Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (7)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: S100A11 (cancer-related)
Wang C, Luo J, Rong J, et al.Distinct prognostic roles of S100 mRNA expression in gastric cancer.
Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(1):127-136 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The S100 protein family is implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis, but its prognostic roles in gastric cancer (GC) has not been elucidated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the current study, Kaplan-Meier plotter (KM plotter) database integrated the expression data and survival information of 1065 GC patients were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) (GSE22377, GSE14210 and GSE51105) that published by the three major cancer centers (Berlin, Bethesda and Melbourne). Then this database was used to explore the prognostic values of mRNA expression of each individual S100 in GC patients. We further assessed the prognostic value of S100 in different Lauren classifications, clinicopathological features and clinical treatment of gastric cancer.
RESULTS: Expression of 12 members of the S100 family correlated with overall survival (OS) for all GC patients. Increased expression of S100A3, S100A5, S100A7, S100A7A, S100A11, S100A13, S100Z and S100 G were found to be strongly associated with worse survival, while S100A8, S100A9, S100B and S100 P were correlated with better prognosis in all GC patients. Further assessment of prognostic values of S100 in gastric cancer with different clinical features indicated that different S100 members may interact with different signaling pathways and exerted different functions in gastric cancer development.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the results should be further testified in clinical studies, our findings offer new insights into the contribution of S100 members to GC progression and might promote development of S100 targeted reagents for treating GC.
Genes in the S100 family are abnormally expressed in a variety of tumor cells and are associated with clinical pathology, but their prognostic value in melanoma patients has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we extracted and profiled S100 family mRNA expression data and corresponding clinical data from the Gene Expression Omnibus database to analyze how expression of these genes correlates with clinical pathology. Compared with normal skin, S100A1, S100A13, and S100B were expressed at significantly higher levels in melanoma samples. S100A2, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, and S100P were all highly expressed in primary melanoma samples but were expressed at low levels in metastatic melanoma, and all of these genes were strongly correlated with each other (P<0.001). We found the expression of these S100 family genes to be significantly correlated with both lymphatic and distant melanoma metastasis, as well as with American Joint Committee on Cancer grade but not with Clark's grade, age, or sex. This suggests that expression of these genes may be related to the degree of tumor invasion. Although further validation through basic and clinical trials is needed, our results suggest that the S100 family genes have the potential to play an important role in the diagnosis of melanoma. S100 expression may be related to tumor invasion and may facilitate the early diagnosis of melanoma, allowing for a more accurate prognosis. Targeted S100 therapies are also potentially viable strategies in the context of melanoma.
S100A11 is reported to associate with progression and poor prognosis in several tumors. We previously reported that S100A11 was highly expressed in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) cells and promoted TGF-β1-induced EMT through SMAD2/3 signaling pathway. Here, we explored the prognostic role of S100A11 on ICC patients and preliminary molecular mechanisms how S100A11 regulated ICC cell proliferation. Our results showed that S100A11 was obviously increased in ICC tumor tissues. High expression of S100A11 was closely correlated with lymph node metastasis (LNM) and TNM stage and was an independent risk factor for patients' overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The nomograms comprising LNM and S100A11 achieved better predictive accuracy compared with TNM staging system for OS and RFS prediction. Silencing S100A11 significantly suppressed RBE cells and HCCC9810 cells proliferation, colony formation, and activation of P38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. In contrast, the overexpression of S100A11 in RBE cells and HCCC9810 cells achieved the opposite results. S100A11-induced proliferation was abolished after treatment with P38 inhibitor. Our findings suggest S100A11/P38/MAPK signaling pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for ICC patients.
Ji YF, Li T, Jiang F, et al.Correlation between S100A11 and the TGF-β
Mol Cell Biochem. 2019; 450(1-2):53-64 [PubMed
] Related Publications
S100A11 as a S100 protein family member has been documented to play dual-direction regulation over cancer cell proliferation. We explored the role of S100A11 in the proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 and the potential mechanisms involving the TGF-β
Zhang M, Zheng S, Jing C, et al.S100A11 promotes TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition through SMAD2/3 signaling pathway in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Future Oncol. 2018; 14(9):837-847 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIM: Our previous study found S100A11 was significantly raised in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells, but the relationship between S100A11 and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma remains unclear.
METHODS: We investigated the effect of silencing S100A11 on TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cell migration and invasion.
RESULTS: Our results demonstrated silencing S100A11 inhibited TGF-β1-induced cell migration, invasion and EMT, expression of EMT markers E-cadherin, N-cadherin, β-catenin, vimentin, Slug and Snail was reversed. Furthermore, TGF-β1-induced p-SMAD2 and 3 were also inhibited due to low S100A11 expression.
CONCLUSION: Our present study indicated that S100A11 promotes EMT through accumulation of TGF-β1 expression, and TGF-β1-induced upregulation of p-SMAD2 and 3.
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the major type of primary bone tumor and is associated with a poor prognosis due to chemotherapy resistance. Accumulating evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) may influence the tumor progression of OS and cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. In the present study, a total of 7 patients with OS and 7 healthy volunteers were recruited. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and ELISA were performed to determine the expression of miRNAs and mRNAs in the serum of participants. Furthermore, the biological function of miR‑22 and S100A11 was examined in MG‑63 cells using Cell Counting Kit‑8 assays, Transwell migration assays and western blot analysis to determine the effects on cell proliferation, migration and protein expression, respectively, while MG‑63 cell sensitivity to cisplatin was assessed by measuring cell viability following cisplatin treatment and calculating the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). Additionally, the association between miR‑22 and S100 calcium‑binding protein A11 (S100A11) was validated using a luciferase reporter assay. The results demonstrated that miR‑22 expression was significantly reduced in patients with OS and the MG‑63 OS cell line, compared with healthy volunteers and the normal osteoblast hFOB 1.19 cell line, respectively, while the expression of S100A11 was negatively associated with miR‑22 levels in the MG‑63 cell line. Furthermore, overexpression of miR‑22 inhibited the proliferation and migratory ability of MG‑63 cells, and increased the sensitivity of MG‑63 cells to cisplatin treatment; however, overexpression of S100A11 partially attenuated the alterations in proliferation, migratory ability and chemosensitivity that were induced by miR‑22 overexpression. In addition, it was confirmed that S100A11 is a direct target gene of miR‑22 in MG‑63 cells. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that miR‑22 may be a promising therapeutic target and may have potential as part of a combination treatment alongside chemotherapeutic agents for OS.
Gocheva V, Naba A, Bhutkar A, et al.Quantitative proteomics identify Tenascin-C as a promoter of lung cancer progression and contributor to a signature prognostic of patient survival.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017; 114(28):E5625-E5634 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The extracellular microenvironment is an integral component of normal and diseased tissues that is poorly understood owing to its complexity. To investigate the contribution of the microenvironment to lung fibrosis and adenocarcinoma progression, two pathologies characterized by excessive stromal expansion, we used mouse models to characterize the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of normal lung, fibrotic lung, lung tumors, and metastases. Using quantitative proteomics, we identified and assayed the abundance of 113 ECM proteins, which revealed robust ECM protein signatures unique to fibrosis, primary tumors, or metastases. These analyses indicated significantly increased abundance of several S100 proteins, including Fibronectin and Tenascin-C (Tnc), in primary lung tumors and associated lymph node metastases compared with normal tissue. We further showed that Tnc expression is repressed by the transcription factor Nkx2-1, a well-established suppressor of metastatic progression. We found that increasing the levels of Tnc, via CRISPR-mediated transcriptional activation of the endogenous gene, enhanced the metastatic dissemination of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Interrogation of human cancer gene expression data revealed that high
Although BC200 RNA is best known as a neuron-specific non-coding RNA, it is overexpressed in various cancer cells. BC200 RNA was recently shown to contribute to metastasis in several cancer cell lines, but the underlying mechanism was not understood in detail. To examine this mechanism, we knocked down BC200 RNA in cancer cells, which overexpress the RNA, and examined cell motility, profiling of ribosome footprints, and the correlation between cell motility changes and genes exhibiting altered ribosome profiles. We found that BC200 RNA knockdown reduced cell migration and invasion, suggesting that BC200 RNA promotes cell motility. Our ribosome profiling analysis identified 29 genes whose ribosomal occupations were altered more than 2-fold by BC200 RNA knockdown. Many (> 30%) of them were directly or indirectly related to cancer progression. Among them, we focused on S100A11 (which showed a reduced ribosome footprint) because its expression was previously shown to increase cellular motility. S100A11 was decreased at both the mRNA and protein levels following knockdown of BC200 RNA. An actinomycin-chase experiment showed that BC200 RNA knockdown significantly decreased the stability of the S100A11 mRNA without changing its transcription rate, suggesting that the downregulation of S100A11 was mainly caused by destabilization of its mRNA. Finally, we showed that the BC200 RNA-knockdown-induced decrease in cell motility was mainly mediated by S100A11. Together, our results show that BC200 RNA promotes cell motility by stabilizing S100A11 transcripts.
Targeted proteomic methods can accelerate the verification of multiple tumor marker candidates in large series of patient samples. We utilized the targeted approach known as selected/multiple reaction monitoring (S/MRM) to verify potential protein markers of colorectal adenoma identified by our group in previous transcriptomic and quantitative shotgun proteomic studies of a large cohort of precancerous colorectal lesions. We developed SRM assays to reproducibly detect and quantify 25 (62.5%) of the 40 selected proteins in an independent series of precancerous and cancerous tissue samples (19 adenoma/normal mucosa pairs; 17 adenocarcinoma/normal mucosa pairs). Twenty-three proteins were significantly up-regulated (
S100 family genes encode low molecular weight, acidic-Ca
We previously reported that patients with lung adenocarcinomas with KRAS gene mutations and strong proliferating activity had poorer outcomes, even in the early stage of the disease. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the potential molecular basis of these highly malignant lung tumors by focusing on S100 proteins (S100A2, S100A7, and S100A11), which are downstream targets of oncogenic KRAS and promoters of tumor progression. The immunohistochemical expression of S100 proteins was examined in 179 primary lung adenocarcinomas, and the potential relationships between their levels and clinicopathologic factors were analyzed. Among the three subtypes, S100A11 levels were significantly higher in adenocarcinomas with KRAS mutations and strong proliferating activity. They were also higher in adenocarcinomas with poorly differentiated tumors. Furthermore, higher levels of S100A11 were associated with shorter disease-free survival. These results suggest that the up-regulation of S100A11 plays a role in tumor progression, particularly in KRAS-mutated lung adenocarcinomas.
Ismail MF, El Boghdady NA, Shabayek MI, et al.Evaluation and screening of mRNA S100A genes as serological biomarkers in different stages of bladder cancer in Egypt.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(4):4621-31 [PubMed
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Calcium-binding proteins S100A are multifunctional proteins that show altered expression in various diseases and cancers. This study aimed at validating an easier and less time-consuming technique to evaluate the value of combined use of messenger RNA (mRNA) S100A genes in comparison and combination with voided urine cytology in detection of bladder cancer patients. Blood and urine specimens were collected from patients (n = 120) with histologically confirmed bladder carcinoma who are classified according to bladder cancer stage into four groups and from healthy volunteers (n = 30). Histopathology examination, bilharzias antibody detection, urine cytology, and mRNA expression of S100A genes were estimated for all subjects by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results indicate that each of the investigated S100A genes can be used as diagnostic marker for bladder cancer. Both S100A4 and S100A6 can be used to differentiate between different stages of bladder cancer. S100A7 can be used for the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. Both S100A8 and S100A9 can be used for detection of invasive bladder carcinoma while S100A11 can be used for early detection of superficial bladder carcinoma. The overall sensitivity and specificity for the studied S100A genes ranged from 73 to 90 and 84 to 92, respectively. The combined use of urine cytology with the investigated S100A genes increased sensitivity from 56 % up to a range of 87-96 %. In conclusion, serum S100A genes can be useful as potential serological biomarkers for bladder cancer, and combined use of urine cytology with S100A genes can improve the sensitivity for detection of bladder cancer.
Nepomuceno AI, Shao H, Jing K, et al.In-depth LC-MS/MS analysis of the chicken ovarian cancer proteome reveals conserved and novel differentially regulated proteins in humans.
Anal Bioanal Chem. 2015; 407(22):6851-63 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancer (OVC) remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the world due to the combined lack of early-stage diagnostics and effective therapeutic strategies. The development and application of advanced proteomics technology and new experimental models has created unique opportunities for translational studies. In this study, we investigated the ovarian cancer proteome of the chicken, an emerging experimental model of OVC that develops ovarian tumors spontaneously. Matched plasma, ovary, and oviduct tissue biospecimens derived from healthy, early-stage OVC, and late-stage OVC birds were quantitatively characterized by label-free proteomics. Over 2600 proteins were identified in this study, 348 of which were differentially expressed by more than twofold (p ≤ 0.05) in early- and late-stage ovarian tumor tissue specimens relative to healthy ovarian tissues. Several of the 348 proteins are known to be differentially regulated in human cancers including B2M, CLDN3, EPCAM, PIGR, S100A6, S100A9, S100A11, and TPD52. Of particular interest was ovostatin 2 (OVOS2), a novel 165-kDa protease inhibitor found to be strongly upregulated in chicken ovarian tumors (p = 0.0005) and matched plasma (p = 0.003). Indeed, RT-quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that OVOS2 mRNA and protein were also upregulated in multiple human OVC cell lines compared to normal ovarian epithelia (NOE) cells and immunohistochemical staining confirmed overexpression of OVOS2 in primary human ovarian cancers relative to non-cancerous tissues. Collectively, these data provide the first evidence for involvement of OVOS2 in the pathogenesis of both chicken and human ovarian cancer.
AIMS: To optimize and verify the regulatory pathway of p42.3 in the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma (GC) by intelligent algorithm.
METHODS: Bioinformatics methods were used to analyze the features of structural domain in p42.3 protein. Proteins with the same domains and similar functions to p42.3 were screened out for reference. The possible regulatory pathway of p42.3 was established by integrating the acting pathways of these proteins. Then, the similarity between the reference proteins and p42.3 protein was figured out by multiparameter weighted summation method. The calculation result was taken as the prior probability of the initial node in Bayesian network. Besides, the probability of occurrence in different pathways was calculated by conditional probability formula, and the one with the maximum probability was regarded as the most possible pathway of p42.3. Finally, molecular biological experiments were conducted to prove it.
RESULTS: In Bayesian network of p42.3, probability of the acting pathway "S100A11→RAGE→P38→MAPK→Microtubule-associated protein→Spindle protein→Centromere protein→Cell proliferation" was the biggest, and it was also validated by biological experiments.
CONCLUSIONS: The possibly important role of p42.3 in the occurrence of gastric carcinoma was verified by theoretical analysis and preliminary test, helping in studying the relationship between p42.3 and gastric carcinoma.
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence demonstrates a causal role for S100 proteins in tumourigenesis and several S100 isoforms have shown utility as biomarkers of several types of cancer. The S100 family is comprised of 21 small isoforms, many of them implicated in important cellular functions such as proliferation, motility and survival. Furthermore, in vivo experiments have proven the role of S100 proteins in tumour growth and disease progression, while other studies have shown their prognostic value and involvement in resistance to chemotherapy drugs. Taken together, all these aspects highlight S100 proteins as potential therapeutic targets and as a promising panel of cancer biomarkers. In this work, we have developed a mass spectrometry (MS)-based method for the multiplexed and specific analysis of the entire S100 protein family in tumour tissues and have applied it to investigate the expression of S100 isoforms in the context of thyroid cancer, the main endocrine malignancy.
METHODS: Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM)-MS and stable isotope labelling/label-free analysis were employed to investigate the expression of the 21 S100 protein isoforms in thyroid tissue samples. Specimens included 9 normal thyroid tissues and 27 tumour tissues consisting of 9 follicular adenomas (FA), 8 follicular carcinomas (FTC) and 10 papillary carcinomas (PTC).
RESULTS: The multiplexed and targeted mass spectrometry method led to the detection of eleven S100 protein isoforms across all tissues. Label- and label-free analyses showed the same significant differences and results were confirmed by western blot. S100A6, S100A11 and its putative interaction partner annexin A1 showed the highest overexpression in PTC compared to normal thyroid. S100A13 was also elevated in PTC. Reduced S100A4 expression was observed in FA compared to all other tissues. FA and FTC showed reduction of S100A10 and annexin A2 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Targeted mass spectrometry allows the multiplexed and specific analysis of S100 protein isoforms in tumour tissue specimens. It revealed S100A13 as a novel candidate PTC biomarker. Results show that S100A6, S100A11 and Annexin A1 could help discriminate follicular and papillary tumours. The diagnostic and functional significance of S100A4 and S100A10 reduction in follicular tumours requires further investigation.
Xue TC, Zhang BH, Ye SL, Ren ZGDifferentially expressed gene profiles of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma by integrated microarray analysis.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(8):5891-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are common primary liver cancers worldwide. However, the survival and prognosis of ICC are much poorer than those of HCC, indicating the different molecular characteristics and mechanisms between ICC and HCC. To identify differentially expressed (DE) genes between ICC and HCC or combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (CHC), we performed integrated analysis of publicly available microarray Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets by MetaOmics. Three GEO datasets comprising 32 ICC biochips, 77 HCC biochips, and 34 CHC biochips were available for the data integration. We identified 7313 DE genes between ICC and HCC, including 3650 upregulated genes and 3663 downregulated genes. The S100 family members on chromosome 1q21 were extensively upregulated in ICC, and S100A11 had the greatest degree of upregulation in ICC. Based on the DE genes, combined gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis showed the enhanced pathways of local adhesion, ECM-receptor interaction, and regulation of action cytoskeleton, suggesting the enhanced communication between ICC and the microenvironment. Additionally, development-related genes and development-related pathways, including the Notch, Wnt, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were shown to be active prominently in ICC. Taken together, we identified the characteristically upregulated or downregulated DE genes and pathways in ICC compared with HCC or CHC. These DE genes and pathways supply new transcriptomics evidence for ICC and could help identify new therapeutic targets.
Mechanical activity of cells and the stress imposed on them by extracellular environment is a constant source of injury to the plasma membrane (PM). In invasive tumor cells, increased motility together with the harsh environment of the tumor stroma further increases the risk of PM injury. The impact of these stresses on tumor cell plasma membrane and mechanism by which tumor cells repair the PM damage are poorly understood. Ca(2+) entry through the injured PM initiates repair of the PM. Depending on the cell type, different organelles and proteins respond to this Ca(2+) entry and facilitate repair of the damaged plasma membrane. We recently identified that proteins expressed in various metastatic cancers including Ca(2+)-binding EF hand protein S100A11 and its binding partner annexin A2 are used by tumor cells for plasma membrane repair (PMR). Here we will discuss the involvement of S100, annexin proteins and their regulation of actin cytoskeleton, leading to PMR. Additionally, we will show that another S100 member--S100A4 accumulates at the injured PM. These findings reveal a new role for the S100 and annexin protein up regulation in metastatic cancers and identify these proteins and PMR as targets for treating metastatic cancers.
Coumans JV, Gau D, Poljak A, et al.Profilin-1 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells is associated with alterations in proteomics biomarkers of cell proliferation, survival, and motility as revealed by global proteomics analyses.
OMICS. 2014; 18(12):778-91 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite early screening programs and new therapeutic strategies, metastatic breast cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death in women in industrialized countries and regions. There is a need for novel biomarkers of susceptibility, progression, and therapeutic response. Global analyses or systems science approaches with omics technologies offer concrete ways forward in biomarker discovery for breast cancer. Previous studies have shown that expression of profilin-1 (PFN1), a ubiquitously expressed actin-binding protein, is downregulated in invasive and metastatic breast cancer. It has also been reported that PFN1 overexpression can suppress tumorigenic ability and motility/invasiveness of breast cancer cells. To obtain insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of how elevating PFN1 level induces these phenotypic changes in breast cancer cells, we investigated the alteration in global protein expression profiles of breast cancer cells upon stable overexpression of PFN1 by a combination of three different proteome analysis methods (2-DE, iTRAQ, label-free). Using MDA-MB-231 as a model breast cancer cell line, we provide evidence that PFN1 overexpression is associated with alterations in the expression of proteins that have been functionally linked to cell proliferation (FKPB1A, HDGF, MIF, PRDX1, TXNRD1, LGALS1, STMN1, LASP1, S100A11, S100A6), survival (HSPE1, HSPB1, HSPD1, HSPA5 and PPIA, YWHAZ, CFL1, NME1) and motility (CFL1, CORO1B, PFN2, PLS3, FLNA, FLNB, NME2, ARHGDIB). In view of the pleotropic effects of PFN1 overexpression in breast cancer cells as suggested by these new findings, we propose that PFN1-induced phenotypic changes in cancer cells involve multiple mechanisms. Our data reported here might also offer innovative strategies for identification and validation of novel therapeutic targets and companion diagnostics for persons with, or susceptibility to, breast cancer.
Zhang Q, Zhu M, Cheng W, et al.Downregulation of 425G>a variant of calcium-binding protein S100A14 associated with poor differentiation and prognosis in gastric cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015; 141(4):691-703 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Altered level of S100 calcium-binding proteins is involved in tumor development and progression. However, their role in gastric cancer (GC) is not well documented. We investigated the expression pattern of S100 proteins and differentiation or prognosis as well as possible mechanisms in GC.
METHODS: RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression of S100 family genes in GC. The polymorphisms of promoter and 5'-UTR of S100A14 gene were identified and related to luciferase reporter gene activity. Association of S100A14 expression with clinicopathologic features and survival in GC was analyzed.
RESULTS: We detected upregulated S100A2, S100A6, S100A10, and S100A11 expression and downregulated S100P and S100B expression in GC. Particularly, we detected differential mRNA and protein expression of S100A14 in GC cell lines and primary tumors. Furthermore, S100A14 expression change was related to a differentiated GC phenotype, with an expression in 31/40 (77.5 %) samples of well-differentiated tumors and 29/85 (34.1 %) samples of poorly differentiated tumors (P < 0.001). Moreover, 5-year survival was better in GC cases with positive than negative S100A14 level (P = 0.02). The genetic variant 425G>A on the 5'-UTR of S100A14 was associated with reduced S100A14 expression in GC cells.
CONCLUSION: Decreased expression of S100A14 with presence of its genetic variant 425G>A may be associated with an undifferentiated phenotype and poor prognosis in GC.
Xu X, Su B, Xie C, et al.Sonic hedgehog-Gli1 signaling pathway regulates the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) by mediating a new target gene, S100A4, in pancreatic cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e96441 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: The hedgehog signaling pathway plays an important role in EMT of pancreatic cancer cells, but the precise mechanisms remain elusive. Because S100A4 as a key EMT moleculer marker was found to be upregulated upon Gli1 in pancreatic cancer cells, we focused on the relationship between Shh-Gli1 signals and S100 genes family.
METHODS: On the base of cDNA microarray data, we investigated regulating mechanism of Gli1 to some members of S100A genes family in pancreatic cancer cell lines firstly. Then, the regulation of Gli1 to S100A4 gene was studied by molecular biology assays and the pro-metastasis effection of Gli1-dependent S100A4 was investigated in vitro. Finally, the expressions of Shh, Gli1, S100A4 and E-cadherin in pancreatic cancer tissues were studied by using immunohistochemistry assays.
RESULTS: Five members of the S100 genes family, S100A2, S100A4, S100A6, S100A11, and S100A14 were found to be downregulated significantly upon Gli1 knockdown. Gli1 enhancer prediction combining with in vitro data demonstrated that Gli1 primarily regulates S100A family members via cis-acting elements. Indeed, the data indicate S100A4 and vimentin genes were upregulated significantly by Shh/Gli1-expression increasing and E-cadherin was significantly reduced at the same time. Migration of PC cells was increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner of Gli1 expression (P<0.05) and siS100A4 significantly reversed the response of PC cells induced by L-Shh transduction (P<0.01).
CONCLUSION: Our data establish a novel connection between Shh-Gli1 signaling and S100A4 regulation, which imply that S100A4 might be one of the key factors in EMT mediated by Shh-Gli1 signaling in pancreatic cancer.
Tyszkiewicz T, Jarzab M, Szymczyk C, et al.Epidermal differentiation complex (locus 1q21) gene expression in head and neck cancer and normal mucosa.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2014; 52(2):79-89 [PubMed
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Epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) comprises a number of genes associated with human skin diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. These genes have also been linked to numerous cancers, among them skin, gastric, colorectal, lung, ovarian and renal carcinomas. The involvement of EDC components encoding S100 proteins, small proline-rich proteins (SPRRs) and other genes in the tumorigenesis of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) has been previously suggested. The aim of the study was to systematically analyze the expression of EDC components on the transcript level in HNSCC. Tissue specimens from 93 patients with HNC of oral cavity and 87 samples from adjacent or distant grossly normal oral mucosawere analyzed. 48 samples (24 tumor and 24 corresponding surrounding tissue) were hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip Human 1.0 ST Arrays. For validation by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) the total RNA from all180 samples collected in the study was analyzed with Real-Time PCR system and fluorescent amplicon specific-probes. Additional set of samples from 14 patients with laryngeal carcinoma previously obtained by HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarray was also included in the analyses. The expression of analyzed EDC genes was heterogeneous. Two transcripts (S100A1 and S100A4) were significantly down-regulated in oral cancer when compared to normal mucosa (0.69 and 0.36-fold change, respectively), showing an opposite pattern of expression to the remaining S100 genes. Significant up-regulation in tumors was found for S100A11, S100A7, LCE3D, S100A3 and S100A2 genes. The increased expression of S100A7 was subsequently validated by QPCR, confirming significant differences. The remaining EDC genes, including all encoding SPRR molecules, did not show any differences between oral cancer and normal mucosa. The observed differences were also assessed in the independent set of laryngeal cancer samples, confirming the role of S100A3 and LCE3D transcripts in HNC. In HNC of oral cavity only one family of EDC genes (S100 proteins) showed significant cancer-related differences. A number of other transcripts which showed altered expression in HNC require further validation.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently aberrantly expressed in cancer, and abnormal signalling downstream of this receptor contributes to tumour growth. EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII) is the most commonly altered form of EGFR and contains a truncated ligand-binding domain. Aberrant signalling downstream of this receptor contributes to tumour invasion. We previously reported that EGFRvIII can promote hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invasion. However, little is known concerning the mechanisms underlying EGFRvIII-mediated increases in cell motility and invasion in HCC. In this study, we observed that S100A11 was significantly upregulated in Huh-7 cells that overexpressed EGFRvIII. Moreover, S100A11 expression was elevated in HCC tissue samples (68.6%; 35/51), and this elevation was correlated with EGFRvIII expression (p = 0.0020; n = 20). Furthermore, the overexpression of S100A11 can promote HCC cell invasiveness, whereas siRNA against S100A11 can suppress the invasiveness of HCC cells stably transfected with EGFRvIII. Additionally, STAT3 inhibitors can block S100A11 expression and S100A11 promoter activity in HCC cells with stable overexpression of EGFRvIII. Furthermore, mutation in STATx binding sites could abolish the S1000A11 promoter activity stimulation by EGFRvIII. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the EGFRvIII-STAT3 pathway promotes cell migration and invasion by upregulating S100A11.
Anania MC, Miranda C, Vizioli MG, et al.S100A11 overexpression contributes to the malignant phenotype of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 98(10):E1591-600 [PubMed
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CONTEXT: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most frequent thyroid tumor and is responsible for the overall increase in thyroid cancer incidence. S100A11 (calgizzarin), a member of the S100 Ca(2+)-binding protein family, is involved in several different biological processes. S100A11 has been found up-regulated in PTC, both at the mRNA and protein levels.
OBJECTIVE: Through a combination of expression analysis and functional in vitro and in vivo studies, we have attempted to gain insight into the relevance of S100A11 overexpression in PTC biology.
DESIGN: The expression of the S100A11 gene in PTC was investigated in several gene expression data sets. The effect of S100A11 silencing on the hallmarks of the malignant phenotype of several PTC-derived cell lines was investigated. In NIH3T3 cells, the cooperation of S100A11 with the different PTC-specific oncogenes was assessed.
RESULTS: We found that the S100A11 gene expression is frequently up-regulated in PTC, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, but not in follicular thyroid carcinoma. S100A11 overexpression was also detected in PTC-derived cell lines, which were then used for functional studies. S100A11 silencing in PTC-derived cell lines did not affect cell proliferation, whereas it reduced the loss of contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth, and resistance to anoikis. Cotransfection experiments in NIH3T3 cells showed that overexpression of the S100A11 gene was able to enhance the transforming capabilities of the different PTC-associated oncogenes by affecting the loss of contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth, and in vivo tumor formation.
CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that S100A11 overexpression exerts a protumoral functional role in PTC pathogenesis.
Wang LN, Tong SW, Hu HD, et al.Quantitative proteome analysis of ovarian cancer tissues using a iTRAQ approach.
J Cell Biochem. 2012; 113(12):3762-72 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Quantitative proteomics can be used as a screening tool for identification of differentially expressed proteins as potential biomarkers for cancers. Here, we comparatively analyzed the proteome profiles of ovarian cancer tissues and normal ovarian epithelial tissues. Using the high-throughput proteomic technology of isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-coupled with two-dimensional-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, 1,259 unique proteins were identified. Of those, 205 were potentially differentially expressed between ovarian cancer and normal ovarian tissues. Several of the potentially differentially expressed proteins were validated by Western blotting and real-time quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Furthermore, up-regulation of KRT8, PPA1, IDH2, and S100A11 were validated in ovarian tissue microarrays by immunohistochemistry. Silencing of S100A11 expression suppressed the migration and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Our study represents the successful application of iTRAQ technology to an investigation of ovarian cancer. Many of the potentially differentially expressed proteins identified had not been linked to ovarian cancer before, and provide valuable novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis in human ovarian cancer.
Szczepanek J, Pogorzala M, Jarzab M, et al.Expression profiles of signal transduction genes in ex vivo drug-resistant pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Anticancer Res. 2012; 32(2):503-6 [PubMed
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AIM: Identification of signal transduction genes related to drug resistance in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex vivo drug resistance in 107 children, divided into study and validation groups, was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) drug resistance assay. The gene expression profile was identified by microarray analysis and validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: A set of five genes involved in signal transduction, present in each resistance profile, was identified. The expression of four genes was up-regulated: Gardner-Rasheed feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog, v-Fgr (FGR), S100 calcium binding protein A11 (S100A11), formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1), ArfGAP with RhoGAP domain, ankyrin repeat and PH1 domain (ARAP1), while the expression of growth hormone 1 (GH1) was found to be down-regulated in resistant leukemia blasts.
CONCLUSION: Ex vivo exposure of leukemia cells to anticancer drugs induces changes in the expression of genes involved in cell signaling pathways. These genes play an important role in the mechanism of cellular drug resistance.
PURPOSE: To study the expression and cellular distribution of multiple S100A genes and proteins in normal corneal-limbal epithelium and ocular surface squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissue.
METHODS: Normal corneal-limbal tissue was obtained from the Lions Eye Bank, Tampa, FL. Ocular surface SCC tissues were excised from patients undergoing surgery at Singapore National Eye Centre. S100A mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR. S100 protein distribution was determined by immunofluorescent staining analysis.
RESULTS: Twelve S100 mRNAs were identified in human corneal and limbal epithelial cells. S100A2, A6, A8, A9, A10, and A11 mRNA was expressed at high level, while S100A1, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, and A12 mRNA expression was low. The intracellular localization of S100A2, A6, A8, A9, A10 and A11 protein was determined in normal corneal-limbal and SCC tissues. S100A2 and S100A10 proteins were enriched in basal limbal epithelial cells of the normal tissue. S100A8 and S100A9 were found only at the surface of peripheral corneal and limbal epithelium. S100A6 was uniformly found at the plasma membrane of corneal and limbal epithelial cells. S100A11 was found at the supralayer limbal epithelial cells adjacent to the conjunctiva. SCC tissue showed typical pathological changes with expression of cytokeartin (CK) 14 and CK4 in the epithelial cells. All SCC epithelial cells were positive of S100A2, S100A10, S100A6 and S100A11 staining. Intracellular staining of S100A8 and S100A9 was found in several layers of SCC epithelium. Expression of S100A2 and S100A10 decreased dramatically in cultured limbal epithelial cells with increased passaging, which was accompanied by a small increase of S100A9 mRNA, with no changes of S100A8 gene expression. Serum and growth hormone depletion of the culture serum caused a small reduction of S100A2 and S100A10 gene expression, which was accompanied by a small increase of S100A9 mRNA while no changes of S100A8 expression was measured.
CONCLUSIONS: Normal corneal and limbal epithelial cells express a broad spectrum of S100 genes and proteins. Ocular surface SCC express high levels of S100A2, S100A10, S100A8 and S100A9 proteins. The expression of S100A2 and S100A10 is associated with limbal epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation.
Hao J, Wang K, Yue Y, et al.Selective expression of S100A11 in lung cancer and its role in regulating proliferation of adenocarcinomas cells.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2012; 359(1-2):323-32 [PubMed
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S100A11, one secreted protein, is overexpressed in certain cancers. We investigated S100A11 expression in various subtypes of lung cancer and explored its role in cell proliferation. S100A11 mRNA level was examined in 45 pairs of frozen lung cancer tissues by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). The specific expression and subcellular distribution of S100A11 were examined in 78 paraffin-embedded lung cancers, 2 benign lung diseases as well as 22 healthy lung tissues by immunohistochemistry. S100A11 protein level was further analyzed in the sera of 86 lung cancer patients and 50 healthy individuals by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that both mRNA and protein levels of S100A11 were overexpressed in adenocarcinomas (ADC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) compared with paired non-cancerous lung tissues, while S100A11 was detected downregulated in small cell lung cancers (SCLC). Further immunohistochemistry staining was positive for S100A11 only in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (ADC, SCC, large cell carcinomas, et al.), but not SCLC. Conclusively, we found S100A11 protein level increased in the sera of NSCLC patients. Furthermore, when S100A11 expression was knocked down in lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 and LTEP-a-2, the cell proliferation was significantly inhibited in vitro and in vivo.
Jung Y, Lee S, Choi HS, et al.Clinical validation of colorectal cancer biomarkers identified from bioinformatics analysis of public expression data.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(4):700-9 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Identification of novel biomarkers of cancer is important for improved diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic intervention. This study aimed to identify marker genes of colorectal cancer (CRC) by combining bioinformatics analysis of gene expression data and validation experiments using patient samples and to examine the potential connection between validated markers and the established oncogenes such as c-Myc and K-ras.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Publicly available data from GenBank and Oncomine were meta-analyzed leading to 34 candidate marker genes of CRC. Multiple case-matched normal and tumor tissues were examined by RT-PCR for differential expression, and 9 genes were validated as CRC biomarkers. Statistical analyses for correlation with major clinical parameters were carried out, and RNA interference was used to examine connection with major oncogenes.
RESULTS: We show with high confidence that 9 (ECT2, ETV4, DDX21, RAN, S100A11, RPS4X, HSPD1, CKS2, and C9orf140) of the 34 candidate genes are expressed at significantly elevated levels in CRC tissues compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, high-level expression of RPS4X was associated with nonmucinous cancer cell type and that of ECT2 with lack of lymphatic invasion while upregulation of CKS2 was correlated with early tumor stage and lack of family history of CRC. We also demonstrate that RPS4X and DDX21 are regulatory targets of c-Myc and ETV4 is downstream to K-ras signaling.
CONCLUSIONS: We have identified multiple novel biomarkers of CRC. Further analyses of their function and connection to signaling pathways may reveal potential value of these biomarkers in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of CRC.
McKiernan E, McDermott EW, Evoy D, et al.The role of S100 genes in breast cancer progression.
Tumour Biol. 2011; 32(3):441-50 [PubMed
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The S100 gene family encode low molecular weight proteins implicated in cancer progression. In this study, we analyzed the expression of four S100 genes in one cohort of patients with breast cancer and 16 S100 genes in a second cohort. In both cohorts, the expression of S100A8 and S1009 mRNA level was elevated in high-grade compared to low-grade tumors and in estrogen receptor-negative compared to estrogen receptor-positive tumors. None of the S100 transcripts investigated were significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis. Notably, multiple S100 genes, including S100A1, S100A2, S100A4, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, and S100A14 were upregulated in basal-type breast cancers compared to non-basal types. Using Spearman's correlation analysis, several S100 transcripts correlated significantly with each other, the strongest correlation has been found between S100A8 and S100A9 (r = 0.889, P < 0.001, n = 295). Of the 16 S100 transcripts investigated, only S100A11 and S100A14 were significantly associated with patient outcome. Indeed, these two transcripts predicted outcome in the cohort of patients that did not receive systemic adjuvant therapy. Based on our findings, we conclude that the different S100 genes play varying roles in breast cancer progression. Specific S100 genes are potential targets for the treatment of basal-type breast cancers.
F Lam F, Jankova L, Dent OF, et al.Identification of distinctive protein expression patterns in colorectal adenoma.
Proteomics Clin Appl. 2010; 4(1):60-70 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: As a pre-malignant precursor, adenoma provides an ideal tissue for proteome profiling to investigate early colorectal cancer development and provide possible targets for preventive interventions. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of differential protein expression that distinguish colorectal adenoma from normal tissue.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Twenty paired samples of adenoma and normal mucosa were analysed by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS to detect proteins with ≥2-fold differential expression.
RESULTS: Four proteins were up-regulated in adenoma (Annexin A3, S100A11, S100P and eIF5A-1) and three were down-regulated (Galectin-1, S100A9 and FABPL). S100P, galectin-1, S100A9 and FABPL expression was localised by immunohistochemistry.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Distinctive patterns of in vivo protein expression in colorectal adenoma were identified for the first time. These proteins have important functions in cell differentiation, proliferation and metabolism, and may play a crucial role in early colorectal carcinogenesis. The ability to recognise premalignant lesions may have important applications in cancer prevention.