methods: Eligible patients with reference pathology-confirmed ASPS received oral crizotinib 250 mg bd. By assessing the presence or absence of a TFE3 rearrangement, patients were attributed to MET+ and MET- sub-cohorts. The primary end point was the objective response rate (ORR) according to local investigator. Secondary end points included duration of response, disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), progression-free rate, overall survival (OS) and safety.
Results: Among 53 consenting patients, all had a centrally confirmed ASPS and 48 were treated. A total of 45 were eligible, treated and assessable. Among 40 MET+ patients, 1 achieved a confirmed partial response (PR) that lasted 215 days and 35 had stable disease (SD) as best response (ORR: 2.5%, 95% CI 0.6% to 80.6%). Further efficacy end points in MET+ cases were DCR: 90.0% (95% CI 76.3% to 97.2%), 1-year PFS rate: 37.5% (95% CI 22.9% to 52.1%) and 1-year OS rate: 97.4% (95% CI 82.8% to 99.6%). Among 4 MET- patients, 1 achieved a PR that lasted 801 days and 3 had SD (ORR: 25.0%, 95% CI 0.6% to 80.6%) for a DCR of 100% (95% CI 39.8% to 100.0%). The 1-year PFS rate in MET- cases was 50% (95% CI 5.8% to 84.5%) and the 1-year OS rate was 75% (95% CI 12.8% to 96.1%). One patient with unknown MET status due to technical failure achieved SD but stopped treatment due to progression after 17 cycles. The most common crizotinib-related adverse events were nausea [34/48 (70.8%)], vomiting [22/48 (45.8%)], blurred vision [22/48 (45.8%)], diarrhoea (20/48 (41.7%)] and fatigue [19/48 (39.6%)].
Conclusion: According to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) efficacy criteria for soft tissue sarcoma, our study demonstrated that crizotinib has activity in TFE3 rearranged ASPS MET+ patients.
Clinical trial number: EORTC 90101, NCT01524926.

Saluja K, Thomas J, Zhang S, et al.
Malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the oropharynx with strong TFE3 expression mimicking alveolar soft part sarcoma: a case report and review of the literature.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 76:149-155 [PubMed] Related Publications
Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) in the head and neck region are rare, with 26 cases described in literature. These distinct mesenchymal tumors normally express both myoid and melanocytic markers. We here report an interesting and challenging case of malignant PEComa that showed transcription factor E3 (TFE3) protein expression and rearrangement, paucity of muscle and melanocytic marker expression, and morphologically mimicked alveolar soft part sarcoma. Awareness of this morphologic pitfall and recognition of TFE3 gene-rearranged PEComa, as a distinct subtype of PEComa, is essential to avoid misdiagnosis.

Alfano L, Caporaso A, Altieri A, et al.
NONO ubiquitination is mediated by FBW7 and GSK3 β via a degron lost upon chromosomal rearrangement in cancer.
J Cell Physiol. 2018; 233(5):4338-4344 [PubMed] Related Publications
NONO is an RNA-binding protein involved in transcription, mRNA splicing, DNA repair, and checkpoint activation in response to UV radiation. NONO expression has been found altered in several tumor types, including prostate, colon, breast, melanoma, and in papillary renal carcinoma, in which an X chromosome inversion generates a NONO-TFE3 fusion protein. Upon such rearrangement, NONO loses its C-terminal domain. Through bioinformatics analysis, we identified a putative degron motif, known to be recognized by the Skp1-Cul1-F-box-protein (SCF) complex. Here, we evaluated how this domain could affect NONO protein biology. We showed that NONO interacts with the nuclear FBW7α isoform and its ubiquitination is regulated following modulation of the GSK3β kinase. Mutation of T428A/T432A within the degron impaired polyubiquitination upon FBW7α and GSK3β overexpression. Overall, our data suggest that NONO is likely subjected to proteasome-mediated degradation and add NONO to the list of proteins targeted by FBW7, which is itself often deregulated in cancer.

Fan T, Pi H, Li M, et al.
Inhibiting MT2-TFE3-dependent autophagy enhances melatonin-induced apoptosis in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
J Pineal Res. 2018; 64(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
Autophagy modulation is a potential therapeutic strategy for tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). Melatonin possesses significant anticarcinogenic activity. However, whether melatonin induces autophagy and its roles in cell death in TSCC are unclear. Herein, we show that melatonin induced significant apoptosis in the TSCC cell line Cal27. Apart from the induction of apoptosis, we demonstrated that melatonin-induced autophagic flux in Cal27 cells as evidenced by the formation of GFP-LC3 puncta, and the upregulation of LC3-II and downregulation of SQSTM1/P62. Moreover, pharmacological or genetic blockage of autophagy enhanced melatonin-induced apoptosis, indicating a cytoprotective role of autophagy in melatonin-treated Cal27 cells. Mechanistically, melatonin induced TFE3

Xia QY, Wang XT, Ye SB, et al.
Novel gene fusion of PRCC-MITF defines a new member of MiT family translocation renal cell carcinoma: clinicopathological analysis and detection of the gene fusion by RNA sequencing and FISH.
Histopathology. 2018; 72(5):786-794 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: MITF, TFE3, TFEB and TFEC belong to the same microphthalmia-associated transcription factor family (MiT). Two transcription factors in this family have been identified in two unusual types of renal cell carcinoma (RCC): Xp11 translocation RCC harbouring TFE3 gene fusions and t(6;11) RCC harbouring a MALAT1-TFEB gene fusion. The 2016 World Health Organisation classification of renal neoplasia grouped these two neoplasms together under the category of MiT family translocation RCC. RCCs associated with the other two MiT family members, MITF and TFEC, have rarely been reported. Herein, we identify a case of MITF translocation RCC with the novel PRCC-MITF gene fusion by RNA sequencing.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Histological examination of the present tumour showed typical features of MiT family translocation RCCs, overlapping with Xp11 translocation RCC and t(6;11) RCC. However, this tumour showed negative results in TFE3 and TFEB immunochemistry and split fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH) assays. The other MiT family members, MITF and TFEC, were tested further immunochemically and also showed negative results. RNA sequencing and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of a PRCC-MITF gene fusion: a fusion of PRCC exon 5 to MITF exon 4. We then developed FISH assays covering MITF break-apart probes and PRCC-MITF fusion probes to detect the MITF gene rearrangement.
CONCLUSIONS: This study both proves the recurring existence of MITF translocation RCC and expands the genotype spectrum of MiT family translocation RCCs.

Verma SP, Das P
G-quadruplex structure at intron 2 of TFE3 and its role in Xp11.2 translocation and splicing.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2018; 1862(3):630-636 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcription Factor E3 (TFE3) translocation is found in a group of different type of cancers and most of the translocations are located in the 5' region of TFE3 which may be considered as Breakpoint Region (BR). In our In silico study by QGRS mapper and non BdB web servers we found a Potential G-quadruplex forming Sequence (PQS) in the intron 2 of TFE3 gene. In vitro G-quadruplex formation was shown by native PAGE in presence of Pyridostatin(PDS), which with inter molecular secondary structure caused reduced mobility to migrate slower. G-quadruplex formation was mapped at single base resolution by Sanger sequencing and Circular Dichroism showed the formation of parallel G-quadruplex. FRET analysis revealed increased and decreased formation of G-quadruplex in presence of PDS and antisense oligonucleotide respectively. PCR stop assay, transcriptional and translational inhibition by PQS showed stable G-quadruplex formation affecting the biological processes. TFE3 minigene splicing study showed the involvement of this G-quadruplex in TFE3 splicing too. Therefore, G-quadruplex is evident to be the reason behind TFE3 induced oncogenesis executed by translocation and also involved in the mRNA splicing.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. TFE3, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 29 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999