Gene Summary

Gene:PLA2G4A; phospholipase A2 group IVA
Aliases: GURDP, cPLA2, PLA2G4, cPLA2-alpha
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 group IV family. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids to release arachidonic acid which is subsequently metabolized into eicosanoids. Eicosanoids, including prostaglandins and leukotrienes, are lipid-based cellular hormones that regulate hemodynamics, inflammatory responses, and other intracellular pathways. The hydrolysis reaction also produces lysophospholipids that are converted into platelet-activating factor. The enzyme is activated by increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels and phosphorylation, resulting in its translocation from the cytosol and nucleus to perinuclear membrane vesicles. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2015]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cytosolic phospholipase A2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PLA2G4A (cancer-related)

Moustaka K, Maleskou E, Lambrianidou A, et al.
Docosahexaenoic Acid Inhibits Proliferation of EoL-1 Leukemia Cells and Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Differentiation.
Nutrients. 2019; 11(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Τhe effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) upon the proliferation of EoL-1 (Eosinophilic leukemia) cell line was assessed, while additional cellular events during the antiproliferative action were recorded. DHA inhibited EoL-1 cells growth dose-dependently by inducing growth arrest at G0/1 phase of the cell cycle. After DHA addition to the cells, the expression of

Andersen V, Halekoh U, Tjønneland A, et al.
Intake of Red and Processed Meat, Use of Non-Steroid Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Genetic Variants and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Prospective Study of the Danish "Diet, Cancer and Health" Cohort.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Red and processed meat have been associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), whereas long-term use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the risk. The aim was to investigate potential interactions between meat intake, NSAID use, and gene variants in fatty acid metabolism and NSAID pathways in relation to the risk of CRC. A nested case-cohort study of 1038 CRC cases and 1857 randomly selected participants from the Danish prospective "Diet, Cancer and Health" study encompassing 57,053 persons was performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Gene variants in

Huang WS, Huang CY, Hsieh MC, et al.
Expression of PRDX6 Correlates with Migration and Invasiveness of Colorectal Cancer Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 51(6):2616-2630 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. PRDXs are antioxidant enzymes that play an important role in cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis and have diverse functions in malignancy development. However, the mechanism of aberrant overexpression of PRDX6 in CRC remains unclear.
METHODS: Boyden chamber assay, flow cytometry and a lentiviral shRNA targeting PRDX6 and transient transfection with pCMV-6-PRDX6 plasmid were used to examine the role of PRDX6 in the proliferation capacity and invasiveness of CRC cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) with tissue array containing 40 paraffin- embedded CRC tissue specimens and Western blot assays were used to detect target proteins.
RESULTS: PRDX6 was significantly up-expressed in different comparisons of metastasis of colorectal adenomas in node-positive CRC (P = 0.03). In in vitro HCT-116, PRDX6 silencing markedly suppressed CRC cell migration and invasiveness while also inducing cell cycle arrest as well as the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); specific overexpression of PRDX6 had the opposite effect. Mechanistically, the PRDX6 inactivation displayed decreased levels of PRDX6, N-cadherin, β-catenin, Vimentin, Slug, Snail and Twist-1 through the activation of the PI3K/ AKT/p38/p50 pathways, but they were also significantly inhibited by PRDX6 transfectants. There was also increased transcriptional activation of dimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) of PRDX6 promoter via the activation of the PI3K/Akt/NFkB pathways.
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that PRDX6 expression plays a characteristic growth-promoting role in CRC metastasis. This study suggests that PRDX6 may serve as a biomarker of node-positive status and may have a role as an important endogenous regulator of cancer cell tumorigenicity in CRC. PRDX6 may also be an effective therapeutic target.

Bing Z, Cheng Z, Shi D, et al.
Investigate the mechanisms of Chinese medicine Fuzhengkangai towards EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinomas by network pharmacology.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018; 18(1):293 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chinese traditional herbal medicine Fuzhengkangai (FZKA) formulation combination with gefitinib can overcome drug resistance and improve the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients. However, the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms underlying the active ingredients, potential targets, and overcome drug resistance of the drug are still unclear. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the molecular mechanism of FZKA.
METHODS: A systems pharmacology and bioinformatics-based approach was employed to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of EGFR-TKI resistance with clinically effective herb formula. The differential gene expressions between EGFR-TKI sensitive and resistance cell lines were calculated and used to find overlap from targets as core targets. The prognosis of core targets was validated from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database by Cox regression. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment is applied to analysis core targets for revealing mechanism in biology.
RESULTS: The results showed that 35 active compounds of FZKA can interact with eight core targets proteins (ADRB2, BCL2, CDKN1A, HTR2C, KCNMA1, PLA2G4A, PRKCA and LYZ). The risk score of them were associated with overall survival and relapse free time (HR = 6.604, 95% CI: 2.314-18.850; HR = 5.132, 95% CI: 1.531-17.220). The pathway enrichment suggested that they involved in EGFR-TKI resistance and non-small cell lung cancer pathways, which directly affect EGFR-TKI resistance. The molecular docking showed that licochalcone a and beta-sitosterol can closely bind two targets (BCL2 and PRKCA) that involved in EGFR-TKI resistance pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provided a workflow for understanding mechanism of CHM for against drug resistance.

Yang L, Zhang H
Expression of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Alpha in Glioblastoma Is Associated With Resistance to Chemotherapy.
Am J Med Sci. 2018; 356(4):391-398 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The clinical management of glioblastoma is still challenging despite aggressive surgery and radio-chemotherapy approaches. Better understanding of the molecules involved in glioblastoma chemoresistance is necessary to improve the treatment and predict prognosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the expression and possible roles of cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha (cPLA2α) in human glioblastoma cell lines and patient samples using immunohistochemistry and cellular assays. We analyzed the signaling pathways that cPLA2α regulates in glioblastoma cells using western blot analysis.
RESULTS: Our work demonstrated that cPLA2α is upregulated in glioblastoma compared with normal neuron cells. The expression of cPLA2α varies in multiple glioblastoma cell lines and is associated with chemoresistance rather than tumor development. cPLA2α depletion moderately inhibits glioblastoma growth and survival but remarkably sensitizes chemo-resistant glioblastoma cells to several chemotherapeutic agents. Mechanistically, cPLA2α knockdown significantly suppresses the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in glioblastoma cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We are the first to identify the important role of cPLA2α in glioblastoma in response to chemotherapy. Our data also suggest that cPLA2α may serve as a biomarker to indicate prognosis of glioblastoma patients with high level of cPLA2α to chemotherapy.

Bray MJ, Wellons MF, Jones SH, et al.
Transethnic and race-stratified genome-wide association study of fibroid characteristics in African American and European American women.
Fertil Steril. 2018; 110(4):737-745.e34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To identify, through genome-wide association studies, genetic loci that associate with differences in fibroid size and number in a population of African American and European American women.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Not applicable.
PATIENT(S): Using BioVU, a clinical population from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, and the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults cohort, a prospective cohort, we identified 1520 women (609 African American and 911 European American) with documented fibroid characteristics.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Outcome measurements include volume of largest fibroid, largest fibroid dimension, and number of fibroids (single vs. multiple).
RESULT(S): In race-stratified analyses we achieved genome-wide significance at a variant located between MAT2B and TENM2 (rs57542984, β = 0.13; 95% confidence interval 0.09, 0.17) for analyses of largest fibroid dimension in African Americans. The strongest signal for transethnic analyses was at a variant on 1q31.1 located between PLA2G4A and BRINP3 (rs6605005, β = 0.24; 95% confidence interval 0.15, 0.33) for fibroid volume. Results from MetaXcan identified an association between predicted expression of the gene ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase like protein 2 (EDEM2) in the thyroid and number of fibroids (Z score = -4.51).
CONCLUSION(S): This study identified many novel associations between genetic loci and fibroid size and number in both race-stratified and transethnic analyses. Future studies are necessary to further validate our study findings and to better understand the mechanisms underlying these associations.

Li S, Hu X, Ye M, Zhu X
The prognostic values of the peroxiredoxins family in ovarian cancer.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Zhao H, Diao C, Wang X, et al.
MiR-543 Promotes Migration, Invasion and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Esophageal Cancer Cells by Targeting Phospholipase A2 Group IVA.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 48(4):1595-1604 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of miR-543 and phospholipase A2 group IVA (PLA2G4A) in cell mobility and the invasiveness cascade in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to validate the interactive relationship between miR-543 and PLA2G4A.
METHODS: Microarray analysis showed the different expression levels of PLA2G4A in two ESCC cell lines (KYSE30 and KYSE180). The expression levels of miR-543 and PLA2G4A in ESCC tissues were confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The targeted relationship between miR-543 and PLA2G4A was studied and verified by a luciferase activity assay. Then, the invasion and metastasis ability of ESCC cell lines transfected with miR-543 mimics, miR-543 inhibitor, or PLA2G4A and miR-543 mimics were analyzed separately by Transwell migration and invasion assays. In addition, the roles of miR-543 and PLA2G4A in the expression of E-cadherin and vimentin were also investigated.
RESULTS: PLA2G4A up-regulated the level of E-cadherin and down-regulated the level of vimentin, which curbed ESCC cell mobility and invasion. In ESCC cells, the expression of miR-543 was significantly higher, whereas the expression of PLA2G4A was markedly lower. MiR-543 facilitated ESCC cell mobility and invasion by repressing PLA2G4A.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-543 enhanced the cell mobility and the invasiveness cascade in ESCC cells via the down-regulation of PLA2G4A expression.

Kim W, Son B, Lee S, et al.
Targeting the enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism to improve radiotherapy.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2018; 37(2-3):213-225 [PubMed] Related Publications
During radiotherapy, an inflammatory response might be induced by activating various enzymes involved in membrane lipid metabolism. The eicosanoid pathway associated with cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA

Wang QS, Shen SQ, Sun HW, et al.
Interferon-gamma induces autophagy-associated apoptosis through induction of cPLA2-dependent mitochondrial ROS generation in colorectal cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 498(4):1058-1065 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in females and the third in males. In this work, we aim to investigate the possible anti-cancer effects of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in CRC cells. We observed that IFN-γ induced mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a time-dependent manner in SW480 and HCT116 cell lines. The IFN-γ-induced mitochondrial ROS generation was dependent on the activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). In addition, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 and/or cPLA2 inhibitor AACOCF3 abolished the IFN-γ-induced ROS production and subsequent autophagy and apoptosis. Moreover, suppression of autophagy by CQ was able to reduce IFN-γ-induced cell apoptosis. Beclin-1 gene silencing resulted in caspase-3 inactivation, decreased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and less population of apoptotic cells. Collectively, our results suggested that IFN-γ induces autophagy-associated apoptosis in CRC cells via inducing cPLA2-dependent mitochondrial ROS production.

Park MH, Yun HM, Hwang CJ, et al.
Presenilin Mutation Suppresses Lung Tumorigenesis via Inhibition of Peroxiredoxin 6 Activity and Expression.
Theranostics. 2017; 7(15):3624-3637 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Some epidemiological studies suggest an inverse correlation between cancer incidence and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we demonstrated experimental evidences for this inverse relationship. In the co-expression network analysis using the microarray data and GEO profile of gene expression omnibus data analysis, we showed that the expression of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), a tumor promoting protein was significantly increased in human squamous lung cancer, but decreased in mutant presenilin 2 (PS2) containing AD patient. We also found in animal model that mutant PS2 transgenic mice displayed a reduced incidence of spontaneous and carcinogen-induced lung tumor development compared to wildtype transgenic mice. Agreed with network and GEO profile study, we also revealed that significantly reduced expression of PRDX6 and activity of iPLA2 in these animal models. PS2 mutations increased their interaction with PRDX6, thereby increasing iPLA2 cleavage via increased γ-secretase leading to loss of PRDX6 activity. However, knockdown or inhibition of γ-secretase abolished the inhibitory effect of mutant PSs. Moreover, PS2 mutant skin fibroblasts derived from patients with AD showed diminished iPLA2 activity by the elevated γ-secretase activity. Thus, the present data suggest that PS2 mutations suppress lung tumor development by inhibiting the iPLA2 activity of PRDX6 via a γ-secretase cleavage mechanism and may explain the inverse relationship between cancer and AD incidence.

Fu H, He Y, Qi L, et al.
cPLA2α activates PI3K/AKT and inhibits Smad2/3 during epithelial-mesenchymal transition of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Cancer Lett. 2017; 403:260-270 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α), a key phospholipase that regulates lipid metabolism, plays an important role in tumor progression. In the present study of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cPLA2α was overexpressed in highly metastatic HCC cell lines. Immunohistochemical staining showed increased levels of cPLA2α at the invasive edges of HCC, and a clinicopathological analysis of samples from 111 patients revealed that its expression level was linked with micro-vascular invasion and cirrhosis. Knockdown of cPLA2α inhibited migration, probably due to its role in actin polymerization. Overexpression of cPLA2α promoted cell migration and invasion. Based on the mechanistic analysis, our data suggested that cPLA2α mediate epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through PI3K/AKT/ERK pathway. cPLA2α activity was required for the transforming growth factor-(TGF)-β-induced EMT. However, cPLA2α inhibited Smad2/3 activation and promoted the activation of the PI3K/AKT/ERK pathway. A xenograft tumor transplant model confirmed the role of cPLA2α in HCC invasion and metastasis. Based on the mechanistic analysis, cPLA2α mediated both EGF- and TGF-β-induced EMT, which are essential for HCC metastasis. cPLA2α is a potentially target for novel therapies of HCC.

Liu GY, Shi JX, Shi SL, et al.
Nucleophosmin Regulates Intracellular Oxidative Stress Homeostasis via Antioxidant PRDX6.
J Cell Biochem. 2017; 118(12):4697-4707 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play both deleterious and beneficial roles in cancer cells. Nucleophosmin (NPM) is heavily implicated in cancers of diverse origins, being its gene over-expression in solid tumors or frequent mutations in hematological malignancies. However, the role and regulatory mechanism of NPM in oxidative stress are unclear. Here, we found that NPM regulated the expression of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), a member of thiol-specific antioxidant protein family, consequently affected the level and distribution of ROS. Our data indicated that NPM knockdown caused the increase of ROS and its relocation from cytoplasm to nucleoplasm. In contrast, overexpression or cytoplasmic localization of NPM upregulated PRDX6, and decreased ROS. In addition, NPM knockdown decreased peroxiredoxin family proteins, including PRDX1, PRDX4, and PRDX6. Co-immunoprecipitation further confirmed the interaction between PRDX6 and NPM. Moreover, NSC348884, an inhibitor specifically targeting NPM oligomerization, decreased PRDX6 and significantly upregulated ROS. These observations demonstrated that the expression and localization of NPM affected the homeostatic balance of oxidative stress in tumor cells via PRDX6 protein. The regulation axis of NPM/PRDX/ROS may provide a novel therapeutic target for cancer treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4697-4707, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Chen L, Fu H, Luo Y, et al.
cPLA2α mediates TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer through PI3k/Akt signaling.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(4):e2728 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A high incidence of tumor recurrence and metastasis has been reported in breast cancer patients; nevertheless, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is induced by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), has been implicated in tumorigenesis and breast cancer metastasis. EMT events are now directly associated with tumor metastasis, and this progress is dependent on the inflammatory microenvironment. Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) has been shown to participate in a series of biological processes including inflammation and cancer development. However, the role and molecular mechanism of cPLA2α in breast cancer EMT and metastasis remain enigmatic. In this study, we found that cPLA2α was commonly overexpressed in most human breast cancer tissues and significantly correlated with a poor prognosis for human breast cancer. Functional studies demonstrated that cPLA2α overexpression was significantly associated with elevated migration and invasion in MDA-MB-231 and T47D cells. Conversely, reduced cPLA2α expression strongly attenuated metastasis and the EMT program of MDA-MB-231 cells. Further study found that knockdown of cPLA2α in MDA-MB-231 cells inhibited TGF-β-induced EMT through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Animal experiments revealed that cPLA2α downregulation in MDA-MB-231 cells markedly restrained tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. This study indicates the potential role of cPLA2α in breast cancer metastasis and indicates that this molecule is a promising therapeutic target for breast cancer.

Guo JH, Xing GL, Fang XH, et al.
Proteomic profiling of fetal esophageal epithelium, esophageal cancer, and tumor-adjacent esophageal epithelium and immunohistochemical characterization of a representative differential protein, PRX6.
World J Gastroenterol. 2017; 23(8):1434-1442 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To understand the molecular mechanism of esophageal cancer development and provide molecular markers for screening high-risk populations and early diagnosis.
METHODS: Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry were adopted to screen differentially expressed proteins in nine cases of fetal esophageal epithelium, eight cases of esophageal cancer, and eight cases of tumor-adjacent normal esophageal epithelium collected from fetuses of different gestational age, or esophageal cancer patients from a high-risk area of esophageal cancer in China. Immunohistochemistry (avidin-biotin-horseradish peroxidase complex method) was used to detect the expression of peroxiredoxin (PRX)6 in 91 cases of esophageal cancer, tumor-adjacent normal esophageal tissue, basal cell hyperplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma
RESULTS: After peptide mass fingerprint analysis and search of protein databases, 21 differential proteins were identified; some of which represent a protein isoform. Varying degrees of expression of PRX6 protein, which was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, were detected in adult and fetal normal esophageal tissues, precancerous lesions, and esophageal cancer. With the progression of esophageal lesions, PRX6 protein expression showed a declining trend (
CONCLUSION: Development and progression of esophageal cancer result from interactions of genetic changes (accumulation or superposition). PRX6 protein is associated with fetal esophageal development and cancer differentiation.

Roy D, Mondal S, Khurana A, et al.
Loss of HSulf-1: The Missing Link between Autophagy and Lipid Droplets in Ovarian Cancer.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:41977 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Defective autophagy and deranged metabolic pathways are common in cancer; pharmacologic targeting of these two pathways could provide a viable therapeutic option. However, how these pathways are regulated by limited availability of growth factors is still unknown. Our study shows that HSulf-1 (endosulfatase), a known tumor suppressor which attenuates heparin sulfate binding growth factor signaling, also regulates interplay between autophagy and lipogenesis. Silencing of HSulf-1 in OV202 and TOV2223 cells (ovarian cancer cell lines) resulted in increased lipid droplets (LDs), reduced autophagic vacuoles (AVs) and less LC3B puncta. In contrast, HSulf-1 proficient cells exhibit more AVs and reduced LDs. Increased LDs in HSulf-1 depleted cells was associated with increased ERK mediated cPLA2

Cheng Y, Wang Y, Li J, et al.
A novel read-through transcript JMJD7-PLA2G4B regulates head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell proliferation and survival.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(2):1972-1982 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent findings on the existence of oncogenic fusion genes in a wide array of solid tumors, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), suggests that fusion genes have become attractive targets for cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we showed for the first time that a read-through fusion gene JMJD7-PLA2G4B is presented in HNSCC, splicing neighboring jumonji domain containing 7 (JMJD7) and phospholipase A2, group IVB (PLA2G4B) genes together. Ablation of JMJD7-PLA2G4B significantly inhibited proliferation of HNSCC cells by promoting G1 cell cycle arrest and increased starvation-induced cell death compared to JMJD7-only knockdown HNSCC cells. Mechanistically, we found that JMJD7-PLA2G4B modulates phosphorylation of Protein Kinase B (AKT) to promote HNSCC cell survival. Moreover, JMJD7-PLA2G4B also regulated an E3 ligase S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) to control the cell cycle progression from G1 phase to S phase by inhibiting Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21) and 1B (p27) expression. Our study provides novel insights into the oncogenic control of JMJD7-PLA2G4B in HNSCC cell proliferation and survival, and suggests that JMJD7-PLA2G4B may serve as an important therapeutic target and prognostic marker for HNSCC development and progression.

Pak JH, Son WC, Seo SB, et al.
Peroxiredoxin 6 expression is inversely correlated with nuclear factor-κB activation during Clonorchis sinensis infestation.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2016; 99:273-285 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clonorchis sinensis is a carcinogenic human liver fluke. Its infection promotes persistent oxidative stress and chronic inflammation environments in the bile duct and surrounding liver tissues owing to direct contact with worms and their excretory-secretory products (ESPs), provoking epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis, and cholangiocarcinogenesis. We examined the reciprocal regulation of two ESP-induced redox-active proteins, NF-κB and peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6), during C. sinensis infection. Prdx6 overexpression suppressed intracellular free-radical generation by inhibiting NADPH oxidase2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase activation in the ESP-treated cholangiocarcinoma cells, substantially attenuating NF-κB-mediated inflammation. NF-κB overexpression decreased Prdx6 transcription levels by binding to two κB sites within the promoter. This transcriptional repression was compensated for by other ESP-induced redox-active transcription factors, including erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ). Distribution of immunoreactive Prdx6 and NF-κB was distinct in the early stages of infection in mouse livers but shared concomitant localization in the later stages. The intensity and extent of their immunoreactive staining in infected mouse livers are proportional to lesion severity and infection duration. The constitutive elevations of Prdx6 and NF-κB during C. sinensis infection may be associated with more severe persistent hepatobiliary abnormalities mediated by clonorchiasis.

Li Q, Wang N, Wei H, et al.
miR-24-3p Regulates Progression of Gastric Mucosal Lesions and Suppresses Proliferation and Invasiveness of N87 Via Peroxiredoxin 6.
Dig Dis Sci. 2016; 61(12):3486-3497 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs, targeting mRNAs of cancer-associated genes, are often aberrantly expressed in human gastric cancer (GC).
AIM: We have examined the possible role and mechanisms of miRNA regulation of Prdx-6 in the development and progression of H. pylori-related gastric mucosal lesions.
METHODS: First, miR-24-3p was predicted to target Prdx-6, and this negative regulation was validated by luciferase reporter analyses, Western blot, and quantitative RT-PCR. Next, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were performed to detect the Prdx-6 and miR-24-3p expression in tissue microarrays of gastric mucosal lesions. Finally, the miR-24-3p function in GC cell line N87 was examined by MTT, Annexin V-FITC, PI, transwell migration, and Matrigel invasion assays.
RESULTS: In our study, Prdx-6 expression was negatively regulated by miR-24-3p expression and miR-24-3p interacted with the 3'-untranslated region of Prdx-6 to down-regulate its expression level. In addition, miR-24-3p expression gradually decreased in human gastric specimens from chronic superficial gastritis (CSG) to dysplasia and was upregulated in GC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Contrary to this, Prdx-6 expression showed inverse tendency in the same tissue. More so, expression of miR-24-3p was reduced in samples with H. pylori infection, especially in CSG. Moreover, miR-24-3p was associated with GC lymph nodes and liver metastasis. Gain- or loss-of-function experiments showed that miR-24-3p significantly inhibited N87 cell growth, migration, and invasion and promoted apoptosis, while Prdx-6 reversed these miR-24-3p effects.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-24-3p was identified as a regulator of development and progression of H. pylori-related gastric mucosal lesions.

Olsen RS, Andersson RE, Zar N, et al.
Prognostic significance of PLA2G4C gene polymorphism in patients with stage II colorectal cancer.
Acta Oncol. 2016; 55(4):474-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Phospholipase A2 Group IV C (PLA2G4C) catalyzes the release of certain fatty acids from phospholipids and plays a role in a range of physiological functions, such as remodeling of cell membranes and the production of prostaglandins. Furthermore, it has been proposed that PLA2G4C plays an important role in breast cancer cell chemotaxis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1549637 (T>A) of the PLA2G4C gene on the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Whole blood DNA was extracted from 381 patients with CRC and 618 controls, and a TaqMan SNP genotyping assay was used to determine the distribution of the genotypes. Cancer-specific and disease-free survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier graphs and by uni- and multivariable Cox regression.
RESULTS: The cancer-specific survival differed between the genotypes (p = 0.019) and the carriers of the A allele were associated with the highest risk of CRC death, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.72 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-2.53, p = 0.006] compared with homozygous carriers of the T allele. This increased mortality in the carriers with the allele A was especially marked in stage II with an HR of 3.84 (95% CI 1.51-9.78, p = 0.005).
CONCLUSION: The A allele in PLA2G4C SNP (rs1549637) is associated with a worse prognosis in patients with CRC, especially in stage II disease, and it could be a potential prognostic biomarker in the planning of individual adjuvant therapy in stage II patients.

Tan CS, Ng YK, Ong WY
Epigenetic Regulation of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 in SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells.
Mol Neurobiol. 2016; 53(6):3854-3872 [PubMed] Related Publications
Group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 or PLA2G4A) is a key enzyme that contributes to inflammation via the generation of arachidonic acid and eicosanoids. While much is known about regulation of cPLA2 by posttranslational modification such as phosphorylation, little is known about its epigenetic regulation. In this study, treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA), valproic acid, tubacin and the class I HDAC inhibitor, MS-275, were found to increase cPLA2α messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Co-treatment of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitor, anacardic acid, modulated upregulation of cPLA2α induced by TSA. Specific involvement of class I HDACs and HAT in cPLA2α regulation was further shown, and a Tip60-specific HAT inhibitor, NU9056, modulated the upregulation of cPLA2α induced by MS-275. In addition, co-treatment of with histone methyltransferase (HMT) inhibitor, 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) suppressed TSA-induced cPLA2α upregulation. The above changes in cPLA2 mRNA expression were reflected at the protein level by Western blots and immunocytochemistry. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) showed TSA increased binding of trimethylated H3K4 to the proximal promoter region of the cPLA2α gene. Cell injury after TSA treatment as indicated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was modulated by anacardic acid, and a role of cPLA2 in mediating TSA-induced injury shown, after co-incubation with the cPLA2 selective inhibitor, arachidonoyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF3). Together, results indicate epigenetic regulation of cPLA2 and the potential of such regulation for treatment of chronic inflammation.

Hua S, Vignarajan S, Yao M, et al.
AKT and cytosolic phospholipase A2α form a positive loop in prostate cancer cells.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2015; 15(9):781-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant increase in protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation (pAKT), due to a gain-of-function mutation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) or loss-of-function mutation or deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), is a common alteration in prostate cancer and associated with poor prognosis. Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) is a lipid modifying enzyme by catalyzing the hydrolysis of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipid. The released arachidonic acid and its metabolites contribute to survival and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. In this mini-review, we summarize the relationship between pAKT and cPLA2α in prostate cancer cells. There was a concordant increase in pAKT and cPLA2α levels in prostate tissue of prostate epithelial-specific PTEN-knockout mice compared to PTEN-wild type mice. Restoration of PTEN expression or inhibition of PI3K action decreased cPLA2α expression in PTEN-mutated or deleted prostate cancer cells. An increase in AKT phosphorylation elevated, whereas inhibition of AKT phosphorylation diminished, cPLA2α protein levels. pAKT had no influence on cPLA2α expression at mRNA levels but stabilized cPLA2α at protein levels by protecting it from degradation. Conversely, an induction of cPLA2α expression led to an increase in pAKT levels in PTEN-mutated or deleted prostate cancer cells, while silencing of cPLA2α expression or pharmacological blocking cPLA2α action decreased pAKT levels. The diminishment of pAKT by either genetic silencing or pharmacological blocking of cPLA2α was mitigated by the addition of arachidonic acid. The stimulatory effect of arachidonic acid on pAKT levels was lessened by inhibiting the production of arachidonic acid metabolites. These studies have revealed a link between oncogenic pathway and lipid metabolism and provided potential molecular targets for treating prostate cancer.

Li J, Li O, Kan M, et al.
Berberine induces apoptosis by suppressing the arachidonic acid metabolic pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(3):4572-4577 [PubMed] Related Publications
Berberine (BBR) has been suggested as a potential candidate anticancer agent due to its high anticancer activity and multiple mechanisms. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of BBR on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) via the suppression of the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic pathway was investigated. BBR was demonstrated to reduce the viabilities of H22, HepG2 and Bel‑7404 cells, in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner, and increase the number of apoptotic cells. BBR induced the translocation of apoptosis‑inducing factor between the mitochondria and the nucleus, and had no effects on the protein expression levels of caspase‑3 or ‑9. In addition, BBR significantly suppressed the protein expression levels of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and cyclooxygenase (COX)‑2 and elevated the content ratio of AA to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Furthermore, BBR reduced the volume and weight of tumors in a H22 transplanted tumor model in mice. The results of the present study demonstrated that elevation in the ratio of AA to PGE2 via suppression of the protein expression of cPLA2 and COX‑2 in the AA metabolic pathway is involved in the inhibitory effect of BBR in HCC.

Lee HL, Park MH, Son DJ, et al.
Anti-cancer effect of snake venom toxin through down regulation of AP-1 mediated PRDX6 expression.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(26):22139-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Snake venom toxin (SVT) from Vipera lebetina turanica contains a mixture of different enzymes and proteins. Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is known to be a stimulator of lung cancer cell growth. PRDX6 is a member of peroxidases, and has calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) activities. PRDX6 has an AP-1 binding site in its promoter region of the gene. Since AP-1 is implicated in tumor growth and PRDX6 expression, in the present study, we investigated whether SVT inhibits PRDX6, thereby preventing human lung cancer cell growth (A549 and NCI-H460) through inactivation of AP-1. A docking model study and pull down assay showed that SVT completely fits on the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) region of c-Fos of AP-1. SVT (0-10 μg/ml) inhibited lung cancer cell growth in a concentration dependent manner through induction of apoptotic cell death accompanied by induction of cleaved caspase-3, -8, -9, Bax, p21 and p53, but decreased cIAP and Bcl2 expression via inactivation of AP-1. In an xenograft in vivo model, SVT (0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg) also inhibited tumor growth accompanied with the reduction of PRDX6 expression, but increased expression of proapoptotic proteins. These data indicate that SVT inhibits tumor growth via inhibition of PRDX6 activity through interaction with its transcription factor AP-1.

Fortney K, Griesman J, Kotlyar M, et al.
Prioritizing therapeutics for lung cancer: an integrative meta-analysis of cancer gene signatures and chemogenomic data.
PLoS Comput Biol. 2015; 11(3):e1004068 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Repurposing FDA-approved drugs with the aid of gene signatures of disease can accelerate the development of new therapeutics. A major challenge to developing reliable drug predictions is heterogeneity. Different gene signatures of the same disease or drug treatment often show poor overlap across studies, as a consequence of both biological and technical variability, and this can affect the quality and reproducibility of computational drug predictions. Existing algorithms for signature-based drug repurposing use only individual signatures as input. But for many diseases, there are dozens of signatures in the public domain. Methods that exploit all available transcriptional knowledge on a disease should produce improved drug predictions. Here, we adapt an established meta-analysis framework to address the problem of drug repurposing using an ensemble of disease signatures. Our computational pipeline takes as input a collection of disease signatures, and outputs a list of drugs predicted to consistently reverse pathological gene changes. We apply our method to conduct the largest and most systematic repurposing study on lung cancer transcriptomes, using 21 signatures. We show that scaling up transcriptional knowledge significantly increases the reproducibility of top drug hits, from 44% to 78%. We extensively characterize drug hits in silico, demonstrating that they slow growth significantly in nine lung cancer cell lines from the NCI-60 collection, and identify CALM1 and PLA2G4A as promising drug targets for lung cancer. Our meta-analysis pipeline is general, and applicable to any disease context; it can be applied to improve the results of signature-based drug repurposing by leveraging the large number of disease signatures in the public domain.

Biswas NK, Das S, Maitra A, et al.
Somatic mutations in arachidonic acid metabolism pathway genes enhance oral cancer post-treatment disease-free survival.
Nat Commun. 2014; 5:5835 [PubMed] Related Publications
The arachidonic acid metabolism (AAM) pathway promotes tumour progression. Chemical inhibitors of AAM pathway prolong post-treatment survival of cancer patients. Here we test whether non-synonymous somatic mutations in genes of this pathway, acting as natural inhibitors, increase post-treatment survival. We identify loss-of-function somatic mutations in 15 (18%) of 84 treatment-naïve oral cancer patients by whole-exome sequencing, which we map to genes of AAM pathway. Patients (n = 53) who survived ≥ 12 months after surgery without recurrence have significantly (P = 0.007) higher proportion (26% versus 3%) of mutations than those who did not (n = 31). Patients with mutations have a significantly (P = 0.003) longer median disease-free survival (24 months) than those without (13 months). Compared with the presence of a mutation, absence of any mutation increases the hazard ratio for death (11.3) significantly (P = 0.018). The inferences are strengthened when we pool our data with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. In patients with AAM pathway mutations, some downstream pathways, such as the PI3K-Akt pathway, are downregulated.

Wang T, Goodman MA, McGough RL, et al.
Immunohistochemical analysis of expressions of RB1, CDK4, HSP90, cPLA2G4A, and CHMP2B is helpful in distinction between myxofibrosarcoma and myxoid liposarcoma.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2014; 22(7):589-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role and diagnostic efficacy of gene and protein products RB1, CDK4, CHMP2B, HSP90, and cPLA2G4A, all previously shown to be involved in tumor genesis and cell proliferation, were examined by immunohistochemical techniques in 32 cases of myxofibrosarcomas and 29 myxoid liposarcomas (all diagnosis had been confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization). HSP90 demonstrated strong nuclear and cytoplasmic positivity in all myxoid liposarcoma cases, while only 4 myxofibrosarcomas showed scattered HSP90 positivity. All but 4 cases of myxofibrosarcoma displayed strong positivity for cPLA2G4A, while only 2 myxoid liposarcoma cases were cPLA2G4A positive and both were CHMP2B negative. Overexpression of both cPLA2G4A and CHMP2B also suggested higher tumor grade. In conclusion, HSP90 and cPLA2G4A immunohistochemical stains are useful markers to distinguish myxofibrosarcoma from myxoid liposarcoma.

Jo M, Yun HM, Park KR, et al.
Anti-cancer effect of thiacremonone through down regulation of peroxiredoxin 6.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e91508 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Thiacremonone (2, 4-dihydroxy-2, 5-dimethyl-thiophene-3-one) is an antioxidant substance as a novel sulfur compound generated from High-Temperature-High-Pressure-treated garlic. Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is a member of peroxidases, and has glutathione peroxidase and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) activities. Several studies have demonstrated that PRDX6 stimulates lung cancer cell growth via an increase of glutathione peroxidase activity. A docking model study and pull down assay showed that thiacremonone completely fits on the active site (cys-47) of glutathione peroxidase of PRDX6 and interacts with PRDX6. Thus, we investigated whether thiacremonone inhibits cell growth by blocking glutathione peroxidase of PRDX6 in the human lung cancer cells, A549 and NCI-H460. Thiacremonone (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited lung cancer cell growth in a concentration dependent manner through induction of apoptotic cell death accompanied by induction of cleaved caspase-3, -8, -9, Bax, p21 and p53, but decrease of xIAP, cIAP and Bcl2 expression. Thiacremonone further inhibited glutathione peroxidase activity in lung cancer cells. However, the cell growth inhibitory effect of thiacremonone was not observed in the lung cancer cells transfected with mutant PRDX6 (C47S) and in the presence of dithiothreitol and glutathione. In an allograft in vivo model, thiacremonone (30 mg/kg) also inhibited tumor growth accompanied with the reduction of PRDX6 expression and glutathione peroxidase activity, but increased expression of cleaved caspase-3, -8, -9, Bax, p21 and p53. These data indicate that thiacremonone inhibits tumor growth via inhibition of glutathione peroxidase activity of PRDX6 through interaction. These data suggest that thiacremonone may have potentially beneficial effects in lung cancer.

Oliveras-Ferraros C, Vazquez-Martin A, Cuyàs E, et al.
Acquired resistance to metformin in breast cancer cells triggers transcriptome reprogramming toward a degradome-related metastatic stem-like profile.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(7):1132-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Therapeutic interventions based on metabolic inhibitor-based therapies are expected to be less prone to acquired resistance. However, there has not been any study assessing the possibility that the targeting of the tumor cell metabolism may result in unforeseeable resistance. We recently established a pre-clinical model of estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells that were chronically adapted to grow (> 10 months) in the presence of graded, millimolar concentrations of the anti-diabetic biguanide metformin, an AMPK agonist/mTOR inhibitor that has been evaluated in multiple in vitro and in vivo cancer studies and is now being tested in clinical trials. To assess what impact the phenomenon of resistance might have on the metformin-like "dirty" drugs that are able to simultaneously hit several metabolic pathways, we employed the ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) software to functionally interpret the data from Agilent whole-human genome arrays in the context of biological processes, networks, and pathways. Our findings establish, for the first time, that a "global" targeting of metabolic reprogramming using metformin certainly imposes a great selective pressure for the emergence of new breast cancer cellular states. Intriguingly, acquired resistance to metformin appears to trigger a transcriptome reprogramming toward a metastatic stem-like profile, as many genes encoding the components of the degradome (KLK11, CTSF, FREM1, BACE-2, CASP, TMPRSS4, MMP16, HTRA1), cancer cell migration and invasion factors (TP63, WISP2, GAS3, DKK1, BCAR3, PABPC1, MUC1, SPARCL1, SEMA3B, SEMA6A), stem cell markers (DCLK1, FAK), and key pro-metastatic lipases (MAGL and Cpla2) were included in the signature. Because this convergent activation of pathways underlying tumor microenvironment interactions occurred in low-proliferative cancer cells exhibiting a notable downregulation of the G 2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulators that maintain genome stability (CCNB1, CCNB2, CDC20, CDC25C, AURKA, AURKB, BUB1, CENP-A, CENP-M) and pro-autophagic features (i.e., TRAIL upregulation and BCL-2 downregulation), it appears that the unique mechanism of acquired resistance to metformin has opposing roles in growth and metastatic dissemination. While refractoriness to metformin limits breast cancer cell growth, likely due to aberrant mitotic/cytokinetic machinery and accelerated autophagy, it notably increases the potential of metastatic dissemination by amplifying the number of pro-migratory and stemness inputs via the activation of a significant number of proteases and EMT regulators. Future studies should elucidate whether our findings using supra-physiological concentrations of metformin mechanistically mimic the ultimate processes that could paradoxically occur in a polyploid, senescent-autophagic scenario triggered by the chronic metabolic stresses that occur during cancer development and after treatment with cancer drugs.

Zhu C, Sun Z, Li C, et al.
Urocortin affects migration of hepatic cancer cell lines via differential regulation of cPLA2 and iPLA2.
Cell Signal. 2014; 26(5):1125-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Urocortin (UCN) is a member of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) family, which has been reported to play a role in many biological processes, including inflammation and cancer development. Growing evidence shows that PLA2 (phospholipase A2) enzymes also participate in inflammation and tumor development. The primary aim of the present study was to identify a novel signaling pathway of CRF receptor activation leading to migration of two kinds of hepatoma carcinoma cell lines, HepG2 and SMMC-7721, linking the stimulation of PLA2 expression by UCN to UCN-induced tumor cell migration. Pharmacological inhibitors and genetic approaches (such as stable transfection and siRNAs) were used in this study. Unlike HepG2 cells which express both CRF receptors themselves, SMMC-7721 cells which hardly express these two CRF receptors needed stable transfection with CRFR1 or CRFR2 to observe the effect of UCN. Two types of PLA2 enzymes, cPLA2 and iPLA2, were found to be regulated by UCN. Our data showed that UCN raised cPLA2 expression but lowered iPLA2 expression. Moreover, UCN was found to act on the certain region of iPLA2 promoter to reduce its transcription. UCN promoted tumor cell migration by up-regulating cPLA2 expression via CRFR1 whereas it suppressed tumor cell migration by down-regulating iPLA2 expression via CRFR2. These results indicate the dual roles for UCN in the hepatoma carcinoma cell migration, which involve the regulation of both cPLA2and iPLA2.

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