Gene Summary

Gene:PRRX1; paired related homeobox 1
Aliases: PMX1, PRX1, AGOTC, PHOX1, PRX-1
Summary:The DNA-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the paired family of homeobox proteins localized to the nucleus. The protein functions as a transcription co-activator, enhancing the DNA-binding activity of serum response factor, a protein required for the induction of genes by growth and differentiation factors. The protein regulates muscle creatine kinase, indicating a role in the establishment of diverse mesodermal muscle types. Alternative splicing yields two isoforms that differ in abundance and expression patterns. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:paired mesoderm homeobox protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Base Sequence
  • Transcription Factors
  • Skin Cancer
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Leukaemia
  • Phenotype
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Vitamin K 3
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Chromosome 1
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Protein Binding
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Signal Transduction
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Carcinogenesis
  • Vimentin
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Oral Cavity Cancer
  • Cell Movement
  • Breast Cancer
  • MicroRNAs
  • Apoptosis
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Down-Regulation
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Promoter Regions
  • Transfection
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PRRX1 (cancer-related)

Jiang J, Zheng M, Zhang M, et al.
PRRX1 Regulates Cellular Phenotype Plasticity and Dormancy of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Through miR-642b-3p.
Neoplasia. 2019; 21(2):216-229 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dormancy is one characteristic of cancer cells to make patients remain asymptomatic before metastasis and relapse, which is closely related to the survival rate of cancer patients, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). PRRX1 has previously been implicated in the invasion and metastasis of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in different types of human carcinoma. However, whether PRRX1 can regulate cancer dormancy and its reactivation, leading to the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, remains elusive. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PRRX1 in cellular phenotype plasticity and cancer dormancy of HNSCC cells and its association with miRNAs in HNSCC.
METHODS: The expression of PRRX1 was detected by immunohistochemical staining in primary HNSCC samples and the metastatic lymph nodes. Meanwhile, the role of PRRX1 and its relationship with miR-642b-3p and EMT in cellular phenotype plasticity and cancer dormancy of HNSCC were investigated in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: PRRX1 was significantly higher at the invasive front of HNSCC samples compared with the metastatic lymph nodes, and such switch process was accompanied by the cellular phenotype plasticity and cell dormancy activation. In HNSCC cell lines, PRRX1 positively promoted the expression of known EMT inducers and cooperated with activated TGF-β1 to contribute to EMT and migration and invasion of HNSCC cells. Then, we found that overexpression of miR-642b-3p, one of the most significantly downregulated miRNAs in PRRX1-overexpressed cells, significantly reduced the migration and invasion, and increased cell proliferation and apoptosis. And miR-642b-3p restoration reversed PRRX1-induced cell dormancy and EMT of HNSCC cells through TGF-β2 and p38. Finally, we demonstrated that overexpressed PRRX1 was closely correlated with miR-642b-3p downregulation and the upregulation of TGF-β2 and p38 in a xenograft model of HNSCC.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that PRRX1 may be one of the main driving forces for the cellular phenotype plasticity and tumor dormancy of HNSCC. Therefore, we can raise the possibility that EMT may help to keep cancer cell in dormant state and mesenchymal-epithelial transition may resurge dormancy in HNSCC.

Shi L, Tang X, Qian M, et al.
A SIRT1-centered circuitry regulates breast cancer stemness and metastasis.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(49):6299-6315 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer stem cell (CSC)-dictated intratumor heterogeneity accounts for the majority of drug-resistance and distant metastases of breast cancers. Here, we identify a SIRT1-PRRX1-KLF4-ALDH1 circuitry, which couples CSCs, chemo-resistance, metastasis and aging. Pro-longevity protein SIRT1 deacetylates and stabilizes the epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) inducer PRRX1, which inhibits the transcription of core stemness factor KLF4. Loss of SIRT1 destabilizes PRRX1, disinhibits KLF4, and activates the transcription of ALDH1, which induces and functionally marks CSCs, resulting in chemo-resistance and metastatic relapse. Clinically, the level of PRRX1 is positively linked to SIRT1, whereas KLF4 is reversely correlated. Importantly, KLF4 inhibitor Kenpaullone sensitizes breast cancer cells and xenograft tumors to Paclitaxel and improves therapeutic effects. Our findings delineate a SIRT1-centered circuitry that regulates CSC origination, and targeting this pathway might be a promising therapeutic strategy.

Fan M, Shen J, Liu H, et al.
Downregulation of PRRX1 via the p53-dependent signaling pathway predicts poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(2):1083-1090 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paired-related homeobox 1 (PRRX1) has been identified as a novel molecule associated with induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), acquisition of cancer stem cell like properties and poor prognosis in tumors. However, the function of PRRX1 in hepatocellular carcinoma has not been elucidated. In the present study, we observed that PRRX1 expression levels were downregulated and positively correlated with the downregulated expression of p53 in hepatocellular carcinoma specimens. Decreased expression of PRRX1 and/or p53 by siRNA induced both the migration and the invasion features of HCC cells in vitro. Furthermore, the loss of PRRX1 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell apoptosis, an anti-apoptotic expression profile was upregulated accompanied by downregulated expression of p53. HCC patients with low-expression of both PRRX1 and p53 had a significantly shorter overall and disease-free survival. These findings demonstrate that PRRX1 plays an important role in metastasis and apoptosis of HCC cells through the p53-dependent signaling pathway and is expected to become a novel biomarker associated with patient prognosis and survival.

van Groningen T, Koster J, Valentijn LJ, et al.
Neuroblastoma is composed of two super-enhancer-associated differentiation states.
Nat Genet. 2017; 49(8):1261-1266 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuroblastoma and other pediatric tumors show a paucity of gene mutations, which has sparked an interest in their epigenetic regulation. Several tumor types include phenotypically divergent cells, resembling cells from different lineage development stages. It has been proposed that super-enhancer-associated transcription factor (TF) networks underlie lineage identity, but the role of these enhancers in intratumoral heterogeneity is unknown. Here we show that most neuroblastomas include two types of tumor cells with divergent gene expression profiles. Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells and committed adrenergic cells can interconvert and resemble cells from different lineage differentiation stages. ChIP-seq analysis of isogenic pairs of mesenchymal and adrenergic cells identified a distinct super-enhancer landscape and super-enhancer-associated TF network for each cell type. Expression of the mesenchymal TF PRRX1 could reprogram the super-enhancer and mRNA landscapes of adrenergic cells toward a mesenchymal state. Mesenchymal cells were more chemoresistant in vitro and were enriched in post-therapy and relapse tumors. Two super-enhancer-associated TF networks, which probably mediate lineage control in normal development, thus dominate epigenetic control of neuroblastoma and shape intratumoral heterogeneity.

da Silveira WA, Palma PVB, Sicchieri RD, et al.
Transcription Factor Networks derived from Breast Cancer Stem Cells control the immune response in the Basal subtype.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):2851 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and metastatic dissemination is the principal factor related to death by this disease. Breast cancer stem cells (bCSC) are thought to be responsible for metastasis and chemoresistance. In this study, based on whole transcriptome analysis from putative bCSC and reverse engineering of transcription control networks, we identified two networks associated with this phenotype. One controlled by SNAI2, TWIST1, BNC2, PRRX1 and TBX5 drives a mesenchymal or CSC-like phenotype. The second network is controlled by the SCML4, ZNF831, SP140 and IKZF3 transcription factors which correspond to immune response modulators. Immune response network expression is correlated with pathological response to chemotherapy, and in the Basal subtype is related to better recurrence-free survival. In patient-derived xenografts, the expression of these networks in patient tumours is predictive of engraftment success. Our findings point out a potential molecular mechanism underlying the balance between immune surveillance and EMT activation in breast cancer. This molecular mechanism may be useful to the development of new target therapies.

Li Y, Wang W, Wang F, et al.
Paired related homeobox 1 transactivates dopamine D2 receptor to maintain propagation and tumorigenicity of glioma-initiating cells.
J Mol Cell Biol. 2017; 9(4):302-314 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly invasive brain tumor with limited therapeutic means and poor prognosis. Recent studies indicate that glioma-initiating cells/glioma stem cells (GICs/GSCs) may be responsible for tumor initiation, infiltration, and recurrence. GICs could aberrantly employ molecular machinery balancing self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic neural precursors. Here, we find that paired related homeobox 1 (PRRX1), a homeodomain transcription factor that was previously reported to control skeletal development, is expressed in cortical neural progenitors and is required for their self-renewal and proper differentiation. Further, PRRX1 is overrepresented in glioma samples and labels GICs. Glioma cells and GICs depleted with PRRX1 could not propagate in vitro or form tumors in the xenograft mouse model. The GIC self-renewal function regulated by PRRX1 is mediated by dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2). PRRX1 directly binds to the DRD2 promoter and transactivates its expression in GICs. Blockage of the DRD2 signaling hampers GIC self-renewal, whereas its overexpression restores the propagating and tumorigenic potential of PRRX1-depleted GICs. Finally, PRRX1 potentiates GICs via DRD2-mediated extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and AKT activation. Thus, our study suggests that therapeutic targeting the PRRX1-DRD2-ERK/AKT axis in GICs is a promising strategy for treating GBMs.

Gümbel D, Gelbrich N, Napp M, et al.
Peroxiredoxin Expression of Human Osteosarcoma Cells Is Influenced by Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(3):1031-1038 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate the potential involvement of redox-specific signalling pathways in cold atmospheric plasma (CAP)-induced apoptosis on human osteosarcoma cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Osteosarcoma cell lines were treated with CAP with or without antioxidative agents and seeded in cell culture plates. Cell proliferation was determined by counting viable cells. Carrier gas-treated cells served as control. Peroxiredoxin (PRX) 1-3 expression and secretion were assessed.
RESULTS: CAP treatment exhibited strongly attenuated proliferation rates. This effect was significantly attenuated by the addition of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). CAP-treated cells exhibited an increase of PRX 1 and 2 10 sec after treatment. The ratio of oxidized to reduced PRX1 and PRX2 was significantly altered with increasing cellular concentration of the oxidized dimer.
CONCLUSION: Antioxidant supplementation with NAC increases proliferation of CAP-treated osteosarcoma cells, implicating an involvement of redox signalling. Activation of PRX1 and -2 indicate CAP affects redox homeostasis.

Wang B, Chen Q, Cao Y, et al.
LGR5 Is a Gastric Cancer Stem Cell Marker Associated with Stemness and the EMT Signature Genes NANOG, NANOGP8, PRRX1, TWIST1, and BMI1.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(12):e0168904 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are essential for cancer initiation, metastasis and drug resistance. However, the functional association of gastric CSC markers with stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) signature genes is unclear.
METHODS: qPCR was performed to measure the expression profiles of stemness and EMT signature genes and their association with putative CSC markers in gastric cancer tissues, cancer cell lines and sphere cells. Western blot analysis was used to confirm the results of the transcript analysis. Cell proliferation, cell migration, drug resistance and sphere cell growth assays were conducted to measure the expansion and invasion abilities of the cells. Tumor xenograft experiments were performed in NOD/SCID mice to test cell stemness in vivo. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining were used to analyze cell subpopulations.
RESULTS: The expression of LGR5 was strikingly up-regulated in sphere cells but not in cancer tissues or parental adherent cells. The up-regulation of LGR5 was also positively associated with stemness regulators (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, and AICDA) and EMT inducers (PRRX1, TWIST1, and BMI1). In addition, sphere cells exhibited up-regulated vimentin and down-regulated E-cadherin expression. Using gene-specific primers, we found that the NANOG expression primarily originates from the retrogene NANOGP8. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of both LGR5 and NANOG is significantly higher in sphere cells. LGR5 over-expression significantly enhanced sphere cell growth, cell proliferation, cell migration and drug resistance in MGC803 cells. Tumor xenografts in nude mice showed that sphere cells are at least 10 times more efficient at tumor initiation than adherent cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed that ~20% of sphere cells are LGR5+/CD54+, but only ~3% of adherent cells are Lgr5+/CD54+. Immunofluorescence staining supports the above results.
CONCLUSION: The LGR5-expressing fraction of CD54+ cells represents gastric cancer CSCs, in which LGR5 is closely associated with stemness and EMT core genes, and NANOG expression is mainly contributed by the retrogene NANOGP8. Sphere cells are the best starting materials for the characterization of CSCs.

Javaheri T, Kazemi Z, Pencik J, et al.
Increased survival and cell cycle progression pathways are required for EWS/FLI1-induced malignant transformation.
Cell Death Dis. 2016; 7(10):e2419 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma (ES) is the second most frequent childhood bone cancer driven by the EWS/FLI1 (EF) fusion protein. Genetically defined ES models are needed to understand how EF expression changes bone precursor cell differentiation, how ES arises and through which mechanisms of inhibition it can be targeted. We used mesenchymal Prx1-directed conditional EF expression in mice to study bone development and to establish a reliable sarcoma model. EF expression arrested early chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation due to changed signaling pathways such as hedgehog, WNT or growth factor signaling. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing EF showed high self-renewal capacity and maintained an undifferentiated state despite high apoptosis. Blocking apoptosis through enforced BCL2 family member expression in MSCs promoted efficient and rapid sarcoma formation when transplanted to immunocompromised mice. Mechanistically, high BCL2 family member and CDK4, but low P53 and INK4A protein expression synergized in Ewing-like sarcoma development. Functionally, knockdown of Mcl1 or Cdk4 or their combined pharmacologic inhibition resulted in growth arrest and apoptosis in both established human ES cell lines and EF-transformed mouse MSCs. Combinatorial targeting of survival and cell cycle progression pathways could counteract this aggressive childhood cancer.

Niu W, Zhang M, Chen H, et al.
Peroxiredoxin 1 promotes invasion and migration by regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition during oral carcinogenesis.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(30):47042-47051 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tobacco smoking is the major risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Previously, we found that nicotine up-regulates peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1), an important antioxidant enzyme, and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) in OSCC cells. However, the molecular mechanism of Prx1 in oral carcinogenesis remains obscure. To improve our understanding of the functional role of Prx1 during the cascade of tobacco-associated oral carcinogenesis, we characterized Prx1, NFκB, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers including E-cadherin, vimentin and Snail in 30 primary oral tumors (15 from smokers with OSCC and 15 from non-smokers with OSCC) and 10 normal oral mucosa specimens from healthy individuals. The expression levels of Prx1, nuclear NFκB, vimentin and Snail were higher in the tumors from smokers with OSCC than in those from non-smokers with OSCC or the healthy controls. The expression levels of E-cadherin showed an opposite trend. Prx1 silencing suppressed the nicotine-induced EMT, cell invasion and migration in SCC15 cells in vitro. Furthermore, Prx1 activated the NFκB pathway in SCC15 cells. Prx1 might therefore play an oncogenic role in tobacco-related OSCC and thus serve as a target for chemopreventive and therapeutic interventions.

Minas TZ, Surdez D, Javaheri T, et al.
Combined experience of six independent laboratories attempting to create an Ewing sarcoma mouse model.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(21):34141-34163 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma (ES) involves a tumor-specific chromosomal translocation that produces the EWS-FLI1 protein, which is required for the growth of ES cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, an EWS-FLI1-driven transgenic mouse model is not currently available. Here, we present data from six independent laboratories seeking an alternative approach to express EWS-FLI1 in different murine tissues. We used the Runx2, Col1a2.3, Col1a3.6, Prx1, CAG, Nse, NEFL, Dermo1, P0, Sox9 and Osterix promoters to target EWS-FLI1 or Cre expression. Additional approaches included the induction of an endogenous chromosomal translocation, in utero knock-in, and the injection of Cre-expressing adenovirus to induce EWS-FLI1 expression locally in multiple lineages. Most models resulted in embryonic lethality or developmental defects. EWS-FLI1-induced apoptosis, promoter leakiness, the lack of potential cofactors, and the difficulty of expressing EWS-FLI1 in specific sites were considered the primary reasons for the failed attempts to create a transgenic mouse model of ES.

Su YH, Huang WC, Huang TH, et al.
Folate deficient tumor microenvironment promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem-like phenotypes.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(22):33246-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Clinically, serum level of folate has been negatively correlated to the stage and progression of liver cancer. Nevertheless, the functional consequence of folate deficiency (FD) in malignancy has not been fully investigated. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells (as study model) and other cancer types such as lung and glioma were cultured under folate deficient (FD) and folate complete (FD) conditions. Molecular characterization including intracellular ROS/RNS (reactive oxygen/nitrogen species), viability, colony formation, cancer stem-like cell (CSC) phenotype analyses were performed. In vivo tumorigenesis under FD and FC conditions were also examined. FD induced a significant increase in ROS and RNS, suppressing proliferative ability but inducing metastatic potential. Mesenchymal markers such as Snail, ZEB2, and Vimentin were significantly up-regulated while E-cadherin down-regulated. Importantly, CSC markers such as Oct4, β-catenin, CD133 were induced while PRRX1 decreased under FD condition. Furthermore, FD-conditioned HCC cells showed a decreased miR-22 level, leading to the increased expression of its target genes including HDAC4, ZEB2 and Oct4. Finally, xenograft mouse model demonstrated that FD diet promoted tumorigenesis and metastasis as compared to their FC counterparts. Our data provides rationales for the consideration of folate supplement as a metastasis preventive measure.

Lv ZD, Yang ZC, Liu XP, et al.
Silencing of Prrx1b suppresses cellular proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in triple-negative breast cancer.
J Cell Mol Med. 2016; 20(9):1640-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive tumour subtype associated with poor prognosis. The mechanisms involved in TNBC progression remains largely unknown. To date, there are no effective therapeutic targets for this tumour subtype. Paired-related homeobox 1b (Prrx1b), one of major isoforms of Prrx1, has been identified as a new epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer. However, the function of Prrx1b in TNBC has not been elucidated. In this study, we found that Prrx1b was significantly up-regulated in TNBC and associated with tumour size and vascular invasion of breast cancer. Silencing of Prrx1b suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of basal-like cancer cells. Moreover, silencing of Prrx1b prevented Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and induced the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). Taken together, our data indicated that Prrx1b may be an important regulator of EMT in TNBC cells and a new therapeutic target for interventions against TNBC invasion and metastasis.

Kitchen MO, Bryan RT, Emes RD, et al.
Quantitative genome-wide methylation analysis of high-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.
Epigenetics. 2016; 11(3):237-46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HG-NMIBC) is a clinically unpredictable disease with greater risks of recurrence and progression relative to their low-intermediate-grade counterparts. The molecular events, including those affecting the epigenome, that characterize this disease entity in the context of tumor development, recurrence, and progression, are incompletely understood. We therefore interrogated genome-wide DNA methylation using HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays in 21 primary HG-NMIBC tumors relative to normal bladder controls. Using strict inclusion-exclusion criteria we identified 1,057 hypermethylated CpGs within gene promoter-associated CpG islands, representing 256 genes. We validated the array data by bisulphite pyrosequencing and examined 25 array-identified candidate genes in an independent cohort of 30 HG-NMIBC and 18 low-intermediate-grade NMIBC. These analyses revealed significantly higher methylation frequencies in high-grade tumors relative to low-intermediate-grade tumors for the ATP5G2, IRX1 and VAX2 genes (P<0.05), and similarly significant increases in mean levels of methylation in high-grade tumors for the ATP5G2, VAX2, INSRR, PRDM14, VSX1, TFAP2b, PRRX1, and HIST1H4F genes (P<0.05). Although inappropriate promoter methylation was not invariantly associated with reduced transcript expression, a significant association was apparent for the ARHGEF4, PON3, STAT5a, and VAX2 gene transcripts (P<0.05). Herein, we present the first genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in a unique HG-NMIBC cohort, showing extensive and discrete methylation changes relative to normal bladder and low-intermediate-grade tumors. The genes we identified hold significant potential as targets for novel therapeutic intervention either alone, or in combination, with more conventional therapeutic options in the treatment of this clinically unpredictable disease.

Lv ZD, Kong B, Liu XP, et al.
miR-655 suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by targeting Prrx1 in triple-negative breast cancer.
J Cell Mol Med. 2016; 20(5):864-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive breast cancer subtype that lacks effective targeted therapies. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key contributor in the metastatic process. In this study, we found that miR-655 was down-regulated in TNBC, and its expression levels were associated with molecular-based classification and lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. These findings led us to hypothesize that miR-655 overexpression may inhibit EMT and its associated traits of TNBC. Ectopic expression of miR-655 not only induced the up-regulation of cytokeratin and decreased vimentin expression but also suppressed migration and invasion of mesenchymal-like cancer cells accompanied by a morphological shift towards the epithelial phenotype. In addition, we found that miR-655 was negatively correlated with Prrx1 in cell lines and clinical samples. Overexpression of miR-655 significantly suppressed Prrx1, as demonstrated by Prrx1 3'-untranslated region luciferase report assay. Our study demonstrated that miR-655 inhibits the acquisition of the EMT phenotype in TNBC by down-regulating Prrx1, thereby inhibiting cell migration and invasion during cancer progression.

Takano S, Reichert M, Bakir B, et al.
Prrx1 isoform switching regulates pancreatic cancer invasion and metastatic colonization.
Genes Dev. 2016; 30(2):233-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The two major isoforms of the paired-related homeodomain transcription factor 1 (Prrx1), Prrx1a and Prrx1b, are involved in pancreatic development, pancreatitis, and carcinogenesis, although the biological role that these isoforms serve in the systemic dissemination of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has not been investigated. An epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is believed to be important for primary tumor progression and dissemination, whereas a mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) appears crucial for metastatic colonization. Here, we describe novel roles for both isoforms in the metastatic cascade using complementary in vitro and in vivo models. Prrx1b promotes invasion, tumor dedifferentiation, and EMT. In contrast, Prrx1a stimulates metastatic outgrowth in the liver, tumor differentiation, and MET. We further demonstrate that the switch from Prrx1b to Prrx1a governs EMT plasticity in both mouse models of PDAC and human PDAC. Last, we identify hepatocyte growth factor ( HGF) as a novel transcriptional target of Prrx1b. Targeted therapy of HGF in combination with gemcitabine in a preclinical model of PDAC reduces primary tumor volume and eliminates metastatic disease. Overall, we provide new insights into the isoform-specific roles of Prrx1a and Prrx1b in primary PDAC formation, dissemination, and metastatic colonization, allowing for novel therapeutic strategies targeting EMT plasticity.

He T, Hatem E, Vernis L, et al.
PRX1 knockdown potentiates vitamin K3 toxicity in cancer cells: a potential new therapeutic perspective for an old drug.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 34:152 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Many promising anticancer molecules are abandoned during the course from bench to bedside due to lack of clear-cut efficiency and/or severe side effects. Vitamin K3 (vitK3) is a synthetic naphthoquinone exhibiting significant in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity against multiple human cancers, and has therapeutic potential when combined with other anticancer molecules. The major mechanism for the anticancer activity of vitK3 is the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). We thus reasoned that a rational redox modulation of cancer cells could enhance vitK3 anticancer efficiency.
METHODS: Cancer cell lines with peroxiredoxin 1 (PRX1) gene transiently or stably knocked-down and corresponding controls were exposed to vitK3 as well as a set of anticancer molecules, including vinblastine, taxol, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, actinomycin D and 5-fluorouracil. Cytotoxic effects and cell death events were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-based assay, cell clonogenic assay, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential and annexin V/propidium iodide double staining. Global ROS accumulation and compartment-specific H2O2 generation were determined respectively by a redox-sensitive chemical probe and H2O2-sensitive sensor HyPer. Oxidation of endogenous antioxidant proteins including TRX1, TRX2 and PRX3 was monitored by redox western blot.
RESULTS: We observed that the PRX1 knockdown in HeLa and A549 cells conferred enhanced sensitivity to vitK3, reducing substantially the necessary doses to kill cancer cells. The same conditions (combination of vitK3 and PRX1 knockdown) caused little cytotoxicity in non-cancerous cells, suggesting a cancer-cell-selective property. Increased ROS accumulation had a crucial role in vitK3-induced cell death in PRX1 knockdown cells. The use of H2O2-specific sensors HyPer revealed that vitK3 lead to immediate accumulation of H2O2 in the cytosol, nucleus, and mitochondrial matrix. PRX1 silencing significantly up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2, which was partially responsible for vitK3-induced ROS accumulation and consequent cell death.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that PRX1 inactivation could represent an interesting strategy to enhance cancer cell sensitivity to vitK3, providing a potential new therapeutic perspective for this old molecule. Conceptually, a combination of drugs that modulate intracellular redox states and drugs that operate through the generation of ROS could be a new therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment.

Zheng L, Zhang Y, Lin S, et al.
Down-regualtion of miR-106b induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition but suppresses metastatic colonization by targeting Prrx1 in colorectal cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(9):10534-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Accumulating evidence identified that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is acquired during progression to metastatic, but whether it is an absolute requirement is still controversial. MiR-106b has been confirmed to promote cancer cell proliferation; however few studies are available on its functions in EMT and metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we found that knocking down miR-106b induced EMT conferring migratory and invasive properties. MiR-106b knockdown induced cytoskeletal reorganization through staining intracellular F-actin. The expression of Rho GTPases (Rac1 and Cdc42) and Tiam1 was significantly enforced after miR-106b down-regulation. However, miR-106b knocking down could suppress metastatic colonization in vivo. Correspondingly, over expression of miR-106b obtained an opposite effect. We identified Prrx1 was a direct target of miR-106b through using target prediction algorithms and dual-Luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, Moreover, we also found TGF-β1 could down-regulate miR-106b, and simultaneously miR-106b also influences the expression of TGF-β1, establishing a negative feedback loop to regulate the expression of Prrx1 together. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that miR-106b knockdown could induce EMT which conferring cells migratory and invasive properties but could not accomplish distant metastatic colonization efficiently.

Khirade MF, Lal G, Bapat SA
Derivation of a fifteen gene prognostic panel for six cancers.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:13248 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The hallmarks of cancer deem biological pathways and molecules to be conserved. This approach may be useful for deriving a prognostic gene signature. Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis of gene expression datasets in eleven cancer types identified modules of highly correlated genes and interactive networks conserved across glioblastoma, breast, ovary, colon, rectal and lung cancers, from which a universal classifier for tumor stratification was extracted. Specific conserved gene modules were validated across different microarray platforms and datasets. Strikingly, preserved genes within these modules defined regulatory networks associated with immune regulation, cell differentiation, metastases, cell migration, metastases, oncogenic transformation, and resistance to apoptosis and senescence, with AIF1 and PRRX1 being suggested to be master regulators governing these biological processes. A universal classifier from these conserved networks enabled execution of common set of principles across different cancers that revealed distinct, differential correlation of biological functions with patient survival in a cancer-specific manner. Correlation analysis further identified a panel of 15 risk genes with potential prognostic value, termed as the GBOCRL-IIPr panel [(GBM-Breast-Ovary-Colon-Rectal-Lung)-Immune-Invasion-Prognosis], that surprisingly, were not amongst the master regulators or important network hubs. This panel may now be integrated in predicting patient outcomes in the six cancers.

Palla AR, Piazzolla D, Alcazar N, et al.
The pluripotency factor NANOG promotes the formation of squamous cell carcinomas.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:10205 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
NANOG is a key pluripotency factor in embryonic stem cells that is frequently expressed in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). However, a direct link between NANOG and SCCs remains to be established. Here, we show that inducible overexpression of NANOG in mouse skin epithelia favours the malignant conversion of skin papillomas induced by chemical carcinogenesis, leading to increased SCC formation. Gene expression analyses in pre-malignant skin indicate that NANOG induces genes associated to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Some of these genes are directly activated by NANOG, including EMT-associated genes Zeb1, Zeb2, Twist1, Prrx1 and miR-21. Finally, endogenous NANOG binds to the promoters of theses genes in human SCC cells and, moreover, NANOG induces EMT features in primary keratinocytes. These results provide in vivo evidence for the oncogenic role of NANOG in squamous cell carcinomas.

Murakami M, Yoshimoto T, Nakabayashi K, et al.
Integration of transcriptome and methylome analysis of aldosterone-producing adenomas.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2015; 173(2):185-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) has been investigated intensively through genetic and genomic approaches. However, the role of epigenetics in APA is not fully understood. In the present study, we explored the relationship between gene expression and DNA methylation status in APA.
METHODS: We conducted an integrated analysis of transcriptome and methylome data of paired APA-adjacent adrenal gland (AAG) samples from the same patient. The adrenal specimens were obtained from seven Japanese patients with APA who underwent adrenalectomy. Gene expression and genome-wide CpG methylation profiles were obtained from RNA and DNA samples that were extracted from those seven paired tissues.
RESULTS: Methylome analysis showed global CpG hypomethylation in APA relative to AAG. The integration of gene expression and methylation status showed that 34 genes were up-regulated with CpG hypomethylation in APA. Of these, three genes (CYP11B2, MC2R, and HPX) may be related to aldosterone production, and five genes (PRRX1, RAB38, FAP, GCNT2, and ASB4) are potentially involved in tumorigenesis.
CONCLUSION: The present study is the first methylome analysis to compare APA with AAG in the same patients. Our integrated analysis of transcriptome and methylome revealed DNA hypomethylation in APA and identified several up-regulated genes with DNA hypomethylation that may be involved in aldosterone production and tumorigenesis.

Jensen DH, Dabelsteen E, Specht L, et al.
Molecular profiling of tumour budding implicates TGFβ-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition as a therapeutic target in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J Pathol. 2015; 236(4):505-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although tumour budding is an adverse prognostic factor for many cancer types, the molecular mechanisms governing this phenomenon are incompletely understood. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of tumour budding may provide new therapeutic and diagnostic options. We employ digital image analysis to demonstrate that the number of tumour buds in cytokeratin-stained sections correlates with patients having lymph node metastases at diagnosis. The tumour bud count was also a predictor of overall survival, independent of TNM stage. Tumour buds and paired central tumour areas were subsequently collected from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) specimens, using laser capture microdissection, and examined with RNA sequencing and miRNA-qPCR arrays. Compared with cells from the central parts of the tumours, budding cells exhibited a particular gene expression signature, comprising factors involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and activated TGFβ signalling. Transcription factors ZEB1 and PRRX1 were up-regulated concomitantly with the decreased expression of mesenchymal-epithelial (MET) transcription factors (eg OVOL1) in addition to Krüppel-like factors and Grainyhead-like factors. Moreover, miR-200 family members were down-regulated in budding tumour cells. We used immunohistochemistry to validate five markers of the EMT/MET process in 199 OSCC tumours, as well as in situ hybridization in 20 OSCC samples. Given the strong relationship between tumour budding and the development of lymph node metastases and an adverse prognosis, therapeutics based on inhibiting the activation of TGFβ signalling may prove useful in the treatment of OSCC.

Kobus K, Hartl D, Ott CE, et al.
Double NF1 inactivation affects adrenocortical function in NF1Prx1 mice and a human patient.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0119030 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1, MIM#162200) is a relatively frequent genetic condition, which predisposes to tumor formation. Apart from tumors, individuals with NF1 often exhibit endocrine abnormalities such as precocious puberty (2,5-5% of NF1 patients) and some cases of hypertension (16% of NF1 patients). Several cases of adrenal cortex adenomas have been described in NF1 individuals supporting the notion that neurofibromin might play a role in adrenal cortex homeostasis. However, no experimental data were available to prove this hypothesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed Nf1Prx1 mice and one case of adrenal cortical hyperplasia in a NF1patient.
RESULTS: In Nf1Prx1 mice Nf1 is inactivated in the developing limbs, head mesenchyme as well as in the adrenal gland cortex, but not the adrenal medulla or brain. We show that adrenal gland size is increased in NF1Prx1 mice. Nf1Prx1 female mice showed corticosterone and aldosterone overproduction. Molecular analysis of Nf1 deficient adrenals revealed deregulation of multiple proteins, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), a vital mitochondrial factor promoting transfer of cholesterol into steroid making mitochondria. This was associated with a marked upregulation of MAPK pathway and a female specific increase of cAMP concentration in murine adrenal lysates. Complementarily, we characterized a patient with neurofibromatosis type I with macronodular adrenal hyperplasia with ACTH-independent cortisol overproduction. Comparison of normal control tissue- and adrenal hyperplasia- derived genomic DNA revealed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the wild type NF1 allele, showing that biallelic NF1 gene inactivation occurred in the hyperplastic adrenal gland.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that biallelic loss of Nf1 induces autonomous adrenal hyper-activity. We conclude that Nf1 is involved in the regulation of adrenal cortex function in mice and humans.

Hirata H, Sugimachi K, Takahashi Y, et al.
Downregulation of PRRX1 Confers Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties and Predicts Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2015; 22 Suppl 3:S1402-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Downregulation of paired related homeobox 1 (PRRX1) is associated with the acquisition of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties and poor prognosis in cancers. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of PRRX1 expression in predicting prognosis and mediating CSC-like properties in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: The association between PRRX1 expression and overall survival (OS) of patients with HCC was analyzed in three independent datasets: 62 resected primary cases, 242 cases from GSE14520, and 162 cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). A cell line expressing PRRX1 (HuH7) was established for the functional analyses. The ability to form spheres, the expression levels of the hepatic CSC surface markers (CD13, CD133, and EpCAM), in vitro chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (FU), and radiosensitivity were evaluated.
RESULTS: Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the 5-year OS of the low PRRX1 expression group was significantly poorer than that of the high PRRX1 expression group (P = 0.024 and P = 0.045, respectively). Consistent with this, the low PRRX1 expression group in GSE14520 and TCGA datasets showed significantly shorter OS (P = 0.027 and P = 0.010, respectively). Gene set enrichment analysis on GSE14520 and TCGA datasets indicated that downregulation of PRRX1 was correlated with the stemness signature. The number of spheres and the expression levels of CSC markers were significantly decreased when PRRX1 was expressed. Moreover, PRRX1 impaired resistance to 5-FU and radiation.
CONCLUSIONS: Downregulation of PRRX1 expression contributes to the poor prognosis of patients with HCC through acquisition of CSC-like properties.

Zhang M, Hou M, Ge L, et al.
Induction of peroxiredoxin 1 by hypoxia regulates heme oxygenase-1 via NF-κB in oral cancer.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(8):e105994 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overexpression of peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1) has been observed in numerous cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The precise molecular mechanism of up-regulation of Prx1 in carcinogenesis, however, is still poorly understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between Prx1 and hypoxia, and potential mechanism(s) of Prx1 in OSCC cell line SCC15 and xenograft model. We treated wild-type and Prx1 knockdown SCC15 cells with transient hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. We detected the condition of hypoxia, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression and/or activity of Prx1, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). We found that hypoxia induces ROS accumulation, up-regulates Prx1, increases NF-κB translocation and DNA binding activity, and down-regulates HO-1 in vitro. In Prx1 knockdown cells, the expression level of HO-1 was increased, while NFκB translocation and DNA binding activity were decreased after hypoxia or hypoxia/reoxygenation treatment. Moreover, we mimicked the dynamic oxygenation tumor microenvironment in xenograft model and assessed the above indices in tumors with the maximal diameter of 2 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm or 15 mm, respectively. Our data showed that tumor hypoxic condition and expression of Prx1 are significantly associated with tumor growth. The expression of HO-1 and NF-κB, and NF-κB DNA binding activity were significantly elevated in 15 mm tumors, and the level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was increased in 10 mm and 15 mm tumors, compared to those in size of 2 mm. The results from this study provide experimental evidence that overexpression of Prx1 is associated with hypoxia, and Prx1/NF-κB/HO-1 signaling pathway may be involved in oral carcinogenesis.

Zhang Y, Zheng L, Huang J, et al.
MiR-124 Radiosensitizes human colorectal cancer cells by targeting PRRX1.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e93917 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
One of the challenges in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients is that these tumors show resistance to radiation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in essential biological activities, including chemoresistance and radioresistance. Several research studies have indicated that miRNA played an important role in sensitizing cellular response to ionizing radiation (IR). In this study, we found that miR-124 was significantly down-regulated both in CRC-derived cell lines and clinical CRC samples compared with adjacent non-tumor colorectal tissues, MiR-124 could sensitize human colorectal cancer cells to IR in vitro and in vivo. We identified PRRX1, a new EMT inducer and stemness regulator as a novel direct target of miR-124 by using target prediction algorithms and luciferase assay. PRRX1 knockdown could sensitize CRC cells to IR similar to the effects caused by miR-124. Overexpression of PRRX1 in stably overexpressed-miR-124 cell lines could rescue the effects of radiosensitivity enhancement brought by miR-124. Taking these observations into consideration, we illustrated that miR-124 could increase the radiosensitivity of CRC cells by blocking the expression of PRRX1, which indicated miR-124 could act as a great therapeutic target for CRC patients.

Takahashi Y, Sawada G, Kurashige J, et al.
Paired related homoeobox 1, a new EMT inducer, is involved in metastasis and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2013; 109(2):307-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Paired related homoeobox 1 (PRRX1) has been identified as a new epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer in breast cancer. However, the function of PRRX1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been elucidated.
METHODS: We utilised ectopic PRRX1-expressing cell lines to analyse the function of PRRX1 in CRC. The clinical significance of PRRX1 was also examined on three independent CRC case sets.
RESULTS: PRRX1 induced EMT and the stem-like phenotype in CRC cells. In contrast to studies of breast cancer, abundant expression of PRRX1 was significantly associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in CRC.
CONCLUSION: PRRX1 is an indicator of metastasis and poor prognosis in CRC cases. Further investigation is required to uncover the signalling network regulating PRRX1.

Riddell JR, Maier P, Sass SN, et al.
Peroxiredoxin 1 stimulates endothelial cell expression of VEGF via TLR4 dependent activation of HIF-1α.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e50394 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic inflammation leads to the formation of a pro-tumorigenic microenvironment that can promote tumor development, growth and differentiation through augmentation of tumor angiogenesis. Prostate cancer (CaP) risk and prognosis are adversely correlated with a number of inflammatory and angiogenic mediators, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NF-κB and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1) was recently identified as an endogenous ligand for TLR4 that is secreted from CaP cells and promotes inflammation. Inhibition of Prx1 by CaP cells resulted in reduced expression of VEGF, diminished tumor vasculature and retarded tumor growth. The mechanism by which Prx1 regulates VEGF expression in normoxic conditions was investigated in the current study. Our results show that incubation of mouse vascular endothelial cells with recombinant Prx1 caused increases in VEGF expression that was dependent upon TLR4 and required hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) interaction with the VEGF promoter. The induction of VEGF was also dependent upon NF-κB; however, NF-κB interaction with the VEGF promoter was not required for Prx1 induction of VEGF suggesting that NF-κB was acting indirectly to induce VEGF expression. The results presented here show that Prx1 stimulation increased NF-κB interaction with the HIF-1α promoter, leading to enhanced promoter activity and increases in HIF-1α mRNA levels, as well as augmented HIF-1 activity that resulted in VEGF expression. Prx1 induced HIF-1 also promoted NF-κB activity, suggesting the presence of a positive feedback loop that has the potential to perpetuate Prx1 induction of angiogenesis. Strikingly, inhibition of Prx1 expression in CaP was accompanied with reduced expression of HIF-1α. The combined findings of the current study and our previous study suggest that Prx1 interaction with TLR4 promotes CaP growth potentially through chronic activation of tumor angiogenesis.

Godfrey R, Arora D, Bauer R, et al.
Cell transformation by FLT3 ITD in acute myeloid leukemia involves oxidative inactivation of the tumor suppressor protein-tyrosine phosphatase DEP-1/ PTPRJ.
Blood. 2012; 119(19):4499-511 [PubMed] Related Publications
Signal transduction of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is regulated by protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). We recently identified the PTP DEP-1/CD148/PTPRJ as a novel negative regulator of FLT3. This study addressed the role of DEP-1 for regulation of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-related mutant FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) protein. Our experiments revealed that DEP-1 was expressed but dysfunctional in cells transformed by FLT3 ITD. This was caused by enzymatic inactivation of DEP-1 through oxidation of the DEP-1 catalytic cysteine. In intact cells, including primary AML cells, FLT3 ITD kinase inhibition reactivated DEP-1. DEP-1 reactivation was also achieved by counteracting the high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production detected in FLT3 ITD-expressing cell lines by inhibition of reduced NAD phosphate (NADPH)-oxidases, or by overexpression of catalase or peroxiredoxin-1 (Prx-1). Interference with ROS production in 32D cells inhibited cell transformation by FLT3 ITD in a DEP-1-dependent manner, because RNAi-mediated depletion of DEP-1 partially abrogated the inhibitory effect of ROS quenching. Reactivation of DEP-1 by stable overexpression of Prx-1 extended survival of mice in the 32D cell/C3H/HeJ mouse model of FLT3 ITD-driven myeloproliferative disease. The study thus uncovered DEP-1 oxidation as a novel event contributing to cell transformation by FLT3 ITD.

Charytonowicz E, Terry M, Coakley K, et al.
PPARγ agonists enhance ET-743-induced adipogenic differentiation in a transgenic mouse model of myxoid round cell liposarcoma.
J Clin Invest. 2012; 122(3):886-98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myxoid round cell liposarcoma (MRCLS) is a common liposarcoma subtype characterized by a translocation that results in the fusion protein TLS:CHOP as well as by mixed adipocytic histopathology. Both the etiology of MRCLS and the mechanism of action of TLS:CHOP remain poorly understood. It was previously shown that ET-743, an antitumor compound with an unclear mechanism of action, is highly effective in patients with MRCLS. To identify the cellular origin of MRCLS, we engineered a mouse model in which TLS:CHOP was expressed under the control of a mesodermally restricted promoter (Prx1) in a p53-depleted background. This model resembled MRCLS histologically as well as functionally in terms of its specific adipocytic differentiation-based response to ET-743. Specifically, endogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing TLS:CHOP developed into MRCLS in vivo. Gene expression and microRNA analysis of these MSCs showed that they were committed to adipocytic differentiation, but unable to terminally differentiate. We also explored the method of action of ET-743. ET-743 downregulated TLS:CHOP expression, which correlated with CEBPα expression and adipocytic differentiation. Furthermore, PPARγ agonists enhanced the differentiation process initiated by ET-743. Our work highlights how clinical observations can lead to the generation of a mouse model that recapitulates human disease and may be used to develop rational treatment combinations, such as ET-743 plus PPARγ agonists, for the treatment of MRCLS.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. PMX1, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 01 September, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999