Gene Summary

Gene:PRDX6; peroxiredoxin 6
Aliases: PRX, p29, AOP2, 1-Cys, NSGPx, aiPLA2, HEL-S-128m
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the thiol-specific antioxidant protein family. This protein is a bifunctional enzyme with two distinct active sites. It is involved in redox regulation of the cell; it can reduce H(2)O(2) and short chain organic, fatty acid, and phospholipid hydroperoxides. It may play a role in the regulation of phospholipid turnover as well as in protection against oxidative injury. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (12)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Western Blotting
  • NFE2L2
  • Transfection
  • bcl-X Protein
  • Vitamin E
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Survival
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Group VI Phospholipases A2
  • Breast Cancer
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Prostate Cancer
  • src-Family Kinases
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Drug Resistance
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Lung Cancer
  • Signal Transduction
  • Chromosome 1
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Transcription Factor AP-1
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Transcription Factors
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Antioxidants
  • Up-Regulation
  • Cell Movement
  • Peroxiredoxin VI
  • Histone Deacetylases
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PRDX6 (cancer-related)

Liu Y, Kwon T, Kim JS, et al.
Peroxiredoxin V Reduces β-Lapachone-induced Apoptosis of Colon Cancer Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(7):3677-3686 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Peroxiredoxin (Prx) V has been known as an antioxidant enzyme which scavenges intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Also, Prx V has been shown to mediate cell apoptosis in various cancers. However, the mechanism of Prx V-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells remains unknown. Thus, in this study we analyzed the effects of Prx V in β-lapachone-induced apoptosis in SW480 human colon cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: β-lapachone-induced apoptosis was analyzed by the MTT assay, western blotting, fluorescence microscopy, Annexin V staining and flow cytometry.
RESULTS: Overexpression of Prx V, significantly decreased β-lapachone-induced cellular apoptosis and Prx V silencing increased β-lapachone-induced cellular apoptosis via modulating ROS scavenging activity compared to mock SW480 cells. In addition, to further explore the mechanism of Prx V regulated β-lapachone-induced SW480 cells apoptosis, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling was studied. The Wnt/ β-catenin signaling pathway was found to be induced by β-lapachone.
CONCLUSION: Prx V regulates SW480 cell apoptosis via scavenging ROS cellular levels and mediating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which was induced by β-lapachone.

Huang WS, Huang CY, Hsieh MC, et al.
Expression of PRDX6 Correlates with Migration and Invasiveness of Colorectal Cancer Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 51(6):2616-2630 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. PRDXs are antioxidant enzymes that play an important role in cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis and have diverse functions in malignancy development. However, the mechanism of aberrant overexpression of PRDX6 in CRC remains unclear.
METHODS: Boyden chamber assay, flow cytometry and a lentiviral shRNA targeting PRDX6 and transient transfection with pCMV-6-PRDX6 plasmid were used to examine the role of PRDX6 in the proliferation capacity and invasiveness of CRC cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) with tissue array containing 40 paraffin- embedded CRC tissue specimens and Western blot assays were used to detect target proteins.
RESULTS: PRDX6 was significantly up-expressed in different comparisons of metastasis of colorectal adenomas in node-positive CRC (P = 0.03). In in vitro HCT-116, PRDX6 silencing markedly suppressed CRC cell migration and invasiveness while also inducing cell cycle arrest as well as the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); specific overexpression of PRDX6 had the opposite effect. Mechanistically, the PRDX6 inactivation displayed decreased levels of PRDX6, N-cadherin, β-catenin, Vimentin, Slug, Snail and Twist-1 through the activation of the PI3K/ AKT/p38/p50 pathways, but they were also significantly inhibited by PRDX6 transfectants. There was also increased transcriptional activation of dimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) of PRDX6 promoter via the activation of the PI3K/Akt/NFkB pathways.
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that PRDX6 expression plays a characteristic growth-promoting role in CRC metastasis. This study suggests that PRDX6 may serve as a biomarker of node-positive status and may have a role as an important endogenous regulator of cancer cell tumorigenicity in CRC. PRDX6 may also be an effective therapeutic target.

Li S, Hu X, Ye M, Zhu X
The prognostic values of the peroxiredoxins family in ovarian cancer.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Huynh DL, Zhang JJ, Chandimali N, et al.
SALL4 suppresses reactive oxygen species in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma phenotype via FoxM1/Prx III axis.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 503(4):2248-2254 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a major malignant phenotype in pancreatic cancer, which is one of the most death causes by cancer in the world. PDAC developed from pancreatic intra-epithelial neoplasms (PanINs) and poorly diagnosed at early stages. Beside of high drug resistance, metastasis is the great concern during pancreatic cancer treatment. SALL4 expression is inherent in the upregulations of endothelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) genes and therefore promoting cancer metastasis. Furthermore, some of evidences indicated reactive oxygen species (ROS) is also influent to metastasis and self-antioxidant capacity seems a gold standard for successful metastasis rate. In this study, we have found the role Spalt like protein 4 (SALL4) to PDAC proliferation, mobility and its regulation to mitochondrial ROS via FoxM1/Prx III axis. It is possible that SALL4 mainly induces endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and favors ROS loss to facilitate metastasis efficiency in PDAC cells. Therefore, SALL4 might be a promising marker for PDAC treatment and targeting SALL4 would benefit anti-proliferative and anti-metastasis therapies.

Weidmann C, Bérubé J, Piquet L, et al.
Expression of the serotonin receptor 2B in uveal melanoma and effects of an antagonist on cell lines.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2018; 35(3):123-134 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary tumor in the adult, and disseminates to the liver in half of patients. A 15-gene expression profile prognostic assay allows to determine the likelihood of metastasis in patients using their ocular tumor DNA, but a cure still remains to be discovered. The serotonin receptor 2B represents the discriminant gene of this molecular signature with the greatest impact on the prognosis of UM. However, its contribution to the metastatic potential of UM remains unexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a selective serotonin receptor 2B antagonist on cellular and molecular behaviours of UM cells. UM cell lines expressing high level of serotonin receptor 2B proteins were selected by Western blotting. The selective serotonin receptor 2B antagonist PRX-08066 was evaluated for its impact on UM cells using viability assays, phosphorylated histone H3 immunostainings, clonogenic assays, migration assays, invasion assays and membrane-based protein kinase phosphorylation antibody arrays. The pharmacological inhibition of the serotonin receptor 2B reduced the viability of UM cells and the population in mitosis, and impaired their clonogenicity and potential of migration. It also decreased the phosphorylation of kinases from signaling pathways classically activated by the serotonin receptor 2B, as well as kinases β-catenin, Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2, and Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5. Our findings support a role for the serotonin receptor 2B in the proliferation and migration of UM cells, through activation of many signaling pathways such as WNT, Focal adhesion kinase and Janus kinase/STAT.

Hong SH, Min C, Jun Y, et al.
Silencing of peroxiredoxin II by promoter methylation is necessary for the survival and migration of gastric cancer cells.
Exp Mol Med. 2018; 50(2):e443 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peroxiredoxin (Prx), a family of ubiquitous thiol peroxidases, functions as a redox signaling regulator that controls cellular H

Park MH, Yun HM, Hwang CJ, et al.
Presenilin Mutation Suppresses Lung Tumorigenesis via Inhibition of Peroxiredoxin 6 Activity and Expression.
Theranostics. 2017; 7(15):3624-3637 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Some epidemiological studies suggest an inverse correlation between cancer incidence and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we demonstrated experimental evidences for this inverse relationship. In the co-expression network analysis using the microarray data and GEO profile of gene expression omnibus data analysis, we showed that the expression of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), a tumor promoting protein was significantly increased in human squamous lung cancer, but decreased in mutant presenilin 2 (PS2) containing AD patient. We also found in animal model that mutant PS2 transgenic mice displayed a reduced incidence of spontaneous and carcinogen-induced lung tumor development compared to wildtype transgenic mice. Agreed with network and GEO profile study, we also revealed that significantly reduced expression of PRDX6 and activity of iPLA2 in these animal models. PS2 mutations increased their interaction with PRDX6, thereby increasing iPLA2 cleavage via increased γ-secretase leading to loss of PRDX6 activity. However, knockdown or inhibition of γ-secretase abolished the inhibitory effect of mutant PSs. Moreover, PS2 mutant skin fibroblasts derived from patients with AD showed diminished iPLA2 activity by the elevated γ-secretase activity. Thus, the present data suggest that PS2 mutations suppress lung tumor development by inhibiting the iPLA2 activity of PRDX6 via a γ-secretase cleavage mechanism and may explain the inverse relationship between cancer and AD incidence.

Brod JM, Demasi APD, Montalli VA, et al.
Nrf2-peroxiredoxin I axis in polymorphous adenocarcinoma is associated with low matrix metalloproteinase 2 level.
Virchows Arch. 2017; 471(6):793-798 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polymorphous adenocarcinoma (PAC) is a malignant epithelial neoplasm that affects almost exclusively the minor salivary glands, generally described as having a relatively good prognosis. Aberrant nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor (Nrf2) activation in tumor cells has been associated with induction of antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) and increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of Nrf2 and correlate it with Prx I and MMP-2 secretion in PAC. Thirty-one cases of PAC from oral biopsies were selected and immunohistochemically analyzed for Nrf2 and Prx I. MMP-2 quantification was performed on primary cell cultures derived from PAC. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell cultures were used as control. A high immunoexpression of Nrf2 was observed in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of neoplastic cells from PAC. Nuclear staining for Nrf2 suggested its activation in the majority of the PAC cells, which was confirmed by the high expression of its target gene, Prx I. Quantification of MMP-2 secretion showed lower levels in PAC cell cultures when compared to OSCC cell cultures (p < 0.05). In conclusion, although Nrf2 overexpression has been frequently associated with high-grade malignancies, such relationship is not infallible and, in fact, the opposite may occur in low-grade tumors, such as PAC of minor salivary glands.

Kang DH, Lee DJ, Lee S, et al.
Interaction of tankyrase and peroxiredoxin II is indispensable for the survival of colorectal cancer cells.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8(1):40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mammalian 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prx) enzymes are overexpressed in most cancer tissues, but their specific signaling role in cancer progression is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Prx type II (PrxII) plays a tumor-promoting role in colorectal cancer by interacting with a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) tankyrase. PrxII deletion in mice with inactivating mutation of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene reduces intestinal adenomatous polyposis via Axin/β-catenin axis and thereby promotes survival. In human colorectal cancer cells with APC mutations, PrxII depletion consistently reduces the β-catenin levels and the expression of β-catenin target genes. Essentially, PrxII depletion hampers the PARP-dependent Axin1 degradation through tankyrase inactivation. Direct binding of PrxII to tankyrase ARC4/5 domains seems to be crucial for protecting tankyrase from oxidative inactivation. Furthermore, a chemical compound targeting PrxII inhibits the expansion of APC-mutant colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo tumor xenografts. Collectively, this study reveals a redox mechanism for regulating tankyrase activity and implicates PrxII as a targetable antioxidant enzyme in APC-mutation-positive colorectal cancer.2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prx) enzymes are highly expressed in most cancers but how they promote cancer progression is unclear. Here the authors show that in colorectal cancers with APC mutation, PrxII binds to tankyrase and prevents its oxidative inactivation, thereby preventing Axin1-dependent degradation of ²b-catenin.

Kim B, Kim YS, Ahn HM, et al.
Peroxiredoxin 5 overexpression enhances tumorigenicity and correlates with poor prognosis in gastric cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(1):298-306 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite the advanced surgical resection techniques and anticancer drugs currently available to treat early stage gastric cancer, the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer remains poor. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process for the initiation of tumorigenesis. Recent studies suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can promote cell migration and invasion. Thus, an imbalance of redox homeostasis can result in cancer cells exhibiting EMT properties. PRXs are upregulated in various tumors in the breast, bladder, lung, cervical, ovarian, prostate, esophageal, and hepatocellular. However, PRX expression and its impact on disease prognosis, patient survival rate, and EMT are rarely studied in the context of human gastric cancer. The expression of PRX5 was significantly correlated with tumor size, depth of tumor, lymphatic invasion in patients of gastric cancer. In addition, overexpression of PRX5 enhanced carcinogenicity by increasing the proliferation and invasiveness of gastric cancer cells via upregulation of Snail. Taken together, we suggest that PRX5 may be a potential factor that may contribute to poor prognosis of gastric cancer through enhancing the mesenchymal phenotype. Finally, PRX5 is a putative therapeutic target and clinical strategy for various cancers overexpressing PRX5.

Liu GY, Shi JX, Shi SL, et al.
Nucleophosmin Regulates Intracellular Oxidative Stress Homeostasis via Antioxidant PRDX6.
J Cell Biochem. 2017; 118(12):4697-4707 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play both deleterious and beneficial roles in cancer cells. Nucleophosmin (NPM) is heavily implicated in cancers of diverse origins, being its gene over-expression in solid tumors or frequent mutations in hematological malignancies. However, the role and regulatory mechanism of NPM in oxidative stress are unclear. Here, we found that NPM regulated the expression of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), a member of thiol-specific antioxidant protein family, consequently affected the level and distribution of ROS. Our data indicated that NPM knockdown caused the increase of ROS and its relocation from cytoplasm to nucleoplasm. In contrast, overexpression or cytoplasmic localization of NPM upregulated PRDX6, and decreased ROS. In addition, NPM knockdown decreased peroxiredoxin family proteins, including PRDX1, PRDX4, and PRDX6. Co-immunoprecipitation further confirmed the interaction between PRDX6 and NPM. Moreover, NSC348884, an inhibitor specifically targeting NPM oligomerization, decreased PRDX6 and significantly upregulated ROS. These observations demonstrated that the expression and localization of NPM affected the homeostatic balance of oxidative stress in tumor cells via PRDX6 protein. The regulation axis of NPM/PRDX/ROS may provide a novel therapeutic target for cancer treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4697-4707, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Gümbel D, Gelbrich N, Napp M, et al.
Peroxiredoxin Expression of Human Osteosarcoma Cells Is Influenced by Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(3):1031-1038 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate the potential involvement of redox-specific signalling pathways in cold atmospheric plasma (CAP)-induced apoptosis on human osteosarcoma cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Osteosarcoma cell lines were treated with CAP with or without antioxidative agents and seeded in cell culture plates. Cell proliferation was determined by counting viable cells. Carrier gas-treated cells served as control. Peroxiredoxin (PRX) 1-3 expression and secretion were assessed.
RESULTS: CAP treatment exhibited strongly attenuated proliferation rates. This effect was significantly attenuated by the addition of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). CAP-treated cells exhibited an increase of PRX 1 and 2 10 sec after treatment. The ratio of oxidized to reduced PRX1 and PRX2 was significantly altered with increasing cellular concentration of the oxidized dimer.
CONCLUSION: Antioxidant supplementation with NAC increases proliferation of CAP-treated osteosarcoma cells, implicating an involvement of redox signalling. Activation of PRX1 and -2 indicate CAP affects redox homeostasis.

Guo JH, Xing GL, Fang XH, et al.
Proteomic profiling of fetal esophageal epithelium, esophageal cancer, and tumor-adjacent esophageal epithelium and immunohistochemical characterization of a representative differential protein, PRX6.
World J Gastroenterol. 2017; 23(8):1434-1442 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To understand the molecular mechanism of esophageal cancer development and provide molecular markers for screening high-risk populations and early diagnosis.
METHODS: Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry were adopted to screen differentially expressed proteins in nine cases of fetal esophageal epithelium, eight cases of esophageal cancer, and eight cases of tumor-adjacent normal esophageal epithelium collected from fetuses of different gestational age, or esophageal cancer patients from a high-risk area of esophageal cancer in China. Immunohistochemistry (avidin-biotin-horseradish peroxidase complex method) was used to detect the expression of peroxiredoxin (PRX)6 in 91 cases of esophageal cancer, tumor-adjacent normal esophageal tissue, basal cell hyperplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma
RESULTS: After peptide mass fingerprint analysis and search of protein databases, 21 differential proteins were identified; some of which represent a protein isoform. Varying degrees of expression of PRX6 protein, which was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, were detected in adult and fetal normal esophageal tissues, precancerous lesions, and esophageal cancer. With the progression of esophageal lesions, PRX6 protein expression showed a declining trend (
CONCLUSION: Development and progression of esophageal cancer result from interactions of genetic changes (accumulation or superposition). PRX6 protein is associated with fetal esophageal development and cancer differentiation.

Shi XJ, Ding L, Zhou W, et al.
Pro-Apoptotic Effects of JDA-202, a Novel Natural Diterpenoid, on Esophageal Cancer Through Targeting Peroxiredoxin I.
Antioxid Redox Signal. 2017; 27(2):73-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: Esophageal cancer (EC) is an aggressive malignancy and the most common solid tumor of gastrointestinal tract all over the world, with high incidence in Asia. The current study was designed to investigate the anticancer efficacy and mechanism that is involved in the action of a natural ent-kaurene diterpenoid, JDA-202, targeting EC.
RESULTS: We found that an antioxidant protein peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) was upregulated in human EC tissues as well as in EC cell lines. JDA-202, a novel natural compound isolated from Isodon rubescens (Labiatae), was proved to possess strong anti-proliferative activities on those cell lines. Importantly, JDA-202 does not only bind to Prx I directly and markedly inhibit the activity of Prx I in vitro, but it also significantly induces hydrogen peroxide (H

Pak JH, Son WC, Seo SB, et al.
Peroxiredoxin 6 expression is inversely correlated with nuclear factor-κB activation during Clonorchis sinensis infestation.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2016; 99:273-285 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clonorchis sinensis is a carcinogenic human liver fluke. Its infection promotes persistent oxidative stress and chronic inflammation environments in the bile duct and surrounding liver tissues owing to direct contact with worms and their excretory-secretory products (ESPs), provoking epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis, and cholangiocarcinogenesis. We examined the reciprocal regulation of two ESP-induced redox-active proteins, NF-κB and peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6), during C. sinensis infection. Prdx6 overexpression suppressed intracellular free-radical generation by inhibiting NADPH oxidase2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase activation in the ESP-treated cholangiocarcinoma cells, substantially attenuating NF-κB-mediated inflammation. NF-κB overexpression decreased Prdx6 transcription levels by binding to two κB sites within the promoter. This transcriptional repression was compensated for by other ESP-induced redox-active transcription factors, including erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ). Distribution of immunoreactive Prdx6 and NF-κB was distinct in the early stages of infection in mouse livers but shared concomitant localization in the later stages. The intensity and extent of their immunoreactive staining in infected mouse livers are proportional to lesion severity and infection duration. The constitutive elevations of Prdx6 and NF-κB during C. sinensis infection may be associated with more severe persistent hepatobiliary abnormalities mediated by clonorchiasis.

Li Q, Wang N, Wei H, et al.
miR-24-3p Regulates Progression of Gastric Mucosal Lesions and Suppresses Proliferation and Invasiveness of N87 Via Peroxiredoxin 6.
Dig Dis Sci. 2016; 61(12):3486-3497 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs, targeting mRNAs of cancer-associated genes, are often aberrantly expressed in human gastric cancer (GC).
AIM: We have examined the possible role and mechanisms of miRNA regulation of Prdx-6 in the development and progression of H. pylori-related gastric mucosal lesions.
METHODS: First, miR-24-3p was predicted to target Prdx-6, and this negative regulation was validated by luciferase reporter analyses, Western blot, and quantitative RT-PCR. Next, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were performed to detect the Prdx-6 and miR-24-3p expression in tissue microarrays of gastric mucosal lesions. Finally, the miR-24-3p function in GC cell line N87 was examined by MTT, Annexin V-FITC, PI, transwell migration, and Matrigel invasion assays.
RESULTS: In our study, Prdx-6 expression was negatively regulated by miR-24-3p expression and miR-24-3p interacted with the 3'-untranslated region of Prdx-6 to down-regulate its expression level. In addition, miR-24-3p expression gradually decreased in human gastric specimens from chronic superficial gastritis (CSG) to dysplasia and was upregulated in GC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Contrary to this, Prdx-6 expression showed inverse tendency in the same tissue. More so, expression of miR-24-3p was reduced in samples with H. pylori infection, especially in CSG. Moreover, miR-24-3p was associated with GC lymph nodes and liver metastasis. Gain- or loss-of-function experiments showed that miR-24-3p significantly inhibited N87 cell growth, migration, and invasion and promoted apoptosis, while Prdx-6 reversed these miR-24-3p effects.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-24-3p was identified as a regulator of development and progression of H. pylori-related gastric mucosal lesions.

Han B, Shin HJ, Bak IS, et al.
Peroxiredoxin I is important for cancer-cell survival in Ras-induced hepatic tumorigenesis.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(42):68044-68056 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peroxiredoxin I (Prx I), an antioxidant enzyme, has multiple functions in human cancer. However, the role of Prx I in hepatic tumorigenesis has not been characterized. Here we investigated the relevance and underlying mechanism of Prx I in hepatic tumorigenesis. Prx I increased in tumors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients that aligned with overexpression of oncogenic H-ras. Prx I also increased in H-rasG12V transfected HCC cells and liver tumors of H-rasG12V transgenic (Tg) mice, indicating that Prx I may be involved in Ras-induced hepatic tumorigenesis. When Prx I was knocked down or deleted in HCC-H-rasG12V cells or H-rasG12V Tg mice, cell colony or tumor formation was significantly reduced that was associated with downregulation of pERK pathway as well as increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced DNA damage and cell death. Overexpressing Prx I markedly increased Ras downstream pERK/FoxM1/Nrf2 signaling pathway and inhibited oxidative damage in HCC cells and H-rasG12V Tg mice. In this study, we found Nrf2 was transcriptionally activated by FoxM1, and Prx I was activated by the H-rasG12V/pERK/FoxM1/Nrf2 pathway and suppressed ROS-induced hepatic cancer-cell death along with formation of a positive feedback loop with Ras/ERK/FoxM1/Nrf2 to promote hepatic tumorigenesis.

Chan JM, Darke AK, Penney KL, et al.
Selenium- or Vitamin E-Related Gene Variants, Interaction with Supplementation, and Risk of High-Grade Prostate Cancer in SELECT.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016; 25(7):1050-1058 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies and secondary analyses of randomized trials supported the hypothesis that selenium and vitamin E lower prostate cancer risk. However, the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) showed no benefit of either supplement. Genetic variants involved in selenium or vitamin E metabolism or transport may underlie the complex associations of selenium and vitamin E.
METHODS: We undertook a case-cohort study of SELECT participants randomized to placebo, selenium, or vitamin E. The subcohort included 1,434 men; our primary outcome was high-grade prostate cancer (N = 278 cases, Gleason 7 or higher cancer). We used weighted Cox regression to examine the association between SNPs and high-grade prostate cancer risk. To assess effect modification, we created interaction terms between randomization arm and genotype and calculated log likelihood statistics.
RESULTS: We noted statistically significant (P < 0.05) interactions between selenium assignment, SNPs in CAT, SOD2, PRDX6, SOD3, and TXNRD2, and high-grade prostate cancer risk. Statistically significant SNPs that modified the association of vitamin E assignment and high-grade prostate cancer included SEC14L2, SOD1, and TTPA In the placebo arm, several SNPs, hypothesized to interact with supplement assignment and risk of high-grade prostate cancer, were also directly associated with outcome.
CONCLUSION: Variants in selenium and vitamin E metabolism/transport genes may influence risk of overall and high-grade prostate cancer, and may modify an individual man's response to vitamin E or selenium supplementation with regards to these risks.
IMPACT: The effect of selenium or vitamin E supplementation on high-grade prostate cancer risk may vary by genotype. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(7); 1050-8. ©2016 AACR.

Wei W, Liu C, Qin D, et al.
Targeting peroxiredoxin I potentiates 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced cell differentiation in leukemia cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(3):2201-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although 1,25‑dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) is regarded as a promising inducing agent for leukemia cell differentiation, it is not as effective an agent as all‑trans‑retinoic acid, and its usefulness is also limited by the adverse effects of hypercalcemia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether combining VD3 with adenanthin, a peroxiresoxin I (Prx I)‑targeting natural compound, improves the efficacy of VD3. Cell viability was assessed using a trypan blue exclusion assay and flow cytometry was used to evaluate the expression of cell surface markers, CD11b/CD14, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Wright's staining was used to examine morphological changes and RNA‑interference was used to knockdown Prx I and p65 gene expression. Protein expression was determined by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that adenanthin markedly enhanced VD3‑induced cell differentiation of leukemia NB4 cells, as evidenced by the increased percentage of CD11b‑ and CD14‑positive cells, the mature morphology of the monocytes and the increased phagocytic ability. Consistent with these results, knockdown of Prx I, but not nuclear factor‑κB (p65), enhanced VD3‑induced cell differentiation. The combinatorial effects of adenanthin and VD3 were shown to be associated with the ROS‑CCAAT‑enhancer‑binding protein (C/EBP)β axis, since N‑acetylcysteine, a ROS scavenger, was able to abrogate the differentiation‑enhancing effects of adenanthin, and the knockdown of C/EBPβ also inhibited the combinatorial effects of adenanthin and VD3. In addition, co‑treatment with adenanthin and VD3 was able to induce differentiation in other non‑acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and primary leukemia cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed a novel role for Prx I in VD3‑induced cell differentiation, and suggested that targeting Prx I may represent a novel strategy to enhance VD3‑induced leukemia cell differentiation.

Park YH, Kim SU, Kwon TH, et al.
Peroxiredoxin II promotes hepatic tumorigenesis through cooperation with Ras/Forkhead box M1 signaling pathway.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(27):3503-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
The current study was carried out to define the involvement of Peroxiredoxin (Prx) II in progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying molecular mechanism(s). Expression and function of Prx II in HCC was determined using H-ras(G12V)-transformed HCC cells (H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells) and the tumor livers from H-ras(G12V)-transgenic (Tg) mice and HCC patients. Prx II was upregulated in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells and H-ras(G12V)-Tg mouse tumor livers, the expression pattern of which highly similar to that of forkhead Box M1 (FoxM1). Moreover, either knockdown of FoxM1 or site-directed mutagenesis of FoxM1-binding site of Prx II promoter significantly reduced Prx II levels in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells, indicating FoxM1 as a direct transcription factor of Prx II in HCC. Interestingly, the null mutation of Prx II markedly decreased the number and size of tumors in H-ras(G12V)-Tg livers. Consistent with this, knockdown of Prx II in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells reduced the expression of cyclin D1, cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and tumor formation in athymic nude mice, whereas overexpression of Prx II increased or aggravated the tumor phenotypes. Importantly, the expression of Prx II was correlated with that of FoxM1 in HCC patients. The activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway and the expression of FoxM1 and cyclin D1 were highly dependent on Prx II in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells and H-ras(G12V)-Tg livers. Prx II is FoxM1-dependently-expressed antioxidant in HCC and function as an enhancer of Ras(G12V) oncogenic potential in hepatic tumorigenesis through activation of ERK/FoxM1/cyclin D1 cascade.

Zhang S, Shi W, Chen Y, et al.
Overexpression of SYF2 correlates with enhanced cell growth and poor prognosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2015; 410(1-2):1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
SYF2, also known as p29/NTC31/CBPIN, encodes a nuclear protein that interacts with Cyclin D-type binding-protein 1. SYF2 has been reported to be involved in pre-mRNA splicing and cell cycle regulation. In the present study, we observed that SYF2 was obviously upregulated in HCC tumor tissues and cell lines, and its level was positively correlated with the tumor grade and Ki-67 expression, as well as poor prognosis of HCC. In vitro, using serum starvation-refeeding experiment, our results suggested that SYF2 was upregulated in proliferating HCC cells, and was positive correlated with the expression of PCNA and Cyclin D1. In addition, depletion of SYF2 decreased PCNA and Cyclin D1 levels. Accordingly, interference of SYF2 resulted in cells cycle arrest at G1/S phase in Huh7 HCC cells. Furthermore, we found that SYF2 might interact with Cyclin D1 and could confer doxorubicin resistance in HCC cells. These findings revealed that SYF2 might play a regulatory role in the proliferation of HCC cells. In summary, SYF2 may be a novel prognostic marker and serve as a potential therapeutic target in HCC.

Vu HL, Rosenbaum S, Purwin TJ, et al.
RAC1 P29S regulates PD-L1 expression in melanoma.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2015; 28(5):590-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Whole exome sequencing of cutaneous melanoma has led to the detection of P29 mutations in RAC1 in 5-9% of samples, but the role of RAC1 P29 mutations in melanoma biology remains unclear. Using reverse phase protein array analysis to examine the changes in protein/phospho-protein expression, we identified cyclin B1, PD-L1, Ets-1, and Syk as being selectively upregulated with RAC1 P29S expression and downregulated with RAC1 P29S depletion. Using the melanoma patient samples in TCGA, we found PD-L1 expression to be significantly increased in RAC1 P29S patients compared to RAC1 WT as well as other RAC1 mutants. The finding that PD-L1 is upregulated suggests that oncogenic RAC1 P29S may promote suppression of the antitumor immune response. This is a new insight into the biological function of RAC1 P29S mutations with potential clinical implications as PD-L1 is a candidate biomarker for increased benefit from treatment with anti-PD1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies.

Lee HL, Park MH, Son DJ, et al.
Anti-cancer effect of snake venom toxin through down regulation of AP-1 mediated PRDX6 expression.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(26):22139-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Snake venom toxin (SVT) from Vipera lebetina turanica contains a mixture of different enzymes and proteins. Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is known to be a stimulator of lung cancer cell growth. PRDX6 is a member of peroxidases, and has calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) activities. PRDX6 has an AP-1 binding site in its promoter region of the gene. Since AP-1 is implicated in tumor growth and PRDX6 expression, in the present study, we investigated whether SVT inhibits PRDX6, thereby preventing human lung cancer cell growth (A549 and NCI-H460) through inactivation of AP-1. A docking model study and pull down assay showed that SVT completely fits on the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) region of c-Fos of AP-1. SVT (0-10 μg/ml) inhibited lung cancer cell growth in a concentration dependent manner through induction of apoptotic cell death accompanied by induction of cleaved caspase-3, -8, -9, Bax, p21 and p53, but decreased cIAP and Bcl2 expression via inactivation of AP-1. In an xenograft in vivo model, SVT (0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg) also inhibited tumor growth accompanied with the reduction of PRDX6 expression, but increased expression of proapoptotic proteins. These data indicate that SVT inhibits tumor growth via inhibition of PRDX6 activity through interaction with its transcription factor AP-1.

Yan S, Deng Y, Qiang Y, et al.
SYF2 is upregulated in human epithelial ovarian cancer and promotes cell proliferation.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(6):4633-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
SYF2 is reported to be as a cell cycle regulator at the G1/S transition and encodes a nuclear protein that interacts with cyclin-D-type binding protein 1. In our study, we investigated the role of SYF2 in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis displayed that SYF2 was overexpressed in EOC tissues and EOC cell lines. In addition, the immunoreactivity of SYF2 was positively correlated with tumor grade and Ki-67 expression. In vitro, serum starvation-refeeding experiment and SYF2-siRNA transfection assay demonstrated that the expression of SYF2 was promoted in the proliferative progression of EOC cells, while knockdown of SYF2 expression decreased and inhibited cell growth rate of EOC cells. With all the results, we support that SYF2 might contribute to EOC progression via modulation of proliferation in EOC cells and would provide a novel therapeutic target of human EOC.

Liu Y, Ni T, Xue Q, et al.
Involvement of p29/SYF2/fSAP29/NTC31 in the progression of NSCLC via modulating cell proliferation.
Pathol Res Pract. 2015; 211(1):36-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
p29, also known as SYF2/fSAP29/NTC31, is a protein associated with chromatin and involved in DNA damage response, cell cycle arrest and pre-mRNA splicing. In p29-depleted cells, DNA replication was reduced and cell population in G1 phase increased. In this study, we investigated the potential role of p29 in the regulation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression. Western blot and immunohistochemistry staining showed that p29 was up-regulated in clinical NSCLC tissues compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues, and the expression of p29 had a positive correlation with clinical stage and histological differentiation, as well as expression of Ki-67, a proliferating marker. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with high level of p29 expression had poor overall survival. In addition, small interfering RNA of p29 was performed, and the effects on NSCLC growth were examined. Interference of p29 blocked S phase entry, inhibited proliferation of A549 cells and up-regulated level of p21 expression. Taken together, these results suggested that p29 might contribute to the progression of NSCLC by enhancing cell proliferation, implicating that targeting p29 might provide beneficial effects on the clinical therapy of NSCLC.

Hou JK, Huang Y, He W, et al.
Adenanthin targets peroxiredoxin I/II to kill hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1400 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adenanthin, a natural diterpenoid isolated from the leaves of Isodon adenanthus, has recently been reported to induce leukemic cell differentiation by targeting peroxiredoxins (Prx) I and II. On the other hand, increasing lines of evidence propose that these Prx proteins would become potential targets to screen drugs for the prevention and treatment of solid tumors. Therefore, it is of significance to explore the potential activities of adenanthin on solid tumor cells. Here, we demonstrate that Prx I protein is essential for the survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and adenanthin can kill these malignant liver cells in vitro and xenografts. We also show that the cell death-inducing activity of adenanthin on HCC cells is mediated by the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Furthermore, the silencing of Prx I or Prx II significantly enhances the cytotoxic activity of adenanthin on HCC, whereas the ectopic expression of Prx I and Prx II but not their mutants of adenanthin-bound cysteines can rescue adenanthin-induced cytotoxicity in Prxs-silenced HCC cells. Taken together, our results propose that adenanthin targets Prx I/II to kill HCC cells and its therapeutic significance warrants to be further explored in HCC patients.

Beutler AS, Kulkarni AA, Kanwar R, et al.
Sequencing of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease genes in a toxic polyneuropathy.
Ann Neurol. 2014; 76(5):727-37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Mutations in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) genes are the cause of rare familial forms of polyneuropathy. Whether allelic variability in CMT genes is also associated with common forms of polyneuropathy-considered "acquired" in medical parlance-is unknown. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) occurs commonly in cancer patients and is individually unpredictable. We used CIPN as a clinical model to investigate the association of non-CMT polyneuropathy with CMT genes.
METHODS: A total of 269 neurologically asymptomatic cancer patients were enrolled in the clinical trial Alliance N08C1 to receive the neurotoxic drug paclitaxel, while undergoing prospective assessments for polyneuropathy. Forty-nine CMT genes were analyzed by targeted massively parallel sequencing of genomic DNA from patient blood.
RESULTS: A total of 119 (of 269) patients were identified from the 2 ends of the polyneuropathy phenotype distribution: patients that were most and least susceptible to paclitaxel polyneuropathy. The CMT gene PRX was found to be deleteriously mutated in patients who were susceptible to CIPN but not in controls (p = 8 × 10(-3)). Genetic variation in another CMT gene, ARHGEF10, was highly significantly associated with CIPN (p = 5 × 10(-4)). Three nonsynonymous recurrent single nucleotide variants contributed to the ARHGEF10 signal: rs9657362, rs2294039, and rs17683288. Of these, rs9657362 had the strongest effect (odds ratio = 4.8, p = 4 × 10(-4)).
INTERPRETATION: The results reveal an association of CMT gene allelic variability with susceptibility to CIPN. The findings raise the possibility that other acquired polyneuropathies may also be codetermined by genetic etiological factors, of which some may be related to genes already known to cause the phenotypically related Mendelian disorders of CMT.

Guo J, Yang L, Huang J, et al.
Knocking down the expression of SYF2 inhibits the proliferation of glioma cells.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(8):101 [PubMed] Related Publications
SYF2 is thought to be a cell cycle regulator at the G1/S transition, which encodes a nuclear protein that interacts with cyclin D-type binding-protein 1. In the present study, we investigated the role of SYF2 in human glioma progression. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses were performed in human glioma tissues. High SYF2 expression (located in cell nuclei) was observed in 80 samples, and its level was correlated with the grade of malignancy. A strongly positive correlation was observed between SYF2 and Ki-67 expression (P < 0.01). More importantly, high expression of SYF2 was associated with a poor outcome. In vitro, after the release of U87 cell lines from serum starvation, the expression of SYF2 was upregulated, as well as PCNA and cyclin D1. In addition, knockdown of SYF2 by small interfering RNA transfection diminished the expression of PCNA, cyclin D1 and arrested cell growth at G1 phase. These results indicate that SYF2 in glioma is essential for cell proliferation; thus, targeting SYF2 or its downstream targets may lead to novel therapies for glioblastomas.

Zhang J, Park HS, Kim JA, et al.
Flavonoids identified from Korean Scutellaria baicalensis induce apoptosis by ROS generation and caspase activation on human fibrosarcoma cells.
Am J Chin Med. 2014; 42(2):465-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
The effects of flavonoids from Korean Scutellaria baicalensis on fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells and their underlying molecular mechanism were investigated in this study. Flavonoids affected HT1080 cell proliferation by interrupting cell cycle progress, obviously augmenting the proportion of sub-G1 and diminishing that of G1 phase, and undergoing apoptosis at the tested dosage (100-400 μg/mL). In addition, the mediated apoptosis was mainly caused by total reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and by up-regulating the ratio of Bax/Bcl-xL, triggering caspase cascades (caspase-3, -9 and -8), and inactivating PARP, dose-dependently. The proteomics results showed that AP-4, ARID 5B, HNRNP K, PLOG, Prdx6, and myosin-1, associated with cell growth, differentiation and development, and overexpressed in gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, etc., were statistically down-regulated after the flavonoids treatment. Taken together, our data demonstrated that flavonoids from Korean S. baicalensis induced apoptosis in HT1080 cells, which involved a hierarchy of cellular pathways and multiple signal proteins, and might be a potential anticancer therapeutic agent.

Jo M, Yun HM, Park KR, et al.
Anti-cancer effect of thiacremonone through down regulation of peroxiredoxin 6.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e91508 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Thiacremonone (2, 4-dihydroxy-2, 5-dimethyl-thiophene-3-one) is an antioxidant substance as a novel sulfur compound generated from High-Temperature-High-Pressure-treated garlic. Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is a member of peroxidases, and has glutathione peroxidase and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) activities. Several studies have demonstrated that PRDX6 stimulates lung cancer cell growth via an increase of glutathione peroxidase activity. A docking model study and pull down assay showed that thiacremonone completely fits on the active site (cys-47) of glutathione peroxidase of PRDX6 and interacts with PRDX6. Thus, we investigated whether thiacremonone inhibits cell growth by blocking glutathione peroxidase of PRDX6 in the human lung cancer cells, A549 and NCI-H460. Thiacremonone (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited lung cancer cell growth in a concentration dependent manner through induction of apoptotic cell death accompanied by induction of cleaved caspase-3, -8, -9, Bax, p21 and p53, but decrease of xIAP, cIAP and Bcl2 expression. Thiacremonone further inhibited glutathione peroxidase activity in lung cancer cells. However, the cell growth inhibitory effect of thiacremonone was not observed in the lung cancer cells transfected with mutant PRDX6 (C47S) and in the presence of dithiothreitol and glutathione. In an allograft in vivo model, thiacremonone (30 mg/kg) also inhibited tumor growth accompanied with the reduction of PRDX6 expression and glutathione peroxidase activity, but increased expression of cleaved caspase-3, -8, -9, Bax, p21 and p53. These data indicate that thiacremonone inhibits tumor growth via inhibition of glutathione peroxidase activity of PRDX6 through interaction. These data suggest that thiacremonone may have potentially beneficial effects in lung cancer.

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