Gene Summary

Gene:SFPQ; splicing factor proline and glutamine rich
Aliases: PSF, POMP100, PPP1R140
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Latest Publications: SFPQ (cancer-related)

de Silva HC, Lin MZ, Phillips L, et al.
IGFBP-3 interacts with NONO and SFPQ in PARP-dependent DNA damage repair in triple-negative breast cancer.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019; 76(10):2015-2030 [PubMed] Related Publications
Women with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are generally treated by chemotherapy but their responsiveness may be blunted by DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. We previously reported that IGFBP-3 forms nuclear complexes with EGFR and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) to modulate DSB repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) in TNBC cells. To discover IGFBP-3 binding partners involved in chemoresistance through stimulation of DSB repair, we analyzed the IGFBP-3 interactome by LC-MS/MS and confirmed interactions by coimmunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay. Functional effects were demonstrated by DNA end-joining in vitro and measurement of γH2AX foci. In response to 20 µM etoposide, the DNA/RNA-binding protein, non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NONO) and its dimerization partner splicing factor, proline/glutamine-rich (SFPQ) formed complexes with IGFBP-3, demonstrated in basal-like TNBC cell lines HCC1806 and MDA-MB-468. NONO binding to IGFBP-3 was also shown in a cell-free biochemical assay. IGFBP-3 complexes with NONO and SFPQ were blocked by inhibiting EGFR with gefitinib or DNA-PKcs with NU7026, and by the PARP inhibitors veliparib and olaparib, which also reduced DNA end-joining activity and delayed the resolution of the γH2AX signal (i.e. inhibited DNA DSB repair). Downregulation of the long noncoding RNA in NHEJ pathway 1 (LINP1) by siRNA also blocked IGFBP-3 interaction with NONO-SFPQ. These findings suggest a PARP-dependent role for NONO and SFPQ in IGFBP-3-dependent DSB repair and the involvement of LINP1 in the complex formation. We propose that targeting of the DNA repair function of IGFBP-3 may enhance chemosensitivity in basal-like TNBC, thus improving patient outcomes.

Zeng C, Liu S, Lu S, et al.
The c-Myc-regulated lncRNA NEAT1 and paraspeckles modulate imatinib-induced apoptosis in CML cells.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):130 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal disease characterized by the presence of the constitutively active tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL oncoprotein. Although BCR-ABL is crucially important for pathogenesis and treatment response, it is thought that some additional factors might be involved in the regulation of these processes. Aberrant expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has recently been identified to be involved in various diseases including cancer, suggesting that lncRNAs may play a role in BCR-ABL-mediated CML. In this study, we found that nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1), a lncRNA essential for the formation of nuclear body paraspeckles, is significantly repressed in primary CML cells. NEAT1 expression could be restored by inhibiting BCR-ABL expression or its kinase activity in K562 cells. We also demonstrated that NEAT1 is regulated by c-Myc. Knockdown of NEAT1 could promote imatinib (IM)-induced apoptosis, and we demonstrated that the NEAT1-binding paraspeckle protein splicing factor proline/glutamine-rich (SFPQ) is required for NEAT1-mediated apoptosis in K562 cells. RNA-seq analysis revealed that SFPQ regulates cell growth and death pathway-related genes, confirming its function in IM-induced apoptosis. Collectively, these results assign a biological function to the NEAT1 lncRNA in CML apoptosis and may lead to fuller understanding of the molecular events leading to CML.

Wang XT, Xia QY, Ye SB, et al.
RNA sequencing of Xp11 translocation-associated cancers reveals novel gene fusions and distinctive clinicopathologic correlations.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(9):1346-1360 [PubMed] Related Publications
Both Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinomas and the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasms are characterized by a variety of gene fusions involving TFE3. It has been known that tumors with different gene fusions may have different clinicopathologic features; however, further in-depth investigations of subtyping Xp11 translocation-associated cancers are needed in order to explore more meaningful clinicopathologic correlations. A total of 22 unusual cases of Xp11 translocation-associated cancers were selected for the current study; 20 cases were further analyzed by RNA sequencing to explore their TFE3 gene fusion partners. RNA sequencing identified 17 of 20 cases (85%) with TFE3-associated gene fusions, including 4 ASPSCR1/ASPL-TFE3, 3 PRCC-TFE3, 3 SFPQ/PSF-TFE3, 1 NONO-TFE3, 4 MED15-TFE3, 1 MATR3-TFE3, and 1 FUBP1-TFE3. The results have been verified by fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The remaining 2 cases with specific pathologic features highly suggestive of MED15-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma were identified by fusion FISH assay. We provide the detailed morphologic and immunophenotypic description of the MED15-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas, which frequently demonstrate extensively cystic architecture, similar to multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential, and expressed cathepsin K and melanotic biomarker Melan A. This is the first time to correlate the MED15-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma with specific clinicopathologic features. We also report the first case of the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasm with MED15-TFE3 gene fusion. Additional novel TFE3 gene fusion partners, MATR3 and FUBP1, were identified. Cases with ASPSCR1-TFE3, SFPQ-TFE3, PRCC-TFE3, and NONO-TFE3 gene fusion showed a wide variability in morphologic features, including invasive tubulopapillary pattern simulating collecting duct carcinoma, extensive calcification and ossification, and overlapping and high columnar cells with nuclear grooves mimicking tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Furthermore, we respectively evaluated the ability of TFE3 immunohistochemistry, TFE3 FISH, RT-PCR, and RNA sequencing to subclassify Xp11 translocation-associated cancers. In summary, our study expands the list of TFE3 gene fusion partners and the clinicopathologic features of Xp11 translocation-associated cancers, and highlights the importance of subtyping Xp11 translocation-associated cancers combining morphology, immunohistochemistry, and multiple molecular techniques.

Chen XF, Yeong J, Chang KTE, et al.
TFE3-Expressing Epithelioid Rich Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasm (PEComa) of the Bladder with Unusual Benign Course.
Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2018; 48(1):110-115 [PubMed] Related Publications
Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is an uncommon tumor which presents with epithelioid and spindled cell morphology and is immunoreactive for myogenic and melanocytic markers. Recently, a subset of PEComas has been reported to harbor

Tran TH, Harris MH, Nguyen JV, et al.
Prognostic impact of kinase-activating fusions and IKZF1 deletions in pediatric high-risk B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood Adv. 2018; 2(5):529-533 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recurrent chromosomal rearrangements carry prognostic significance in pediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Recent genome-wide analyses identified a high-risk B-ALL subtype characterized by a diverse spectrum of genetic alterations activating kinases and cytokine receptor genes. This subtype is associated with a poor prognosis when treated with conventional chemotherapy but has demonstrated sensitivity to the relevant tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We sought to determine the frequency of kinase-activating fusions among National Cancer Institute (NCI) high-risk, Ph-negative, B-ALL patients enrolled on Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium Protocol 05-001 and to describe their associated clinical characteristics and outcomes. Among the 105 patients screened, 16 (15%) harbored an ABL-class fusion (

Takayama KI, Suzuki T, Fujimura T, et al.
Dysregulation of spliceosome gene expression in advanced prostate cancer by RNA-binding protein PSF.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017; 114(39):10461-10466 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Developing therapeutic approaches are necessary for treating hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Activation of androgen receptor (AR) and its variants' expression along with the downstream signals are mostly important for disease progression. However, the mechanism for marked increases of AR signals and its expression is still unclear. Here, we revealed that various spliceosome genes are aberrantly induced by RNA-binding protein PSF, leading to enhancement of the splicing activities for AR expression. Our high-speed sequence analyses identified global PSF-binding transcripts. PSF was shown to stabilize and activate key long noncoding RNAs and AR-regulated gene expressions in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, mRNAs of spliceosome-related genes are putative primary targets of PSF. Their gene expressions are up-regulated by PSF in hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Moreover, PSF coordinated these spliceosome proteins to form a complex to promote AR splicing and expression. Thus, targeting PSF and its related pathways implicates the therapeutic possibility for hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

Antic T, Taxy JB, Alikhan M, Segal J
Melanotic Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma With a Novel ARID1B-TFE3 Gene Fusion.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2017; 41(11):1576-1580 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 36-year-old male was found to have a 7.0 cm left upper pole renal mass on renal ultrasound. Following nephrectomy, the mass was grossly ill-demarcated, friable and red-brown, invading renal parenchyma, hilar fat and the renal vein. Microscopically, the tumor had a nested and papillary architecture. The cells demonstrated abundant clear and eosinophilic cytoplasm and focal intracytoplasmic melanin pigment. Nucleoli were prominent. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor was positive for TFE3; HMB-45 stained approximately 5% of tumor cells corresponding to the histologic melanin pigment, which was confirmed with Fontana-Masson stain with bleach. Immunostains for PAX8, CD10, MiTF, and CAIX were negative; keratins Cam 5.2 and AE1/AE3 were focally positive. Targeted next-generation sequencing revealed an ARID1B-TFE3 gene fusion. Melanotic Xp11 renal cell carcinoma is a rare, pigment containing translocation variant demonstrating overlapping features with melanoma and is usually associated with an SFPQ-TFE3 gene fusion. The patient is alive and without evidence of disease 7 years after his diagnosis. The combination of high grade histopathology, the presence of melanin, absent PAX8, keratin positivity, and relatively indolent clinical behavior with a unique translocation may warrant recognition as a distinct renal cell carcinoma translocation subtype.

Lee J, Park HY, Kim WW, et al.
Biological function of long noncoding RNA snaR in HER2-positive breast cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(6):1010428317707374 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Long noncoding RNA, snaR (small NF90-associated RNA), has been reported to be upregulated in various cancer cell lines. We evaluated the additional role of snaR in HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines.
METHODS: We explored changes of expression of snaR among the selected long noncoding RNAs which have a potential in cancer proliferation or progression. The proliferation, migration, and invasion of HER2-positive breast cancer cells (SK-BR3) were evaluated by snaR with RNA interruption in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, wound-healing assay, and Transwell assay.
RESULTS: The expression of snaR was remarkably upregulated in SK-BR3 cell lines together with ANRIL, while the SFMBT2 was downregulated in SK-BR3 cell lines. Although Nespas, 7SK, PSF inhibiting RNA, mascRNA, Hoxa11as, NRON, AK023948, MER11C, p53 mRNA, CAR Intergenic 10, HUC 1 and 2, ZFAS1, SCA8, and SNHG5 were also upregulated and UCA1 was downregulated, the differences were not dominent. Based on the expression result, we explored the functional role of snaR in HER2-positive breast cancer. Downregulation of snaR with small interfering RNA was identified to significanlty inhibit migration as well as proliferation of SK-BR3 cells.
CONCLUSION: In this study, snaR was identified as upregulated and to play a role in cancer progression of HER2-positive breast cancer cells. These results suggest snaR as a potential biomarker for HER2-positive breast cancer.

Cavalli M, De Novi LA, Della Starza I, et al.
Comparative analysis between RQ-PCR and digital droplet PCR of BCL2/IGH gene rearrangement in the peripheral blood and bone marrow of early stage follicular lymphoma.
Br J Haematol. 2017; 177(4):588-596 [PubMed] Related Publications
BCL2/IGH rearrangements were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at diagnosis in paired peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples from 67 patients with stage I/II follicular lymphoma (FL). Real time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) and digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) were performed in cases with a major breakpoint region (MBR+) at diagnosis and after localized radiotherapy and rituximab administration in order to investigate the applicability of ddPCR. The overall ddPCR/RQ-PCR concordance was 81·9% (113/138 samples) and 97·5% in the 40/138 with quantifiable disease (RQ-PCR≥10

Lee HJ, Shin DH, Noh GY, et al.
Combination of immunohistochemistry, FISH and RT-PCR shows high incidence of Xp11 translocation RCC: comparison of three different diagnostic methods.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(19):30756-30765 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We evaluated the frequency of translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and how well the TFE3 immunoreactivity is concordant with TFE3 gene translocation status proved by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay and RT-PCR. TFE3 and Cathepsin K expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 185 RCC cases, and 48 cases either of more than weak expression of TFE3 or of positivity for Cathepsin K were done for FISH analysis and RT-PCR. All the RT-PCR positive cases were confirmed by cloning and sequencing. Of the 14 cases with strong nuclear TFE3 expression, 12 showed a break-apart signal by FISH. ASPL- and PRCC-TFE3 translocations were detected in 13 and one case, respectively, by RT-PCR. Of 21 cases with weak TFE3 expression, five were translocation-positive by FISH. ASPL-, PRCC-, and PSF-TFE3 translocations were detected by RT-PCR (n=3, 3, and 1, respectively). All 13 TFE3-negative/cathepsin K-positive cases were negative by FISH and two each harbored ASPL- and PRCC-TFE3 translocations that were detected by RT-PCR. A high rate of TFE3 immunoreactivity (8.6%) was confirmed by RT-PCR (13.5%) and FISH (9.7%). Higher translocation rate of RT-PCR means RT-PCR detected translocation in TFE3 weak expression group and only cathepsin K positive group more specifically than FISH. Thus, RT-PCR would complement FISH analysis for detecting translocation RCC with fusion partners.

Marchionni L, Hayashi M, Guida E, et al.
MicroRNA expression profiling of Xp11 renal cell carcinoma.
Hum Pathol. 2017; 67:18-29 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) with Xp11 translocation (Xp11 RCC) constitute a distinctive molecular subtype characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the Xp11.2 locus, resulting in gene fusions between the TFE3 transcription factor with a second gene (usually ASPSCR1, PRCC, NONO, or SFPQ). RCCs with Xp11 translocations comprise up to 1% to 4% of adult cases, frequently displaying papillary architecture with epithelioid clear cells. To better understand the biology of this molecularly distinct tumor subtype, we analyze the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of Xp11 RCC compared with normal renal parenchyma using microarray and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. We further compare Xp11 RCC with other RCC histologic subtypes using publically available data sets, identifying common and distinctive miRNA signatures along with the associated signaling pathways and biological processes. Overall, Xp11 RCC more closely resembles clear cell rather than papillary RCC. Furthermore, among the most differentially expressed miRNAs specific for Xp11 RCC, we identify miR-148a-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-185-5p, miR-196b-5p, and miR-642a-5p to be up-regulated, whereas miR-133b and miR-658 were down-regulated. Finally, Xp11 RCC is most strongly associated with miRNA expression profiles modulating DNA damage responses, cell cycle progression and apoptosis, and the Hedgehog signaling pathway. In summary, we describe here for the first time the miRNA expression profiles of a molecularly distinct type of renal cancer associated with Xp11.2 translocations involving the TFE3 gene. Our results might help understanding the molecular underpinning of Xp11 RCC, assisting in developing targeted treatments for this disease.

Wang XT, Xia QY, Ni H, et al.
SFPQ/PSF-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study emphasizing extended morphology and reviewing the differences between SFPQ-TFE3 RCC and the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasm despite an identical gene fusion.
Hum Pathol. 2017; 63:190-200 [PubMed] Related Publications
Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with SFPQ/PSF-TFE3 gene fusion is a rare epithelial tumor. Of note, the appearance of the gene fusion does not necessarily mean that it is renal cell carcinoma. The corresponding mesenchymal neoplasms, including Xp11 neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation, TFE3 rearrangement-associated perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) and melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer, can also harbor the identical gene fusion. However, the differences between Xp11 translocation RCC and the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasm have only recently been described. Herein, we examined 5 additional cases of SFPQ-TFE3 RCCs using clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analyses. One tumor had the typical morphologic features of SFPQ-TFE3 RCC, whereas other 3 cases demonstrated the unusual morphologic features associated with pseudorosettes formation or clusters of smaller cells, mimicking TFEB RCC. The remaining one showed branching tubules and papillary structure composed of clear and eosinophilic tumor cells. Immunohistochemically, all 5 cases demonstrated moderate (2+) or strong (3+) positive staining for TFE3, PAX-8 and CD10, whereas no cases demonstrated TFEB, Cathepsin K, CA-IX, CK7, Melan-A, or HMB-45 expression. Genetically, the fusion transcripts were identified in 3 cases by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). On the basis of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, all the cases were detected with SFPQ-TFE3 gene fusion. Clinical follow-up data were available for all the patients, and no one developed tumor recurrence, progression, or metastasis. We also review the differences between SFPQ-TFE3 RCC and the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasm despite the identical gene fusion. The presence of pseudorosettes also expands the known histological features of SFPQ-TFE3 RCC.

Guden M, Ayata HB, Ceylan C, et al.
Prognostic factors effective on survival of patients with glioblastoma: Anadolu Medical Center experience.
Indian J Cancer. 2016 Jul-Sep; 53(3):382-386 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The aim of this study is to offer survival following radiation therapy using intensity-modulated radiotherapy or volumetric arc therapy with temozolomide in patients with glioblastoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-two previously treated patients with high-grade glioma (World Health Organization [WHO] grade IV) were studied in Anadolu Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, between January 2006 and July 2015. The diagnosis was established by pathology in all cases. The median age was 59 years (range, 19-86 years). The median tumor diameter was 45 mm, and the rate of the multicentric tumors was 16.3%. The location of the tumor was temporal in 33.7%, parietal in 14.1%, frontal in 23.9%, occipital in 9.8%, and others in 18.5%. The gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 60.9% of the patients, partial resection in 26.1%, and only stereotactic biopsy in 13.0% of the patients.
RESULTS: The median overall survival (OS) was 33.01 ± 4.76 months (95% confidence interval 25.64-40.38 months). 1, 2, and 5 years OS was 74.3%, 44.3%, and 31.8%, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 27.36 ± 3.87 months (95% confidence interval 19.82-34.89 months). 1, 2, and 5 years PFS was 62.7%, 32.6%, and 27.2%, respectively. On univariate analysis, gender, extent of surgery, tumor size, Karnofsky performance status, and tumor suppressor gene (P53) were significant predictors of OS and PFS. On multivariate analysis, gender (PFS: P = 0.006, OS: P = 0.003), extent of surgery (PFS: P = 0.004, OS: P = 0.012), P53 (PFS: P = 0.003, OS: P = 0.021), and size of tumor (PFS: P = 0.005, OS: 0.012) remained significantly associated with PFS and OS. There is no statistically significant in OS and PFS between female and male (OS: log-rank: 0.79 P = 0.375, PFS: log-rank: 0.54 P = 0.465). PSF and OS were not significantly significant with total/near total resection compared with partial resection (PSF: P = 0.46 log-rank = 0.54, OS: P = 0.340 log-rank = 0.91). Patients with P53 <50% value and patients with P53 >50% value were compared and results were not found statistically significant (PSF: P = 0.917 log-rank = 0.01, OS: P = 0.892 log-rank = 0.02). For patients with tumor size <0 mm, small tumor size did not improve the PSF and OS (PSF: P = 0.291 log-rank = 1.11, OS: P = 0.288 log-rank = 1.13).
CONCLUSION: Ninety-two previously treated patients with high-grade glioma (WHO Grade IV) were evaluated with multivariate analysis. Gender, extent of surgery, P53, and tumor size were found as prognostic factors affecting on survival.

Classe M, Malouf GG, Su X, et al.
Incidence, clinicopathological features and fusion transcript landscape of translocation renal cell carcinomas.
Histopathology. 2017; 70(7):1089-1097 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Translocation renal cell carcinoma (tRCC) is a rare subtype of kidney tumour characterized by translocations involving the transcription factor TFE3 or TFEB. tRCC was introduced into the World Health Organization classification in 2004, but much is still unknown about the natural history, clinicopathological features and outcomes of the disease. The aim of this study was to describe the landscape of fusion transcript in a large single-institution series of fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH)-confirmed tRCCs and then to compare it to morphological and clinical data.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Paired-end RNA sequencing was performed within a prospective database of the Department of Pathology, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire (Lille, France). The diagnosis of tRCC was confirmed by FISH. Among a total of 1130 identified renal cell carcinomas, 21 cases (1.9%) showed rearrangement of the TFE3 (n = 20) or (TFEB) (n = 1) gene. Median patient age was 31 years (range = 15-47), and the female-to-male ratio was 6:1. Five different TFE3 fusion transcripts were identified; the most frequent TFE3 partners were PRCC (n = 4) and SFPQ (n = 4). The other partners involved were ASPCR1 (n = 1) and MED15 (n = 1) genes as well as a novel TFE3 partner, GRIPAP1.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified a new fusion partner, GRIPAP1. The prognostic role of transcript type could not be determined because our number of cases was too small. Four patients (19%) died of the disease, all of which presented with a lymph node involvement at diagnosis. We confirm that tRCC can be an aggressive tumour, especially those of advanced clinical stage.

Yang P, Chen T, Xu Z, et al.
Long noncoding RNA GAPLINC promotes invasion in colorectal cancer by targeting SNAI2 through binding with PSF and NONO.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(27):42183-42194 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study aimed to investigate the role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Metastasis is an important prognostic factor of CRC, and lncRNAs have been implicated in tumor proliferation and metastasis. The human CRC cell lines HCT116, HT29, SW480, DLD-1, and SW620 were used in the study. Genome-wide lncRNA expression patterns in metastatic lymph nodes compared with paired normal lymph nodes of CRC were assessed by microarray analysis. Gastric adenocarcinoma predictive long intergenic noncoding (GAPLINC) RNA was detected via functional prediction. The increased expression of GAPLINC was found to be positively correlated with larger tumor size, advanced tumor stage (T stage), advanced node stage (N stage), increased death, and shorter survival of patients with CRC by in situ hybridization analysis. Besides, the decreased expression of GAPLINC could significantly repress CRC cell invasion in vitro and also inhibit proliferation in vitro and in vivo. RNA pull-down with mass spectrum experiments revealed that PTB-associated splicing factor (PSF) and non-POU-domain-containing octamer-binding (NONO) protein bound to GAPLINC and reversed the effect of GAPLINC on cell invasion. Gene array and bioinformatics analyses identified that snail family zinc finger 2 (SNAI2) was involved in the biological processes of GAPLINC/PSF/NONO. This study indicated the importance of GAPLINC in promoting CRC invasion via binding to PSF/NONO and partly by stimulating the expression of SNAI2. Hence, GAPLINC may serve as a promising target for CRC diagnosis and therapy. The findings may help in developing a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with CRC.

Tauchi S, Sakai Y, Fujimoto S, et al.
Psf3 is a prognostic biomarker in lung adenocarcinoma: a larger trial using tissue microarrays of 864 consecutive resections.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2016; 50(4):758-764 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Partner of Sld five (Psf) 3 is a member of the evolutionarily conserved heterotetrameric complex GINS (Go-Ichi-Ni-San). We previously reported that Psf3 could serve as a biomarker of poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma. Here, we used tissue microarrays to analyse Psf3 expression in lung adenocarcinoma and investigated whether its expression is associated with survival outcomes.
METHODS: The study included 864 consecutive patients with lung adenocarcinoma who underwent complete resection at Hyogo Cancer Center between January 2002 and December 2009. Tissue microarrays were prepared, and Psf3 was detected using mouse antihuman Psf3 primary monoclonal antibodies. The status of Psf3 expression was determined using these microarrays.
RESULTS: Of the 864 patients, 375 had high-positive Psf3 expression and 489 had low-positive expression. Psf3 expression was significantly associated with age, sex, T factor, lymph node metastasis, stage and P factor. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was significantly lower in patients with high-positive Psf3 expression than in those with low-positive expression, and Psf3 expression, sex, age, T factor and lymph node metastasis were identified as independent and significant prognostic determinants. Among patients with Stage I adenocarcinoma, the 5-year DFS rate was significantly lower in those with high-positive Psf3 expression than in those with low-positive expression, and Psf3 expression was the most powerful survival predictor.
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings strengthened our previous data demonstrating that high Psf3 expression in primary lung adenocarcinoma plays an important role in disease progression and is a prognostic indicator, particularly in early-stage adenocarcinoma.

Just PA, Letourneur F, Pouliquen C, et al.
Identification by FFPE RNA-Seq of a new recurrent inversion leading to RBM10-TFE3 fusion in renal cell carcinoma with subtle TFE3 break-apart FISH pattern.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(6):541-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene fusions involving TFE3 defines the "Xp11.2 translocations" subclass of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) belonging to the MiT family translocation RCC. Four recurrent TFE3 fusion partners were identified to date: PRCC, ASPSCR1, SFPQ, and NONO. Break-apart TFE3 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections is currently the gold standard for identification of TFE3 rearrangements. Herein, we report a case of RCC with a morphological appearance of Xp11.2 translocation, and positive TFE3 immunostaining. By FISH, the spots constituting the split signal were barely spaced, suggestive of a chromosome X inversion rather than a translocation. We performed RNA-seq from FFPE material to test this hypothesis. RNA-seq suggested a fusion of RBM10 gene exon 17 (Xp11.23) with TFE3 gene exon 5 (Xp11.2). RBM10-TFE3 fusion transcript was confirmed using specific RT-PCR. Our work showed that RNA-Seq is a robust technique to detect fusion transcripts from FFPE material. A RBM10-TFE3 fusion was previously described in single case of Xp11.2 RCC. Although rare, RBM10-TFE3 fusion variant (from chromosome X paracentric inversion), therefore, appears to be a recurrent molecular event in Xp11.2 RCCs. RBM10-TFE3 fusion should be added in the list of screened fusion transcripts in targeted molecular diagnostic multiplex RT-PCR. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Argani P, Zhong M, Reuter VE, et al.
TFE3-Fusion Variant Analysis Defines Specific Clinicopathologic Associations Among Xp11 Translocation Cancers.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2016; 40(6):723-37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Xp11 translocation cancers include Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC), Xp11 translocation perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa), and melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer. In Xp11 translocation cancers, oncogenic activation of TFE3 is driven by the fusion of TFE3 with a number of different gene partners; however, the impact of individual fusion variant on specific clinicopathologic features of Xp11 translocation cancers has not been well defined. In this study, we analyze 60 Xp11 translocation cancers by fluorescence in situ hybridization using custom bacterial artificial chromosome probes to establish their TFE3 fusion gene partner. In 5 cases RNA sequencing was also used to further characterize the fusion transcripts. The 60 Xp11 translocation cancers included 47 Xp11 translocation RCC, 8 Xp11 translocation PEComas, and 5 melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers. A fusion partner was identified in 53/60 (88%) cases, including 18 SFPQ (PSF), 16 PRCC, 12 ASPSCR1 (ASPL), 6 NONO, and 1 DVL2. We provide the first morphologic description of the NONO-TFE3 RCC, which frequently demonstrates subnuclear vacuoles leading to distinctive suprabasal nuclear palisading. Similar subnuclear vacuolization was also characteristic of SFPQ-TFE3 RCC, creating overlapping features with clear cell papillary RCC. We also describe the first RCC with a DVL2-TFE3 gene fusion, in addition to an extrarenal pigmented PEComa with a NONO-TFE3 gene fusion. Furthermore, among neoplasms with the SFPQ-TFE3, NONO-TFE3, DVL2-TFE3, and ASPL-TFE3 gene fusions, the RCCs are almost always PAX8 positive, cathepsin K negative by immunohistochemistry, whereas the mesenchymal counterparts (Xp11 translocation PEComas, melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers, and alveolar soft part sarcoma) are PAX8 negative, cathepsin K positive. These findings support the concept that despite an identical gene fusion, the RCCs are distinct from the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasms, perhaps due to the cellular context in which the translocation occurs. We corroborate prior data showing that the PRCC-TFE3 RCCs are the only known Xp11 translocation RCC molecular subtype that are consistently cathepsin K positive. In summary, our data expand further the clinicopathologic features of cancers with specific TFE3 gene fusions and should allow for more meaningful clinicopathologic associations to be drawn.

Wang XT, Xia QY, Ni H, et al.
Xp11 neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation of the prostate harbouring the novel NONO-TFE3 gene fusion: report of a unique case expanding the gene fusion spectrum.
Histopathology. 2016; 69(3):450-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, an increasing number of TFE3 rearrangement-associated tumours have been reported, such as TFE3 rearrangement-associated perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas), melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers and melanotic Xp11 neoplasms. We have suggested that these tumours belong to a single clinicopathological spectrum. 'Xp11 neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation' or 'melanotic Xp11 neoplasm' have been proposed to designate this unique neoplasm. Herein, we describe the first case of an Xp11 neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation to be described in the prostate, bearing the novel NONO-TFE3 gene fusion. This study both adds to the spectrum regarding melanotic Xp11 neoplasms and expands its gene fusion spectrum. Moreover, we discuss the relationship of these rare tumours to neoplasms such as conventional PEComas, alveolar soft part sarcomas, malignant melanomas, clear cell sarcomas and Xp11 translocation renal cancers.

Rao Q, Shen Q, Xia QY, et al.
PSF/SFPQ is a very common gene fusion partner in TFE3 rearrangement-associated perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) and melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular characteristics suggesting classification as a distinct entity.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(9):1181-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
An increasing number of TFE3 rearrangement-associated tumors, such as TFE3 rearrangement-associated perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas), melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers, and melanotic Xp11 neoplasms, have recently been reported. We examined 12 such cases, including 5 TFE3 rearrangement-associated PEComas located in the pancreas, cervix, or pelvis and 7 melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers, using clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analyses. All the tumors shared a similar morphology, including a purely nested or sheet-like architecture separated by a delicate vascular network, purely epithelioid cells displaying a clear or granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, a lack of papillary structures and spindle cell or fat components, uniform round or oval nuclei containing small visible nucleoli, and, in most cases (11/12), melanin pigmentation. The levels of mitotic activity and necrosis varied. All 12 cases displayed moderately (2+) or strongly (3+) positive immunoreactivity for TFE3 and cathepsin K. One case labeled focally for HMB45 and Melan-A, whereas the others typically labeled moderately (2+) or strongly (3+) for 1 of these markers. None of the cases were immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin, desmin, CKpan, S100, or PAX8. PSF-TFE3 fusion genes were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in cases (7/7) in which a novel PSF-TFE3 fusion point was identified. All of the cases displayed TFE3 rearrangement associated with Xp11 translocation. Furthermore, we developed a PSF-TFE3 fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization assay for the detection of the PSF-TFE3 fusion gene and detected it in all 12 cases. Clinical follow-up data were available for 7 patients. Three patients died, and 2 patients (cases 1 and 3) remained alive with no evidence of disease after initial resection. Case 2 experienced recurrence and remained alive with disease. Case 5, a recent case, remained alive with extensive abdominal cavity metastases. Our data suggest that these tumors belong to a single clinicopathologic spectrum and expand the known characteristics of TFE3 rearrangement-associated tumors.

Agaram NP, Sung YS, Zhang L, et al.
Dichotomy of Genetic Abnormalities in PEComas With Therapeutic Implications.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(6):813-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComa) are a family of rare mesenchymal tumors with hybrid myo-melanocytic differentiation. Although most PEComas harbor loss-of-function TSC1/TSC2 mutations, a small subset were reported to carry TFE3 gene rearrangements. As no comprehensive genomic study has addressed the molecular classification of PEComa, we sought to investigate by multiple methodologies the incidence and spectrum of genetic abnormalities and their potential genotype-phenotype correlations in a large group of 38 PEComas. The tumors were located in soft tissue (11 cases) and visceral sites (27) including uterus, kidney, liver, lung, and urinary bladder. Combined RNA sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis identified 9 (23%) TFE3 gene-rearranged tumors, with 3 cases showing an SFPQ/PSF-TFE3 fusion and 1 case showing a novel DVL2-TFE3 gene fusion. The TFE3-positive lesions showed a distinctive nested/alveolar morphology and were equally distributed between soft tissue and visceral sites. In addition, novel RAD51B gene rearrangements were identified in 3 (8%) uterine PEComas, which showed a complex fusion pattern and were fused to RRAGB/OPHN1 genes in 2 cases. Other nonrecurrent gene fusions, HTR4-ST3GAL1 and RASSF1-PDZRN3, were identified in 2 cases. Targeted exome sequencing using the IMPACT assay was used to address whether the presence of gene fusions is mutually exclusive from TSC gene abnormalities. TSC2 mutations were identified in 80% of the TFE3 fusion-negative cases tested. Coexistent TP53 mutations were identified in 63% of the TSC2-mutated PEComas. Our results showed that TFE3-rearranged PEComas lacked coexisting TSC2 mutations, indicating alternative pathways of tumorigenesis. In summary, this comprehensive genetic analysis significantly expands our understanding of molecular alterations in PEComas and brings forth the genetic heterogeneity of these tumors.

Lu B, Wang C, Zhang J, et al.
Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of gastrointestinal tract: case report and review of the literature.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(3):e393 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors of gastrointestinal tract (GI PEComas) are exceedingly rare, with only a limited number of published reports worldwide. Given the scarcity of GI PEComas and their relatively short follow-up periods, our current knowledge of their biologic behavior, molecular genetic alterations, diagnostic criteria, and prognostic factors continues to be very limited.We present 2 cases of GI PEComas, one of which showed an aggressive histologic behavior that underwent multiple combined chemotherapies. We also review the available English-language medical literature on GI PEComas-not otherwise specified (PEComas-NOS) and discuss their clinicopathological and molecular genetic features.Pathologic analyses including histomorphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies were performed to evaluate the clinicopathological features of GI PEComas, their diagnosis, and differential diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry, semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing assays were carried out to detect the potential molecular genetic alterations in our cases. Microscopically, the tumors showed distinctive histologic features of PEComas-NOS, including fascicular or nested architecture, epithelioid or spindled cell type, and clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm. The tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for melanocytic markers. Molecular pathological assays confirmed a PSF-TFE3 gene fusion in one of our cases. Furthermore, in this case microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and its downstream genes were found to exhibit elevated transcript levels.Knowledge about the molecular genetic alterations in GI PEComas is still limited and warrants further study.

Fang D, Yang H, Lin J, et al.
17β-estradiol regulates cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, invasion and promotes apoptosis by upregulating miR-9 and thus degrades MALAT-1 in osteosarcoma cell MG-63 in an estrogen receptor-independent manner.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 457(4):500-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
In bone, different concentration of estrogen leads to various of physiological processes in osteoblast, such as the proliferation, migration, and apoptosis in an estrogen receptor-dependent manner. But little was known about the estrogen effects on osteosarcoma (OS). In this study, OS cell MG-63 was treated with low (1 nM) or high (100 nM) dose of 17β-Estradiol (E2) with the presence or absence of estrogen receptor α (ERα), for evaluating the E2 effects on proliferation, migration, invasion, colony formation and apoptosis. Consistent with a previous study, high dose of E2 treatment dramatically downregulated expressing level of long non-coding RNA metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT-1). The observation of upregulation of miR-9 after a high dose of E2 treatment indicated the cause of MALAT-1 reduction. Downregulation of MALAT-1 promoted the combination of SFPQ/PTBP2 complex. It was also observed that the proliferation, migration, invasion, colony formation and apoptosis of OS cells were remarkably affected by high dose of E2 treatment, but not by low dose, in an ERα independent manner. Furthermore, the abolishment of the effects on these physiological processes caused by ectopic expression of miR-9 ASOs suggested the necessity of miR-9 in MALAT-1 regulation. Here we found that the high dose of E2 treatment upregulated miR-9 thus posttranscriptionally regulated MALAT-1 RNA level in OS cells, and then the downregulation of MALAT-1 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) processes in the E2-dose dependent and ER-independent ways.

Sarkar D, Leung EY, Baguley BC, et al.
Epigenetic regulation in human melanoma: past and future.
Epigenetics. 2015; 10(2):103-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The development and progression of melanoma have been attributed to independent or combined genetic and epigenetic events. There has been remarkable progress in understanding melanoma pathogenesis in terms of genetic alterations. However, recent studies have revealed a complex involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of gene expression, including methylation, chromatin modification and remodeling, and the diverse activities of non-coding RNAs. The roles of gene methylation and miRNAs have been relatively well studied in melanoma, but other studies have shown that changes in chromatin status and in the differential expression of long non-coding RNAs can lead to altered regulation of key genes. Taken together, they affect the functioning of signaling pathways that influence each other, intersect, and form networks in which local perturbations disturb the activity of the whole system. Here, we focus on how epigenetic events intertwine with these pathways and contribute to the molecular pathogenesis of melanoma.

Zhan HQ, Chen H, Wang CF, Zhu XZ
A case of PSF-TFE3 gene fusion in Xp11.2 renal cell carcinoma with melanotic features.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(3):476-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (Xp11.2 RCC) with PSF-TFE3 gene fusion is a rare neoplasm. Only 22 cases of Xp11.2 RCCs with PSF-TFE3 have been reported to date. We describe an additional case of Xp11.2 RCC with PSF-TFE3 showing melanotic features. Microscopically, the histologic features mimic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. However, the dark-brown pigments were identified and could be demonstrated as melanins. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were widely positive for CD10, human melanoma black 45, and TFE3 but negative for cytokeratins, vimentin, Melan-A, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, smooth muscle actin, and S-100 protein. Genetically, we demonstrated PSF-TFE3 fusion between exon 9 of PSF and exon 5 of TFE3. The patient was free of disease with 50 months of follow-up. The prognosis of this type of tumor requires more cases because of limited number of cases and follow-up period. Xp11.2 RCC with PSF-TFE3 inevitably requires differentiation from other kidney neoplasms. Immunohistochemical and molecular genetic analyses are essential for accurate diagnosis.

Kauffman EC, Ricketts CJ, Rais-Bahrami S, et al.
Molecular genetics and cellular features of TFE3 and TFEB fusion kidney cancers.
Nat Rev Urol. 2014; 11(8):465-75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite nearly two decades passing since the discovery of gene fusions involving TFE3 or TFEB in sporadic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the molecular mechanisms underlying the renal-specific tumorigenesis of these genes remain largely unclear. The recently published findings of The Cancer Genome Atlas Network reported that five of the 416 surveyed clear cell RCC tumours (1.2%) harboured SFPQ-TFE3 fusions, providing further evidence for the importance of gene fusions. A total of five TFE3 gene fusions (PRCC-TFE3, ASPSCR1-TFE3, SFPQ-TFE3, NONO-TFE3, and CLTC-TFE3) and one TFEB gene fusion (MALAT1-TFEB) have been identified in RCC tumours and characterized at the mRNA transcript level. A multitude of molecular pathways well-described in carcinogenesis are regulated in part by TFE3 or TFEB proteins, including activation of TGFβ and ETS transcription factors, E-cadherin expression, CD40L-dependent lymphocyte activation, mTORC1 signalling, insulin-dependent metabolism regulation, folliculin signalling, and retinoblastoma-dependent cell cycle arrest. Determining which pathways are most important to RCC oncogenesis will be critical in discovering the most promising therapeutic targets for this disease.

Ji Q, Zhang L, Liu X, et al.
Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 promotes tumour growth and metastasis in colorectal cancer through binding to SFPQ and releasing oncogene PTBP2 from SFPQ/PTBP2 complex.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(4):736-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastasis associated with lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1 (MALAT1) is a functional long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), which is highly expressed in several tumours, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Its biological function and mechanism in the prognosis of human CRC is still largely under investigation.
METHODS: This study aimed to investigate the new effect mechanism of MALAT1 on the proliferation and migration of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo, and detect the expression of MALAT1, SFPQ (also known as PSF (PTB-associated splicing factor)), and PTBP2 (also known as PTB (polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein)) in CRC tumour tissues, followed by correlated analysis with clinicopathological parameters.
RESULTS: We found that overexpression of MALAT1 could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro, and promote tumour growth and metastasis in nude mice. The underlying mechanism was associated with tumour suppressor gene SFPQ and proto-oncogene PTBP2. In CRC, MALAT1 could bind to SFPQ, thus releasing PTBP2 from the SFPQ/PTBP2 complex. In turn, the increased SFPQ-detached PTBP2 promoted cell proliferation and migration. SFPQ critically mediated the regulatory effects of MALAT1. Moreover, in CRC tissues, MALAT1 and PTBP2 were overexpressed, both of which were associated closely with the invasion and metastasis of CRC. However, the SFPQ showed unchanged expression either in CRC tissues or adjacent normal tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings implied that MALAT1 might be a potential predictor for tumour metastasis and prognosis. Furthermore, the interaction between MALAT1 and SFPQ could be a novel therapeutic target for CRC.

Cho S, Moon H, Loh TJ, et al.
PSF contacts exon 7 of SMN2 pre-mRNA to promote exon 7 inclusion.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1839(6):517-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease and a leading cause of infant mortality. Deletions or mutations of SMN1 cause SMA, a gene that encodes a SMN protein. SMN is important for the assembly of Sm proteins onto UsnRNA to UsnRNP. SMN has also been suggested to direct axonal transport of β-actin mRNA in neurons. Humans contain a second SMN gene called SMN2 thus SMA patients produce some SMN but not with sufficient levels. The majority of SMN2 mRNA does not include exon 7. Here we show that increased expression of PSF promotes inclusion of exon 7 in the SMN2 whereas reduced expression of PSF promotes exon 7 skipping. In addition, we present evidence showing that PSF interacts with the GAAGGA enhancer in exon 7. We also demonstrate that a mutation in this enhancer abolishes the effects of PSF on exon 7 splicing. Furthermore we show that the RNA target sequences of PSF and tra2β in exon 7 are partially overlapped. These results lead us to conclude that PSF interacts with an enhancer in exon 7 to promote exon 7 splicing of SMN2 pre-mRNA.

Pflueger D, Sboner A, Storz M, et al.
Identification of molecular tumor markers in renal cell carcinomas with TFE3 protein expression by RNA sequencing.
Neoplasia. 2013; 15(11):1231-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TFE3 translocation renal cell carcinoma (tRCC) is defined by chromosomal translocations involving the TFE3 transcription factor at chromosome Xp11.2. Genetically proven TFE3 tRCCs have a broad histologic spectrum with overlapping features to other renal tumor subtypes. In this study, we aimed for characterizing RCC with TFE3 protein expression. Using next-generation whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) as a discovery tool, we analyzed fusion transcripts, gene expression profile, and somatic mutations in frozen tissue of one TFE3 tRCC. By applying a computational analysis developed to call chimeric RNA molecules from paired-end RNA-Seq data, we confirmed the known TFE3 translocation. Its fusion partner SFPQ has already been described as fusion partner in tRCCs. In addition, an RNA read-through chimera between TMED6 and COG8 as well as MET and KDR (VEGFR2) point mutations were identified. An EGFR mutation, but no chromosomal rearrangements, was identified in a control group of five clear cell RCCs (ccRCCs). The TFE3 tRCC could be clearly distinguished from the ccRCCs by RNA-Seq gene expression measurements using a previously reported tRCC gene signature. In validation experiments using reverse transcription-PCR, TMED6-COG8 chimera expression was significantly higher in nine TFE3 translocated and six TFE3-expressing/non-translocated RCCs than in 24 ccRCCs (P < .001) and 22 papillary RCCs (P < .05-.07). Immunohistochemical analysis of selected genes from the tRCC gene signature showed significantly higher eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 (EEF1A2) and Contactin 3 (CNTN3) expression in 16 TFE3 translocated and six TFE3-expressing/non-translocated RCCs than in over 200 ccRCCs (P < .0001, both).

Tsukahara T, Matsuda Y, Haniu H
PSF knockdown enhances apoptosis via downregulation of LC3B in human colon cancer cells.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:204973 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our previous study demonstrated that PTB-associated splicing factor (PSF) is an important regulator of cell death and plays critical roles in the survival and growth of colon cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism that activates these downstream signaling events remains unknown. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of PSF knockdown in two different colon cancer cell lines, DLD-1 and HT-29. We found that knockdown of PSF markedly decreased the autophagic molecule LC3B in DLD-1 cells but not in HT-29 cells. Furthermore, DLD-1 cells were more susceptible to PSF knockdown-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis than HT-29 cells. This susceptibility is probably a result of LC3B inhibition, given the known relationship between autophagy and apoptosis. C3B is associated with a number of physiological processes, including cell growth and apoptotic cell death. Our results suggest that autophagy is inhibited by PSF knockdown and that apoptosis and cell growth inhibition may act together to mediate the PSF-LC3B signaling pathway. Furthermore, we found that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ)-PSF complex induced LC3B downregulation in DLD-1 cells. The results of this study identify a new physiological role for the PSF-LC3B axis as a potential endogenous modulator of colon cancer treatment.

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